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ARC WELDING

ELECTRODE
NAFFAA. AL-ANEZI
MECHANICAL INSPECTOR
OCTOBER 30,2005

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ARC WELDING ELECTRODES

CONTENTS OF PRESENTATION
HISTORY OF ARC WELDING COATED
ELECTRODE
WHAT IS AN ELECTRODE ?
SIZE OF ELECRODE
TYPES OF ELECTRODES
COATING OF ELECTRODES
TYPES OF ELECTRODE COATING
STORAGE AND DRYING OF
ELECTRODES
TESTING OF ELECTRODES

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HISTORY OF ARC WELDING COATED


ELECTRODE
During first stage of work with metal arc
welding a bare electrode was in use which
was producing brittleness in the welded
area and the weld was considerably weak.
overheating
effect on weld metal was
noticed as there was no arc stability.
To overcome these difficulties researchers
developed a number of electrodes in 1907
that were covered with organic or mineral
materials which is known as coating or
flux.
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WHAT IS AN ELECTRODE ?
The electrode may be defined as it is metal of
which the sole purpose to carry the current and
sustain the electric arc between its tip and base
metal as well as in some cases it melts and
supplies filler metal addition in the proposed
joint.
Electrode can
be divided into two groups
ELECTRODE
depending upon their functions which are given
below.
COSUMABLE

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NON CONSUMABLE

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CONSUMABLE AND NONCONSUMABLE


The

consumable electrodes refers to


conduct current from electrode holder
to metal and supply filler metal to the
joint, like in SMAW.

non-consumable

electrodes are only


used to work as conductor carrying
the current from electrode holder to
base metal, like in GMAW
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SIZE OF ELECTRODE
THE SIZE OF ELECTRODE REFERS TO THE DIAMETER OF ITS
CORE WIRE. THE SIZE IS AVAILABLE IN METRIC AS WELL AS IN
ENGLISH SYSTEM. LIKE 1/8, 3/32 AND 2 MM , 4 MM ETC.
FLUX OR COVERING
d

STRIKING
END

CORE

BARE END FOR GRIPPING

D = COVERING DIA , d= CORE DIA


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TYPES OF ELECTRODE
Arc welding electrodes are classified
in groups by American Welding
Society (AWS a5.1-91) based upon
their type of coating, mechanical
properties
and
performance
characteristics as well as weld metal
chemistry. for our discussion we can
categorize the electrode as under .
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ELECTRODES TYPES
ELECTRODE

BASED UPON MATERIALS

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BASED UPON COATING

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BASED UPON MATERIALS

MILD STEEL ELECTRODES (AWS A5.1)


LOW ALLOY STEEL ELECTRODES (AWS A5.5)
STAINLESS STEEL ELECTRODES (AWS A5.4)
ELECTRODES FOR CAST IRON (AWS A5.15)

COPPER AND COPPER ALLOY ELECTRODE (AWSA5.6)


NICKEL AND NICKEL ALLOY ELECTRODE
(AWS A5.11)
ALUMINIUM AND ALUMINIUM ALLOY ELECTRODE
(AWS A5.3)
ONLY FIRST THREE OF THE ABOVE WILL BE
DISCUSSED.
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MILD STEEL ELECTRODES


AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY SPECIFICATION
AWS 5.1 DESCRIBES THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
MILD STEEL ELECTRODES. AN IDENTIFICATION
SYSTEM HAS ADOPTED IN ORDER TO KNOW THE
PROPERTIES
AND
CHEMISTRY
OF
THE
ELECTRODE.
THE
IDENTIFICATION
HAS
EXPLAINED AS UNDER.

EXXXX
E DESIGNATES FOR ELECTRODE
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EXXXX

FIRST TWO NUMBERS


REFER TO TENSILE STRENGTH OF
THE DEPOSITED WELD METAL.
FOR EXAMPLE : E6010
60 MEANS 60, 000 PSI TENSILE
STRENGTH OF THE
DEPOSITED WELD
METAL.

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EXX X X THIRD NUMBER IS DENOTING


THE POSITION IN WHICH THE
ELECTRODE CAN BE USED.
EXAMPLE:
1 FOR ALL POSTION (F, V,OH,H)
2 FOR FLAT AND H-FILLET POSITION.
3 HAS NO DESIGNATION
4 FOR F, OH, H AND V-DOWN BUT
MOSTLY SUITABLE FOR V-DOWN ONLY.

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EXXXX

LAST NUMBER REFERS TO


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
PRESENT IN THE ELECTRODE
COATING. FOR EXAMPLE :
0
CELLULOSE- SODIUM
1
CELLULOSE- POTASSIUM
2
RUTILE SODIUM
3
RUTILE POTASSIUM
4
RUTILE IRON POWDER
5,6,8 LOW HYDROGEN
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EXXXX The last two numbers together


indicate the type of welding current the
electrode can be used with.
For example
EXX10
DC+
EXX11
AC OR DC+ EXX20
AC , DC +,EXX12
AC OR DC- EXX24
AC , DC +,EXX13
AC , DC+,- EXX27
AC, DC +,EXX14
AC , DC+,- EXX28
AC, DC +
EXX15
DC+
EXX16
AC , DC+
EXX18
AC , DC+

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LOW ALLOY STEEL ELECTRODE


THESE ELECTRODES ARE DESIGNED FOR THE
WELDING OF LOW-ALLOY STEELS COMMONLY USED
IN STRUCTURES, PIPING, PRESSURE VESSEL.
THEY GIVE WELD DEPOSITS OF STEEL CONTAINING
A SMALL AMOUNT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS SUCH AS
Mo, Cr, Ni, AND V. THESE ELECTRODES ARE
SPECIFIED IN AWS A5.5 SPECIFICATION AND
IDENTIFICATION IS SAME AS FOR MILD STEEL
ELECTRODES.THE ELECTRODES HAS A SUFFIX TO
REFER AS LOW ALLOY STEEL CONTENT. LIKE
A1
0.5 Mo, B3 1.0% Mo,2.25%Mn , G
0.2% Mo,
0.3%Mn, 0.1% V
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STAINLESS STEEL ELECTRODES


STAINLESS STEEL ELECTRODES ARE USED FOR
THE WELDING OF CORROSION RESISTING AND
HEAT- RESISTING STEELS. THEY ARE EXPLIANED
IN AWS A5.4 SPECIFICATION FOR CORROSION
RESISTING Cr AND Cr-Ni STEEL COVERED
ELECTRODES.
SOME SS ELECTRODES HAVE GIVEN WITH THEIR
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES IN THE FOLLOWING
TABLE.

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Mechanical Properties As Per AWS A5.4


AWS
Classificatio
n

E209
E308L
E309L
E316
E316H
E316L
E317
E318
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Tensile
Strength
Ksi

Elongation
in 2 Min
%

Heat Treatment

100
75
80
75
75
70
80
80

15
35
30
30
30
30
30
30

None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None

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BASED UPON COATING


CELLULOS

TYPE
RUTILE TYPE
ACID TYPE
OXIDIZING TYPE
BASIC TYPE

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CELLULOS TYPE
THE CELLULOSE IS A ORGANIC MATERIAL
WHICH CONTAIN 30 % IN THE ELECTRODE
COATING BY WEIGHT. IT DECOMPOSES IN THE
ARC AND PRODUCE A GAS SHIELD WHICH
PROTECTS ARC FROM AUTMOSPHERIC OXYGEN
AND NITROGEN. EXX10 IS THE EXAMPLE OF THIS
TYPE ELECTRODE COATING. GENERALLY THIS
COATED ELECTRODE IS SUITABLE FOR ALL
POSITION WITH DC +.

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RUTILE TYPE
RUTILE IS NATURALLY- OCCURING SAND
USALLY CONTAIN AROUND 95% OF TITANIUM
DIOXIDE. THIS TYPE OF ELECTRODE IS GOOD
FOR USE WITH AC AND DC + OR DC - .
GENERALLY USE FOR VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD
POSITIONS AS THE SLAG IS VERY VISCOUS AND
QUICKLY FREEZED. EXX12 AND EXX13 ARE THE
EXAMPLES OF THIS TYPE OF COATING .

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ACID TYPE
THIS TYPE OF COATING CONTAIN IRON-OXIDE
AS A MAJOR CONSTITUENT. DURING WELDING IT
PRODUCE A IRON-MANGANESE OXIDE SELICA
FLUID SLAG WHOSE METALLARGICAL EFFECT IS
ACIDIC. THIS SLAG SOLIDIFIES LIKE HONEYCOMBSTRUCTURE
AND EASLY DETACHED.
ELECTRODE HAVING THIS COATING IS GOOD
FOR FILLET WELD ONLY.
EXX22 IS THE EXAMPLE OF THIS TYPE OF
ELECTRODE.

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OXIDIZING TYPE
IT CONTAIN MAINLY IRON-OXIDE AND
SILICATES
WITH
OR
WITH
OUT
MANGANESE OXIDES. IT PRODUCE A HEAVY
SLAG WHICH HAS OXIDISING PROPERTIES.
THIS TYPE ELECTRODE IS LIMITED IN USE
BECAUSE THE RESULTANT WELD METAL IS
SOFT AND LOW MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.
EXX27 ELECTRODES ARE HAVING THIS
TYPE OF COATING, GENERALLY USING FOR
FLAT POSITION ONLY.
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BASIC TYPE
THIS TYPE OF COATING CONTAINS CALCIUM
CARBONATES (CaCO3), CALCIUM FLOURIDE (CaF2) ,
METAL POWDER AND COMPARATIVELY MORE POWERFUL
DEOXIDISERS.
THIS RESULTS IN A CHEMICALLY BASIC SLAG, WHICH IS
FAIRLY FLUID.THE SOLIDIFIED SLAG, WHICH IS HEAVY
AND FRIABLE HAS BROWN TO DARK- BROWN COLOR AND
GLASSY APPEARANCE.
MOISTURES IS REMOVED FROM THE COATING TO RENDER
IT LOW HYDROGEN ELECTRODES. THE ELECTRODES
HAVING THIS TYPE OF COATING IS PREFERRED TO USE
FOR MINIMISE THE RISK OF HYDROGEN-INDUCED
CRACKING OR COLD CRACKING IN THE BASE METAL.
EXX15,16,18 OR THE EXAMPLES OF THIS TYPE OF
COATING.
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STORAGE AND DRYING OF


Arc welding ELECTRODE
electrodes must be properly

stored in order to deposit quality welds. when


electrodes absorb moistures from the
atmosphere, they must be dried in order to
restore the ability to deposit quality welds.
Electrode with too much moisture may lead to
Cracking
and
Porosity.
Operational
characteristics may be affected as well. If it is
experienced
unexplained
weld
cracking
problems, or if the electrode arc performance
may have deteriorated, it may be due to the
storage methods or re-drying procedures .
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All electrodes must be


dried to the right level
to perform properly.
Even a small amount
of moisture in low
hydrogen
electrodes
can lead to major weld
problems
such
as
internal porosity, weld
cracking
or
poor
operating
characteristics.
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Low Hydrogen Electrodes


Storing and exposure limits
SMAW electrodes with low hydrogen
coatings, such as E7018 and E8018C3, must be kept very dry since
hydrogen induced cracking can easily
occur, especially in steels that are
80,000 psi and higher yield
strengths. To keep these electrodes
dry during storage, here are some
suggestions:
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Purchase

these electrodes in hermetically


sealed containers, which provide
excellent protection against moisture
pickup.
Do not open the hermetically sealed
containers until the electrode is needed
for use.
When the cans are opened, electrodes
that will not be immediately used should
be placed in a OVEN at 250 degrees F to
300 degrees F
(120 150 degrees C).
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Electrodes

should be supplied to
welders in quantities that can be
consumed within time limits that are
dependent on the electrode type and
strength level. For example, standard
E7018 electrodes can be safely be
exposed to the atmosphere for 4
hours whereas standard E11018
electrodes are restricted to only
hour.

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Re-drying Of Low Hydrogen Electrodes


When the electrodes have been exposed to
the atmosphere for period of a four hours ,
the electrode can be re-dried. The following
re-drying procedure should be used:
To re-dry, electrodes should be removed
from the can, and placed in suitable oven.
The electrodes should be spread out in the
oven so that all electrodes will reach the
drying temperature. The can of electrodes
should not be put in the oven; the cardboard
liners can char, and the temperature of the
electrodes will not be uniform.
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TEMPERATURE
REGULATOR

BAKING OVEN
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POTABLE OVEN
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When the electrodes are initially placed in the


oven, the temperature should not be greater
than half the re-drying temperature. The
electrodes should be held at that temperature
for hour before heating the electrode to the
final temperature.
For mild steel low hydrogen electrodes
governed by AWS A5.1 (such as E7018), the
final re-drying temperature is typically 500-800
degrees F(260-430 degrees C). For low alloy
electrodes governed by AWS A5.5, the final redrying temperature should be 700-800 degrees
F (700 430 degrees C). The manufacturers
recommendations should be followed.

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One

hour at the listed final temperature


is satisfactory if it is supplied in the
dried condition. Do not dry electrodes
at higher temperatures. Also, several
hours at a lower temperature is not
equivalent to using the specified
requirements.
Moisture
becomes
chemically bonded (absorbed) to the
electrode coating and those chemical
bonds must be broken at the proper
temperature for the proper length of
time.
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How Many Times Low Hydrogen


Electrodes Can Be Re-dried?
Electrodes

may be re-dried only


once. Electrodes that have become
wet or moist shall not be used and
shall be discarded.

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Standard Tests For Electrodes


Type Of ISO BS639
Test
2560

AWS
A5.1

DIN
1913
X

TRANSVERSE
BEND

TRANSVERSE
TENSILE

DEPOSITION
EFFECIENCY

DIFFUSIBLE
HYDROGEN

TENSILE &
IMPACT

CHEMICAL
COMPOSITIO
N
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X
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THE END
THANKS

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