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Homework: Exercise 10.

3 page 268
1. How is the movement of a graphic achieved in animation?

• When creating an animation the user needs to consider the

size of the graphic and the speed of the movement. The speed
is frequently set at 30 frames per second or 9000 (30 × 60 ×
5) frames for a five minute animation. This creates the illusion
of smooth movement.

2. Describe the basic principles of cell-based and path-based methods

for producing animation.

• Cell-based animation involves drawing and displaying

individual frames or cells. Each frame is stored separately and
is loaded into a graphics page in primary memory. The
animation works by displaying the first frame from a graphics
page while creating the second frame in another graphics
page. The second frame is then displayed and the third frame
created in the graphics page of the first frame. Animation
occurs by alternating the display of graphics pages.

• Path-based animation involves displaying the movement of

objects on a fixed background in a particular sequence or
path. Only the pixels of the moving object are changed; those
making up the background stay the same. Animation is
achieved by drawing the object, wiping it, and then drawing
the object in a new position

3. Explain the difference between analog and digital data.

• Analog data is represented by continuous variable quantities

• Digital data is represented in the form of digits or numbers

4. List three important characteristics of sampling.

• Sampling rate

• Sample size

• Mono or stereo

5. What is the sampling rate?

Sampling rate is the number of times a sample (slice) is taken

from the sound wave
6. Calculate the size of an audio file that uses a sample rate of 22.05
with 16-bit sound and lasts for two minutes in stereo.

File size = 22050 x 16 x 120 x 2 bits

= 84 672 000 bytes

= 80. 75 Megabytes

7. What factors affect the size of a video file?

• The factors that affect the size of a video file are the number
of frames per second and the video window size.

8. Explain the major difference between animation and video.

• Video takes continuous motion and breaks it up into frames,

while animation starts with independent frames and puts
them together to create the illusion of movement.

9. What is the purpose of digital video production software?

• It is used to edit the video into a multimedia product. Editing

may involve adding text, audio and graphics to the video clip.