43 views

Uploaded by shivam yadav

- Transco Papers
- IES - Electrical Engineering - Measurement and Instrumentation (1)
- IES - Electrical Engineering - Power Electronics
- Analog Circuits
- Gate Maths
- GATE EE Solved Paper by RK Kanodia
- Electrical Machine Electrical GATE IES PSU Material
- laplace transform.pdf
- Gate
- Knowledge Bank
- Electromagnetics GATE
- Pspcl Paper AE2013
- Control System 400 Objective Questions From GATE & IES
- POWER SYSTENM ANALYSIS & FAULT Lecture_18.ppt
- GATE EE 2015 Solved Paper
- GATE Solved Question Papers for Electrical Engineering [EE] by AglaSem.Com
- Summer Training
- GATE Solved Question Papers for Mathematics [MA] by AglaSem.Com
- Sources of Finance
- GATE Electrical - R K Kanodia

You are on page 1of 17

Postal Correspondence

Electrical Engineering

EE/EEE

Network Theory

CONTENT

Network Theory-EE

Postal Correspondence

1.

2.

3.

4.

GRAPH THEORY .

24-29

5.

30-43

6.

44-51

7.

RESONANCE .

52-56

8.

57-58

9.

10-21

11.

3-9

69-74

12.

13.

14.

15.

22-23

75-104

105-121

122-157

158-191

192-254

Postal Correspondence

Network Theory-EE

CHAPTER-1

BASIC CIRCUIT ELEMENTS & THEORY

The circuit elements can be divided into two parts:

1. Active Elements: When the element is

capable of delivering the energy, it is called

active element.

Example: Voltage source, Current source,

Transistor, Diode, Op-amp etc

2. Passive Elements: When the element is not

capable of delivering the energy, it is called

passive element.

Example: Resistance, capacitor, inductor etc.

Resistance: The ohms law can be given as:

The voltage across a two terminal of a network is

directly proportional to the current flowing through it

as:

V I

V IR

or,

Key Points:

Power in resistor is given by

P vi i 2 R

v2

R

t2

t2

t1

t1

1 t2 2

v dt

R t1

electrical energy into heat energy.

Resistance depends on the geometry of

material and also on nature of material as:

Solution: Given that i 2.5sin( t ) A

V iR

V 2.5sin( t ) 4 10sin( t ) volt

P i 2 R [2.5 sin( t )] 2 4

P 25sin2 (t ) W

t2

t2

t1

t1

instantaneous power as :

E Pdt R i 2dt

If length of wire is doubled and Radius is

halved, then resistance of wire becomes 8

times larger.

Resistivity of wire is materialistic property

i.e. It does not vary with circuit geometry.

Extension of wire result in increase in length

& decrease in cross-sectional area therefore

resistance of wire increases.

When circuit is open, R .

Example: A 4 resistor has a current

i 2.5sin( t ) A. Find the voltage, Power and

E 25

t2

t1

1

1 cos 2 t dt

2

t sin 2t

E 25

J

4

2

The plot of i, P and E is as shown:

l

A

= 1/

( = conductivity)

28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Ph. 011-26514888.

2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

www.engineersinstitute.com

Postal Correspondence

Network Theory-EE

that the energy is always increasing. This is

the energy dissipated by resistor.

2. CAPACITANCE:

The circuit element that stores energy in an electric

field is called capacitor. When variable voltage is

applied to a terminal of capacitor, the energy is stored

during one part of cycle and discharge during next

half cycle.

The charge across the capacitor is directly

proportional to the applied voltage:

Q V

Q

V

Unit of C Farad

8.854 r A

pF

d

electric field in the dielectric which is the

mechanism of energy storage.

(c.) Power and energy relation for capacitance

are as:

P vi vc

P

dv d 1 2 cdv

cv

i

dt dt 2

dt

d 1 2

cv

dt 2

t2

t2

t1

t1

Energy wc P dt v c dv dt

dt

1

wc c v22 v12

2

(d.) The energy stored in the electric field of

1

2

2

capacitance is wc cv

Q CV

C

Key Points:

(a.) Capacitors retain the charge & thus

electric field after removal of the source

applied. (While inductors do not retain

energy). For parallel plate capacitor, the

capacitance can be given as:

Practical capacitor:

capacitor has a voltage V 50sin 2(t )V . Obtain

the charge, power and energy. Plot work wc

or A

d

r Relative permittivity of dielectric

o Permittivity of free space

Solution: q cv 20 50sin 2t

q 1000 sin 2 t C

dv

0.2cos 2t A

dt

P vi 50sin 200t 0.2cos2t

P 5sin 4t W

ic

28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Ph. 011-26514888.

2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

www.engineersinstitute.com

Network Theory-EE

wc

t2

t1

P dt 5 sin 400t dt

Postal Correspondence

di

.. (A)

dt

{Voltage is induced when flux is varying}

V L

This indicates that in the internal 0 > t > 2.5 ms, the

energy is stored to value of 25 mJ and then it returns

to zero, as the energy is returned to the source.

3. INDUCTANCE:

The circuit element that stores energy in a magnetic

field is called an inductor.

M0 N 2S

l

l = Length of coil

(d) Proof of equation A: According to

faradays law, the emf induced across a

inductor is directly proportional to the rate

of change of flux through it.

e N

d

{N = no of turns in the coil}

dt

e N

d LI

dt N

e L

dI

dt

emf to change of flux (Lenzs Law)

(e) The power across the inductor is:

P vi L

When voltage is applied across a inductor, the flux is

induced in the conductor which is proportional to

current flowing through it, i.e.

N i

(f) Energy:

N

i

L Inductance

Unit Henry

Key Points:

(a) The flux linkage across inductor is N. Thus

N LI

connected source is removed

t2

t2

t1

t1

P dt Li dt

1

w L i22 i12

2

N Li

di

d 1

i Li 2

dt

dt 2

is

1

w Li 2

2

Example:

In the interval 0 t s, a 30 mH inductance

50

has a current i=10sin50tA. Obtain the Voltage, Power

& Energy for the inductance.

28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Ph. 011-26514888.

2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

www.engineersinstitute.com

Postal Correspondence

Network Theory-EE

vL

Solution:

The sources are of two types, one is independent

sources and other is dependent sources:

Independent sources:

The voltage or current source in which the value of

voltage or current remains constant, and does not

vary with other circuit element.

Ideal voltage and current sources:

di

15 cos 50 t V

dt

p vi 75sin(100t )W

t

w P dt 75sin100t dt

w 0.75(1 cos100t ) J

t

50

returned to the source.

Relationship of parameters:

Element

Units

Voltage

Ohms

()

Resistance

v Ri (

ohms

law)

Henry

(H)

v L di

dt

Farad

(F)

Current

v

R

Capacitance

Power

P vi

i2 R

i 1 vdt P vi

L

inductance

i c dv

1

idt

dt

c

Ldi

dt

P vi

vc dv

dt

resistance of voltage source is of finite value

and is always in series with voltage source.

(b) In non ideal current source, the internal

resistance of current source is of finite value

& is always in parallel with current source.

(c) V-source in series

28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Ph. 011-26514888.

2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

www.engineersinstitute.com

Network Theory-EE

Postal Correspondence

In Lumped network, we can separate resistance,

inductance, and capacitance separately or single

element in one location is used to represent a

distributed resistance.

Example: A coil having large number of turns of

insulated wire has resistance throughout the length of

wire but only resistance at single plane represents the

distributed resistance.

In Distributed network, the circuit elements are not at

one location rather they are distributed.

Example: Transmission line, the resistance,

inductance and capacitance are distributed

throughout the length of Transmission line.

Note: In distributed network, the circuit elements

are represented as per unit length.

(d)

(e)

These are voltage and current sources whose value do

not remain constant, rather varies with circuit

elements or independent sources:

1. Resistance Non Linearity: If the current

voltage relationship in an element is not

linear, then the element is modeled as non

linear resistor.

Example: Diode, filament lamp (This at

higher voltage droves proportional less

current) etc.

(a) The non linear resistance can be given as:

V

I

elements. Also it is not valid for open circuit

element because for open circuit:

I = 0, R =

So V =

V IR

inductance of inductor depends on the

current magnitude, then the inductor is

called non linear inductor:

Example: Iron core inductor.

Only air core inductor linear

2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

www.engineersinstitute.com

Postal Correspondence

Network Theory-EE

Key points:

(a) N LI L

N

Variable

I

and C is variable. So, the curve is not linear.

l

MMF

S Reluctance=

a

S

NIa

N 2 a

L

l

l

Average value: The general periodic function y(t)

with period T has an average value Yav given as:

Self

inductance

(b) Also we know;

V L

di

V

L

Variable

dt

di / dt

1

Yav y (t )dt

TO

period T has rms value Y rm s given as:

T

1

y 2 (t ) dt

T O

Yrms

following sine series

y (t ) a0 b1 sin t b2 sin t ......

Solution:

L (inductance) and L is variable. So, the

curve is not linear.

The second curve shows that after certain

value of current, the flux does not

increase due to saturation of iron core.

3. Nonlinearity in capacitance: When the

capacitance of capacitor depends on voltage

magnitude, then capacitor is called non linear

capacitor.

Q CV C

iC

Q

Variable

V

dv

i

C

Variable

dt

dv / dt

1

Yav a0 b1 sin t b2 sin t ...... dt

T 0

Yav

1

a0T 0 0......

T

Yav a0

Yrms

1

T

Yrms

dt

0

T

Yrms

1 2 1 2

T 0

2

a 02

1 2 1 2

b1 b2 .....

2

2

and voltage functions graphed in figure below.

Determine the element.

2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

www.engineersinstitute.com

Network Theory-EE

Postal Correspondence

V

3mH .

di / dt

Thus the element is inductor. (Examine the interval 4

< t < 6 ms L must be same)

Thus L

in figure for

(a) i2 1 A (b) i2 2 A (c) i2 0 A.

Solution: v 10 v x for

and I are not proportional. In a capacitor V is integral

of i, but in interval 2ms < t < 4msec, V is not integral

of i, hence element cannot be capacitor.

For inductor V

Ldi

dt

V 15V and

di

10 / 2 5

dt

(a) i2 1 A

V 10 15 25V

(b) V 10 15 2 20V .

(c) V 10 15 0 10V .

2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

www.engineersinstitute.com

Network Theory-EE

Postal Correspondence

CHAPTER-2

NETWORK LAWS AND THEOREMS

2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

www.engineersinstitute.com

10

Control System-EE

1. SOME BASIC TERMS:

1. Node: Any point in a circuit where the terminals of two or more elements are connected

together.

2. Branch: A branch is a part of circuit which extends from one node to other. A branch may

contain one element or several elements in series. It has two terminals.

3. Essential Node: If three or more elements are connected together at a node, then that node

sometimes called essential node.

4. Mesh: Any closed path which contains no other path within, called mesh.

5. Loop: A path which contain more than two meshes, called a loop. Thus a loop contains meshes

but a mesh does not contain loop.

Example 1: Consider the following circuit:

(b) a, b, c, d, e, f and g are branches.

(c) Meshes are: 1 2 5, 2 3 5, 3 4 5

(d) Loop are: 1 2 3 5 1, 2 3 4 5 2, 123451

(e) Essential node: 2, 3, 5

2. KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW:

For any closed path in a network, Kirchhoff Voltage Law (KVL) state that the algebraic sum of the

voltage is zero.

Key points:

(a)

V iR 0

(c) While going opposite to direction of current, voltage drop across resistor is taken as positive

(+ve).

Postal Course ( GATE & PSUs) 2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Ph. 011-26514888.

www.engineersinstitute.com

11

Control System-EE

iR V 0

Example: Write KVL equation for the circuit shown:

Va V1 Vb V2 V3 0

Va Vb i ( R1 R2 R3 )

KCL states that the algebraic sum of currents at a node is zero. Alternatively the sum of currents entering

a node is equal to sum of currents leaving that node.

Key Points:

(a) It is based on the conservation of electric charge.

(b) i (t ) 0

(c) Sign convention is arbitrary.

(d) Current entering node are assigned +ve sign and current leaving node are assigned ve sign.

Example: Write the KCL equation for the principal node shown in fig below:

i1 i2 i3 i4 i5 0

i1 i3 i2 i4 i5.

4. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS IN SERIES:

Postal Course ( GATE & PSUs) 2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Ph. 011-26514888.

www.engineersinstitute.com

12

Control System-EE

The 3 passive circuit elements in series connection have same current i. The voltages across elements

are v1 , v2 , v3 .

Total voltage v v1 v2 v3 .

(a) Equivalent Resistance: When element is resistance :

v i ( R1 R2 R3 )

v i R eq .

R eq. R1 R 2 R 3

di

di

di

L2 L3

dt

dt

dt

di

v ( L1 L2 L3 )

dt

v L1

Leq L1 L2 L3

(c) Equivalent Capacitance :When the circuit element is capacitor in above circuit then,

1

1

1

i dt i dt idt

c1

c2

c3

1 1 1

v idt

c1 c2 c3

v

1

i dt

Ceq

Then

1

1 1 1

Ceq c1 c2 c3

Postal Course ( GATE & PSUs) 2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Ph. 011-26514888.

www.engineersinstitute.com

13

Control System-EE

The 3 element are connected as shown in figure

(a) Equivalent Resistance: i i1 i2 i3

v

v

v

R1 R2 R3

1 1 1

i v

R1 R2 R3

Then

1

1

1

1

R eq R1 R2 R3

1

1

1

.....

Leq L1 L2

L eq

L1 L2

L1 L2

C eq c1 c 2 ......

6. VOLTAGE DIVISION:

A set of series-connected resistor is referred as a voltage divider.

Postal Course ( GATE & PSUs) 2015 ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA . All Rights Reserved

28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Ph. 011-26514888.

www.engineersinstitute.com

14

Control System-EE

v1 v

R1

R2 R3 R1

v2 v

R2

R1 R2 R3

=Total voltage

.

total resistance

7. CURRENT DIVISION:

A Parallel arrangement of resistors results in a current divider.

v

v

v

v

and i1

R1 R2 R3

R1

1

i1

R1

1

1

1

i

R1 R2 R3

Thus

i1

R 2 R3 i

( R1 R 2 R 2 R3 R3 R1 )

i1

R2 i

R1 R2

Totalcurrent

Total Resistance

28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Ph. 011-26514888.

www.engineersinstitute.com

15

Control System-EE

12 8

9.8

20

63

2

Req. (Right)

9

Using current divider theorem:

Req. (Left) 5

2

13.7 2.32 A

9.8 2

9.8 13.7

I4

11.38 A.

9.8 2

I3

I 3 I1 I 2

8 2.32

0.93 A, I 2 2.32 0.93 1.39 A.

12 8

I 4 I5 I6

I1

3 11.38

3.79 A. I 6 11.38 3.79 7.59 A

36

Example: 2: In the circuit shown, what is the power absorbed by each element.

I5

120 30 I 2V A 15 I 0; V A 15 I

Thus

120

8 A.

15

P30 i 2 R 82 30 1920W (Power absorbed)

P15 82 15 960W (Power absorbed)

Total power absorbed

960 1920 960 1920 0 W .

28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Ph. 011-26514888.

www.engineersinstitute.com

16

Control System-EE

Rank

1

3

6

8

10

22

22

29

31

33

35

35

36

37

38

41

44

45

Roll

Name

Branch

171298

SAHIL GARG

088542

131400

024248

EE

FIRDAUS KHAN

ECE

DEEPANSHU SINGH

EE

ECE

207735

VASU HANDA

ECE

032483

PAWAN KUMAR

EE

005386

070313

214577

075338

003853

091781

SAURABH GOYAL

PRAMOD RAWANI

ECE

EE

EE

ECE

KOUSHIK PAN

EE

SHANKAR GANESH K

ECE

052187

ANOOP A

ECE

106114

MANISH GUPTA

EE

008233

018349

098058

029174

ARPIT SHUKLA

ECE

VINAY GUPTA

ECE

EE

LEENA P MARKOSE

EE

6,8,19,28,41,56,76,91,98)

and many more.............................

0-9990657855

28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Ph. 011-26514888.

www.engineersinstitute.com

17

- Transco PapersUploaded byPraveen Kumar Pedapudi
- IES - Electrical Engineering - Measurement and Instrumentation (1)Uploaded byRaja Faheem Khalid
- IES - Electrical Engineering - Power ElectronicsUploaded byPiyush Chavan
- Analog CircuitsUploaded byafireon8
- Gate MathsUploaded byPappuji
- GATE EE Solved Paper by RK KanodiaUploaded byAravind Sampath
- Electrical Machine Electrical GATE IES PSU MaterialUploaded byshivam yadav
- laplace transform.pdfUploaded byElectrical Selfie
- GateUploaded by11009105053
- Knowledge BankUploaded bySadhana Katiyar
- Electromagnetics GATEUploaded bybiswa217
- Pspcl Paper AE2013Uploaded byVinay Babu
- Control System 400 Objective Questions From GATE & IESUploaded byKiran Kumar
- POWER SYSTENM ANALYSIS & FAULT Lecture_18.pptUploaded byAV Shrinivas
- GATE EE 2015 Solved PaperUploaded byDeepakKumar
- GATE Solved Question Papers for Electrical Engineering [EE] by AglaSem.ComUploaded byaglasem
- Summer TrainingUploaded byAnupriya Pandey
- GATE Solved Question Papers for Mathematics [MA] by AglaSem.ComUploaded byaglasem
- Sources of FinanceUploaded bydon_zulkey
- GATE Electrical - R K KanodiaUploaded byNavajyoth Kumar
- Apepdcl 2014 a.es Question Paper.pdf - CopyUploaded byAhmad Syed
- Power Plant 20 Years Gate Ies Ias q AUploaded bySaajal Sharma
- Electrical Engineering (EE) - GATE Books - GATE 2016.pdfUploaded byravik_rkg67
- Surpura Training ReportUploaded byMehul Prajapati
- Schaum's Outline of Electromagnetics 2edUploaded byNguyễn Trọng Hiếu
- AE56 Solution paper AMIETE-ETUploaded bySatish Wadawadagi
- Signal Electrical GATE IES PSU Study MaterialsUploaded byshivam yadav
- 12986_SOLUTION of MTEUploaded byDheer Singh Meena
- TSGENCO AE Previous Year Papers RecruitmentnoticeUploaded bySreedharachary Simhaa
- AE Paper 1Uploaded byNagendra Babu Vanamala

- NTPC BADARPUR SUMMER TRAINING REPORTUploaded byAnubhav Ghosh
- Laser CuttingUploaded bymanuelq9
- IES_Gate_PSU_General English.pdfUploaded byshivam yadav
- Analog Circuits PrintAnalog Circuits-print.pdfAnalog Circuits-print.pdfAnalog Circuits-print.pdfAnalog Circuits-print.pdfAnalog Circuits-print.pdfAnalog Circuits-print.pdfAnalog Circuits-print.pdfUploaded byअजय प्रताप सिंह
- Electrical Machine Electrical GATE IES PSU MaterialUploaded byshivam yadav
- Pump IntroUploaded byDubaiHMAR
- Pump IntroUploaded byDubaiHMAR
- uptu syllabusUploaded byKhalid Anwar
- saddleUploaded bypadalakirankumar
- E-bike by Shivendra KumarUploaded byshivam yadav
- Asme Pressure Vessel SupportUploaded bySourendra Dey
- Centrifugal PumpsUploaded byshivam yadav
- Aa Design and Analysis of Saddle SupportUploaded byparthidurairaj
- Report ntpc Shiv141118121Uploaded byshivam yadav
- TransformersUploaded byashutosh2291
- Network Theory-print.pdfUploaded byshivam yadav
- Signal Electrical GATE IES PSU Study MaterialsUploaded byshivam yadav

- Analysis and Design of Ship StructureUploaded byBasem Tam
- A Good Document Abou DG CalculatinUploaded bymanrajabi
- Calculating Driver Output for IGBTUploaded byИван Фокин
- What is Ultrasound TGLeigthon 2007Uploaded byyomanx5
- VFD macro ATV312Uploaded byVana
- Lab-10 yana-1Uploaded bytenoriojantonio
- CH16Uploaded byAdwin Anil Saldanha
- GTP-R1 TR 60MVAUploaded byEzechukwu Ukiwe
- Energyconversion 151018093251 Lva1 App6892Uploaded byViverly Joy De Guzman
- Em6400 ManualUploaded byaniler
- Sound Intensity Nov 2012Uploaded byCruise_Ice
- Unit 2Uploaded bydanishmani
- Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (Kvl) _ Divider Circuits and Kirchhoff's LawsUploaded byedin64
- EXIT EXAM 2nd Qtr 2010 11 Set B RevUploaded byKichan Yoo
- Diode_det.pdfUploaded byJaime Lazo
- 1.Modelimi i Ngasjes Dhe Motorit Asinkron- Gjithashtu Edhe Modeli MatematikUploaded bykusha02
- Cooper - Automatic Sectionalizing LinkUploaded byAerwin Bautista
- PawlUploaded bysatheeshsep24
- Interfacing Electrification and System ReliabilityUploaded byพี่จิน ยศเนืองนิตย์
- 21665398 ABB XLPE Underground Cable SystemsUploaded byyuthonline
- Fluke 5500 CoilUploaded byMuhammad Afzal Mirza
- Cable TerminationUploaded byapandey070273
- 2005 - FORCE-TIME CURVE CHARACTERISTICS OF DYNAMIC AND ISOMETRIC MUSCLE ACTIONS OF ELITE WOMEN OLYMPIC WEIGHTLIFTERS.pdfUploaded byDonato Formicola
- Recommended Design of Offshore Fdns Exposed to Ice LoadsUploaded bybong2rm
- Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6th EditionUploaded bymaha20
- Fault Current CalculationUploaded bySaroj Kumar Mallick
- Out-Of-step Protection for Generators GER-3179Uploaded byrobertosenior
- Jr. Genius Gr 12 Physics ExamUploaded byDanaEHorochowski
- 20202Uploaded byLucian2001
- AkkUploaded byHonney Sunny K K