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The Periodic Table!

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Unit 1: The Periodic Table

The periodic table contains about a hundred or so elements that have been currently
discovered. The rows are known as periods and elements of the same period have the same
number of electron shells. The columns are known as groups and elements of the same group
have the same number of electrons on their outer shell. Group one has one outer electron,
An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into anything simpler. KCl for example
(potassium chloride) is NOT an element because it can be broken down into K (potassium) and
Cl (chlorine). The potassium and chlorine are the elements.
A compound is two or more elements chemically bonded together. An example would be KCl
(potassium chloride), which consists of the elements potassium and chloride chemically
bonded together.
Atoms are the building blocks of substances.
Molecules are two or more atoms bonded together. It doesnt have to be a compound.
Elements such as O2 and Br2 are diatomic molecules they exist in pairs.

Atomic Structure
Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.
Protons are positively charged. Electrons are negatively charged. Neutrons dont have a
An atom consists of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons; and some electron shells
which surround the nucleus and contain electrons. The neutrons however, are different. The
number of protons and the number of neutrons add up to make the mass number of an

Understanding the Lack of Reactivity in Noble Gases (Group 0)

Noble gases have eight electrons on their outer
shell, therefore, there is no need for them to gain or lose electrons. Basically they have a full
outer shell so they dont need to react. This is what makes them so unreactive.
How to Read Each Square on The Periodic Table
You probably already know that the periodic table is made up of lots and lots of squares, each
containing an element and information about it.
Anyways we already know what the atomic mass number is (the number of protons +
neutrons). It says 12.011 here but this is probably because this picture came from some super

complicated periodic table. In IGCSE level however, the atomic mass should read 12. Anyways,
the atomic number is the number of protons (and electrons), so to find the number of
neutrons, if asked to, simply subtract the atomic mass by the atomic number.

Example: Calculate the number of neutrons Carbon has.

The answer: 12 6 = 6 neutrons

The Arrangement of Electrons

Atoms are surrounded by electron shells which contain
electrons. But the arrangement is the same for ALL the elements, not matter how different
they are.

Each shell can only hold a certain number of electrons. The very first shell can hold only two
electrons. The second shell can hold eight. The third sometimes appear full with eight but can
expand to a total of eighteen. However, this is beyond GCSE level, and for now, the shells only
hold eight.
So how do you find the electron configuration? Well lets use potassium (K) as an example.
Look up the atomic number of potassium. It should say 19. This tells you the number of
protons, which is equal to the number of electrons so we can use that.
Arrange the electrons in shells, always filling up the inner shell before you go to the outer one.
Remember the first, innermost shell can only take 2 electrons, the second one can take 8, and
the third one, 8. You will find that you have one electron left. That goes on the fourth shell.
Your electron configuration should look like this: 2, 8, 8, 1.
Example: Work out the electron configuration of chlorine.
Chlorine has an atomic number of 17 so 17 electrons.
17 2 (as the innermost shell only holds two electrons) = 15
15 8 (as the second shell only holds eight electrons) = 7 (This number is the number
of electrons Chlorine has on its outer shell).
7 electrons does not fill up the third shell so we are left with the configuration: 2, 8, 7.

The number of neutrons in an atom can vary slightly. For example, there are three kinds of
carbon atom, called carbon-12, carbon-13 and carbon-14. They all have the same number of
protons, but the number of neutrons vary. These different atoms of carbon are called isotopes.
Isotopes are atoms that have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers. They
have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. The fact that they have
varying numbers of neutrons makes no difference whatsoever to their chemical reactions. The
chemical properties are governed by the number and arrangement of the electrons.

Calculating Relative Atomic Mass (R.A.M.)

Lets start this off with an example!
Example: Naturally occurring silver is 51.84% silver-107 and 48.16% silver-109. Calculate the
relative atomic mass of silver.
r.a.m. (Ag) = (51.84/100 x 107) + (48.16/100 x 109)
= 55.469 + 52.494
Now what did we do there? Well I simply calculated 51.84% of 107 (of silver) and 48.16% of
109 (of silver), and added the two answers! What we end up with is 107.96. Round that up to a
whole number and the average relative atomic mass of silver is 108.

Calculating the Abundance (percentage) of an Isotope

Example: Copper consists of two isotopes, copper-63 and copper-65. Its relative atomic mass is
63.62. Find the abundance of each isotope.
Let y/100 = abundance of copper-63
Let (100-y)/100 = abundance of copper-65
63.62 = (y/100 x 63) + [(100-y)/100 x 65]
63.62 = 63y +6500 65y
-2y = -135
y = 69
Abundance of copper-63 = 69%
Abundance of copper-65 = 100 69 = 31%

About Metals and Non-Metals

The IGCSE spec. states you have to recall the positions of metals and non-metals on the
periodic table. Thats easy! Its on page two. Have a look. Its colour-coded.
Anyways, this section covers 2.2, 2.3 and 2.5.

Metals tend to be shiny. They tend to have high melting and boiling points because of powerful
attractions. Metals conduct heat and electricity because delocalized electrons are free to move
throughout the structure. Metals are usually easy to shape due to their regular packed
molecules. Metals react with water to form bases, and their oxides are also bases. They are
good reducing agents because they lose electron.

Non-metals tend to be brittle. They are poor conductors of heat and electricity. They form
acidic oxides and are good oxydising agents because they gain electrons.

Aluminium Oxide
Aluminium oxide is amphoteric. It can neutralize both an acid and a base.

Reaction with acids

Aluminium oxide contains oxide ions and so reacts with acids in the same way as sodium or
magnesium oxides. That means, for example, that aluminium oxide will react with hot dilute
hydrochloric acid to give aluminium chloride solution.

In this (and similar reactions with other acids), aluminium oxide is showing the basic side of its
amphoteric nature.

Reaction with bases

Aluminium oxide has also got an acidic side to its nature, and it shows this by reacting with
bases such as sodium hydroxide solution. Various aluminates are formed - compounds where
the aluminium is found in the negative ion. This is possible because aluminium has the ability
to form covalent bonds with oxygen.

Group 1: The Alkali Metals

Alkali metals are metals that are part of group one. They are extremely reactive metals, and
reactivity increases DOWNWARDS in other words, lithium is the least reactive and francium.
Some Basic Physical Properties

Melting Point (0C)


Boiling Point (0C)


Density (g/cm3)

You can see that as reactivity increases, the melting and boiling points decreases; however,
density increases. These points are very low for metals. Remember that potassium, sodium
and lithium would float on water due to their densities. But why are they so reactive? Well they
only have one electron to lose!
The metals are also very soft and easy to cut, becoming softer as you go down the group. They
are shiny and silver when cut, but tarnish within seconds on exposure to air.

Storage and Handling

All these metals are extremely reactive. Anyways the metals will quickly react with air to form
oxides, and react between rapidly and violently with water to form strongly alkaline solutions
of metal hydroxides.
To stop them reacting with oxygen or water vapour in the air, lithium, sodium and potassium
are stored under oil. Rubidium and caesium are so reactive that they have to be stored in

sealed glass tubes to stop any possibility of oxygen getting at them.

Great care must be taken not to touch any of these metals with bare fingers. There could be
enough sweat on your skin to give a reaction producing lots of heat and a very corrosive metal

Reactions with Water

All these metals react with water to produce a metal hydroxide and hydrogen.
Metal + Water Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen
All the hydroxides are bases and turn pH paper purple.
With Sodium
The sodium floats because it is less dense than water. It melts because its melting point is low
and a lot of heat is produced by the reaction. Observations would be that the sodium would
turn into a ball and whiz around the surface of the water. It may form a white trail which is
sodium hydroxide. This dissolves to make a strongly alkaline solution with the water. When lit,
it produces a yellow flame.
With Lithium
The reaction is very similar to sodiums reaction, except it is slower. The lithium does not melt
due to its higher melting point. When lit, it produces a red flame.
With Potassium
Potassiums reaction is faster than sodiums. Enough heat is produced to ignite the hydrogen,
which burns with a lilac flame. The reaction often ends with the potassium spitting around.
With Rubidium and Caesium The Two Baddies
The reaction is so violent it can be explosive. When lit, Rubidium
forms a red flame and Caesium forms a blue flame.
Explaining the Increase in Reactivity
The differences between reactions depend in part on how easily the outer electron of the metal
is lost in each case. That depends on how strongly it is attracted to the nucleus. The more
electron shells an atom has, the less powerful the attraction forces are. For example, Lithium is
a lot less reactive than Potassium. This is because there are less shells which shield the full
attraction of the nucleus from the This makes the electron harder to lose. However, potassium
has a lot more electron shells which shield the outer electron from the nucleus. This weakens
the attraction in compared to lithium, and therefore, the electron is easier to lose.
Compounds of Alkali Metals
All group one metal ions are colourless. That means that their compounds will be colourless or
white unless they are combined with a coloured negative ion (remember metals would become
positive ions because they lose electrons, whereas, most non-metals gain electrons).
Potassium dichromate is orange, for example, because the dichromate ion is orange. Group
one compounds are typical ionic solids and are mostly soluble in water.

Alkali Metals: Quick Notes

Group One so +1 charge

One electron on outer shell
Reactivity increases downwards
Density increases downwards
Melting and Boiling points both decrease downwards
Very soft and tarnish quickly in air
Li, Na and K are stored under oil, whilst Rb and Cs
are stored in sealed glass tubes
Reacts with air to form oxides
Reacts with water to form alkaline hydroxides, which turns pH paper purple
Positive ions are formed and they are colourless
Flame Colours: lithium, red; sodium, yellow; potassium, lilac; rubidium, red; caesium,
Forget about Francium you dont need to know much about it.

Group 2: Alkali Earth Metals

Alkali earth metals belong to Group two. They are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium,
barium and radium. These metals are harder than those in group one. They are silvery grey in
colour. They tarnish quickly, however they dont just disappear into thin air because the oxides
the metals form when reacting with air would form an outer coat that protects the metal from
the air. They are good conductors of heat and electricity. They burn in oxygen to form white
oxides. They react with water to form hydroxides and hydrogen, but the reaction is a lot less
than that of group one. Also, reactivity increases down the group.
Flame Colours

brick red

Well thats it for Group two!

Alkali Earth Metals: Quick Notes

Harder than group one metals

Two electrons on outer shell (2+ charge)
Form white oxides
Forms hydroxides and hydrogen when reacting with water. Reaction is less vigorous
than that of group one
Reaction increases downwards
Flame Colours: calcium, brick red; strontium, crimson; barium, apple-green.








Orange Brown vapour



Dark Grey Purple


Group 7: The Halogens

Halogens are group seven elements. Their elements are diatomic molecules. They exist in
pairs, such as F2 and Cl2. These two elements are gases, bromine is a liquid and iodine is a
solid. Astatine is radioactive.

These vapours and gases are poisonous. All these elements need to be handled in a fume

Reaction with Hydrogen

Violent explosion, even in the cold and dark
Violent explosion if exposed to a flame or
Mild explosion if a bromine
vapour/hydrogen mixture is exposed to a
Partial reaction to from hydrogen iodide if
vapour is heated continuously with
Reactions with Hydrogen
The halogens react with hydrogen to form hydrogen halides such as hydrogen fluoride and
hydrogen chloride. These are all steamy, acidic and poisonous gases. They are very soluble in
water, reacting with it to produce solutions of acids. However as a gas, it is NOT an acid.

Reaction Between Sodium and Chloride

Sodium burns in chlorine to produce the white solid sodium chloride or salt!
2Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s)
In this reaction, sodium has been oxidized since it has lost electrons. Chlorine has been






Yellow to

Potassium Iodide
Yellow to Brown
Brown to Dark


Displacement Reactions with Halogens

Finding the reactivity of halogens are done by reacting the elements with potassium halides.
Colour change will indicate a reaction.

Note: Colour changes are due to the element being displaced. For example, the colour
change from yellow to brown when chlorine reacted with potassium bromide was due to the
fact that the bromine was displace. It was the brown of the Bromine that turned the solution
Potassium is only a spectator ion. It does not change.
But now we have a problem. To distinguish whether bromine or iodine has been displaced is
difficult, as both elements produce very similar shades of brown. What do we do? We add an
organic solvent such as Volasil. When Volasil is added, the iodine turns pink while the bromine
stays brown. Pretty neat huh?
These reactions are known as redox reactions, where oxidation and reduction are occurring
(not just one of them).
Explaining the Trend in Reactivity of Halogens
As you go down the group, the oxidizing ability of the halogens falls due to the decreasing
reactivity. When a halogen oxidizes something, it does so by removing electrons from it.
Chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent because its atoms readily attract an extra electron to make
chloride ions. Bromine is less successful. Why? This relates to electron shells again. In Chlorine,
there are three shells which shield the nucleus attraction force from attracting another
electron to gain a full outer electron shell. Bromine however, has a lot more shells to shield the
attraction, therefore, the force is much weaker.
Halogens: Quick Notes

Diatomic molecules
Seven electrons on outer shell
Highly reactive only need one electron to fill outer shell
Form hydrogen halides when reacting with hydrogen
Reaction increases as you go up the group
Halogens can displace each other
Volasil turns iodine pink

The Difference Between Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrochloric acid is basically a solution of hydrogen chloride gas in water.
The Bronsted-Lowry Theory
Bronsted and Lowry defined acids and bases as the following:
-An acid donates a proton.
-A base accepts a proton.
How is this related? Well, when hydrogen loses its only electron, it becomes a hydrogen ion
(H+). In other words, it is also a proton, because it has lost all of its electrons (it only has one
When hydrogen chloride dissolves in water, a proton (the hydrogen ion) is transferred to the
water. This gives us the equation:

H2O(l) + HCl(g) H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

The H3O+ ion is called a hydroxonium ion. We normally write it as H+(aq). You can think of it as
a hydrogen ion riding on a water molecule.
So in this example, HCl is an acid because it donates a proton (the hydrogen ion) to water.
So the real differences? Hydrogen chloride is NOT an acid and is a gas. Hydrochloric acid is an
aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride.
Hydrogen Chloride and Methylbenzene
Explaining Water Being a Polar Molecule
Water is a polar molecule. Electrons in water are attracted towards the oxygen end of the
bond, which leaves it slightly negative. This leaves hydrogen slightly short of electrons, and
therefore, making it slightly positive, just like the picture to the left. Because of this electrical
distortion, water is described as a polar molecule.
When something such as sodium chloride is being dissolved in water, the slightly positive
hydrogens cluster around the chlorine, whereas, the slightly negative oxygen cluster around
the sodium. The water molecules then literally pull the sodium chloride crystal apart.
This pull doesnt work on every molecule. Magnesium oxide isnt soluble in water because the
water molecules arent strong enough to break the magnesium-oxygen attractions.
Whats so special about methylbenzene?
Well, methylbenzene is not a polar molecule. It is unable to pull the hydrogen and chlorine
apart and therefore, hydrochloric acid wont be formed.

Oxygen and Oxides

Amount in Air (%)
Carbon Dioxide 0.04
(2.15) Composition of Air
This is the approximate composition of air. Memorize it.
There are also very small amounts of noble gases in the air.

(2.16)Showing That Air Contains About 1/5 Oxygen

Using Copper

The apparatus originally contains

100cm3 of air. This is pushed backwards and forwards of the heated copper, which turns black
as copper(II) oxide is formed. This uses up the oxygen. On cooling, around 79cm 3 of gas is left
in the syringes 21% has been used up. Therefore, the air contains 21% of oxygen.
Using the Rusting of Iron
Iron rusts in damp air, using oxygen up as it does so. The experiment shows some damp iron
wool in a test tube containing air. The tube is inverted in a beaker of water and the level of the
water in the tube is marked by a rubber band. The tube is left for a week or so for the iron to
use up the oxygen to makeguessiron oxide!
The water level rises in the tube as the oxygen is used up, and the new level
can be marked using a second rubber band. You can find the actual volumes of the gases at
the end of the experiment by filling the tube with water to each of the rubber bands in turn,
and pouring it into a measuring cylinder. If the original volume was, say, 15cm 3, and the final
volume was 12cm3, then the oxygen used up measures 3cm3.
The percentage of oxygen in air was 3/15 x 100 = 20%.
Burning Phosphorus
This can be done by putting a bell jar into a beaker filled with water. Phosphorus on an
evaporating dish is placed onto the water (the jar has no bottom). It is then touched with a hot
metal rod, which starts the reaction between phosphorus and oxygen. Phosphorus uses up the
oxygen to form phosphorus oxide, lowering pressure in the jar and therefore, making water
levels rise in the jar. The water should rise up by 20%.

(2.17)Making Oxygen in the Lab
Oxygen is most easily made in the lab from hydrogen peroxide solution using manganese(IV)
oxide as a catalyst. The reaction is known as the catalytic decomposition (splitting up using a
catalyst) of hydrogen peroxide.
2H2O2(aq) 2H2O(l) + O2(g)

Reaction of Oxygen with Magnesium, Carbon and Sulfur


With Sulfur

With Carbon

Magnesium reacts with oxygen to produced

white, powdery magnesium oxide. It produces
a bright white flame during the reaction. It is a
Sulfur burns in oxygen with a tiny blue flame.
Poisonous, colourless sulfur dioxide is
produced. It is an acidic oxide.
Carbon burns in oxygen if heated strongly to
give colourless carbon dioxide. Depending on
the purity of the carbon, a small yellow-orange

2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s)

S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)

C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g)

flame may be produced.

Carbon Dioxide
Preparing It in the Lab
Carbon dioxide is made by the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and calcium
carbonate in the form of marble chips.
CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Formation of Carbon Dioxide from Thermal Decomposition of Metal Carbonates

Key thing here: When heating metal carbonate, you
Metal Carbonate Metal Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
Here is the picture of the experiment setup:
Properties of Carbon Dioxide

Colourless gas, denser than air, slightly soluble in water

Used in carbonated (fizzy) drinks because it dissolves in water under pressure. When
bottle is opened, pressure falls and gas bubbles out of the solution.
Used in fire extinguishers to put out electrical fires, or those caused by burning liquids,
where using water could cause problems. The carbon dioxide sinks onto the flames and
prevents any more oxygen from reaching them.
Turns limewater cloudy white (limewater is calcium hydroxide work out the equation
yourself water is one of the products).

Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Their Reactions With Water

Carbon Dioxide

Sulphur Dioxide

Carbonic acid is produced when

carbon dioxide reacts with water. It
is a weak acid. This reaction can
be reversed by simply heating or
boiling the acid.
Sulfur dioxide reacts with water to
form a weak acid known as
sulfurous acid,

CO2(aq) + H2O(l) H+(aq) + HCO3


H2O(l) + SO2(g) H2SO3(aq)

Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxide and the Environment

Acid rain is caused when oxygen and water in the
atmosphere react with sulfur dioxide to produce sulfuric acid (ouch), or with various oxides of
nitrogen to give nitric acid. These mainly come from power stations, burning fossil fuels, motor
vehicles etc.
Acid rain can kill trees and make lakes so acidic it cannot support life. Limestone and some
metals such as iron are also attacked by acid rain.

The solution to acid rain involves removing sulfur from fuels, using catalytic converters in cars
and scrubbing the gases from power stations to remove the oxides. The catalyst helps convert
nitrogen oxides into harmless nitrogen gas but has no effect on sulfur dioxide.

Methods of Separation

Filtration: For separating an insoluble solid from a liquid, or a soluble solid from an insoluble
Sand can be separated from water by pouring the mixture down a funnel with filter paper. The
sand will collect at the filter paper.
It can also be used to separate sand from something like salt by dissolving salt in water (which
leaves you with sand mixed with salt water). The mixture can then be poured down a funnel.
The sand that collects at the top should can be rinsed and dried. The water can be evaporated
from the salt by heating with a Bunsen burner. 38Back

Chromatography: For separating

liquids by dissolving them in a solvent. The dyes that make up the ink differ in two important

How strongly they stick to the paper

How soluble they are with the solvent

An example would be separating ink colours or plant dyes. A dot of the ink/dye would be drawn
onto a piece of paper. It would then be left in water, which acts as a solvent. Because different
colours have different solubility levels, some colours would travel up further on the paper.

Crystallization: Mainly used for purifying substances by forming crystals from a

precipitating solution. Crystallization refers to the forming of solid crystals from a homogenous
(solution) mixture.
An example would be forming pure salt
crystals. This is done by dissolving the impure salt into a solvent such as water. The salt
solution is then allowed to cool. As it does, pure salt crystals would form at the bottom of the
water, whereas, the impure substances would be left in the water. The crystals can then be
rinsed with a chilled solution and dried.

Distillation: Distillation is good from separating a liquid from a solution.

An example would be separating water from a salt solution. The solution would be heated at
the liquids boiling point, in this case 100 0C, so it will leave the solution as a vapour. The
vapour would then condense into a liquid with the help of the cooling water. The vapour, now
as a liquid, would fall into the beaker.

Fractional Distillation:
Fractional Distillation is used to separate two liquids based on their boiling points.
An example would be separating ethanol from water. Ethanol has a lower boiling water than
water (at about 780C), therefore, the heating is monitored (using the thermometer) to ensure
that the temperature does not reach 1000C (the boiling point of water). Anyways, the ethanol
would turn into a vapour and travel out of the flask. It would then condense into its liquid form
with the help of the cooling water and fall into the beaker.

Unit 2: Structure and Bonding

Ionic Bonding
Ionic bonding is the bonding in which there has been a transfer of electrons from one atom to
another to produce ions. The substance is held together by strong electrostatic attractions
between positive and negative ions. Ions are formed when it gains or loses electrons. Ones
that gain forms negative ions, and ones that lose form positive ions.

A positive ion is called a cation.

A negative ion is called an anion.

You can find the charge of an ion by looking at the group it belongs to. If it belongs to groups 14, it has a charge of 1-4+ (they are positive), whereas, if it belongs to groups 5-0, it has a
charge of 30. Below is a table containing charges of common ionic compounds and transition


Copper (I)
Copper (II)
Iron (II)
Iron (III)







This is an example of a dot and cross diagram. The crosses

represent the electrons on the sodium (anion) and the dots represent the electrons on the
chlorine (cation). In a dot and cross diagram, you must use arrows to show which electrons are
moved from the anion to the cation. On the final diagram, you mark the new electron(s) on the
cation as a cross.

Boiling and Melting Points of Ionic Compounds

Ionic compounds have high boiling and melting points due to strong intermolecular forces
between the atoms. This is because when the ions are formed during an ionic reaction, one of
them would be positive, and one would be negative. Positive and negative attract and
therefore, you get something like a strong magnet.

As ionic charge increases, so does the melting/boiling points. Ions with 2 + and 2- would
have stronger attraction because their charges a stronger, whereas, ions with 1 + and 1would still have a strong attraction, but less stronger than 2+- compounds.

Structure of Ionic Compounds

An ionic crystal consists of giant three-dimensional lattices held together by strong
electrostatic attractions between the positive and negative ions.
Structure of Sodium Chloride
This is the basic structure of a sodium chloride crystal. The
green is the chloride and the blue is the sodium. Remember that each sodium is touched by six
chlorides and each chloride is touched by six sodiums. Look at the middle atoms if unclear.
Remember, this structure repeats itself over and over.

Ionic bonds always produce giant structures.

Ions form closely packed regular lattice arrangement.
They have high melting/boiling points.
The crystals tend to be brittle.
Compounds tend to be soluble in water and insoluble in organic solvents.

Covalent Bonding

Covalent bonding is formed by sharing a pair of electrons between two atoms. This is so that
both atoms can achieve a full outer shell. It is a strong attraction between the bonding pair of
electrons and the nuclei of the atoms involved. Covalent compounds are only formed when the
reactants are non-metals.

Diagrams YOU Need to Know










Simple Molecular Structures

These are gases, liquids or solids with low melting points. Examples include water,
chlorine, oxygenetc
The covalent bonds between the atoms in a molecule are strong.
However, the forces of attraction between these molecules (inter-molecular forces) are
They have low melting points, since not a lot of heat is needed to provide the energy
for the molecules to move away from each other, hence, overcome the intermolecular
forces between them.
They tend to be insoluble in water.
They are often soluble in organic solvents.
They do not conduct electricity because the molecules have no overall charge and
there are no electrons mobile enough to move from molecule to molecule.

Giant Covalent Structures

There are no charged ions.

ALL the atoms are joined up to their adjacent atom by extremely strong covalent bonds
and packed into giant regular lattices.
They have very high melting points, since a lot of heat is needed to provide the energy
to break apart the many strong covalent bonds.
They tend to be insoluble in water.
They do not conduct electricity.

The diamond is the hardest natural substance. It is a form of pure carbon.
Each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds to the other carbon atoms. They are arranged in
a tetrahedral arrangement. Diamond has a very high melting point, obviously due to very
strong carbon-carbon bonds. It does not conduct electricity because all the electrons in the
outer levels of the carbon atoms are tightly bonded between the atoms. None of them are free
to move around. Diamond is insoluble like, to both water and other solvents.
Use of Diamond

Saw blades can be tipped with diamonds in high-speed cutting tools used on stone and
concrete. The strong tetrahedral structure makes the diamond hard, making it suitable
for this purpose.

Graphite is arranged differently it has a layer structure. Each graphite
layer is strong, but it is easy to separate individual graphite layers. Each carbon atom only
forms three covalent bonds. Graphite conducts electricity because the fourth electron is free to
move around.
Use of Graphite

Because of the layered structure, graphite can be used as a dry lubricant to lubricate

Metallic Crystals
Metals are giant structures which consist of a regular array of
positive ions in a sea of delocalized electrons. When metal atoms bond together to form solid,
visible metal, their outer electrons are no longer attached to particular electrons and are free
to move around the whole structure.
Metals are able to conduct electricity because the delocalized electrons are free to move
throughout the structure. The energy is picked up by the electrons and moved around the
metals, transferring the electricity throughout the whole structure. The same goes to heat
Metals are easy to shape because their regular packing makes it simple for atoms to slide over
each other. Metals are said to be malleable.

Introduction to Electrolysis
In metals and carbon, electricity and electric current is simply a flow of
electrons or ions. Electrolysis is the chemical change caused by passing an electric current
through a compound which is either molten or in a solution. An electrolyte is a substance that
undergoes electrolysis. It contains ions. It is the movement of the ions, which are responsible
for both the conduction of electricity and the chemical changes that take place. Covalent
compounds are not electrolytes and dont conduct electricity because they have no free
moving electrons. Ionic compounds only conduct electricity when molten or in a solution
because the ions separate and are free to move. These particles can then carry the electric

Experiment to distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes

Dissolve substance in water, or if possible, melt it.

Put a conductivity tester into the substance.
If the light bulb lights up, it is an electrolyte.

Explain: When dissolved in water, free moving electrons are able to

carry the electric current across from the cathode to the anode,
completing the circuit and lighting the bulb. If the light bulb does not
light up, the substance is obviously not an electrolyte.
But sugar dissolves, why does the bulb not light up? Sugar is a
covalent structure.

Diffusion happens when particles spread from higher to lower concentration. It requires a
concentration gradient).
Potassium Manganate (VII) Experiment
Diffusion through liquids is very slow if the liquid is totally still. This can be shown but dropping
a piece of potassium manganate (VII) into water. It can take days for the colour to spread
because the gap between each particle is small.
The Bromine Experiment

Showing diffusion in gases can be done by filling a lower gas jar with bromine gas and topping
it with a gas jar filled with air. The bromine particles and air particles will eventually bounce
around to give an even mixture.
The Ammonium Chloride Experiment
This experiment is used to show that particles in different gases travel at different speeds. It
relies on the reaction between ammonia and hydrogen chloride gases to give white solid
ammonium chloride.
A white ring of ammonium chloride would form near the hydrochloric acid. This shows that
ammonia particles have travelled further to reach the hydrogen chloride gas, showing that it
travels faster.

Dilution is the reduction of concentration in a solution.
Showing Dilution and Leading to the Idea of Small Sized Particles
Suppose you dissolve 0.1g of potassium manganate (VII) in 10cm 3 of water to give a deep
purple solution. Assume the smallest drop you can see is 1/1000cm 3. The whole solution will be
made up of 10000 drops, each drop containing 0.00001g of potassium manganate (VII).
Suppose you dilute this down 10 times by taking 1cm 3 of the solution and making it up to
10cm3 with more water. Continue doing this until the colour is too faint to see. By the time of
the fifth dilution, each drop will only contain a billionth of a gram of potassium manganate
(VII). If you only needed one particle of potassium manganate (VII) per drop in order to see
the colour, the particle cant weigh more than a billionth of a gram.
IS this a good answer? Nowhere near it! A potassium manganate (VII) particle actually weighs
about 0.00000000000000000000026g! In reality, you need huge numbers of particles in each
drop in order to see the colour.
Dont worry I dont get this either

Unit 3: Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is mainly based around hydrocarbons compounds made only up of

hydrogen and carbon. It is drawn with lines joining carbons and hydrogen. All carbon bonds
have to be bonded to hydrogen if not something else. The left picture below shows carbons
with all bonds taken up (ethane). The right picture below shows an incorrect picture of a
hydrocarbon because one of the carbons has a free bond.

Hydrocarbon compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen only.

Homologous series family of compounds with similar properties because they have
similar bonding. They show a graduation in physical properties (mpt/bpt) and similar
chemical properties such as the general formula. Alkanes are the simplest.
Saturated when carbon cannot take anymore bonds single carbon-carbon bonds.
Unsaturated presence of a carbon-carbon double bond.
General formula The formula of different homologous series of carbons.
Isomers molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.

Learning the Code


Number of

Do you have to remember the formula for propane, butane, ethane? No! You can work it out
yourself! The first part of the name tells you how many carbons there are in the longest chain
(not necessarily in total). By the way you have to learn these at least the first five. It helps.
For example: propane (left) has three carbons. Butane (right) has four carbons.

Alkanes and Alkenes


All carbon bonds
are filled with
hydrogen i.e.
they are saturated
There is a double
bond they are
Alkanes and Alkenes are two homologous series.
Pentene has a five carbon chain with a double bond.

We know what isomers are.

Coding for Double Bonds

For things like pentene and butene, there are many places you can put the double bonds in.
Pent-1-ene means pentene with the double bond on the first carbon-carbon bond (right).

Pent-2-ene means pentene with the double bond on the second carbon-carbon bond and so
But wait! What about pent-4-ene and pent-5-ene? Those dont exist. Why? Because pent-4-ene
is pent-2-ene flipped over, and pent-5-ene is pent-1-ene flipped over!
Flip: C-C-C=C-C and you get C-C=C-C-C!

Methyl and Ethyl Groups


Has a branch of
CH3 coming off
one of the bonds.
Has a branch of
CH3CH2 coming
If the hydrocarbon has a methyl or ethyl group, these two come first, before the coding for the
number of carbons in the chain. But before even the methyl or the ethyl there is a number
and hyphen to show which carbon has the methyl or ethyl branch.
For example, this is 2-methylbutane
As you can see, there is a methyl group branching off the second
carbon. The rules are similar to double bonds though, there is no such thing as 3-methylbutane
because that is basically 2-methylbutane flipped over.
But wait! There are five carbons! Why isnt it 2-methylpentane? Because remember, these
names are based on the longest carbon chain in the hydrocarbon and the longest carbon chain
there is 4, hence, butane. This means that 2-methylbutane is an isomer of pentane C5H12.

Some Isomers of Butane C4H10

Some Isomers of Pentane C5H12

Alkanes are a homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons. The first five are methane,
ethane, propane, butane and pentane.
The general formula for alkanes is: CnH2n + 2

For example, ethane:

Ethane has two carbons, so n=2.
The formula of ethane must be C2H2(2) +

= C2H6.

Complete Combustion of Alkanes

If there is enough oxygen, alkanes will burn in oxygen completely to give carbon dioxide and
water. The general equation for combustion:
Hydrocarbon + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water
The combustion of methane would be: CH4(g) + 202(g) C02(g) + 2H20(l)
Note: Balancing combustion equations can be annoying. An easy way would be to balance
them in the order of carbon, hydrogen then oxygen.

Incomplete Combustion
If there isnt enough oxygen, you get incomplete combustion, in which carbon monoxide and
water are produced instead. Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odourless and poisonous gas. It
is dangerous because it can combine to our haemoglobin and stop it from carrying oxygen. As
a result, you get ill or even die because oxygen cannot travel to all parts of your body.

Reaction with Bromine

Alkanes react with bromine under the presence of ultra-violet light. One hydrogen from the
hydrocarbon would be replaced by a bromine atom. This is known as a substitution reaction.
Bromine can be used as an indicator for alkanes and alkenes without UV light. Adding bromine
water to alkanes produces no colour change. Reacting bromine water to alkenes make it turn
from brown to colourless.
However, if the mixture of bromine and methane is reacted under UV light, it loses its colour, a
mixture of bromomethane and hydrogen bromide gases is formed.
CH4(g) + Br2(g) CH3Br (g) + HBr(g)

Alkenes have double bonds, making them unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Alkenes have the general formula of CnH2n the first four being ethene, propene, butene and

Like alkanes, alkenes burn in oxygen or air to give carbon dioxide and water.

Reaction with Bromine

Alkenes undergo addition reactions, in which part of the double bond breaks and is used to join
other atoms onto the two carbon atoms. When added to alkenes, and the test tube is shook,
the brown of the bromine would be decolourised, making it suitable as a test for alkenes.
The product of reacting ethene to bromine gives 1, 2-dibromoethane and is a colourless liquid.
CH2=CH2(g) + Br2(aq) CH2BrCH2Br(l)

What is Needed:

Ethene and steam

60-70 atmospheres
Phosphoric acid catalyst

All alcohols contain an OH group attached to a carbon chain. Ethanol is C2H5OH.

Production of Ethanol
Hydration of Ethene
Ethanol can be made by reacting ethene with steam (because it contains more energy) a
process known as hydration.
CH2=CH2(g) + H2O(g) CH3CH2OH(g)
Only a small portion of ethene reacts. The ethanol is condensed as a liquid and the unreacted
ethene is recycled.
Explaining the Choice of Temperature
Reversible reactions happen in two ways while ethene is being converted into ethanol,
ethanol is also being converted back into ethene. Reversible reactions can also shift the
equilibrium or alter the reaction. Since the reaction is exothermic the reaction produces
lots of heat. If you increase the temperature, the reaction wont like it because it is already
producing heat, therefore, it would adapt to the conditions by making more ethene so less
heat will be produced. On the contrary, if you decrease the temperature, the reaction would
adapt to this by increasing back the temperature; by producing more ethanol in other
words, push the equilibrium to the favourable/forward reaction. However, making the
temperature too low would mean super slow reaction, although more ethanol would be
produced. 300 degrees is therefore, a compromise temperature producing an acceptable yield
of ethanol in a short time.
Explaining High Pressure
In the equation, you have two moles (one mole of ethene and one mole of water) on the left,
and one mole (of ethanol) on the right. Increasing the pressure would mean the equilibrium
would be shifted forwards. Why? The reaction would adapt to the conditions by producing
more ethanol because you only get one mole of ethanol which takes less space than two
moles of ethene and water.
Also, theres the collision theory. Increasing the pressure means that thered be less space for
the atoms to move. The atoms would also move with more force. This increases the frequency
of collisions.

The problem: its expensive and ethene might polymerise and turn into polyethene.
Yeast is added to a sugar or starch solution at 300C for several days in the absence of air for
anaerobic respiration. Enzymes in the yeast lower the activation energy, increasing the rate of
conversion of the sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. However, they first have to break the
sugars into smaller sugars like glucose. In fact, ethanoic acid is produced and then converted
into ethanol.
For example, sucrose:
C12H22O11(aq) + H20 C6H12O6(aq) + C6H12O6(aq)

sucrose + water glucose + fructose

C6H12O6(aq) 2C2H5OH (aq) + 2CO2(g)


glucose/fructose ethanol + carbon

The yeast then gets killed in the mixture, which means that the ethanol produced is impure. To
purify it, the alcohol must undergo fractional distillation.

Comparing the two methods

Use of Resources

Type of Process

Rate of Reaction
Quality of Product
Reaction Conditions

Uses renewable resources sugar
beet or sugar cane, corn and other
starchy materials.
A batch process everything is mixed
and left for several days. It is then
removed and a new reaction is set up
quite inefficient.
Slow, takes several days.
Produces impure ethanol that needs
further processing.
Uses gentle temperatures and
ordinary pressure relying on
anaerobic respiration of yeast.

Uses non-renewable resources once
oil gets used up, theyre screwed.
A continuous flow process a stream
of reactants is constantly passed over
the catalyst more efficient.
Produces much purer ethanol.
Uses high temperatures and
pressures, needing a high input of
energy expensive.

Common Question: Which method would poorer places like Brazil use and why? [3 marks]
Answer: Fermentation, because Brazil has the weather conditions to grow large yields of sugar
cane and they dont have access to crude oil.

Dehydration of Ethanol into Ethene

Dehydration of ethanol produces ethene

and water, using hot aluminium oxide as a catalyst.
CH3CH2OH(g) CH2=CH2(g) + H2O(l)

Crude Oil
Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons. These chains can be super long or super short.

The Trend in Boiling Point and Viscosity

Viscosity means how runny something is

Volatile means how easy it turns into vapour at room temperature

As the number of carbon atoms in molecules increases and gets bigger, intermolecular
attractions also increase, making it more difficult to pull one molecule away from neighbouring
ones. As they get bigger, these changes occur:

Boiling point increases the larger the molecule, the higher the boiling point due to
stronger intermolecular attractions.
Liquids become less volatile the bigger the hydrocarbon, the more slowly it
evaporates in room temperature. This is again, due to strong intermolecular
Liquids become more viscous (flow less easily) Small hydrocarbons are runny, but
large ones are much stickier and gooey (and viscous) because of intermolecular
Bigger hydrocarbons do not burn as easily, meaning they are less useful.

The Fractionating Column

Crude oil is separated in fractionating column. This process is fractional distillation, and splits
crude oil into various fractions depending on their boiling points and size.

Note: forget about Naphtha

Refinery gases



Diesel oil

Fuel oil


A mixture of methane, ethane, propane and butane.

Commonly used for domestic heating and cooking.
Used as fuel for jet aircraft.
As domestic heating oil.
As paraffin for small heaters and lamps.
For buses, lorries, some cars and railway engines.
Some is cracked to produce more petrol.
For ships
Industrial heating
Residue from the bottom which can be used for roads.

Combustion and Incomplete Combustion

Combustion of hydrocarbons produces carbon dioxide and water exothermic.

Incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons produces carbon monoxide and water in
which carbon monoxide is dangerous because it can bind to haemoglobin and prevent
it from carrying oxygen.

In car engines, the temperature reached is high enough to allow nitrogen and oxygen from the
air to react, forming nitrogen oxides. This contributes to smog and causes irritation to human
mucus membranes. As well as that, nitrogen oxides can react with water in the atmosphere
and from nitric acid or acid rain.

The Crude Oil Problem
Amounts of each fraction you get depend on the proportions of various hydrocarbons in the
original crude oil. Far more petrol is needed, than something like bitumen. In other words,
fractional distillation of crude oil produces more long-chain hydrocarbons than can be used
directly, and fewer short-chain hydrocarbons than required.
The solution? Cracking! Cracking is a useful process in which large hydrocarbon molecules are
broken into smaller ones. Most of the hydrocarbons found in crude oil are long-chain alkanes.
Cracking can convert these into alkenes and shorter alkanes. It is an example of thermal

How it Works
What is Needed:

Alumina/Silica as catalyst

The fraction is heated to give a gas and is passed over a catalyst of silica or alumina with a
temperature of 600-700oC.
Long alkane alkene + alkane

Sometimes you may get more than one type of alkene/alkane.

Make sure the numbers of carbon and hydrogen are balanced.

In an equation, this would read:

C4H10 + C2H4

hexane butane + ethene


Alkenes can be used to make polymers. Polymers are big long molecules of single units called
monomers. Molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds can be joined together. Part of
the double bond is broken and used to join to other monomers. Joining up lots of monomers to
make a polymer is called addition polymerisation.

How to Draw a Polymer

Its like drawing a hydrocarbon, except the ends are left blank (so it can join more).
As for the repeating unit (which is the unit that keeps repeating itself), you show the alkene (or
the monomer) with its double bond opened up. You then enclose it with brackets and put an n
to its right.

Polymers to Know

Repeating Unit

How it looks together




Plastic bags
PVC for
drainpipes or

Nylon Condensation Polymer

In condensation polymerisation, when two monomers combine, a small molecule such as water
or hydrogen chloride is lost. Nylon is made through condensation polymerisation.
The two monomers that make up nylon:
Hexanedioic acid

From a family of compounds called dicarboxylic acids.

From a family known as diamines.

Joining them togetherThe lost of a Water Molecule

As a block diagram (where the (CH2)6 and (CH2)4 become blocks to make it look easier)

End Note: Sometimes you may be given ClOCCH2 CH2 CH2 CH2COCl instead of hexanedioic acid.
In this case, just do the same thing, with the lost of hydrogen chloride HCl.

Unit 4: Analytical Chemistry and Kinestics

Tests for Ions and Gases
Flame Tests: Taking a piece of nichrome, make loop at the end and dip into salts
containing ions



Crimson red


Yellow orange



Brick red/orange red

Using Sodium Hydroxide solution


Colour of Precipitate





Sludgy Green (or just green)


Orange Brown (rust)


For Ammonium Ions (NH4+)

Heat gently and add sodium hydroxide solution. It will give off a distinctive smell of ammonia
(NH3). Ammonia can be tested by holding a damp red litmus paper. Since it is alkaline, it will
turn damp red litmus paper from red to blue.

Using Dilute Nitric Acid and Silver Nitrate Solution


Colour of Precipitate




Pale Cream


For Sulphate Ions (SO42-)

Using dilute hydrochloric acid solution and then adding barium chloride solution to form a
white precipitate of barium sulphate.

For Carbonate Ions (CO32-)

Using dilute hydrochloric acid to react with the carbonate, to produce carbon dioxide gas which
can be tested by bubbling through limewater, turning it from colourless to cloudy, milky white.

Tests for Gases





Hold a lit splint in presence of hydrogen

Hold a glowing splint in presence of
oxygen gas.
Bubble through limewater.

Produces a squeaky pop.


Hold damp red litmus paper in ammonia

Hold damp blue litmus paper in chlorine

Solubility Patterns

All nitrates are soluble.

Glowing splint relights.

Turns limewater from colourless to
cloudy, milky white.
Turns damp red litmus paper blue.
Bleaches or turns blue litmus paper

All sodium, potassium and ammonium compounds are soluble.

Most carbonates and hydroxides are insoluble except for sodium, potassium and
All sulphates are soluble except barium and lead(II) sulphate.
All chlorides are soluble except lead(II) and silver chloride.

Reactions of Metals to Acids

Metals react very similarly to dilute hydrochloric acid and dilute sulphuric acid.


Reaction to Acid
Rapid fizzing, mixture gets very hot, colourless magnesium sulphate/chloride
solution forms.
Is slow due to its coat of aluminium oxide which prevents aluminium from
contacting the acid. On heating, this layer is removed, aluminium will start fizzing
rapidly abit like Mg.
Zinc reacts slowly with cold dilute acid and may produce some effervescence. On
heating however, it fizzes more.
Iron also reacts slowly with cold dilute acid and will produce abit of effervescence
when heated.

Combustion of Hydrogen
Bonds are broken in the hydrogen and oxygen molecules. These form new bonds of water
molecules. This reaction is exothermic, and gives out water in the form of steam, before it
condenses into a liquid. The reaction is:
2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l)

Testing for Water

Water turns white anhydrous copper(II) sulphate blue. Its reaction is
CuSO4(s) + 5H2O(l) CuSO45H2O
Or you can use cobalt chloride paper which turns pink in the presence of water.
You can check the purity of water by showing that it freezes at exactly 0C and boils at exactly

Rates of Reactions
Experiment Setup
To measure the effects of changes in surface area, concentration
of solutions, temperature and use of catalyst, you can react calcium carbonate marble chips
with dilute hydrochloric acid and measure the mass of CO 2 produced by weighing the
difference in mass of the reactants and the mass of the products (there wont be any change in
mass produced, because the initial mass of reaction will equal the final mass, however, since
carbon dioxide gas is formed, this will escape from the flask, and therefore, the amount of
mass lost will be the mass of carbon dioxide produced. Plot the results on a graph with mass
against time and youll get an upward curve.

For the reaction to occur, acid particles must collide with the surface of the marble chips. As
the acid particles get used up, the collision rate decreases, so the reaction slows down.

Changes in Surface Area of Solid

You can repeat the above experiment by keeping the same mass of marble chips, just using
smaller ones to increase the surface area. The reaction happens faster. You have to remember
the graphs. Notice however, that in the end, the amount of carbon dioxide produced is still the
same just that the small chips experiment happens faster.
Why does it happen faster? Because the surface area in contact with the gas or liquid is much
greater. Less marble chip particles are hidden away from the acid particles.

Changes in the Concentration of Solutions

Repeat the original experiment but using hydrochloric acid only half as concentrated as before.
The graph should look something like this (ignore the 80% line) in which the reaction
happens slower and produces half as much carbon dioxide gas:
In terms of collision theory, if you increase the concentration of reactants, the reaction
becomes faster because it increases the frequency of collisions per second.

Changes in the Temperature of the Reaction

Do the original experiment again, but this time, at a higher temperature. Your graph will look
like this (ignore the concentration label cause its WRONG unless the lower concentration
solution is still in excess).
Increasing the temperature means more kinetic energy for the particles, which make them
move faster, therefore, making them collide more frequently.
Also, not all collisions make new bonds. Some particles just bounce off each other. In order for
a reaction to happen, particles have to collide with a minimum amount of energy called
activation energy. Increasing the temperature produces a very large increase in the number of
collisions that have enough energy for a reaction to occur.
In the following diagram, a) shows a fail collision and b) shows a successful one.

Changing the Pressure

Changing the pressure of a reaction where the reactants are only solids or liquids makes
virtually no difference, so the graphs remain unchanged. Increasing the pressure in a reaction
where the reactants are gases does speed the reaction up. This is because it forces the
particles closer together, so they hit each other more frequently.

Catalysts and How They Work

Catalysts speed up the rate of reactions but arent used
up in the process. You can show that manganese (VI) oxide is a catalyst by simply having two
conical fasks containing hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to give oxygen
and water. Put the manganese (VI) oxide in one of the flasks. Oxygen would be given off
quickly. To check that the manganese (VI) oxide hasnt been used up, simply filter it out from
the solution and weigh it (remember to weigh it before the experiment too!). The graph should
look like the pressure graph in which the rate of reaction increases, but the amount you get
at the end is still the same.
So how does it work?
Adding a catalyst gives the reaction an alternative route for reactions with a lower activation

Unit 5: Quantitative Chemistry and Energetics

A mole is a measure of the amount of substance. One mole contains 6 x 1023 (also known as
the Avogadro Number) particles (atoms, molecules or formulae) of the substance. For example,
1 mol of sodium contains 6 x 1023 atoms of sodium.

Calculating Relative Atomic Mass

Chlorine has two isotopes: chlorine-35 and chlorine-37. A typical sample will be 75% chlorine35 and 25% chlorine-37.
The RAM = (0.75 x 35) + (0.25 x 37) = 35.5g

Calculating Relative Formula Mass


(1 x Ca) + (2 x O) + (2 x
Straightforward stuff.

40 + (2 x 16) + (2 x 1) =

Amount in moles = Mass of Substance (g) /RFM of Element or Compound (g)

Calculations using moles:
The equation for sodium chloride is:

2Na + Cl2 2NaCl

If 2.3g of Na was used:

Find out how many moles of Chlorine was used

Find out the volume of Chlorine used in the reaction
Find out the mass of sodium chloride produced

Firstly, convert the grams of Na into moles:

2.3 / 23g = 0.1 mol

The equation says that 2 moles of Na and 1 mole of Cl (1 mole of a diatomic molecule is
always X2) is needed to produce 2 moles of NaCl, so if 0.1 mol of Na is used, then half of that is
the amount of chlorine used in the reaction in moles.
So moles of Cl used = 0.1 / 2 = 0.05 mol

One mole of any gas has a volume of 24 dm3 (24000cm3) at room temperature and
pressure. This is also called the molar volume.

Cl2 is a gas and the moles used in the reaction = 0.05 mol
So the volume of Cl2 gas used = 0.05 x 24000 = 1200cm3

The moles of NaCl produced is 0.1 mol (if 2 moles of Na gives 2 moles of NaCl, then 0.1
mole of Na will give 0.1 mole of NaCl). So all you do is:
Find the RFM of NaCl (58.5)
Multiply that by 0.1 (5.85g)

Molar Concentrations The Hard Part

Remember that:

Mol/dm3 means moles per litre (e.g. a salt solution of 0.5 mol/dm 3 means 0.5 moles (or
58.5/2 = 29.25g) of salt was dissolved in a litre of water
Its all about proportion

20 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide solution was dissolved with 25cm 3 of hydrochloric acid
to form a sodium chloride solution. Calculate the concentration of HCl needed to react with the
NaOH + HCl H2O + NaCl
RFM of NaOH = 40g = 1 mole of NaOH
0.5 mol dm3 of NaOH means (40 x 0.5) 20g of NaOH was dissolved in 1000cm 3 of water
The amount of moles in 20cm3 of NaOH solution:
20cm3/1000cm3 x 0.5 moles = 1/50 x 0.5 = 0.01 moles of NaOH
The equation says that 1 mole of NaOH + 1 mole of HCl gives 1 mole of NaCl
So 0.01 moles of NaOH + 0.01 moles of HCl gives 0.01 moles of NaCl
So 0.01 moles of HCl was present in 25cm3 of HCl solution! However, concentration is
measured in mol dm3 so:
1000cm3/25cm3 x 0.01 mol = 0.4 mol dm3 of HCl used.

Number of moles
Ratio of Moles



Calculating the Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula

The empirical formula is the simplest formula and only tells you the ratio of the various atoms.
Suppose 2.4g of magnesium combined with 1.6g of oxygen, you can use a table to work out
the empirical formula. (Mg = 24 O = 16)

Number of moles
Ratio of Moles



What about with percentage figures?

Suppose you had a compound containing 85.7% C, 14.3% H and you were asked to calculate
the empirical formula. Firstly, you assume that 100% = 100g! (C = 12 H = 1)

However, you know that CH2 does not exist. Remember this is only the ratio. To find the
molecular formulae, you need to know the relative formula mass of the compound. Suppose it
was 56g for the above question.
Firstly, find out the RFM of CH2 = 12 + 2 = 14g
Find out how many times 14 goes into 56, so 56/14 = 4 times
Which means the molecular formula is C4H8!

Obtaining Formulae Experimentally

Metal Oxides
Hydrogen can be passed over metal oxides to reduce it to the metal. To find the formula of
copper oxide, the experimental steps are as follows:

Measure the mass of the empty combustion tube.

Use a spatula to put copper oxide into the tube. Weigh the tube.
Set up the apparatus as shown. Turn the gas at the jet to light the excess gas.
Heat the copper oxide until it has all turned into red copper.
Stop heating but leave gas passing through until everything has cooled.
Weigh the combustion tube.
Put masses in a table and calculate empirical formula from there.

Mass of Empty Tube

Mass of tube + Copper Oxide
Mass of tube + Copper
Mass of Oxygen
Mass of Copper

66.6 65.0 = 1.6g
65.0 52.2 =

Number of
Ratio of Moles







In the Case of Water of Crystallisation

When substances crystallise from a solution, water becomes chemically bounded with the salt.
This is called water of crystallisation and the salt is said to be hydrated.
Suppose you had to find the formula of a BaCl2nH2O (a barium chloride crystal), to find n:

Weight the mass of an empty crucible.

Add barium chloride crystals and reweigh.
Heat the crucible gently (so the barium chloride wont decompose), and reweigh.
Put masses into a table and calculate the formula from there.

Mass of Empty Crucible

Mass of tube + Crystals (Before)
Mass of tube + Anhydrous
Crystals (After)
Mass of BaCl2
Mass of Water
Number of
Ratio of Moles

Calculating Percentage Yield

Most of the time, when you do carry out a chemical reaction, you get less than you expect. The
rest of it has been lost in some way perhaps due to spillages or losses when chemicals are
Suppose you work out that 10g of A will give 500g of the product, but you only get 400g?
The percentage yield is (400/500) x 100 = 80%
A general formula would be: (mass produced/expected mass to be produced) x 100



Heat energy is
taken in
Breaking of
Heat energy is
given out
Making of

H = + N kJ mol-1

H = - N kJ mol-1

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions

H represents the molar enthalpy change for exothermic and endothermic reactions

Energy Calculations
The general formula:
Bonds of all the reactants Bonds of all the products = Energy change
Example: Methane reacts with chlorine to produce chloromethane and hydrogen chloride. The
CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl


C - Cl

H - Cl

Cl Cl

Energy (kJ mol

You would be given a table with the bonds and the energy required to break/bond them:
4 C H bonds (CH4) = 4 x 413 = 1652kJ
1 Cl Cl bond (Cl2) = 1 x 243 = 243 kJ Total: 1652 + 243 = 1895 kJ
3 C H bonds = 3 x 413 = 1236 kJ
1 C Cl bond = 1 x 346 = 346 kJ
1 H Cl (HCl) = 1 x 432 = 432 kJ

Total: 2017 kJ

(Carbon can form 4 bonds. In this case, 3 of them bonds with 3 hydrogen and the last one
bonds with chlorine)
Energy Change = 1895 2017 = -122 kJ

the reaction is exothermic

Describing Simple Calorimetry Experiments

All these involve measuring a temperature change during the reaction.

Specific heat is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1g of a
substance by 10C. For water, the value is 4.18 J g-1 0C-1 (joules per gram per degree

Heat Given Out = Mass x Specific Heat x Temperature Rise

For Neutralisation, Displacement Reactions and Dissolving

Mass of Weighing Bottle + Mg (g)
Mass of Weighing Bottle Afterwards (empty)
Mass of Mg used (g)
Initial Temp. (0C)
Final Temp. ( C)
Temperature Rise (0C)
They all follow the same method. This example involves measuring the heat evolved (or
energy) when magnesium reacts with dilute sulphuric acid.

Pour an excess of sulphuric acid into a polystyrene cup and measure the temperature
of the acid.
Pour some magnesium powder into a weighing bottle and weight it.
Pour the powder into the acid and record the highest temperature.
Weigh the empty weighing bottle.

Lets say the total mass of the solution and Mg is 50g

Heat evolved when 0.123g of Mg reacts = 50 x 4.18 x 10.1J = 2111J = 2.111kJ
To find out the heat evolved when 1 mole of Mg reacts (Mg = 24g):
(2.111/0.123g) x 24 = 412 kJ
The temperature rose, meaning the reaction is exothermic so:
Mg(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)

H = -412 kJ mol-1

This is actually smaller than the accepted value, which is around -417 kJ mol -1. A reason for this
could be that heat was lost too quickly. Using a mercury thermometer may give better results.


Put 100cm3 of water into a conical flask and record the temperature.
Fill the spirit burner with alcohol (lets say ethanol) and weight.
Light the spirit burner and record the temperature of water until there is say, a 40 0C
Reweigh the spirit burner.

Volume of water (cm3)

Mass of water being heated (g)
Mass of burner before (g)
Mass of burner after (g)


Mass of ethanol burnt (g)

Original temp. of water (0C)
Final temp. of water (0C)
Water temperature increase (0C)


Heat gained = 100 x 4.18 x 41.3 = 17260 J = 17.26 kJ

Ethanol is C2H5OH
One mole of ethanol = 46g
Amount of heat produced from 1 mole of ethanol = (17.26/0.780) x 46 = 1020 kJ


1 mole is the Avogadro constant number of particles

The molar volume is 24 dm3 or 24 000 cm3
Number of moles = mass / RFM
1 dm3 = 1000 cm3
Mol dm-3 = mol per 1000 cm3
G dm-3 = grams per 1000 cm3
Energy/Heat = mass x specific heat x temperature rise

Unit 6: Chemistry in Society

RECAP! Electrolysis is a chemical change caused by passing an electric current through a
compound which is either molten or in solution. An electric current (in chemistry terms), is a
flow of electrons or ions. An electrolyte is a substance that undergoes electrolysis. Electrolytes
all contain ions. Ionic compounds, for example, are electrolytes. Electrolytes can only undergo
electrolysis when molten or in a solution, where the ions are free to move. Covalent
compounds are not electrolytes because they dont contain ions.
Electrolysis can form new substances when ionic compounds conduct electricity. It is set up as

The electrodes are usually made of carbon because it is fairly un-reactive.

The positive electrode is called the anode.
The negative electrode is called the cathode.

A simple example of electrolysis involves molten (melted) lead (II) bromide:

So what happens?
Molten lead is found at the bottom of the cathode.
Bromine gas comes out of the anode.
When the power supply is switched off, no more bubbles are produced and everything else
What the hell happened?

Since the lead (II) bromide

(PbBr2) is molten, its ions are free to move around.

The bromide ions are attracted to the positive electrode. The extra electron which
makes the bromide ion negatively charged is deposited into the anode, thus, turning
them back into neutral bromine atoms. These then covalently bond to join bromine
atoms (i.e. bromine gas).

On the other hand, the lead ions gain back to electrons (it has a 2 + charge) and
become normal lead atoms. These fall to the bottom of the container as molten lead.
The half-equation at the anode would be:

2Br- Br2 + 2eWhat it basically means is that, two bromine ions are formed when one bromine molecule
receives two electrons (to fill its shell). This is the format for all anions (ions that are negatively

The half equation at the cathode would be:

Pb2+ + 2e- Pb
All cation half-equations are of this form. Half-equations basically show the gaining and losing
of electrons. This basically means that the lead (II) ions get two electrons to become a neutral
lead atom.
With molten substances, the metal will be produced at the cathode and whatever its bonded
to will be produced at the anode.
When you electrolyse aqueous solutions (not
molten salts), things are much different because you have to consider the water molecules too.
Water is a weak electrolyte but it can ionise to form hydrogen and hydroxide ions.

If the metal is more reactive than hydrogen, then hydrogen ions from water is
discharged instead. These pair up to form hydrogen gas that escapes as bubbles.

If the metal is below hydrogen, you get the metal produced.

If you have solutions of halides (chlorides, bromides or iodides), you get the halogen
(chlorine, bromine or iodine) produced.

With other negative ions such as sulphates, oxygen would be produced.

The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine) does not give sodium and chlorine! Heres
the electrolysis:

Sodium is higher than hydrogen in the reactivity series, so hydrogen ions from the
water in the sodium chloride solution is discharged instead at the cathode.
2H+ + 2e- H2

Chloride ions give up one electron each (chloride ion = 1- charge) and become chlorine
atoms. These covalently bond to form chlorine gas and bubbles out of the solution at
the anode.

2Cl- Cl2 + 2e

When all the chlorine has been removed from the solution, only hydroxide (OH -) ions
and sodium (Na+) ions are left, as well as some water. These combine to form sodium
hydroxide solution (NaOH).

The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution is used to manufacture sodium hydroxide solution.
The process is slightly different it is electrolysed in a diaphragm cell:
The products are kept separated by the diaphragm.
If the chlorine produced were to react to hydrogen, it would cause an explosion on exposure to
sunlight or heat to give hydrogen chloride. Furthermore, if the chlorine were to react with the
sodium hydroxide solution formed, it would form bleach. Uses of sodium hydroxide include:

Making bleach
Making soap
Making paper NaOH breaks the wood down
Uses of chlorine include:

Sterilising water
Making hydrochloric acid
Making bleach
And the electrolysis of copper sulphate solution:

Copper is lower than hydrogen and therefore, a coat of it forms at the cathode.
Cu2+ + 2e- Cu

Oxygen gas is discharged from the hydroxide ions in the water because the sulphate
ions are more stable.

4OH- 2H2O + O2 + 4eIf you electrolyse the solution for longer, something else happens. The hydrogen ions are being

discharged and remains in the solution. Similarly, sulphate ions are being discharged either. As
a result, the solution turns into sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and it begins electrolysing:

Sulphate ions are being discharged from the acid so oxygen is discharged from the
hydroxide ions instead.
4OH- 2H2O + O2 + 4e-

There are only hydrogen ions arriving at the cathode so they discharge as hydrogen
2H++ 2e- H2

Common Exam Question: Why is twice as much hydrogen produced than oxygen? For every
four electrons that flow around the circuit, one molecule of oxygen and two molecules of
hydrogen are produced.

Electrolysis Calculations
Back to moles! Here are some things to know:

One faraday means one mole of electrons passing around the circuit.
One faraday = 96000 coulombs.
Charge (coulombs) = Current (amps) x Time (seconds)

Example: What mass of copper is deposited on the cathode during the electrolysis of copper
(II) sulphate solution if 0.15A flows for 10mins?
The electrode equation is:
Cu2+ + 2e- Cu
Calculate the coulombs involved:
10mins x 60 = 600 seconds
Charge = 0.15 x 600 = 90 coulombs
The equation says that 1 mole of copper ions + 2 moles of electrons give 1 mole of copper
1 mole of electrons = 96000 coulombs
2 moles of electrons = 192 000 coulombs
2 moles of electrons (192 000 coulombs) give 1 mole of copper (RFM = 64g), so 90 coulombs
(90/192 000)

x 64g = 0.03g

(Coulombs worked out/coulombs of electrons) x RFM of element = Mass of element deposited

When involving gases
Example: During the electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid, hydrogen is released at the cathode

and oxygen at the anode. Calculate the volumes of hydrogen and oxygen produced if 1.0A
flows for 20mins
The electrode equations are:
2H++ 2e- H2
4OH- 2H2O + O2 + 4eAssume the molar volume of gas to be 24000 cm3
For hydrogen:
2H++ 2e- H2
2 hydrogen ions + 2 moles of electrons give 1 mole of hydrogen molecule
20mins x 60 = 1200 seconds
1200 x 1A = 1200 coulombs
2 x 96 000 coulombs (2 moles of electrons) = 192 000 coulombs
1 mole of hydrogen gas = 24000 cm3
192 000 coulombs give 1 mole of hydrogen gas (or 24000 cm 3 of hydrogen gas)
So 1200 coulombs give: (1200/192 000)
x 24000 = 150 cm3 of hydrogen produced
For oxygen:
4OH- 2H2O + O2 + 4e20mins x 60 = 1200 seconds
1200 x 1A = 1200 coulombs
4 moles of hydroxide ions give 2 moles of water + 1 mole of oxygen gas + 4 moles of electrons
(4 x 96000 = 384 000 coulombs)
1 mole of oxygen gas = 24000 cm3
384 000 coulombs give 1 mole of oxygen gas (or 24000 cm 3 of oxygen gas)
So 1200 coulombs give: (1200/384 000)
x 24000 = 75 cm3 of oxygen produced
The equation:
(Calculated coulombs/moles of electrons) x (mole of gas x 24000) = amount of gas produced in

Reversible Reactions and Dynamic Equilibria

Some reactions are reversible. Reversible reactions are indicated by the symbol
Some examples of reversible reactions include:

Copper (II) Sulphate Crystals

Heating the blue hydrated copper (II) sulphate crystals causes them to lose their water of
crystallisation, making them turn from blue to white the white copper (II) sulphate crystals
are described as anhydrous meaning without water:
CuSO45H2O CuSO4 + 5H2O
However, this reaction can be reversed by simply adding water to the crystals. The crystals will
become hydrated again:
CuSO4 + 5H2O CuSO45H2O

Heating Ammonium Chloride

When ammonium chloride is heated in a test tube, the white crystals decompose into
hydrogen chloride gas and ammonia gas. These flow upwards and recombine again further up
the test tube:
NH4Cl HCl + NH3
This later recombines:
HCl + NH3 NH4Cl

Introducing Dynamic Equilibria

Things change when reversible reactions are carried out under closed conditions meaning
no substances are added to the reaction mixture and no substances can escape from it. Heat
however, can be given off or absorbed.
In a reversible reaction, you have the forward reaction (the reaction going from left to right)
and the back reaction (the opposite of the forward reaction) happening at the same time. Both
rates of reactions will become equal and this point is the dynamic equilibrium. It is dynamic in
a sense that the reactions are still continuing, and equilibrium in a sense that the total
amounts of the various things present are now constant. In other words:
A + 2B


When you have a reaction like the above, A + 2B (forward reaction) is reacting to produce C +
D (back reaction). At the same time, C + D is reacting to produce A +2B. In the end, you have
equal amounts of products and reactants. Another way to think of is, is to imagining walking
down an elevator that goes up, making sure youre walking at the same speed as the elevator.
You would be going down, but everytime you take one step down, the elevator goes one step
up. In the end, you remain where you are.
So how would you produce more of substance C in a reversible reaction such as the above? You
can do this by altering the position of the equilibrium by either:

Changing the pressure

Changing the temperature
Increasing/Decreasing the concentrations of substances present
Adding a catalyst

If a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the conditions, the reaction moves to

counteract the change.
In other words, the reaction will either go more towards the forward direction or the back
direction in an attempt to adapt to the conditions.
A + 2B


Changing the Concentration

What happens when more of A is added? If you add more A, the reaction will want to remove it.
This can only be done by reacting more A to 2B, and in the end, this gives us more C and D.
The conditions, in this case, favour the forward reaction.

Changing the Pressure

When you increase the pressure, you bring molecules closer together. Increasing the pressure
will always help the reaction go in the direction which produces the smaller number of
molecules. In this case, we have 3 molecules on the left (one A and 2 Bs), whereas, we only
have 2 molecules on the right (one C and one D). The reaction can only reduce the pressure by
producing few molecules. This can only be done by producing more C and D.

Changing the Temperature

Suppose the forward reaction was exothermic
A + 2B


H = -100 kJ mol -1

This would mean that the back reaction would be endothermic by the same amount (-100 kJ
Suppose the temperature was decreased, the reaction would respond by increasing the
temperature back up again. This can only be done by producing more C and D because the
forward reaction is exothermic. Increasing the temperature will of course, have the opposite

Adding a Catalyst
Adding a catalyst speeds up the forward and back reactions by the same proportion. This
means that there is no change in the position of the equilibrium.

Methods of Extraction
The extraction of metals depend alot on its position in the reactivity series. Costs are also
factors to take into account. For metals up to zinc, the cheapest method is usually heating the
ore with carbon or carbon monoxide to reduce it. For metals more reactive than zinc,
electrolysis is usually used.

The Extraction of Aluminium

Aluminium is extracted from an ore called bauxite, which is impure aluminium oxide.
Aluminium ions are attracted to the cathode and are reduced to aluminium:
Al3+ + 3e- Al
Oxide ions are attracted to the anode and lose electrons to form oxygen gas:
2O2- O2 + 4e-

There are a few things to keep in mind:

Melting aluminium oxide requires extremely high temperatures. Instead, it is dissolved

in an aluminium compound called cryolite.

Because of high temperatures, the carbon anodes will burn with oxygen to form carbon
dioxide. This means the anodes have to be replaced regularly.

The cost of electricity is also a major factor the cell has currents up to 100 000A so it
is expensive.

Uses of aluminium include:

To make aircraft carriers


The Iron Blast Furnace

Property of Aluminium That Makes This Useful

Resists corrosion due to its aluminium oxide coat
Has low density
Aluminium has a shiny appearance
It is a good conductor of heat
It resists corrosion
It has a low density

Iron is extracted from an ore that contains iron (III) oxide called haematite.
Coke is impure carbon. It burns to form carbon dioxide. This is a strongly exothermic reaction.
C + O2 CO2
At high temperatures, the carbon dioxide is reduced by more carbon to give carbon monoxide.

C + CO2 2CO
Carbon monoxide is the main reducing agent:
Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2
Carbon may also reduce the iron (III) oxide:
Fe2O3 + 3C 2Fe + 3CO
The heat of the furnace causes the limestone to thermally decompose to form calcium oxide
and carbon dioxide:
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
The calcium oxide reacts with silicon dioxide (one of the impurities found in haematite) to form
calcium silicate, which melts and trickles to the bottom of the furnace as molten slag:
SiO2 + CaO CaSiO3

Types of Iron
Wrought Iron
Mild Steel
High Carbon Steel
Cast Iron
Stainless Steel

Uses of Iron (you dont really need to learn this)

Iron Mixed With
Some Uses
Pure Iron
Decorative work such as gates and
0.25% Carbon
Nails, car bodies, ship building
0.25 1.5% Carbon
Cutting tools
About 4% Carbon
Manhole covers, guttering, engine
Chromium and Nickel
Cutlery, cooking utensils

Preventing the Rusting of Iron (in which iron oxidises into iron oxide Fe2O3)
Using Barriers
Keep water/oxygen away from the iron by painting, coating with oiletc.
Alloying the Iron
Such as allowing it with chromium and nickel to produce stainless steel
Using Sacrificial
Galvanising iron by coating it with a layer of zinc. Zinc is more reactive than
iron and will corrode instead. During the process it loses electrons to form
ions. These electrons flow into the iron so any iron atom which has lost
electrons immediately regains them. These means even if the zinc is
scratched, the iron wont rust.

The Haber

The Haber process is used to make ammonia NH3
Uses of ammonia include:

Making fertilisers
Making nitric acid
Making nylon

The equation for the reaction is:

N2 + 3H2


H = -92 kJ mol-1

The forward reaction would be favoured by a low temperature because the forward
reaction is exothermic (so lowering the temperature would cause the reaction to make
more NH3 to heat things up abit more). 450C isnt a low temperature. It is however, a
compromise temperature, because if the temperature was made to be low, the
reaction would be so slow that it would take a very long time to produce much
Pressure is also another compromised. Because the forward reaction has less
molecules than the back reaction (2 molecules of NH3 as opposed to 1 N2 and 3 H2
molecules), the forward reaction would be favoured by a high pressure. 200 atm is
high, but anything higher would be extremely expensive.
The iron catalyst speeds the reaction up but has no effect on the equilibrium. However,
if the catalyst wasnt used, the reaction would be too slow.

The Contact Process

Burn sulphur in air to form sulphur dioxide SO2

S + O2 SO2

Use an excess of air to react sulphur dioxide to more oxygen to form sulphur trioxide
2SO2 + O2


H = -196 kJ mol-1

Reacting sulphur trioxide with water will give an uncontrollable fog of concentrated
sulphuric acid. Instead, sulphur trioxide is absorbed in concentrated sulphuric acid to
give fuming sulphuric acid (oleum):
SO3 + H2SO4 H2S2O7

This is converted into twice as much concentrated sulphuric acid by careful addition of
H2S2O7 + H2O 2H2SO4

The reversible reaction here is:

2SO2 + O2


H = -196 kJ mol-1

Because the forward reaction is exothermic, a low temperature has to be used. Again,
if a low temperature is used, the rate of reaction would be too slow, so 450C is a

As for the pressure, a low pressure is needed because the forward reaction contains
fewer molecules than the back reaction.

The catalyst, vanadium (V) oxide (V2O5) speeds up the rate of reaction but has no
effect on the equilibrium. Again, without a catalyst, the rate of reaction would be
extremely slow.

Uses of sulphuric acid include:

Making fertilisers including ammonium sulphate and other substances

Detergents including hand soaps and shampoos

Paint Manufacture used to extract titanium dioxide from titanium ores

A Few Extra Bits and Pieces

Methyl orange

colourless in
red in acid

pink in alkali
yellow in alkali

Indicator Solutions
Note: Methyl orange is orange in neutral solutions, however, these two indicator solutions are
both yes no indicators meaning, if there is a reaction, the methyl orange (for example) would
turn from red to yellow (or vice versa depending on whether the solution it has been dropped
into is acidic or alkaline). It will not turn orange.

The acidity or alkalinity of something is measured in pH. Universal indicator cam be used to
measure the approximate pH of a solution.

Acids are sources of H+ ions

Alkalis are sources of OH- ions

for more info, go to page 10

Reactions Between Metals, Metal Compounds and Acids

Basic things to know:

Hydrochloric acid reacts with metals and metal compounds to form a metal chloride
Sulphuric acid reacts with metals and metal compounds to form a metal sulphate

And some equations:

Metal + Acid Salt + Hydrogen
Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2
Mg + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2
Metal Oxide + Acid Salt + Water
MgO + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2O
MgO + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2O
Metal Carbonate + Acid Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

MgCO3 + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2O + CO2

Mg CO3 + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2O + CO2

Preparing Soluble Salts Using Titration

The exact amount of acid needed to neutralise an alkali can be found
by titration. This technique can be used to make pure crystals of a soluble salt (one
that dissolves in water).
In the example below, an acid and an alkali react to make sodium chloride.

The burette is filled with hydrochloric acid.

A known quantity of alkali (say 50 cm3 sodium hydroxide) is released from

a pipette into the conical flask. The tap on the burette is turned open to allow
the acid to be added drop by drop into the alkali.

The alkali contains an indicator (phenolphthalein).

When enough acid has been added to neutralise the alkali, the
indicator changes from pink to colourless. This is the end point of the titration.

The titration can be repeated using the same amounts of acid and alkali
but without the indicator.

Pure salt crystals which are free from indicator can then be crystallised from
the neutral solution.

Precipitation Reactions
The process of making a solid come from a solution is called precipitation. The solid itself is
called a precipitate. An insoluble salt (one that doesn't dissolve) can be made by reacting the
appropriate soluble salt with an 1acid or alkali or another salt.


aqueous solution
(dissolved in water)
You are normally asked to prepare a solid from two soluble solutions so know your solubility

All nitrates are soluble.

All sodium, potassium and ammonium compounds are soluble.
Most carbonates and hydroxides are insoluble except for sodium, potassium and
All sulphates are soluble except barium and lead(II) sulphate.
All chlorides are soluble except lead(II) and silver chloride.

Example: Prepare Silver Chloride

Youll need:

A soluble silver salt what about silver nitrate?

A soluble chloride like magnesium chloride?

You can make it up really. So the equation:

AgNO3 (aq) + MgCl2(aq) AgCl(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq)

The Reactivity Series

Metals are arranged based on their reactions in the reactivity series.

They can be deduced by using displacement reactions, in which a less reactive metal is pushed
out of its compound by a more reactive metal. For example, the reaction between magnesium
and copper (II) oxide:
Mg + CuO MgO + Cu
Displacement reactions are examples of redox reactions, in which oxidation and reduction
occurs in the same reaction.
The reducing agent is a substance that reduces something else. In this case, its magnesium.
The oxidising agent is a substance that oxidises something else. In this case, its copper.
Remember OILRIG: Oxidation is gain (of electrons); Reduction is loss (of electrons)
Lets look at this in terms of an ionic equation:
Mg + Cu2+ + O2- Mg2+ + O2- + Cu
This basically looks at what turns into ions and what does not. The magnesium turns into a
positive ion because it loses two electrons to bond with oxygen. The copper ion, because its
displaced, regains the two electrons it lost to the oxygen.
Notice in this equation, the oxygen ion does not change? It remains an ion. In this case, the
oxygen ion is the spectator ion. Spectator ions arent included in the ionic equation, so the
proper ionic equation of this displacement reaction should be:
Mg + Cu2+ Mg2+ + Cu
As mentioned earlier, the magnesium loses two electrons to bond with oxygen and copper
gains two electrons. This can be written as half-equations:
Mg Mg2+ + 2eCu2+ + 2e- Cu
Reactions with substances are different depending on its reactivity:
Sodium, Lithium

Reaction with Water

Very vigorous, produces hydroxides and
hydrogen gas

Reaction with Dilute Acids

Too reactive to add safely to acids


Zinc or Iron
Anything Below

Reacts gently and produces the same

products as above
Reacts with steam to produce magnesium
oxide and hydrogen
Reacts slowly and forms an oxide and
No reaction

Rusting of Iron

Can be added to very dilute acids

but its going to be violent!
Reacts vigorously strongly
exothermic forms a salt and
Reacts slowly
No reaction

This requires two things:


Using Barriers
Alloying the Iron
Using Sacrificial

the Rusting of Iron (in which iron oxidises into iron oxide Fe2O3)
Keep water/oxygen away from the iron by painting, coating with oiletc.
Such as allowing it with chromium and nickel to produce stainless steel
Galvanising iron by coating it with a layer of zinc. Zinc is more reactive than
iron and will corrode instead. During the process it loses electrons to form
ions. These electrons flow into the iron so any iron atom which has lost
electrons immediately regains them. These means even if the zinc is
scratched, the iron wont rust.

More on sacrificial anodes if the iron has already rusted, it can still be displaced by the more
reactive zinc:
Fe2O3 + 3Zn 2Fe + 3ZnO
And this is the end.
Good luck!