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2.

Theory of Elastic Catenary

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary


2.1 Two-Dimensional Problem
General condition & Notations

Fjy

j (lx, ly)

Fjx

ly

P (x,y,p)
Fiy

lo, E, Ao, w
Fix
x

i (0,0)

lx

: unstrained length of cable


: strained length of cable
: horizontal force at point and
: vertical force at point and
: Lagrangian coordinate from the origine to that point in the unstrained profile
: Lagrangian coordinate in the strained profile described by Cartesian coordinate
: self-weight of cable per unit length
: elastic modulus of cable
: cross-sectional area of cable in the unstrained profile

Geometric constraint

dp

w
dy

(2.1)

( sin
, cos
, sin cos )

dx

- 1 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Equilibrium condition
y
T
P
Fiy

y(s)
w, s

Fix

(2.2a)

(2.2b)

x(s)

< Forces on a segment of the strained cable profile>


(the cable material satisfies Hook's law)

Constitutive relation

(2.3)

at the cable supports and


, , at
, , at

Boundary conditions

Parametric solution

(that described the strained cable profile)

Solution for

Substituting Eq.(2.2) into Eq.(2.1), yields

(2.4)

Solution for

From Eq.(2.2a) and Eq.(2.3),

and

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Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Substituting Eq.(2.4) into the above equation, we obtain


(2.5)

Integrating Eq.(2.5)

ln

Applying the boundary condition of at , the integral constant is



ln

Therefore, yields

(2.6)

Solution for

From Eq.(2.2b) and Eq.(2.3),

and

Substituting Eq(2.4) into the above equation, we obtain


(2.7)

Integrating Eq.(2.7)

Applying the boundary condition of at , the integral constant is

Therefore, yields

- 3 -

(2.8)

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Solution for and

Substituting into Eq.(2.6), yields

(2.9)

Substituting into Eq(2.8), yields

Where, Given variables : and


Unknown variables : and

(2.10)

Using equilibrium equations and Eq.(2.4), above two equations can be expressed as
simplified forms :

Where,

(2.11)
(2.12)
(2.13)
(2.14)

In general, numerical methods such as a Newton-Raphson's method are necessary to


obtain the solution of and . The simultaneous solution of these equations then
allows the expressions for (Eq.(2.6)), (Eq,(2.8)) and (Eq.(2.4)) to be used.

- 4 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Solution for and (strained length)


From Eq(2.3),

Substituting Eq(2.4) into the above equation, we obtain


(2.15)

Integrating Eq.(2.15)

Applying the boundary condition of at , the integral constant is

Therefore, yields

The strained
equation.

le ngth of cable

can be obtained by substituting

ln

Where,

(2.16)

into above
(2.17)

- 5 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Gradient of cable at -node and -node

From Eq.(2.7) and Eq.(2.5)

(2.18)

- Gradient of cable at -node : substituting into above equation

tan (radians)

- Gradient of cable at -node : substituting into above equation

tan

(radians)

- 6 -

(2.19a)
(2.19b)

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Example 2-1

When the material and geometrical conditions for cable are given as follows ;
Fjy

j (lx, ly)

Fjx

ly

P (x,y,p)
Fiy

lo, E, Ao, w
Fix
x

i (0,0)

lx

- Material conditions : , , ,
- Geometrical conditions : ,
Determine the horizontal and vertical forces at -node induced by self-weight of cable.

Sol)

- Newton-Raphson formula -

where,

(Jacobian matrix)

,
,

- 7 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Iteration (kN)
0
-10.00 (I.G.)
1
-12.09
2
-23.85
3
-46.65
4
-89.88
5
-169.18
6
-307.74
7
-534.65
8
-878.86
9
-1363.01
10
-2005.39
11
-2828.89
12
-3863.48
13
-5130.88
14
-6603.62
15
-8131.41
16
-9378.18
17
-9992.34
18
-10102.08
19
-10104.97
20
-10104.97
* I.G. : Initial guess

By iterative process,

(kN)
-1.00 (I.G.)
3682.68
1664.26
1664.13
1663.78
1662.55
1658.49
1646.47
1615.34
1546.69
1418.08
1208.72
902.81
493.04
-7.75
-541.83
-984.19
-1203.80
-1243.20
-1244.24
-1244.24

and

The strained cable profile can be obtained from Eq.(2.6) and Eq(2.8). Also, the cable tension
forces along the strained cable profile can be obtained from Eq.(2.4).

<Strained cable profile>

<Cable tension forces along the strained cable


profile>

- 8 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Example 2-2

When the material and geometrical conditions for cable are given as follows ;
Fjy

j (lx, ly)

Fjx

ly

P (x,y,p)
Fiy

lo, E, Ao, w
Fix
x

i (0,0)

lx

- Material conditions : , , ,
- Geometrical conditions : ,
Determine the horizontal and vertical forces at -node induced by self-weight of cable.

Sol)

Iteration (kN) (kN)


0
-20.0 (I.G.) 1.0 (I.G.)
1
-20.27
15379.80
2
-40.05
8084.66
3
-79.08
8085.50
4
-154.68
8085.50
5
-298.02
8085.50
6
-560.82
8085.50
7
-1019.59 8085.50
8
-1769.22 8085.50
9
-2900.43 8085.50
10
-4473.23 8085.50
11
-6509.81 8085.50
12
-8995.92 8085.50
13
-11835.68 8085.50
14
-14729.07 8085.50
15
-17062.63 8085.50
16
-18212.87 8085.50
17
-18422.45 8085.50
18
-18428.25 8085.50
19
-18428.25 8085.50
20
-18428.25 8085.50
* I.G. : Initial guess

- 9 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

By iterative process,

and

The strained cable profile can be obtained from Eq.(2.6) and Eq(2.8). Also, the cable tension
forces along the strained cable profile can be obtained from Eq.(2.4).

<Strained cable profile>

<Cable tension forces along the strained


cable profile>

- 10 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Newton Rahpson Formula for Solving Elastic Catenary Equation

<CASE 1>
Givens : , , , , and
Unknowns : ,

Newton-Raphson formula

where,

(Jacobian matrix)

,
: iteration order

- 11 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Newton Rahpson Formula for Solving Elastic Catenary Equation

<CASE 2>
Givens : , , , , and
Unknowns : ,

Newton-Raphson formula


where,





: iteration order

- 12 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Newton Rahpson Formula for Solving Elastic Catenary Equation

<CASE 3>
Givens : , , , , and
Unknowns : ,

Newton-Raphson formula


where,




: iteration order

- 13 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

2.2 Three-Dimensional Problem


General condition & Notations

Fiy
j (lx, ly, lz)

Fix
ly

P (x,y,z,p)

Fiy

Fiz

Fix
Fiz

x
lo, E, Ao, w

i (0,0,0)

lz

lx

: unstrained length of cable


: strained length of cable
: horizontal force in the x-direction at point and
: vertical force at point and
: horizontal force in the z-direction at point and
: Lagrangian coordinate from the origine to that point in the unstrained profile
: Lagrangian coordinate in the strained profile described by Cartesian coordinate
: self-weight of cable per unit length
: elastic modulus of cable
: cross-sectional area of cable in the unstrained profile

Geometric constraint

(2.15)

- 14 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Equilibrium condition

P (x,y,z,p)

T
y(s)

Fiy
w, s

Fix

i (0,0,0)

Fiz

z(s)
x(s)

< Forces on a segment of the strained cable profile>

(2.16a)

(2.16b)

(2.16c)

Constitutive relation

(the cable material satisfies Hook's law)

(2.17)

at the cable supports and


, , , at
, , , at

Boundary conditions

Parametric solution

(that described the strained cable profile)

Solution for

Substituting Eq.(2.16) into Eq.(2.15), yields



- 15 -

(2.18)

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Solution for

From Eq.(2.16a) and Eq.(2.17),

and

Substituting Eq.(2.18) into above equation, we obtain


(2.19)

Integrating Eq.(2.19)

ln

Applying the boundary condition of at , the integral constant is



ln

Therefore, yields

(2.20)

Solution for

From Eq.(2.16b) and Eq.(2.17),

and

Substituting Eq(2.18) into above equation, we obtain

Integrating Eq.(2.21)

(2.21)

Applying the boundary condition of at , the integral constant is

- 16 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Therefore, yields

(2.22)

Solution for

From Eq.(2.16c) and Eq.(2.17),

and

Substituting Eq.(2.18) into above equation, we obtain


(2.23)

Integrating Eq.(2.23)


ln

Applying the boundary condition of at , the integral constant is



ln

Therefore, yields

- 17 -

(2.24)

Note by Jong-Min Lee

2. Theory of Elastic Catenary

Solution for , and

Substituting
yield

into Eq.(2.20), Eq.(2.22) and Eq.(2.24), respectively, ,

Where, Given variables : and


Unknown variables : , and

and

(2.25)

(2.26)

(2.27)

Using equilibrium equations and Eq.(2.18), above three equations can be expressed as
simplified forms :

(2.28)

(2.29)

(2.30)

Where,

(2.31)

- 18 -

(2.32)

Note by Jong-Min Lee

3. Elastic Catenary Element for Finite Element Analysis

3. Elastic Catenary Element for Finite Element Analysis

To employ a standard finite element procedure, the nodal forces have to be expressed
with respect to the nodal coordinates of a cable element.
Eq,(2.25) ~ Eq.(2.27) are function having three unknowns( , and ) so that these
equations can be expressed as following form ;

(3.1a)
(3.1b)
(3.1c)

The Taylor expansion of above equations with respect to


following expression ;

and

leads to the

(3.2a)

(3.2b)

(3.2b)

The matrix form of Eq.(3.2) is as follow ;


where,

(3.3)

- 19 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

3. Elastic Catenary Element for Finite Element Analysis

Expanding Eq.(3.3) with respect to


matrix can be obtained.

and

, the following equilibrium

(3.4a)

Also, from the equilibrium condition of


, Eq.(3.4a) can be expressed as follows ;

and

Fjy+ Fjy
Fjx+ Fjx

y
Fiy+ Fiy

From


( )

w, lo

Fix + Fix

(3.4b)

Since the variations of , and are the difference of and -nodal coordinates, the
following equations can be obtained ;

- 20 -

(3.5)

Note by Jong-Min Lee

3. Elastic Catenary Element for Finite Element Analysis

Substituting Eq.(3.5) into Eq.(3.4), we obtain the stiffness matrix of a cable element.

where,

(3.6)

- 21 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

4. Initial Shape Analysis of Suspension Bridge

4. Initial Shape Analysis of Suspension Bridge

TCUD analysis for finding the initial shape of suspension bridge is presented in this section.
In Example 2-1 and Example 2-2, the horizontal and vertical forces( and ) only were
unknown variables. However, unstrained length of cable( ) as well as and is
unknown variables in the practical initial shape analysis of suspension bridge. In TCUD
analysis, these three variables are considered as unknowns so that the solutions for these
variables are obtained, simultaneously.

4.1 Equilibrium matrix(or stiffness matrix) of cable element

To employ a standard finite element procedure, the nodal forces have to be expressed
with respect to the nodal coordinates of a cable element.
Eq,(2.11) and Eq.(2.12) are function having three unknowns( , and ) so that
these equations can be expressed as following form ;

(4.1a)
(4.1b)

The Taylor expansion of above equations with respect to , and leads to the
following expression ;


(4.2a)

(4.2b)

The matrix form of Eq.(4.2) is as follow ;



(4.3)


where,

- 22 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

4. Initial Shape Analysis of Suspension Bridge

,


,

Expanding Eq.(4.3) with respect to


obtained.

, the following equilibrium matrix can be

(4.4a)

Also, from the equilibrium condition of ,


Eq.(2.13)), Eq.(4.4a) can be expressed as follows ;

(refer to

(4.4b)

Since the variations of and are the difference of and -nodal coordinates, the
following equations can be obtained ;
, ,
(4.5)
Substituting Eq.(4.5) into Eq.(4.4), we obtain the equilibrium matrix of a cable
element .

where,

(4.6)

The implicit form of Eq.(4.6) is as follow;


- 23 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

4. Initial Shape Analysis of Suspension Bridge

where,

(4.7)

: th element
: increment of structural resistance forces
: stiffness matrix associated with
: matrix associated with
: increment of nodal coordinates
: increment of unstrained length

4.2 Initial Shape Analysis

Since the element equilibrium matrix given in Eq. (4.7) is based on the analytical
solution of an elastic catenary cable, one cable element between two adjacent
concentrated loads is sufficient for converging to the exact solution of the given cable.
The global equilibrium equation of cable structure is obtained by using a standard
assembling procedure of the finite element method(FEM) with the element equilibrium
equation of Eq. (4.7).
(4.8)

where, : the number of elements
: assembly operator

Since the initial shape analysis is a nonlinear problem, an iterative process is required
to obtain unknowns. For iterative process, the global equilibrium equation of Eq.(4.8) can
be expressed as the following form :

(4.9)
where, : unbalanced forces at each nodal coordinate
: applied nodal force
: structural resistance forces obtained from the previous iteration
superscript : the number of iterations for finding equilibrium state
(k-iteration)

- 24 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

4. Initial Shape Analysis of Suspension Bridge

The incremental equilibrium equation given in Eq.(4.9) cannot be directly solved since
the number of equation is smaller than that of the unknowns(increments of nodal
coordinates and unstrained lengths). Therefore, the additional conditions of which the
number is equal to that of cable elements in a FE model should be provided to solve
Eq.(4.9). These conditions can be obtained from the geometrical conditions of suspension
bridge, such as the positions of hanger in the -axis(horizontal) direction and cable sag.
Since the x-direction position of hanger( , where ) and cable sag at main
span( ) are predetermined in the bridge planning phase, the specified components of
in Eq.(4.9) corresponding to and should be zero, provided that the nodal
coordinates for and are exactly provided in FE model.

< full model>

xi

< Positions of hanger( ) and Cable sag( ) >

Letting the specified components of nodal coordinate to


the following form :

, Eq.(4.9) cab be written as


(4.10)

where, : increments of unknown nodal coordinate


: increments of specified nodal coordinate
: matric consisted of column vectors corresponding to
: matric consisted of column vectors corresponding to

Due to , the incremental equilibrium equation of Eq. (4.9) becomes the


following form

- 25 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

4. Initial Shape Analysis of Suspension Bridge

(4.11)

where,

: logical matrix

The matrix of in Eq.(4.11) becomes a square matrix dramatically so that the


incremental equilibrium equation can be solved with respect to the unknown nodal
coordinates and unstrained element lengths.
Once the solution of Eq.(4.11) is obtained, the nodal coordinate and the unstrained
element lengths are updated accordingly for the next iteration.

(4.12a)

(4.12b)

The nodal forces(structural resistance forces) of each cable element can be obtained by
solving Eq.(2.11)~Eq.(2.14) with the updated nodal coordinates and the unstrained
element length.




(4.13a)




(4.13b)

Since Eq.(4.13) is a nonlinear equation, the solutions for and can be


obtained by Newton-Raphson method which was applied to Example 2.1 and 2.2.



(4.14)


where, subscript : the number of iterations for finding nodal forces

Substituting the converged solutions of Eq.(4.14) into Eq.(2.13), the nodal force vector at
-node of element can be obtained. Therefore, all structural resistance forces are
obtained by assembling the converged element nodal force vectors.
The initial values of the nodal coordinates and the unstrained element lengths for the
equilibrium iteration( -iteration) may be computed by assuming reasonable cable shape.
The horizontal forces of cable elements can also be determined from the parabolic
assumption on the shape of cable elements. The initial values of the vertical nodal
- 26 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee

4. Initial Shape Analysis of Suspension Bridge

forces and the unstrained length of each element are computed by solving Eq.(2.11) and
Eq.(2.12) iteratively with the aforementioned nodal coordinates and the horizontal nodal
forces.
Assuming that the main cable is fixed at the tower saddle, the main span and side
spans can be analyzed separately. Since the tension force of the main cable at the
saddles are obtained by TCUD analysis(initial shape analysis), the horizontal component
of the cable tension force of side spans at the saddles are calculated in advance. For
the side spans, therefore, the horizontal force at the saddle can be included in Eq.(4.11).

- 27 -

Note by Jong-Min Lee