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Chapter 1 |1

CHAPTER

1
1.0

INTRODUCTION TO
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

INTRODUCTION

This chapter is explaining about the basic principle of electric circuits and its connections.
The learning outcome for this chapter are the students should be able to explain clearly
basic electrical quantities, types of electrical circuits, electrical power, electrical energy
and solve related problems.

1.1

ELECTRIC
Electric is an energy which cannot see but can be felt and be used by human on today and
future. Electric energy can be created impact from action as friction, heat and
electromagnetic field
Electric energy can be change into other form of energy such as:
a)
Light energy - lamp
b)
Heat energy - Iron
c)
d)
Kinetic energy - Motor
There are two types of electric which is the static electric and dynamic electric.
a)
Static electricity A situation where no electron movement in certain direction.
b)
Dynamic electricity A situation where got electron movement in certain direction.

1.1.1 Electrical Quantities

i. Electromotive force (e.m.f)
Force or electric pressure that cause the flow of electrons or the flow of current
in given circuiy. The example the source that produces electric energy are
batteries and generator.
Symbol : E
Unit
: Volt(V)
Introduction to Electric Circuits

Chapter 1 |2

ii. Electrical charge

There are two types of charge which is positive and negative charge. Electric
charge is measured in Coulomb.
Symbol : Q
Unit
: Coulomb(C)
iii. Current
The movement of the electric charge cause by free electrons movement. It flows
from the positive terminal to the negative terminal.
Symbol : I
Unit
: Ampiar (A)
iv. Voltage
The potential different between two points in a circuit.
Symbol : V
Unit
: Volt(V)
v. Resistance
It is the property of material by which it oppose the flow of current through it.
Symbol : R
Unit : Ohm ()
vi. Conductor
A material that allow electric current to flow easily. An example is copper and
iron.
vii.Insulator
A material that does not allow or prevent the electrical current flow in normal
condition. It has a lot of valence electrons but the valence electron are difficult to
be free from is parent atom. For example rubber, glass, air.
viii.Semiconductor
A material that has a conductance value between conductor and insulator. It has 4
valences electron and can be use to make electronic component. For examples
silicon and germanium.
xi.Resistivity
It is the characteristic of conductive material to opposition or decrease the current
flows in it.
Symbol : (Rho)
Unit : Ohm meter ( (m)
Introduction to Electric Circuits

Chapter 1 |3

1.1.2 Resistance

The resistance of given material depends on the physical properties of the material.
There are 4 factor that influence the value of resistance:
i.

Length of conductor,

The length of conductor is proportional to the resistance. The longer the

length of the wire, the higher the resistance value.

Rl
ii.

Surface area , A
Area is inverse proportional to the resistance. As the resistance increase the
cross section area of a conductor will decreases.

1
R
A
iii.

Resistivity
Resistivity is proportional to the resistances. Higher the resistance, higher
the resistivity.

R
iv.

Conductor Temperature, T
The conductor temperature is proportional to the resistance. As the
conductor temperature increase the value of resistance also increase.

RT
Mathematically, formula for the resistance of a wire of length
cross section area A is as equation below:

R =
Where:

l and the

(1.1)

A = cross section area ( m2)

= Resistivity ( m )
l = Length (m)
R = Resistance ( )
Introduction to Electric Circuits

Chapter 1 |4

Example 1.1
Calculate the resistance of a 1.5 km length of aluminium wire. Given
diameter wire 10mm and the resistivity of aluminium is 0.025 .m.

Solution 1.1
Been given, d = 10 x103 m , l = 1.5 x103 m , = 0.025 x10 6 m
l
Use equation, R =
,
A
d
10 x10 3 2
Where A = ( ) 2 = (
) = 78.54 x10 6 m 2
2
2

R =

1.2

(0.025 x106 )(1.5 x103 )

= 0.477
78.54 x10 6

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT
Electric circuit is a combination of conductor or cable which makes the current flow from
voltage sources to electrical components or load.There are two types of electric circuit:
i.
Complete electric circuit
ii.
Non Complete electric circuit

1.2.1

Complete electric circuit

It is also called basic circuit or simple circuit as shown in Figure 1.1. It is closed
end connection that can make current go through completely which the current
flow from source and back flow to sources again. The circuits must have voltage
supply (V), electric current (I) and resistance (R).
I

1.2.2

Non Complete electric circuit

It is a circuit without one of three component either voltage sources or load
resistance. The current flow will never happen with perfect in non complete
circuit. There are two types of non complete circuit: Open circuit and Short
circuit
Introduction to Electric Circuits

Chapter 1 |5

i.

Open circuit
Is the circuit without the load, so there will be no current flow occur.
Value of resistant in this circuit is a higher. Figure 1.2 show a open
circuit.

Pull out
Figure 1.2 : Open Circuit

ii.

Short circuit
The connection at the load will short with a conductor which no
resistance value as shown in Figure 1.3. The current which go through is
bigger. Normally if short circuit occur, the fuse will burnt.
I

R
Short with
a cable
Figure 1.3 : Short circuit

1.3

OHMS LAW

Ohms law can be define as the current flowing through the electrical circuit is directly
proportional to the potential difference across the circuit and inversely proportional to
resistance of the circuit. If the value of resistance is constant and value of voltage
increase so the value of current can be increase. Mathematically the equation for Ohms
law is as equation 1.2 below.

V = IR

(1.2)

where:
I = Current (A)
V = Voltage (V)
R = Resistance ( )

Introduction to Electric Circuits

Chapter 1 |6

The relationship between current and voltage is as shown using the graph at Figure 1.4.
This is the situation for constant value of resistance and temperature.
V (volt)

R (constant)

I (Ampere)
Figure 1.4 : Graph Voltage (V) vurses Current (I) for constant resistance

For the non constant or changing value of resistance, the relationship between voltage
and current are non linear as graph shown in Figure 1.5 below.
V

I
Figure 1.5 : Graph Voltage (V) vurses Current (I) for non constant resistance

Example 1.2
Calculate the current value if the resistance is 10 and the supply voltage is 15V. Then,
calculates the new current value if the resistance has been change to 10 k.
Solution 1.2
Been given , V= 15V
i)

R = 10 ,

Base on Ohms Law, V= IR

I =

V 15
=
= 1.5 A
R 10

ii)

R = 10k ,

I =

V
15
=
= 1.5 x10 3 = 1.5mA
3
R 10 x10
Introduction to Electric Circuits

Chapter 1 |7

1.4

ELECTRIC POWER
Electric power is a job can be done in one time unit. Resistor dissipate energy in the
form of heat. So power absorbed by the resistor is given by equation 1.3.

Symbol
Unit

:
:

P
Watt (W)

P = IV
By using Ohms law, V = IR or I =

(1.3)

V
, It can derive new equation for power as in
R

equation 1.4.

P = I 2R
(1.4)

V 2
P =
R
Where,

P = Power (W),
I = Current (A)
R = Resistance () and
V = Voltage (V)

1.4.1 Wattmeter
Wattmeter is use to measure the value of the power that has been use. There are
two coils in wattmeter. The coil connected parallel to the load is voltage coil and
series with the load is current coil. The symbol for wattmeter is as shown in
Figure 1.6(a) and 1.6(b) is the internal wattmeter connection. Figure 1.7 is the
electric circuit connection using the wattmeter.

W
(a)Meter Symbol (b)Internal Connection
Figure 1.6 : Wattmeter

Introduction to Electric Circuits

Chapter 1 |8

Current coil

Voltage coil

VS
Figure 1.7 : Electric Circuit Connection using Wattmeter

1.5

ELECTRIC ENERGY
Electric energy is a product of power and time. The symbol for electric energy is T or E.
Mathematically electric energy is expressed as equation 1.5.

T = Pt
T = VIt
T = I 2 Rt

1.5

V 2
T =
t
R
where,

T = electric energy (kWh)

P = power (W)
t = time (s)
V= voltage (V)
I = current (A)
R= resistance ( )

Meter kilowatt-hour be used to measure total of electrical energy which be used by user.
The symbol metre 1.8. The electric power can be converted to horse power where 1
horse power = 746 watt

Introduction to Electric Circuits

Chapter 1 |9

kWh
Figure 1.8 : Symbol Kilowatt Hour Metre

The unit for electric energy is Kilowatt hour (kWh) or Joule (J). When the current flow,
electron in the conductor will repell each other and it will produce heat and thus causing
the cabel that is used heating up.
Work is the energy absorbed to supply load 1 kW for 1 hour. Watt is the power used
when 1A current flows between 2 point that have 1 volt potential. Units for work is
Joule. This is equal to the energy produced to 1 Coulomb charge flows by 1 ohm
resistance. Total energy used to flow 1A current for 1 second by 1 ohm resistant is
called 1 Joule. It is can be called as 1 watt second, that is 1 watt power used for 1
second. In mathematical equation it can be shown as equation 1.6.

1 Joule = 1 Watt second

work (J) = power (W) x time (s)

1.6

Example 1.3
A toaster taking 5A current from 240 V supply for 15 minutes. Calculate ,
i.
Power used
ii.
Energy absorbed in kJ
Solution 1.3
Given:

I=5A,

V = 240V dan t = 15 x 60 = 900s

i. P = IV = (5)(240) = 1200W .
ii. T = Pt = (1200)(900) = 1080000 W = 1080kWj = 1080 kJ

1.6

RESISTOR CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Resistor can be connected in three different ways which are series, parallel and
combination of series and parallel.

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1.6.1 Series Circuit

Series circuit is refer to the connection of the resistor in the circuit. The resistors is
connected from end to end as in Figure 1.9. Series analysis are going to determine
total resistance, circuit current and total voltage.

IT

R1
+ V1 -

R2

R3

+ V2 -

+ V3 +
Vn
-

VT

Rn

Figure 1.9: Series Resistors

Total resistance, RT is the sum of all resistor which exist in the circuit. Equation
1.7 use to calculate total resistance.

R T = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + ..... + R n

(1.7)

Current through every resistor is equal to the total current, IT as show in equation
1.8:

I T = I 1 = I 2 = I 2 = ...... = I n

(1.8)

Total voltage, VT is the sum of all voltage drops on every resistor as shown in
equation 1.9 below.

V T = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 + ...... + V n

(1.9)

Voltage drop is the reduction of the voltage supply in every resistor. It can be
calculate using Ohms law and Voltage divider law. Voltage drop calculation
using ohms law are as Equation 1.10 below.

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V 1 = I T R1
V2 = IT R2

(1.10)

V3 = IT R3
Vn = IT Rn

Meanwhile, to calculate voltage value across every resistance in series circuit

using voltage divider is as shown in equation 1.11 for three resistor connected in
series and equation1.12 is for two resistor connected in series.

R1
)VT
R1 + R2 + R3
R2
V2 = (
)VT
R1 + R 2 + R 3
R3
V3 = (
)VT
R1 + R 2 + R 3
V1 = (

V1 = (

(1.11)(2.

R1
)VT
R1 + R2

(1.12)

R2
V2 = (
)VT
R1 + R2
Example 1.4 :
Refering to the circuit below determine :
R1 = 15

V = 120 V

R2 =10

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C h a p t e r 1 | 12

i). Total resistance, RT

ii). Current in the circuit, IT
iii). The voltage drop across each resistor.

Solution 1.4:
i).

Total resistance, RT
RT = R1 + R2 = (15 + 10) = 25

ii).

V
120
IT =
=
= 4.8 A
RT
25

iii).

VR1 = ITR1 = (4.8)(15) = 72 V

VR2 = ITR2 = (4.8)(10) = 48 V

1.6.2 Parallel Circuit

The parallel circuit is a connection of resistor which is against between each other.
The resistors connected in parallel is shown in Figure 1.10. Parallel analysis are
also going to determine total resistance, circuit current and total voltage.

IT
VT

I1
R1

I2
+
V1
-

R2

I3
+
V2
-

R3

+
V3
-

Figure 1.10: Parallel Resistor

The total parallel resistance can be calculate by using equation 1.13:

1
1
1
1
=
+
+
RT
R1 R 2 R 3
Or

RT =

(1.13)

R1 R2 R3
R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R1 R3
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The voltage across each parallel resistor is equal to the source voltage, VT as
shown in equation 1.14;

(1.14)

V T = V 1 = V 2 = V 2 = ...... = V n

Total current, IT for parallel circuit is equal to the sumation of all current from
each branch. This is shown in equation 1.15

I T = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + ..... + I n

(1.15)

The value of the current for each branch also can be determine by using the
current dividers law as equation 1.16.

IT

I1

I2
+

VT

R1

V1

R2

+
V2
-

Figure 1.11: Parallel Circuit using 2 Resistors

I1 = (

R2
) IT
R1 + R2
(1.16)

and

I2 = (

R1
) IT
R1 + R2

Example 1.5:
Refering to the circuit below, calculate :

IT

I1

I2
R 1 = 2

R2 = 4

V = 240V
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C h a p t e r 1 | 14

i). Total resistance, RT

ii). Total current, IT
iii). Current I1 and I2

Solution 1.5:
i). Total resistance, RT
RT =

R1 R2
R1 + R2

(2)(4)
2+4

= 1.333

IT =

VT
=
RT

240
1.333

= 180 A

I1 =

V
240
=
= 120 A
R1
2

I2 =

V
240
=
= 60 A
R2
4

1.6.3 Combination Circuit

Most of electric circuits are the combination of series and parallel circuit. Both
formula of series and parallel circuit will be used to determine the value of current,
voltage and total resistance. Figure 1.12 is the example for combination circuit.

R1

R2

I2

R3

I3
IT

V
Figure 1.12 : Combination Series and Parallel Resistors

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C h a p t e r 1 | 15

Example 1.6 :
By referring to Figure 1.12, a 120V source is connected across resistors. If R1 =
10, R2 = 20 , R3 = 15. Calculate
a). Total resistance, RT
b). Total current, IT
c). Current I2 and I3

Solution 1.6:
a). Total resistance, RT

( 20 )( 15 )
R 2 R3
= 8.57
=
R 2 + R3
20 + 15

R 23 =

RT = R23 + R1 = 8.57 + 10 = 18.57

b). Total current, IT
IT =

V
120
=
= 6.46 A
RT
18.57

c). Current
I2 = (

1.7

R3
R2 + R

)IT = (
3

15
) 6 . 46 = 2.79 A
20 + 15

I3 = IT I2 = (6.46 2.79) = 3.67 A

KIRCHOFFS LAW
Kirchoffs law is used to solve more difficult electric circuit, for example the circuit
which having more than one power supply. There are two types of Kirchoff law:
a)
Kirchoffs current law
b)
Kirchoffs voltage law

1.7.1 Kirchoffs Current Law

Kirchoffs current law is also known as first order of Kirchoffs law. Kirchoffs
current law stated that the algebraic sum of all the currents entering and leaving
a node is equal. Therefore, the sum of the current into a node (total current in) is
equal to the sum of the currents out of the node (total current out) as shown in
Figure 1.13.

i1

i2
i3

Figure 1.13: Flow of Current going In and Out the Node

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C h a p t e r 1 | 16

I1 = I

+ I3

(1.17)

1.7.2 Kirchoffs Voltage Law

Kirchoffs voltage law also known as the second order of Kirchoffs law. This
law stated that the sum of the voltage drop and voltage source around a closed
path is equal to zero.

+ V1 +
V2
-

VT
+ V3

Figure 1.14: Close Path Voltage

This can be stated in mathematic expression like equation 1.18

VT = V1 + V2 + V3

(1.18)

Example 1.7:

R1 = 1
5V

R2 = 6

R3 = 2

10V

By using Kirchoffs current law, find the current thought each branch in the
circuit above.

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C h a p t e r 1 | 17

Solution 1.7:
I1

I2

I3
R 1 = 1

R 2 = 6

R 3 = 2

I
5V

II
10V

Kirchoffs Current Law:

I2 = - (I3 + I1 ) (1)

Kirchoffs Voltage Law:

Loop I :

5 + ( 1 ) I 1 6 ( I 3 ) + 10 = 0

(2)

I1 6 I 3 = 5
Loop II :

10 + ( 6 ) I 3 2 ( I 2 ) = 0
replace (1) into (3) :
10 + 6 ( I 3 ) 2 ( I 3 I 1 ) = 0

2 I 1 + 8 I 3 = 10

(3)

(4)

Solve equations (2) and (4) by using Cramer rules.

i) Make the matrix equation from equation (2) and (4)

1
2

6 I1 5
=
8 I 3 10

1 6
ii) Find the value of determination, perhaps D =

2 8
1 6
D =
= (1)(8) (6)(2) = 20
2 8
iii). Find the value of determination for each currents,
I1 =

10

= ( 5)( 8) ( 6 )(10 ) = 20

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C h a p t e r 1 | 18

I1 =
I3 =

I1
D

20
= 1A
20

1 5
= 20 + 10 = 30
2 10

I3 =

I3
D

30
= 1.5 A
20

From equation (1);

I 2 = ( I 3 + I1 ) = (1.5 + 1) = 3.5 A
Negative value (-ve) in the current I 2 shows the actual current direction is

REFERENCES
Bakshi, A.V. and Bakshi, U.A., 2009, Circuit Theory 1st Edition, Technical Publications
Pune, India
Bakshi, A.V. and Bakshi, U.A., 2008, Circuit Analysis, Technical Publications Pune, India

PROBLEMS
1.

Calculate the resistance of the aluminium with 1.5 km length, 10 mm diameter and
0.025 m resistivity.
(R=0.477)

2.

Calculate the resistance of the aluminium bar with 10m length, cross section area 8cm x
1 cm and 0.0269 m resistivity.
(R=3.36 x 10-4)

3.

The cuprum with 2500cm and 1.75 mm resistivity. Calculate the diameter of the
conductor when the resistor is 3.5 k.
(d=1.26 x 10-5m)

4.

The heating element with 150 resistance, 250 cm length and 0.7 mm. Calculate the
resistivity.
(R=2.3 x 10-5)

5.

Calculate the resistance for 31m length copper, 1.5 mm diameter and 0.017 m
resistivity.
(R=0.298)

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C h a p t e r 1 | 19

6.

The resistivity of the silinder aluminium conductor is 280 mm, 1 mm radius and 30
resistance. Calculate the length.
(=3.36 x 10-3m)

7.

Calculate the resistance of the conductor with 1.5 m length, 1.6 m2 cross section area
and 16.3 m resistivity.
(R=15.28)

8.

Calculate the resistance of a zinc with 0.05 m resistivity and 0.5m diameter.
(R=1.273 x 10-3)

9.

Calculate the current flowing through the aluminium wire with a length of 2 km and a
diameter of 20 mm if the 5V supply voltage. The resistivity of the wire is 0.28 m.

10.

Refer to the figure below, calculate the current flow in the conductor.
V=100V

= 25.5m

d = 25 cm

100 km
(I=1.92A)
11.

Calculate the current in the aluminium coil with 2 km length and 20 mm diameter when
the supply is 5V . The resistivity is 0.28 .m
(I=314.15A)

12.

What is the current of a circuit that has 3 V and 0.5 ohm of resistance?

13.

What is the voltage if current is 0.5 A [ampere] and resistance is 0.8 ohm?

14.

15.

16.

17.

Calculate the energy in Joule and Kilowatthour for:

a. A 60W lamp switched on for 8 hours
b. A 3kW kettle switched on for 5 minutes

18.

Calculate the current flow in the circuit with 10 resistence and 15V voltage supply.
Then, calculate the current if the resistance is increasing to 10 k.

19.

Calculate the power losses when the current is 5mA through resistance 6k.

20.

Calculate the current flow by a Filament lamp with 240V and resistance 960.

21.

A cattle with resistance 40 and current 2.4 A. Calculate the power.

(P=230.4w)
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C h a p t e r 1 | 20

22.

A toaster with 5A current and 240 V supply was on for 15 minutes. Calculate ,
i.
Power used (1200w)
ii.
Energy in kJ (1080kJ)

23.

A Rice cooker with 3.45 kW power , 230 V voltage. Calculate:

i.
Current (15A)
ii.
Resistance (15.33)
iii.
Energy if the rice cooker is switch on for half an hour.(1.725kwh)
(6210kJ)

24.

Calculate the amount of current (I) in a circuit, given below:

25.

(4A)
Calculate the amount of resistance (R) in a circuit, given below

(9)
26.

(14v)

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C h a p t e r 1 | 21

27.

Calculate:

I= 5 A

R= 10
V
i. Potential different, v
ii. Power, P
iii. Electrical energy if the circuit switch on for 2 hours
(50v, 250w, 0.5kwh)
28.

Based on the circuit diagram below, calculate;

i.
Total resistance.
ii.
Total voltage, VT
iii. Voltage drop in the resistance R3 , the voltage divider law.
I = 1.5A
R1 = 8
R2 = 6

VT

R3 = 4

(18 , 27 V, 6 V)
29.

Three (3) resistors connected in parallel to each value, R1 = 6 , R2 = 5 and

R3 = 20 and are supplied with a 100V. Calculate:
i.
Total resistance
ii.
Total current
iii.
The voltage across each resistor
iv.
Current through each resistor
(2.4 , 41.7A, 100 V, 16.7A, 20A, 5A)

30.

31.

Based on figure below, find ;

i).
Total Resistance.
ii).
Voltage, R2 .
ii).
Current R2 .and R3 .
iii).
Total power and power dissipated in R1.
R3 = 8
VT = 240V

R1 = 2

R2 = 4

(1.143, 240v, 60A, 30A, 28.8kw, 50.4kw)

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C h a p t e r 1 | 22

32.

Based on figure below, the voltage across R1 = 72 V. Specify the following values :
i).
The current flow each resistor R1, R2, R3 and R4
ii).
The voltage across each resistor R2, , R3 and R4
iii).
Supply voltage, Vs
R1 = 8

IT
VS
R2 = 6

R3 = 3

R4 = 4
(9A, 3A, 6A, 18v, 36v, 126v)

33.

Based on Figure below, calculate the current value of each branch and voltage drop in
each resistor using Kirchoffs Law.

12V

R2 = 4

R3 = 5

4V

6V

R1 = 1
(I2 = 1.5A, I3 = 0.5A, I1 = 2A, V1= 2v, V2= 6v, V3 = 2.5v)
34.

6A

i.

ii.

R = 20

I= 5 A
R= 10
V

(120A, 50A)

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C h a p t e r 1 | 23

35.

Based on figure below, calculate Total resistance, RT, Total current, IT, Voltage across
R1, VRI and Voltage across R2, VR2
R1 = 20

i.

Vj = 5v

V1
R2= 10

V2

R1 = 15

ii.

V1

Vj = 9v

V3

R2= 25

V2

R3 = 5

36.

1

Vj
4

37.

i.

ii.

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C h a p t e r 1 | 24

38.

Based on the figure, calculate Total Resistance, RT, Total Current, IT, Current I1, Current
I2 and Total Power, PT
i.
Ij
I1

I2
R1=5

Vj = 10v

R2=20

Ij

ii.

I1

I2

Vj = 100v
R1=22
R2=28

39.

Based on the figure, calculate Total Resistance, RT, Total Current, IT, Voltage across R1,
VRI , Voltage across R2, VR2 and Total Power, PT
R1 = 10

R3 = 8

Vb
110 v
R2 = 20

40.

R4 = 12

Based on the figure, calculate Total Resistance, RT, Total Current, IT and Total Power, PT
2

Ij

6v

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C h a p t e r 1 | 25

41.

Based on the figure, calculate Total Resistance, RT, Total Current, IT, Voltage across
Resistor 30, V30 , Voltage across resistor 20, V20 and Voltage across resistor 50, V50
20
Ij

120 v

42.

30

50

Based on the figure, calculate Total Resistance, RT, Total Current, IT, Current I1, Current
I2 , Voltage across Resistor 8, V1 and Voltage across resistor 4, V2

I1

Ij

I2

Vb
12 v
8

43.

By using the Ohms Law, Current Divider Law and Voltage Divider Law calculate Total
Current, IT, Current I1, Current I2 and Voltage drop at each resistors.
I1
R1 = 20
Ij

R2 = 5

I2
R3 = 7

20 v

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C h a p t e r 1 | 26

44.

i.

I1

I2
I3

12

12 v

15v

ii.

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I2

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5
10 v

5v

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3

iii.
1
3v

4 v

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iv.

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4

I2
I1

I2

I3

12 v

2
6v

Introduction to Electric Circuits

C h a p t e r 1 | 27

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2v
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