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GYMNASTICS IN SCHOOLS FOR TEACHERS

Gymnastics taught correctly is an excellent tool for developing body


management skills and preparing participants for many physical pursuits. Once
students can manage their own bodies with a degree of skill they can
subsequently better control manoeuvre themselves with an implement (racket,
bat) or themselves plus a projectile (ball, javelin). Furthermore they can better
control themselves in different mediums (snow, water) or better handle
themselves plus an opponent.
Olympic gymnastics as seen on television is a highly skilled and competitive
sport. This form of gymnastics should be left to be taught in gymnastics clubs
with accredited coaches. The function of a school gymnastic programme should
be to provide rewarding and safe environment in which students can learn to
control their bodies in a variety of situations. The aim is to encourage
participation regardless of weight, size, gender or ability of students.
The current Gymnastics in Schools programme is based on the Dominant
Movement Pattern (DMP) approach. These are:

Statics
Locomotion
Springs
Landings
Rotation
Swing

By teaching the six dominant movement patterns (the lowest common


denominator of all gymnastics skills), the students are learning the building
blocks for more complex skills and they can develop the body control necessary
for efficient movement in all areas of life. For example, take a mark in football
(spring and landing), hold a defence position in netball (static), perform a
somersault dive off a springboard (spring and rotation).
The S.P.A.C.E approach is used for the introduction of skills and their practice to
gymnastics. Its a logical progression of teaching from the simple to more
difficult aspects of the skill.
S What skill progressions can be used to teach the whole skill? How will you
break the skill down into smaller parts?
P What physical preparation is necessary to acquire the skill?
A What are the appropriate key teaching points (KTPs) to teach this skill?
C What are the common errors when learning the skills?

E How can the teacher evaluate when the student is ready to progress
WARM UP

The purpose of a warm up is to prepare both the body and the mind for the
activities that will follow in the training session and so minimize the risk of
injury.
The warm up should involve continuous aerobic type activity the increase the
blood flow and the body temperature. Follow this with stretching activities for all
the major joints and muscle groups to loosen up the body this should not be
confused with increasing flexibility, where the stretches are held for a longer
period of time.
The length of the warm up and its intensity will vary according to the age and
ability of the student and the overall length of the lesson.
Principles of a good warm up

Involve everyone
Be quick and easy to organise
Use variety to maintain enthusiasm
Make it fun by using games and challenges

Safety and injury prevention

Allow adequate spacing


Ensure the environment is safe e.g. mats slipping
Static stretches only (no bouncing or forcing the stretch)
Do not overstretch. Hold the stretch to the point of tension and this
tension should subside over time.
Do not hold your breath in stretches
Take care with lower back and knees

PHYSICAL PREPARATION

A well rounded Gymnastics Programme will enhance:

Physical abilities such as flexibility, strength, muscular endurance and


power
Motor abilities such as balance, spatial orientation, coordination and
agility

This allows students to become more confident and efficient movers and these
skills can be transferred to all areas of life.
Gymnastics places physiological demands on the body e.g. a handstand requires
strength and flexibility, and part of the programme should be dedicated to
developing the bodys ability to cope with these demands.
The importance of physical preparation

Reduces the incidence of injury


Allows faster more accurate skill acquisition
Reduces the incidence of muscle soreness
Allows a prolonged period of quality participation
Helps rapid recovery from fatigue

Implementation into the programme


When planning your gymnastics programme, you should identify which skills will
be taught as part of a DMP and then ensure that the adequate physical
preparation has been covered before attempting to teach that skill.
The components of physical preparation

FLEXIBILITY the range of motion around a joint


STRENGTH the amount of force that a muscle or group of muscles can
exert
ENDURANCE prolonged work with a localised muscle group
POWER explosive force. Strength plus speed
AEROBIC cardio vascular fitness

Some or all of these components should be developed every lesson. Strength


and flexibility are particularly pertinent to most gymnastic skills and these two
components will be a focus when working on the physical preparation needed to
perform a skill.
When do you teach physical preparation?

Physical conditioning work may be included as part of the warm up, as part of a
circuit or while they are waiting for a turn at an activity during the skill
development section of your lesson.
Suggestions for introducing physical preparation

Make it fun ask a class to do 10 push up and they groan. Disguise the
push ups in a game or challenge and they will do 30 without noticing
Activities should be easy and quick to organise
Use music
Use small apparatus e.g. balls, hoops, beanbags, witches hats
Use the playground
Use a mixture of single, partner and group activities

Strategies for dealing with individual differences in the class


Vary the physical demand of the activity by changing:

The
The
The
The
The

number of repetitions or time on the task


length of the rest period
texture of the surface
heights
body position

Divide the body into three sections upper, torso, lower


Then collate and number a variety of individual, partner and group activities and
games that can be used to develop these areas.
For e.g.
UPPER BODY
Strength

Flexibility

Endurance

1.Push ups

1.Arm Stretches

1. Boxing

2. Pull ups

2. Foam Roller

2. Rowing

3.Bench press

3. Bar hang

3. Flexed bar hang

Strength

Flexibility

Endurance

1. sit ups

1. Downward dog

1. Bridge

2. Supermans

2. Bend back

2. V sit

3. Leg raises

3. Torso rotation

3. Medicine ball twists

TORSO

4. Leans
LOWER BODY
Strength

Flexibility

Endurance

1. squats

1. PNF hamstring stretch

1. Running

2. Leg raises

2. Seal Stetch

2. Butterfly kick (swim)

3. Box jump

3. Calf stretch

3. Skipping

Choose 3 activities above and modify them as below:

EXERCISE
Upper body

EASIER

HARDER

PARTNER

Bar hang

Pull up

Paddy cake
(partner clap)

Twists

With the
medicine ball

Pass the
medicine ball
around

Wall squat

Proper squat

Back to back
squatting

Torso

Lower body

CIRCUITS

A well planned circuit is an excellent way to get maximum participation from


your students especially when there is limited equipment.
A circuit is a closed loop of several situations with activities set out at each
station. It may be used to develop progressions towards a skill, to practice a
new skill, to allow exploration of movement, or to revise skills from past lessons.
It is beneficial in that activity levels are high, it allows students to be
autonomous in their learning and it can leave the teacher free to roam and
focus in on problem areas.
The organisation of the circuit can vary depending on the desired outcome.
Students may perform the station activity once and move on to the next station
or they may remain at one station for a designated time then move on as
directed.
Suggestions for planning circuits

Stations need to be well spaced and designed to flow around the circuit
Ensure landing areas are clear from other students and any hand
apparatus
Select stations so that only one (if any) activity will require constant
supervision
Include in the plan how you will group the students and how they will
move around the circuit

HOMEWORK
Design a simple circuit for endurance with 6 x relevant exercises for 45 secs
at each station.

DOMINANT MOVEMENT PATTERNS

Dominant Movement Patterns (DMPs) are the patterns that re-occur in


gymnastics. They are the building blocks for more complex skills. Once these
building blocks are mastered the students can progress laterally with variety or
vertically, with difficulty.
The grouping of activities into the six DMPs
STATICS

LANDINGS

LOCOMOTION

SPRING

ROTATION

SWING

enables the teacher to better understand the biomechanical principles that


relate to efficient movement and to formulate Key Teaching Points (KTPs) that
will carry over from one skill to the next.
The DMP approach provides a framework that develops from simple to complex
for the teaching of movement. It assists the teacher to decide what to teach
and in what order.
1. 2. 3.
3- S Weighted/no weights
- squats, single leg glute raises,
- weighted lunges, box jumps
F-PNF Hamstring stretch,
- Seal stretch, plyometric calf work, hip extensions. Glute stretch
E- Running, swim track, kick/puter. Walking, skipping etc

STATICS

This includes all the held and still positions in gymnastics and should be the
starting point for your teaching.
Statics can be divided into three categories:
SUPPORTS shoulders above the apparatus
HANGS shoulders below the apparatus
BALANCES using a small base of support
Once the supports and balances are competent on the floor students can then
progress to partner and group balances and supports and balances on
apparatus.

BASIC STATIC POSITIONS

KTPs

1. Stand with good posture


tensed

Feet together, Shoulders back, tummy

2. Front support

Straight back, Shoulders over hands, Elbows


straight.

3. Back support

Elbows 90degrees, hips up, feet together

4. Stork stand

Toe to knee, shoulders back, support leg


(strong)

5. Tuck sit

One hand on each leg, tight body, straight

back

BASIC STATIC POSITIONS

6. V sit

7. Shoulder stand

8. Front scale

KTPs

Feet together, straight arms/legs, straight torso

hips, knees, shoulders aligned. Chin in, Straight back

Chin up, chest up, square hips and shoulders

TIGHT BODY PREPARATION


The ability to maintain a fixed shape and be able to eliminate unnecessary body
movements is a prerequisite for efficient movement and is an important factor
in the prevention of injury. Correct posture is also aesthetically pleasing.
ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING TIGHT BODY
Lift the plank
- Lying on the back, lift ankles, drop each leg to test tightness
Shake the tin soldier
- front support with a push
Crack the egg
- tuck sit, partner lifts and pulls.

HANDSTAND

Physical Preparation
- shoulder flexibility
- wrist flexors and extensors
- Upper body and core strength
Skill Progressions / Lead up Drills
1. Tuck sit- prep for bunny hop
2. Front support prep for bunny hop
3. Bunny hop Straight arms, Two foot landing and take off

4. Tuck handstand Straight back, two foot TO/landing, chin tucked

5. Scorpion one foot take off, same foot landing (chest up) Like a handstand

6. Half handstand one leg vertical, same foot landing, one leg vertical

7. FULL one foot take off, same foot landing, two legs vertical, two feet pointed
Extension
Handstand into a forward roll.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF STATIC POSITIONS


Once the basic static positions have been taught these can be practiced and
improved by providing a variety of tasks, which use the static positions

Revise during warm up using games such as musical statues holding a


static position when the music stops, or play tag and hold a static position
till someone releases you.

Make a station in a circuit the static that relates to the skill being taught or
as a revision have a whole circuit set up with statics stations.

Make up a sequence using static position using different body parts and
different levels.

Work with a partner and make up a sequence using four different statics.
Perfect with precise timing and exact images.

Try the same task in fours.

Work with a partner, explore ways you can both perform the same static
but part of one person must be resting on the other.

Try the same in fours.


PARTNER BALANCES

COUNTER AND COOPERATIVE BALANCES


What is their value?

Enhances spatial and body awareness


Students (especially teenagers) really enjoy exploring the challenge
They encourage communication and cooperation
Develops trust and timing in balance
They are useful contributors to strength development
Encourages good body tension as this must be maintained to balance
body positions
Reinforces the principles of stability e.g. wide base of support, and vertical
alignment of arms and legs so that the line of gravity runs through the
base of support
Develops skills that can be used in display work

SAFETY

Match pairs for height and weight


Not suitable for younger children because of weight bearing
Exit procedure must be planned
Mats must be used
Use hand to hand or hand to wrist grip, monkey grip is not safe
Avoid inverted balances until the basics are mastered
Do not allow pyramids higher than two persons in the school environment

SPRING

This DMP includes the activities which involve projecting oneself into the air and
requires the physical ability of power i.e. explosive take off. The spring activities
that will be covered are:
1. Feet to feet jumps
2. Feet to one foot leaps
3. Feet to hands bunny hops, leap frogs and basic vaults

SAFETY

Ensure correct landing technique before taking any springing activities up


onto a height
Mats must be placed so there are no joins along the line of landing
Confident body management is a prerequisite for activities involving
height and flight
Firm matting is required for activities which involve springing from hands

SPRINGING FROM FEET


KTPs

Explosive take off is required


The balls of the feet strike first with the heels making only momentary
contact
This is followed by rapid extension of ankle and knee joints and a strong
swing of the arms in an upward and forward direction
Trunk is stable and upright and at no stage should there be any arch in the
students lower back

1. BASIC JUMPS
2. Straight
Up and land pencil

Star
Arms and hands out

BASIC JUMPS
Tuck
Knees up high

Stag
One foot to the knee and land on both feet

Split

Jump half / full turn

Sissone
jump, split and then land on one leg arabesque

3. LEAPS
Cat / scissor
step knee right knee left step and point

Stride
run split land

Change leg
scissor kick step left kick right land right
Side
Pivot jump pivot

LANDINGS

Safe landings could be one of the most important life skills you will teach your
students. The categories of landings that will be covered in this course are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Landing
Landing
Landing
Landing

on feet
on hands
sideways
backwards

The basic principle of safe landing is to soften the impact on the body joints
especially the lower back. This is achieved by absorbing the landing forces over
as much time and as large a body surface as possible.

SAFETY

Ensure adequate matting not too hard or soft


Reduce frequency of landing on wrists
Dont land sideways from a height
Ensure competence on the floor before progressing to a height

1. LAND ON FEET (motor bike landing)


KTPs

Feet should be shoulder width apart


Contact first with balls of feet then roll through to heels and bend and the
knees and hips to finish as if sitting on a motor bike (toe, heel, knee, hips)
Do not bend past 90
Ensure the heels stay planted on the floor

PROGRESSIONS
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Very low jump. Absorb impact on toes to heels


Add on bent knees
Run and jump as high as possible and land correctly
Land on benches with straight jumps
Add variety by changing the body shapes in the air
Gradually increase the height of take off, make sure heels stay on the
ground

LANDINGS (cont)

2. LAND ON HANDS
KTPs

Hands are placed shoulder width apart


Contact first with fingers then roll through to heel of the hand and bend
the elbows
Turn the head to one side so you dont face plant

PROGRESSIONS
i.

From kneeling, slowly fall forward to absorb force through fingers, palms
and bend elbows
Increase the speed of the fall
When confident try from crouch stand, then from a front scale / arabesque

ii.
iii.

3. LAND WITH ROTATION SIDEWAYS


KTPs

Hand position

Rolling right ; Right hand outwards Hand down, left hand in the chest Hand up ,

Arm position

out and to the chest

Absorb force through


roll through shoulders Back Shoulder Knees

PROGRESSIONS
i.

Start on knees then as confidence grows, progress to stand

4. LAND WITH ROTATION BACKWARDS Shoulder roll


KTPs

Hand position

Hands facing down

Arm position

Arms out laterally

Absorb force through

Lower back Shoulder Knees


Look over to the shoulder they are rolling on
PROGRESSIONS
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Start from squat and slowly fall just to shoulders


Roll to shoulders and turn head to one side to watch knees touch the mat.
Repeat to the other side.
Perform back safety roll from squat down incline
Practice on floor from squat
Progress to starting from stand, then with a jump and landing off balance
to continue to safety roll
As students develop competence jump backwards from a low height and
continue into back safety roll.

SPRING (cont)

PROGRESSIONS FOR USE OF A BEATBOARD


i.

Hurdle step on floor

- run , arm circle backwards, motor bike landing

ii.

Hurdle using hoops


- run , arm circle backwards, motor bike landing

iii.

iv.

From low height to board


- run , arm circle backwards, motor bike landing

v.

vi.

From board up onto low height


- run , arm circle backwards, motor bike landing

vii.

PROGRESSIONS FOR USE OF A MINI TRAMP


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Bench to rebounder to mat


Floor to tilted rebounder to mat
Bench to mini tramp to mat
Floor to mini tramp to mat

SAFETY POINTS FOR USING A MINI TRAMP

Always keep the landing area clear


Use a crash mat preferably with an over run mat at the end
Mini tramp activities must be supervised. If leaving the area turn the
apparatus upside down or place in locked storage area
Confident body management and sound landings are a prerequisite for
mini tramp activities
The metal frame must be covered by a frame pad
Always check the apparatus is safe and stable before used by students

List different jumps that can be done off a beatboard or mini tramp

JUMPS

Straight jump
Tuck Jump
Star jump
Stag Jump
Straddle jump
Split (left/right)
Pike
Half spin
Full spin

4. SPRINGS FROM FEET TO HANDS


PROGRESSIONS
i.
Bunny jumps along the floor. Increase the distance of the spring
ii.
Bunny hop between two parallel benches
iii.
Bunny jumps onto bench
iv.
Bunny jumps over low bench

SQUAT ON / THROUGH VAULT


KTPs
-

Run
Arm circle backwards
Jump
hands shoulder width apart (or wider)
Knees on first (progress into feet, progress into through)

STRADDLE ON / OVER VAULT


KTPs
-

Run
Arm circle backwards
Jump
Arms close together
bum up in the arm
Straight legs
Progress into leap frog

ON THE VAULT
- Hands fast off the vault
- Good arm circle
- Quick run

IDEAS FROM WORKSHOP


Design a circuit:
a.
-

Practice springs without apparatus


Leap sequence
Standing broad jump sequence
Running with arm circles
Jump variations with arm circles in a large square. Jump at each corner
Leap frog
Vertical jumps against the wall

b.
-

Practice springs from feet using apparatus


Two foot jump with hula hoops
Leaps on the ladder
Two foot jump onto apparatus
Leap sequence onto cones
Diagonal two feet jump over rope
Two feet jumps on to the bench; Variation over the bench

c.
-

Practice springs from hands and feet


Scorpion sequence on hoops
Jumping onto the block squat on with arm circle
Jump off block with stag
Cartwheels over bench
Cartwheels/ round offs sequence
Leap frogs

HOMEWORK for next week


Plan a circuit with SIX stations that allows practice of landing techniques.
Include TWO point form notes on KTPs for each station, describe briefly the
group organisation and indicate with a T where the teacher would stand.

LOCOMOTION

Locomotion is moving from one space to another. The three categories that will
be covered are:

1. Locomotions on feet: running, jumping, skipping


2. Locomotions in hang: (shoulders are below base of support) monkey walk
variations
3. Locomotions in support: (shoulders above the base of support) bear walks,
crab walks cartwheels

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF LOCOMOTIONS

Locomotion can be done with a partner


Motivate and add interest with music
Add variety by changing rhythm, levels and speed
When locomotions have been mastered on the floor, they can be taken up
onto apparatus
Revise locomotions during warm up
Use various locomotions to move around stations in a circuit
Use animal walks in relays

ROTATION

This DMP is represented by any turn or spin around an internal axis. There are
three axis. These are longitudinal, transverse and anterior / posterior axis.
LONGITUDINAL AXIS
Run an imaginary stick in a straight line from the middle of your head to your
feet and you have a longitudinal axis. Rotations around this axis involve all turn
left or right.
Related skills
Log rolls
Body tension
Arms above head
Roll keeping body straight
Egg rolls

On knees,
Hands resting infront of knees
Head down
roll side to side

Jump half / full turn


Arms back and fourth
Jump up and spin 360
Land motor bike

Pivots
step
Hand to belly other hand out

hand to belly foot back


Foot to knee
spin towards hand that is in
land with one foot out in front.

Progressions
Change starting and finishing positions
Change body shapes
Try up and down slopes
Do with a partner or small groups

TRANSVERSE AXIS
Run an imaginary stick from the left to the right hip and you have the transverse
axis. Rotations around the axis involve all turns forwards and backwards.
Related skills
Forward and backward rolls
Front and back saults
Pull over and forward roll around the bar
Back hip circle

FORWARD ROLL
a. Physical Preparation
Strength and flexibility
Flexibility of the hamstring, neck, back, forearm extensors
Strength arms, forearms, abdominals, legs,
Power, endurance

b. Skill progressions / lead up drills

KTPs

Tuck sit

Chin in

Rocking n rolling (forwards and backwards)

Bum up

Rock n Roll into tuck sit

Feet, Knees together

Rock n Roll into squat


Rock n Roll into standing
Forward roll on an incline
Forward roll on the floor
Forward roll up onto a level

Head on the floor

c. Common errors
Use of hands
Dropping the shoulder
Knees/legs crossing
Taking a step forward

d. Extension
Front sault
Handstand Forward Roll
Dive rolls
Circus dive roll

e. Where did you spot for this?


BACKWARD ROLL
a. Physical Preparation
Flexibility ; Back and neck
Strength ; Forearms, Legs

b. Skill progressions / lead up drills

KTPs

Tuck sit

Elbows High

Rock n Roll

Hands next to ears

Backward roll onto knees

Chin in

Backward roll onto feet

Push head off the floor

Backward roll off block

Hips over head

Backward roll off decline


Backward roll on floor

c. Common errors
Turns into a shoulder roll
Hands flipped wrong way
Bum not going over-head
Head not pushed off floor
Landing on knees

d. Extension
Backwards sault
Backward roll into handstand

e. Where did you spot for this?


At the side
LIFT HIPS DO NO PUSH

Progressions
Change starting and finishing positions
Change body shapes
Try up and down slopes
Do with a partner or small groups

ANTERIOR / POSTERIOR AXIS


Run an imaginary stick in a straight line from your belly button through to your
back and you have the anterior posterior axis. Rotations around this axis
involve all sideways rotations.

CARTWHEELS
a. Physical Preparation
Flexibility of shoulders, hips flexors, hamstrings
Strength of arms, and legs, and core

b. Skill progressions / lead up drills

KTPs

Handstand

hand & feet placement

Bunny hop

open hips

Around the hoop

Straight arms and legs

Right leg : right hand left hand left foot right foot
Bigger circle (belly button face middle)
On the line

c. Common errors
Landing on bum
Closed hips
Incorrect hand/feet placement
Landing two feet
Bent arms and legs

d. Extension
On the beam
Round off
e. Where did you spot for this?
Diagonal ; where their hands will land. On the side of the extended foot.
Progressions
Change starting and finishing positions

Change body shapes


Try up and down slopes
Do with a partner or small groups
ROTATION (cont)

PULL OVER BAR


a. Physical Preparation
Core strength
Shoulder strength
Flexibility of extensors and flexors (wrists)

b. Skill Progressions
stop, chin, kick
Wedge and kick over
Run up the wall

c. Key Teaching Points


Chin over the bar
Kick belly button over the bar
No chin over the bar = resistance training

d. Common Errors
Chin not over the bar

e. Where do you spot for this?


On the side, infront of the baropposite side as gymnast

BACK HIP CIRCLE ON BAR


a. Physical Preparation
Cast and pull over

b. Skill Progressions
cast and pull over

c. Key Teaching Points


shoulders forward
drive hips forward
grab hips and push
hip drive
heel drive

d. Common Errors
no hip drive
shoulders not forward
throw chin forward

e. Where do you spot for this?


opposite side on the side

SWING

In the school environment most swing apparatus is usually not available but
basic swings on the bar or in the playground can be developed and are
beneficial for the development of upper body strength and spatial awareness.

Swings can be divided in to two categories:


a. Swing in hang
b. Swing in support

SAFETY

Good landings and grip strength are a prerequisite for swing


Participants must show competence in hang and support activities before
progressing to swing
Ensure matting extends far enough both sides of the bar to allow for the body
moving away from the bar on full extension
Ensure participants are regrasping the bar at the top of the back swing
No hock swings without hand grasp

RELATED SKILLS

KTPs

Pendulum swing
Holding onto the bar and swinging left to right

Tuck Swing
(same as straddle/glide) Straddle- jump and straddle Glide- straight legs
1.
2.
3.
4.

Jump to the bar with chest in


Knee drive (open hips)
More than one; re grasp at the back of swing
Land behind (where you took off from)

Hock swing
One knee over the bar other leg straight
2 hands 1 knee

Straight leg drives

RELATED SKILLS
Straddle swing

refer to tuck

Basket swing
Two hands on the bar
Stop legs in between the bar
Straight legs or bent
nose and knees together

Glide swing

Refer to tuck

Novelty ideas for swing


giant swing
reverse hands
full rotation

KTPs

SWING IN SUPPORT (cast)


a. Physical Preparation
core strength
upper body strength
Shoulder and wrist flexibility

b. Skill Progressions
weight support
swing legs back and forwards
swing legs forwards and backwards to get their stomach off the bar

c. Key Teaching Points


shoulders forwards
chest in
straight arms & legs

d. Common Errors
shoulders back
arched back
bent arms and legs
e. Where do you spot for this?
Same side as the gymnast
On the side of the gymnast
f. Extension
Backwards circle
cast up to handstand

HAND APPARATUS

The use of hand apparatus closely ties in with the fundamental movement skills
program. Hand apparatus such as hoops, balls, ropes, beanbags, balloons and
scarves are readily available in the school environment and should be utilised to
add variety and interest to the gymnastics program.

Hand apparatus have their own DMPs:

Throwing / releasing
Catching / trapping
Rotation
Circles / swings
Passing over / under / around
Bouncing
Balance

These apparatus DMPs can also be combined with body DMPs to further extend
the skills and add variety e.g. throw a ball and perform a full turn before
catching it.

BENEFITS OF USING HAND APPARATUS

Suitable for a wide range of ages and abilities


Adds variety and challenge to the program
Helps develop hand eye coordination
Partner and group work provides the opportunity for the development of
cooperation and team spirit
Provides interesting and non threatening skills which can be used in
display work

SAFETY

Ensure adequate air space for throwing activities


Provide ample space between participants
Beware of using balls where landing from a height are involved
Hoop rotations around the neck are not recommended