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Reinforced Concrete Design II

Lecture 13
Dr. Nader Okasha
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Footing Design

Footing
Introduction
Footings are structural elements used to support columns and walls and transmit their
loads to the underlying soil without exceeding its safe bearing capacity below the
structure.
Loads

B
L

Column

Beam

P
M
Footing

Soil

Footing
Introduction
The design of footings calls for the combined efforts of geotechnical and structural
engineers.
The geotechnical engineer, on one hand, conducts the site investigation and on the light
of his findings, recommends the most suitable type of foundation and the allowable
bearing capacity of the soil at the suggested foundation level.
The structural engineer, on the other hand, determines the concrete dimensions and
reinforcement details of the approved foundation

Types of Footing
Isolated Footings
Isolated or single footings are used to support single columns. This is one of the most
economical types of footings and is used when columns are spaced at relatively long
distances.

P kN

C2
C1
L
P

Types of Footing
Wall Footings
Wall footing are used to support structural walls that carry loads for other floors or to
support nonstructural walls.
W kN/m

N/m
Wk

ll
Wa

Secondary reinft
t
Foo

Main reinft.

ing

Types of Footing
Combined Footings
Combined footings are used when two columns are so close that single footings cannot
be used. Or, when one column is located at or near a property line. In such a case, the
load on the footing will be eccentric and hence this will result in uneven distribution of
load to the supporting soil.
P1

P2

P2 kN

P1 kN

C2

C2
C1

C1
L1

L2

L2

Types of Footing
Combined Footings
The shape of combined footing in plan shall be such that the centroid of the foundation
plan coincides with the centroid of the loads in the two columns. Combined footings are
either rectangular or trapezoidal. Rectangular footings are favored due to their
simplicity in terms of design and construction. However, rectangular footings are not
always practicable because of the limitations that may be imposed on its longitudinal
projections beyond the two columns or the large difference that may exist between the
magnitudes of the two column loads. Under these conditions, the provision of a
trapezoidal footing is more economical.

Types of Footing
Continuous Footings
Continuous footings support a row of three or more columns

P1

P2

P3

P4 kN

P4
P3 kN

P2 kN
L
P1 kN

Types of Footing
Strap (Cantilever ) footings
Strap footings consists of two separate footings, one under each column, connected
together by a beam called strap beam. The purpose of the strap beam is to prevent
overturning of the eccentrically loaded footing. It is also used when the distance
between this column and the nearest internal column is long that a combined footing
will be too narrow.
P2 kN

P2

property line

P1

Strap Beam
P1 kN
L1

L2

C2

B1
C1

10

C2
C1

B2

Types of Footing
Mat (Raft) Footings
Mat Footings consists of one footing usually placed under the entire building area. They
are used when soil bearing capacity is low, column loads are heavy and differential
settlement for single footings are very large or must be reduced.

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Types of Footing
Pile caps
Pile caps are thick slabs used to tie a group of piles together to support and transmit
column loads to the piles.
P

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Footing
Distribution of Soil Pressure
The distribution of soil pressure under a footing is a function of the type of soil, the
relative rigidity of the soil and the footing, and the depth of foundation at level of
contact between footing and soil
P

P
Centroidal axis

Footing on sand

Footing on clay

Equivalent uniform distribution

For design purposes, it is common to assume the soil pressures are linearly distributed.
The pressure distribution will be uniform if the centroid of the footing coincides with
the resultant of the applied loads

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Footing
Pressure Distribution Below Footings
The maximum intensity of loading at the base of a foundation which causes shear
failure of soil is called ultimate bearing capacity of soil, denoted by q u.
The allowable bearing capacity of soil is obtained by dividing the ultimate bearing
capacity of soil by a factor of safety on the order of 2.50 to 3.0.
The allowable soil pressure for soil may be either gross or net pressure permitted on the
soil directly under the base of the footing.
The gross pressure represents the total stress
in the soil created by all the loads above the
base of the footing.

P
Df

a net soil pressure is used instead of the gross pressure value

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Footing
Concentrically loaded Footings
If the resultant of the loads acting at the base of the footing coincides with the centroid
of the footing area, the footing is concentrically loaded and a uniform distribution of
soil pressure is assumed in design, as shown in the figure
P
Centroidal axis

L
P/A
L

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Footing
Eccentrically Loaded Footings
Footings are often designed for both axial load and moment. Moment may be caused by
lateral forces due to wind or earthquake, and by lateral soil pressures.
Footing is eccentrically loaded if the supported column is not concentric with the
footing area or if the column transmits at its juncture with the footing not only a vertical
load but also a bending moment.
P

Centroidal axis

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Centroidal axis

P/A

P/A

Pey/I

My/I

Footing
Eccentrically Loaded Footings

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Footing
Eccentrically Loaded Footings

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Footing
Eccentrically Loaded Footings

In this case, compressive


stresses develop over the
entire base of the
footing

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Footing
Eccentrically Loaded Footings

Large eccentricities cause tensile stresses on part of the base area of the
footing. With the dimensions of the footing established and the eccentricity of
the vertical load known, the distance between the resultant of the applied
load P and the outside edge a can be established. The length of base on which
the triangular distribution of soil pressure acts is equal to 3a, where a = L /
2 e. Equating the resultant of the soil pressure to the applied forces gives

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Eccentrically Loaded Footing


Design

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Design Procedure

Check service stresses to ensure pressure is all compressive under the footing

1.0
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1.0

If tension stresses develop, resize the footing

Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Design Procedure

1.2

1.6

= 0.75
The critical section for punching shear is located at distance d / 2
from column faces and usually takes the shape of the column.
Calculate Vu using the volume under the trapezoidal shaped stress
distribution.

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Design Procedure
The critical section for punching shear is located at distance d /2
from column faces and usually takes the shape of the column.

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Design Procedure

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= 1.0 for normal weight concrete

Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Design Procedure

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Design Procedure

Calculate Mu using the volume under the trapezoidal shaped stress


distribution.
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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Design Procedure
According to ACI Code 15.4.3, for square footings, the reinforcement
is identical in both directions. For rectangular footings, the
reinforcement in the long direction is uniformly distributed while the
reinforcement in the short direction is concentrated in a band centered
on centerline of column and with a width equals to the short
dimension of the footing.

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Example 1

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Example 1

In order to have uniform soil


pressure under the footing, the
footing is to be positioned in
such a way to balance the given
moment through shifting the
centroid of the footing 0.25 m
away from the centroid of the
column

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Continue the design as a concentrically loaded footing supporting


only the axial loads transmitted by the column

Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Example 2

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Example 2

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Example 2

Pu = 1.2PD + 1.6PL = 69 tons

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Example 2

Should use as 0.75

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Example 2

Should use as 0.75

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Example 2

Should use as 0.75

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Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Example 2

0.85f c
2 105 M u
1 1

2
fy
0.85 f c bw d


0.85 250
2 105 0.87
1 1
0.00003

2
4200
0.85

0.9

250

400

(40.9)

Eccentrically Loaded Footings


Example 2

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Combined Footing
Design

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Combined Footings
Design Procedure

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Combined Footings
Design Procedure

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Combined Footings
Example
Design an appropriate footing/footings to support two columns A and B spaced at
distance 2.1 m center-to-center. Column A is 20 cm 30 cm and carries a dead
load of 20 tons and a live load of 10 tons. Column B is 20 cm 40 cm in cross
section but carries a dead load of 30 tons and a live load of 15 tons. Width of
footing is not to exceed 1.0 m, and there is no property line restriction.

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Combined Footings
Example

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Combined Footings

R
Pb

Pa

Example

2.1 m
l1

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x1

x2

l2

Combined Footings
Example

Should use DL

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Combined Footings
Example

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Combined Footings
Example

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Combined Footings
Example

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Combined Footings
Example

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Combined Footings
Example

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Combined Footings
Example

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