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Emma Young
November 24, 2014
Child Study 2
EDUC 311
Family Diagram
The Bronfenbrenner Bioecological Model gives us big picture view of a child in the
context of their family, community, and wider influences. Each infant is influenced by the world
in a unique way. In order to better support each child it is important to understand these
Es microsystem, the settings where she interacts directly, includes her home where she
interacts with her mother, father, and two older brother ages six and three. At school, E directly
interacts with many individuals in her microsystem. Firstly, she has two primary caregivers at the
CDC. In addition she interacts with the many student workers, methods students, and nursing
students that participate in the classroom. At school she directly interacts with the other infants in
class with her. In addition, Es paternal grandparents live nearby and spend a significant amount
of time involved in her life, including occasionally picking her up from school.
The mesosystem involves interrelations among microsystems. Mesosytemss are abstract
ideas of relationships. For E.W. her mesosystem involves the relationships between her parents
and her teachers at the CDC. Es father is also very active in the community. He has contributed
to building the playground at the CDC and is involved in many other community projects.

Children do not directly participate in the exosystem; however the settings of the
exosystem have an effect on the child. An example of this would be the parents work place. Her
mother works at a local elementary school and her father is a local vegetable farmer.
The macrosystem encompasses culture, laws, and economic factors that influence a child.
E is immersed in the culture of New England, as she explores the leaves and fall foliage. Their
family does not recognize themselves as being religious but they celebrate many Christian
holidays. E is also influenced by many laws and policies. For example she is influenced by
policies such as those surrounding napping at the CDC as well as laws for using an appropriate
car seat.
It is invaluable to consider the many influences on a child in order to best support their
growth and development. Considering the many ways a child interacts and is influenced by the
world around them gives us a big picture of the child.
E.W. was born a beautiful baby girl on February 10th, 2014. She is now nine months old
and is making developmental progress across a wide range of areas. This is her first year at the
Child Development Center (CDC), however, her family knows the center well through their
previous experience with Es two older brothers ages three and six who have gone through early
childhood programs at the CDC as well. At school, she is highly respected by her caregivers; she
is never put into a position she could not get into herself. This has been an important factor in her
development as she moves her body naturally and freely. She has developed from lying on her
back in the beginning of the semester to pulling herself up into a standing position just weeks
later. Communication and respectful relationships with children and families is fundamental to

the philosophy at the CDC. Es father spends time at the center each morning at drop off talking
with caregivers. The classroom environment at the CDC is intentionally laid out to adapt to and
support each child as they develop. E has been making tremendous developments in her fine and
gross motor skills over the course of the semester while she eagerly explores the world around
her. Throughout this semester E has demonstrated her emotional and social development through
the many relationships she has built with other infants in the class as well as the many caregivers
that spend time in the room. With her contagious smile and emerging language, E explores the
world eagerly.
Physical Development:
During infancy, children develop rapidly establishing the framework for fine and gross
motor abilities. When considering physical development in infancy, we are interested in how
infants use their bodies to explore and participate in the world. Physical development involves
body awareness and control as well as development of small and large muscles. During their first
months, infants experience consistent growth and weight gain and as they build their mussels
they are increasingly able to move around. Teresa M. McDevitt and Jeanne Ellis Ormrod, authors
of Child Development and Education, explain that once infants are on their tummies they are on
the track to crawling, creeping, scooting and walking (2013). In addition, they explain that
during infancy, children also develop an increased ability to coordinate vision with small muscles
in their hands (2013). Gonzalez-Mena and Widmeyer Eyer identify that by seven months,
typically developing infants can lift their heads 90 degrees while on their stomach, roll over, sit
without support, stand holding on, and crawl (2012). When considering fine motor development,

by eight months, typically developing infants develop manipulation skills of their eyes, mouth,
fingers, hands, toes, and other small muscles (Gonzalez-Mena and Widmeyer Eyer, 2012).
Infancy is divided into two periods, young infants and mobile infants. Over the past three months
we have had the opportunity to observe E in this transition.
Throughout the semester E has made significant progress in her physical development
and is developing typically. When E first arrived in the beginning of the semester she was lying
on her back most of the time (photo A) and just beginning to roll onto her tummy. After she
mastered rolling on to her tummy, E became active in working to pull herself up. Starting with
lifting her head and using her arms to pull herself, she began to actively explore the classroom by
creeping (Photo B). Just a few weeks later she was getting her knees underneath her and began
crawling (Photo B). She is now able to use support to pull herself up into a standing position
(Photo C) and is proficient at crawling around the room to explore. As E, pulls herself up more
and more she continues to work on developing her stability. As E developed her gross motor
skills and began spending more time in an upright position there was an interesting shift in her
sleeping preferences. At the beginning of the semester she preferred to fall asleep being
swaddled in a football hold, now she prefers falling asleep being held upright. In addition to her
large motor development, E has demonstrated progress in her fine motor development as well.
She holds her bottles herself and has even developed spoon feeding skills. She uses a neat pincer
grasp to pick up small objects like cheerios and a palmer grasp to pick up blocks and other toys
around the classroom (Documented in ASQ).
Goals and Suggested Activities/ Recommendations

Before E can stand and walk without support she needs to develop her stability and core
muscles. Even though she is eager to be up and moving around she needs to spend time on the
floor to foster the development of her stability and balance. In addition to encouraging E to still
spend time on the floor, we want to provide her with opportunities to explore her new mobility.
Providing structures she can climb and pull up on will promote this. Based on Es interest in
holding her own bottle; another goal I have, is to continue to develop her self help skills,
particularly in regard to eating. I want to support Es fine motor development and control by
offering her opportunities to eat finger foods and feed herself with a spoon. In addition offering
her toys that she can manipulate such as magna tiles will foster her fine motor development.
Working with Es family, we can provide her with many opportunities to explore, manipulate and
refine her movements.
Analysis of Assessment Strategies:
I used the ASQ, anecdotes, and photos to documents Es development in this domain.
Cognitive Development:
Cognitive development is a broad domain in the sense that it refers to a childs growing
understanding of the world through their involvement with people and things. In this sense
cognitive development is interrelated to a childs social and physical development, as well as
many other domains. For infants cognitive development is fostered by interaction with people
and things; particularly through exploration in an environment rich in sensory experience. Janet
Gonzalez- Mena and Dianne Widmeyer Eyer, authors of Infants, Toddlers, and Caregivers
identify several behaviors that show development of cognition. Young infants typically respond
to human voices (2012). For example they will gaze at the face of who is speaking. Young
infants typically try and cause things to happen. They are curious about observing and
responding to different causes and effects through there exploration. Young infants are

beginning their understanding of the fact that something can still exist even when you cannot see
it. Mobile infants show cognitive development when they begin to push away someone or
something not wanted, persist in searches for hidden objects, and try and build with blocks
(2012). Jean Piaget explains the first stage of cognitive development as the sensiomotor stage.
He identifies that between the ages of 8-12 months, infants intentionally plan a movement to
make something happen(Janet Gonzalez- Mena and Dianne Widmeyer Eyer, 2012). The Center
for Disease Control and Prevention identifies that important cognitive milestones for typically
developing infants by the end of seven months include: finding partially hidden objects,
exploring with hands and mouth, and struggling for objects that are out of reach.
E often engages in peek-a-boo games. She holds her own spoon and bottle and is eager to
feed herself. E enjoys many sensory experience particularly the outdoors and being close to
windows, doors, and fans. She recognizes school as a familiar place and smiles when she arrives.
Finds comfort and self regulation in being held and observing the room.
Goals and Suggested Activities/ Recommendations
Janet Gonzalez- Mena and Dianne Widmeyer Eyer, authors of Infants, Toddlers, and
Caregivers, explain that play facilitates self regulation (2012). Not only do infants learn about
themselves during play, but their own interests and curiosity is what guides their learning and
exploration. Play is a central focus when considering infant development, as it is the vehicle in
which children, discover, explore, and learn. It is important we provide E with a rich sensory
environment and opportunities to explore, experiment, and problem solve in safe and appropriate
Social Development:
Throughout infancy forming close bonds with responsive and affectionate caregivers is a
critical developmental achievement. Children need to have strong relationships with caregivers
in order to feel safe in their environments and free to explore. Caregivers can foster these

relationships with children by being attentive and caring. As infants become mobile they
typically play side by side with peers interacting occasionally (McDevitt , 2013). In fact, as they
continue to develop many social interactions will occur in play. As infants establish relationships
with others they are simultaneously developing an awareness of themselves. During infancy care
giving is central; Infants are completely dependent on their caregiver for eating, cleaning,
toileting and many other tasks. Therefore, the caregiver plays a critical role in a childs social and
emotional development.
E often engages in social interactions by touching, particularly faces she is captivated by,
She smiles and laugh during face to face interactions. E watches the behaviors of other people
and things very closely. E is used to a significant amount of activity and has a high sensory
threshold from growing up with two older brothers. E has recently begun demonstrating
attachments with primary caregivers, starting to fuss when her dad puts her down at drop off. She
often crawls and reaches for calming caregiver when not comfortable.
Emotional Development:
Children awareness of not only others around them but awareness of themselves plays a
significant role in a childs experiences and learning. Janet Gonzalez- Mena and Dianne
Widmeyer Eyer recognize specific behaviors as demonstrating emotional development in
infancy. Young infants will typically express discomfort and comfort in a recognizable way.
They can typically be comforted by a familiar caregiver when they are experiencing distress.
Young infants show their emotion by laughing out loud. Typically developing young infants can
express a multitude of emotions clearly, including: pleasure, joy, anxiety, fear, sadness, and
excitement (2012). Mobile infants display emotional development as well particularly in their
recognition of the self. Mobile infants will, show pride and pleasure in new accomplishments and
continue to show pleasure as they master skills (2012). Typically they will express their negative

feelings. Lastly mobile infants begin to assert themselves, indicating their strong sense of self
(2012). Childrens ability to express their feelings and understand the behaviors of themselves
and others plays a large role in their learning and development in other domains.
E crys and reaches out when she is tired or not feeling well, expresses she wants comfort
and close interaction. She smiles back when smiled at and laughs when played with. Typically
she only fusses when very tired. Emma is typically a very happy and adaptable. She is social and
goes with the flow and only cries when she needs a new perspective or care. For example when
she is gassy, it may be hard for her to get comfortable in a position that can engage her and
distract her from the discomfort of the gas. In general, E is easy going, and recovers quickly
when upset. She accepts comfort, however has recently begun showing preference for caregivers.
E utilizes a binky for self regulation, especially when falling asleep.
Creative Expression:
The arts- music, dance, drama, visual arts- foster children ability to conceptualize and
solve problems, develop their imagination, and experience joy(NHELG). During infancy,
curiosity guides children to experiment with a variety of colors, textures, movement, sounds and
more. Curiosity is again central to infants progressing in this domain. Infants demonstrate they
are developing when they respond to external stimulus and express themselves using a variety of
facial and bodily movements.
E often explores music; she smiles and laughs in response to singing dancing and
movement. E is very interested in exploring leaves, always finding small pieces on the ground
and holding up the laminated leafs to the window. During a music experience E held a drum,
interacting with it in many ways. E notices sensory changes like the cold window and enjoys a
variety of textures such as the bumpy ball.
Health and Safety:

Health and safety are significant during infancy because children are completely
dependent on care givers for nutrition, hygiene, basic safety, and self-care. However as infants
develop in this domain the typically experience a growing understanding of how food effects
their body, how to keep their bodies clean and healthy, how to keep themselves safe, and their
basic needs. When infants recognize their bodily needs such as hunger, thirst, being dirty, they
are demonstrating development in this domain. Another way they demonstrate development is by
recognizing danger and seeking help when they are afraid. For example a mobile infant may cry
when he has positioned himself into a way I which he is unsure how to get out of.
E reaches her arms out for her bottle when it is nearby. She is eager to take control and
feed herself, actively participating in her care. E communicates clearly when she needs
something, and responds to cues such as rocking by laying her head down. E has also been
observed lifting her legs for diaper changes and participating in eating solids by picking up a
loaded spoon and feeding herself.
Goals and Suggested Activities/ Recommendations
E is eager to explore her new mobility, she needs to be watched carefully as she
establishes a sense of her own limitations. She is typically very happy and expresses discomfort
by crying when she needs care giving. She knows how to communicate she needs something but
just not exactly what. Narrate for E to help her develop an understanding of her feelings, wants,
and needs. Offer opportunities for her to participate in self care like offering her a short spoon to
feed herself with.
E is not yet forming words and uses non verbal communication for the most part. She has
very vivid facial expressions and smiles frequently in response to people and objects she enjoys
experiencing. She is a very happy infant and can often be heard making cooing and babbling

sounds, especially in her own version of singing. E has suffered from multiple ear infections this
semester. Her frequent congestion due to this may be impacting her ability to hear and there for
her language development. This will be important to consider as she continues to grow and
develop and her family learns more about her ear infections.
Goals and Suggested Activities/ Recommendations
It is important to engage E in dialogue and narrate experiences, talking at a slow pace.
Tell E stories and sing songs with E and encourage this at home with her family as well. Read to
E and provide her with sensory rich environments and experiences full of rich content.

Early Learning Guidelines Task Force (2005). New Hampshire Early Learning Guidelines.
Concord, NH: Child Development Bureau
Gonzalez-Mena, J. & Widmeyer Eyer, D. (2012). Infants, toddlers, and caregivers. (9th ed.) NY:
McDevitt, T. M., & Ormrod, J. E. (2013).Child development and education (5th ed.). Boston:
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention.