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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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CALCULATED vs MEASURED Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
CALCULATED vs MEASURED
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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ENERGY DISSIPATION Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ENERGY DISSIPATION
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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IMPLICIT NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
IMPLICIT NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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STEEL STRESS STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS
STEEL STRESS STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS
STEEL STRESS STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
STEEL STRESS STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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INELASTIC WORK DONE! Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
INELASTIC WORK DONE!
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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CAPACITY DESIGN
CAPACITY DESIGN

STRONG COLUMNS & WEAK BEAMS IN FRAMES REDUCED BEAM SECTIONS LINK BEAMS IN ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES BUCKLING RESISTANT BRACES AS FUSES RUBBER-LEAD BASE ISOLATORS HINGED BRIDGE COLUMNS HINGES AT THE BASE LEVEL OF SHEAR WALLS ROCKING FOUNDATIONS OVERDESIGNED COUPLING BEAMS OTHER SACRIFICIAL ELEMENTS

FOUNDATIONS OVERDESIGNED COUPLING BEAMS OTHER SACRIFICIAL ELEMENTS Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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MOMENT ROTATION RELATIONSHIP
MOMENT ROTATION RELATIONSHIP
MOMENT ROTATION RELATIONSHIP Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
MOMENT ROTATION RELATIONSHIP Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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IDEALIZED MOMENT ROTATION Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
IDEALIZED MOMENT ROTATION
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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PERFORMANCE LEVELS Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
PERFORMANCE LEVELS
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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IDEALIZED FORCE DEFORMATION CURVE Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
IDEALIZED FORCE DEFORMATION CURVE
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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ASCE 41 BEAM MODEL Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design 17
ASCE 41 BEAM MODEL
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
17

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ASCE 41 ASSESSMENT OPTIONS
ASCE 41 ASSESSMENT OPTIONS

Linear Static Analysis

Linear Dynamic Analysis

(Response Spectrum or Time History Analysis)

Nonlinear Static Analysis

(Pushover Analysis)

Nonlinear Dynamic Time History Analysis

(NDI or FNA)

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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STRENGTH vs DEFORMATION
STRENGTH vs DEFORMATION

ELASTIC STRENGTH DESIGN KEY STEPS

CHOSE DESIGN CODE AND EARTHQUAKE LOADS DESIGN CHECK PARAMETERS STRESS/BEAM MOMENT GET ALLOWABLE STRESSES/ULTIMATE– PHI FACTORS CALCULATE STRESSES – LOAD FACTORS (ST RS TH) CALCULATE STRESS RATIOS

INELASTIC DEFORMATION BASED DESIGN ‐‐ KEY STEPS

CHOSE PERFORMANCE LEVEL AND DESIGN LOADS – ASCE 41 DEMAND CAPACITY MEASURES – DRIFT/HINGE ROTATION/SHEAR GET DEFORMATION AND FORCE CAPACITIES CALCULATE DEFORMATION AND FORCE DEMANDS (RS OR TH) CALCULATE D/C RATIOS – LIMIT STATES

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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STRUCTURE and MEMBERS
STRUCTURE and MEMBERS
STRUCTURE and MEMBERS • For a structure, F = load, D = deflection. • For a
STRUCTURE and MEMBERS • For a structure, F = load, D = deflection. • For a

For a structure, F = load, D = deflection.

For a component, F depends on the component type, D is the corresponding deformation.

The component F D relationships must be known.

The structure FD relationship is obtained by structural analysis.

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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FRAME COMPONENTS
FRAME COMPONENTS
FRAME COMPONENTS • For each component type we need : Reasonably accurate nonlinear F ‐ D
• For each component type we need :

For each component type we need :

Reasonably accurate nonlinear F D relationships. Reasonable deformation and/or strength capacities.

We must choose realistic demand capacity measures, and it must be feasible to calculate the demand values.

The best model is the simplest model that will do the job.

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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F-D RELATIONSHIP
F-D RELATIONSHIP

Force (F)

Ultimate

Ultimate Strain strength Ductile limit Initially linear Hy steresis loop Hardening First yield Strength los s
Strain strength Ductile limit Initially linear
Strain
strength
Ductile limit
Initially
linear
Ultimate Strain strength Ductile limit Initially linear Hy steresis loop Hardening First yield Strength los s
Ultimate Strain strength Ductile limit Initially linear Hy steresis loop Hardening First yield Strength los s

Hysteresis loop

Hardening

First yield

Strength loss Residual strength

Complete failure

Deformation (D)

Stiffness, strength and ductile limit may all degrade under cyclic deformation

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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DUCTILITY
DUCTILITY

LATERAL

LOAD

DUCTILITY LATERAL LOAD Brittle Partially Ductile Ductile DRIFT Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Brittle Partially Ductile

Brittle

Brittle Partially Ductile

Partially Ductile

Ductile

DUCTILITY LATERAL LOAD Brittle Partially Ductile Ductile DRIFT Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

DRIFT

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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ASCE 41 - DUCTILE AND BRITTLE Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ASCE 41 - DUCTILE AND BRITTLE
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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FORCE AND DEFORMATION CONTROL Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
FORCE AND DEFORMATION CONTROL
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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BACKBONE CURVE Monotonic F-D relationship F Hysteresis loops from experiment. Relationship allowing for cyclic
BACKBONE CURVE
Monotonic F-D relationship
F
Hysteresis loops
from experiment.
Relationship allowing
for cyclic deformation
D
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HYSTERESIS LOOP MODELS Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
HYSTERESIS LOOP MODELS
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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STRENGTH DEGRADATION Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
STRENGTH DEGRADATION
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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ASCE 41 DEFORMATION CAPACITIES • This can be used for components of all types. •
ASCE 41 DEFORMATION CAPACITIES
• This can be used for components of all types.
• It can be used if experimental results are available.
• ASCE 41 gives capacities for many different components.
• For beams and columns, ASCE 41 gives capacities only for the chord
rotation model.
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BEAM END ROTATION MODEL M or M i j θ i θ j M i
BEAM END ROTATION MODEL
M or M
i
j
θ i
θ j
M
i
M
j
θ
or
θ
i
j
Zero length hinges
M
Elastic θ
Plastic (hinge) θ
Elastic beam
Total
rotation
Current θ
Plastic
Elastic
Similar at
this end
θ
rotation
rotation
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PLASTIC HINGE MODEL • It is assumed that all inelastic deformation is concentrated in zero
PLASTIC HINGE MODEL
• It is assumed that all inelastic deformation is concentrated in zero ‐
length plastic hinges.
• The deformation measure for D/C is hinge rotation.
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PLASTIC ZONE MODEL
PLASTIC ZONE MODEL
PLASTIC ZONE MODEL • The inelastic behavior occurs in finite length plastic zones. • Actual plastic
PLASTIC ZONE MODEL • The inelastic behavior occurs in finite length plastic zones. • Actual plastic
PLASTIC ZONE MODEL • The inelastic behavior occurs in finite length plastic zones. • Actual plastic

The inelastic behavior occurs in finite length plastic zones.

Actual plastic zones usually change length, but models that have variable lengths are too complex.

The deformation measure for D/C can be :

Average curvature in plastic zone.

Rotation over plastic zone ( = average curvature x zone length).

plastic

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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ASCE 41 CHORD ROTATION CAPACITIES
ASCE 41 CHORD ROTATION CAPACITIES
  IO LS CP Steel Beam θ p / θ y = 1 θ p
  IO LS CP Steel Beam θ p / θ y = 1 θ p
  IO LS CP Steel Beam θ p / θ y = 1 θ p
  IO LS CP Steel Beam θ p / θ y = 1 θ p
  IO LS CP Steel Beam θ p / θ y = 1 θ p
 

IO

LS

CP

Steel Beam

θ p /θ y = 1

θ p /θ y = 6

θ p /θ y = 8

RC Beam Low shear High shear

θ p = 0.01 θ p = 0.005

θ p = 0.02 θ p = 0.01

θ p = 0.025 θ p = 0.02

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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COLUMN AXIAL‐ BENDING MODEL
COLUMN AXIAL‐ BENDING MODEL

M

V

j

P

M V j P V P M i M or M

V

M V j P V P M i M or M
M V j P V P M i M or M
M V j P V P M i M or M
M V j P V P M i M or M

P

M

i

M V j P V P M i M or M
M V j P V P M i M or M

M

or

M V j P V P M i M or M
M V j P V P M i M or M

M

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

P

P P

P

P

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STEEL COLUMN AXIAL‐ BENDING Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
STEEL COLUMN AXIAL‐ BENDING
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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CONCRETE COLUMN AXIAL‐ BENDING Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
CONCRETE COLUMN AXIAL‐ BENDING
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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SHEAR HINGE MODEL Node Elastic beam Zero-length shear "hinge" Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based
SHEAR HINGE MODEL
Node
Elastic beam
Zero-length
shear "hinge"
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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PANEL ZONE ELEMENT
PANEL ZONE ELEMENT
PANEL ZONE ELEMENT • Deformation, D = spring rotation = shear strain in panel zone. •
PANEL ZONE ELEMENT • Deformation, D = spring rotation = shear strain in panel zone. •
PANEL ZONE ELEMENT • Deformation, D = spring rotation = shear strain in panel zone. •
PANEL ZONE ELEMENT • Deformation, D = spring rotation = shear strain in panel zone. •
PANEL ZONE ELEMENT • Deformation, D = spring rotation = shear strain in panel zone. •
PANEL ZONE ELEMENT • Deformation, D = spring rotation = shear strain in panel zone. •

Deformation, D = spring rotation = shear strain in panel zone.

Force, F = moment in spring = moment transferred from beam to column elements.

Also, F = (panel zone horizontal shear force) x (beam depth).

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACE
BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACE
BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACE The BRB element includes “isotropic” hardening. The D ‐ C measure is axial
BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACE The BRB element includes “isotropic” hardening. The D ‐ C measure is axial
BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACE The BRB element includes “isotropic” hardening. The D ‐ C measure is axial

The BRB element includes “isotropic” hardening. The D C measure is axial deformation.

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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BEAM/COLUMN FIBER MODEL
BEAM/COLUMN FIBER MODEL
BEAM/COLUMN FIBER MODEL The cross section is represented by a number of uni ‐ axial fibers.

The cross section is represented by a number of uni axial fibers. The M ψ relationship follows from the fiber properties, areas and locations. Stressstrain relationships reflect the effects of confinement

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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WALL FIBER MODEL
WALL FIBER MODEL
Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε
Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε
Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε
Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε
Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε

Steel

fibers

Concrete

fibers

Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε
Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε

σ

Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε
Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε

σ

Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε
Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε
Steel fibers Concrete fibers σ σ ε ε

ε

ε

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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ALTERNATIVE MEASURE - STRAIN
ALTERNATIVE MEASURE - STRAIN
ALTERNATIVE MEASURE - STRAIN Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ALTERNATIVE MEASURE - STRAIN Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ALTERNATIVE MEASURE - STRAIN Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ALTERNATIVE MEASURE - STRAIN Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ALTERNATIVE MEASURE - STRAIN Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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NONLINEAR SOLUTION SCHEMES
NONLINEAR SOLUTION SCHEMES

ƒ

iteration

1

2

ƒ

iteration

1

2

3 456

∆ u u ∆ ƒ NEWTON – RAPHSON ITERATION

u

u

ƒ

NEWTON – RAPHSON ITERATION

∆ u u ∆ ƒ CONSTANT STIFFNESS ITERATION

u

u

ƒ

CONSTANT STIFFNESS ITERATION

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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CIRCULAR FREQUENCY +Y Y θ 0 Radius, R -Y Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
CIRCULAR FREQUENCY
+Y
Y
θ
0
Radius, R
-Y
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THE D, V & A RELATIONSHIP
THE D, V & A RELATIONSHIP
u . Slope = u t1 t t 1 . u . u t1 Slope
u
.
Slope = u t1
t
t 1
.
u
.
u
t1
Slope = u t1
t
t 1
u
u
t1
t
t 1
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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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UNDAMPED FREE VIBRATION
UNDAMPED FREE VIBRATION

mu&& + ku = 0

ut = u

0

cos( )

t

ω

where ω =

k

m

mu && + ku = 0 u t = u 0 cos( ) t ω where
mu && + ku = 0 u t = u 0 cos( ) t ω where
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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RESPONSE MAXIMA
RESPONSE MAXIMA
ut = u cos( ) ω t 0 u& t = −ω u sin( ω
ut
=
u
cos( )
ω
t
0
u& t
= −ω u
sin(
ω
t
)

u&&t

= −ω

2

0

u

0

cos( t )

ω

u&& max

= −ω

2

u

max

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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BASIC DYNAMICS WITH DAMPING
BASIC DYNAMICS WITH DAMPING

Mu &&

t

Mu &&

u && +

+ Cu &

+

Ku

=

0

+ Cu &

+

Ku

= −

Mu &&

2 ξω& u + ω

2 u

= −&& u

g

g

M
M
0 + Cu & + Ku = − Mu && 2 ξω & u + ω

C

K

0 + Cu & + Ku = − Mu && 2 ξω & u + ω
0 + Cu & + Ku = − Mu && 2 ξω & u + ω

u

g

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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RESPONSE FROM GROUND MOTION 2 &&u +2 ξω u+ & ω u = A +
RESPONSE FROM GROUND MOTION
2
&&u +2 ξω
u+ &
ω u =
A
+
Bt
=− && u g
ug
2
u
g 2
t
t
1
2
Time t
u
g 1
1
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DAMPED RESPONSE
DAMPED RESPONSE
 

ξω t

&

B

& t

u

=

e

{

[

u

t

1

ω

2

]

cos ω

d

t

 

1

2

+−−

ω

ω

d

[

Au

ξω ( u &

tt

1

1

+

B

ω

2

)] sin

ω

d

t

}

+

B

ω

2

 

ξω t

−+ A

2 ξ

B

 

u t

=

e

+

1

{

&

[u

t

1

+

ω

2

ξω

3

ω

] cos ω

d

t

−+ ξ A

B (

2

21

ξ

) ] sin

ω

 

t

 

ω

d

[ u

u

tt

1

1

ω

 

ω

2

d

}

 

A

2 ξ

B

+−+ [

ω

23

ω

Bt

ω

2

]

 
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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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SDOF DAMPED RESPONSE Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
SDOF DAMPED RESPONSE
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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RESPONSE SPECTRUM GENERATION Earthquake Record 0.40 0.20 16 0.00 14 -0.20 12 10 -0.40 0.00
RESPONSE SPECTRUM GENERATION
Earthquake Record
0.40
0.20
16
0.00
14
-0.20
12
10
-0.40
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
8
TIME, SECONDS
6
4
T= 0.6 sec
4.00
2
2.00
0
0.00
0
2
4
6
8
10
-2.00
PERIOD, Seconds
-4.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
T= 2.0 sec
8.00
4.00
0.00
-4.00
Displacement
Response Spectrum
5% damping
-8.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
DISPL, in.
DISPL, in.
GROUND ACC, g
DISPLACEMENT, inches

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SPECTRAL PARAMETERS
SPECTRAL PARAMETERS

DISPLACEMENT, in.

16

DISPLACEMENT, in. 16  
 

12

 

PS

V

= ωS

d

8

 

4

 

PSa

= ω

PSv

0

 
 

0

2

4

6

8

10

 

PERIOD, sec

 
 

40

1.00

VELOCITY, in/sec

30

VELOCITY, in/sec 30 ACCELERATION, g 0.80

ACCELERATION, g

0.80

VELOCITY, in/sec 30 ACCELERATION, g 0.80

0.60

20

0.40

10

0.20

 

0

 

0.00

 

0

2

4

6

8

10

0

2

4

6

8

10

 

PERIOD, sec

 

PERIOD, sec

 
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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THE ADRS SPECTRUM
THE ADRS SPECTRUM

Spectral Acceleration, Sa

Spectral Acceleration, Sa

RS Curve

Seconds

Seconds

Seconds

2.0

1.0

0.5

ADRS Curve

Seconds Seconds Seconds 2.0 1.0 0.5 ADRS Curve Period, T

Period, T

Sa RS Curve Seconds Seconds Seconds 2.0 1.0 0.5 ADRS Curve Period, T Spectral Displacement, Sd

Spectral Displacement, Sd

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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THE ADRS SPECTRUM Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
THE ADRS SPECTRUM
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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ASCE 7 RESPONSE SPECTRUM Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ASCE 7 RESPONSE SPECTRUM
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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PUSHOVER Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
PUSHOVER
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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THE LINEAR PUSHOVER Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
THE LINEAR PUSHOVER
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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EQUIVALENT LINEARIZATION How far to push? The Target Point! Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
EQUIVALENT LINEARIZATION
How far to push? The Target Point!
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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DISPLACEMENT MODIFICATION Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
DISPLACEMENT MODIFICATION
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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DISPLACEMENT MODIFICATION
DISPLACEMENT MODIFICATION

Calculating the Target Displacement

δ = C 0 C 1 C 2 S a T e 2 / (4π 2 )

C 0 Relates spectral to roof displacement C 1 Modifier for inelastic displacement C 2 Modifier for hysteresis loop shape

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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LOAD CONTROL AND DISPLACEMENT CONTROL Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
LOAD CONTROL AND DISPLACEMENT CONTROL
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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P-DELTA ANALYSIS Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
P-DELTA ANALYSIS
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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P-DELTA DEGRADES STRENGTH Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
P-DELTA DEGRADES STRENGTH
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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P-DELTA EFFECTS ON F-D CURVES P- Δ effects may reduce the drift at which the
P-DELTA EFFECTS ON F-D CURVES
P- Δ effects may reduce the drift at which the
"worst" component reaches its ductile limit.
STRUCTURE
P-
Δ
effects will reduce the drift at
STRENGTH
which the structure loses strength.
The "over-ductility" is reduced,
and is more uncertain.
DRIFT
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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THE FAST NONLINEAR ANALYSIS METHOD (FNA)
THE FAST NONLINEAR ANALYSIS METHOD (FNA)

NON LINEAR FRAME AND SHEAR WALL HINGES BASE ISOLATORS (RUBBER & FRICTION)

STRUCTURAL DAMPERS STRUCTURAL UPLIFT

STRUCTURAL POUNDING BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACES

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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RITZ VECTORS Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
RITZ VECTORS
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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FNA KEY POINT
FNA KEY POINT

The Ritz modes generated by the nonlinear deformation loads are used to modify the basic structural modes whenever the nonlinear elements go nonlinear.

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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ARTIFICIAL EARTHQUAKES
ARTIFICIAL EARTHQUAKES

CREATING HISTORIES TO MATCH A SPECTRUM

FREQUENCY CONTENTS OF EARTHQUAKES

FOURIER TRANSFORMS

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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ARTIFICIAL EARTHQUAKES Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ARTIFICIAL EARTHQUAKES
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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MESH REFINEMENT 71 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
MESH REFINEMENT
71
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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APPROXIMATING BENDING BEHAVIOR This is for a coupling beam. A slender pier is similar. 72
APPROXIMATING BENDING BEHAVIOR
This is for a coupling beam. A slender pier is similar.
72
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
ACCURACY OF MESH REFINEMENT 73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
73 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
73
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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PIER / SPANDREL MODELS 74 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
PIER / SPANDREL MODELS
74
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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STRAIN & ROTATION MEASURES 75 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
STRAIN & ROTATION MEASURES
75
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases. 76 Nonlinear Analysis &

Compare calculated strains and rotations for the 3 cases.

76 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
76
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY
STRAIN CONCENTRATION STUDY

No. of

Roof

Strain in bottom element

Strain over story height

Rotation over story height

elems

drift

1

2.32%

2.39%

2.39%

1.99%

2

2.32%

3.66%

2.36%

1.97%

3

2.32%

4.17%

2.35%

1.96%

The strain over the story height is insensitive to the number of elements. Also, the rotation over the story height is insensitive to the number of elements. Therefore these are good choices for D/C measures.

77 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
77
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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DISCONTINUOUS SHEAR WALLS Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
DISCONTINUOUS SHEAR WALLS
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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PIER AND SPANDREL FIBER MODELS Vertical and horizontal fiber models 79 Nonlinear Analysis & Performance
PIER AND SPANDREL FIBER MODELS
Vertical and horizontal fiber models
79
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RAYLEIGH DAMPING
RAYLEIGH DAMPING
RAYLEIGH DAMPING • The α M dampers connect the masses to the ground. They exert external

The αM dampers connect the masses to the ground. They exert external damping forces. Units of α are 1/T.

The β K dampers act in parallel with the elements. They exert internal damping forces. Units of β are T.

The damping matrix is C = αM + β K.

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design 80
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
80

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RAYLEIGH DAMPING • For linear analysis, the coefficients α and β can be chosen to
RAYLEIGH DAMPING
• For linear analysis, the coefficients α and β can be chosen to give essentially
constant damping over a range of mode periods, as shown.
• A possible method is as follows :
Choose T B = 0.9 times the first mode period.
Choose T A = 0.2 times the first mode period.
Calculate α and β to give 5% damping at these two values.
• The damping ratio is essentially constant in the first few modes.
• The damping ratio is higher for the higher modes.
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
81

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RAYLEIGH DAMPING
RAYLEIGH DAMPING

M&u&

t

+

Cu&

+

Ku

= 0

 

M&u&

t

+

&

(α M + β K ) u

+

Ku

= 0

 

&u& +

C

u&

+

K

u

= 0

 

M

M

&u&

+

2 ξωu& + ω

2

u = 0

 

;

2 ξMω = C

 

ξ =

 

C

C

C

αM

βK

2

M

α

ξ 2 ω

=

ω

=

2

+ βω

2

M

K
K

M

= 2

KM

KM

=

2

KM

KM

+

2

KM

KM

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Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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RAYLEIGH DAMPING
RAYLEIGH DAMPING

Higher Modes ( high ω) = β Lower Modes ( low ω) = α

To get ζ from α & β for any ω

=

K

M

; Τ =

ω

To get α & β from two values of ζ 1 & ζ 2

ζ 1 =

ζ 2 =

1

2

2

2

Solve for α & β

Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

α

+

β ω 1

α

+

β ω 2

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DAMPING COEFFICIENT FROM HYSTERESIS Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
DAMPING COEFFICIENT FROM HYSTERESIS
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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DAMPING COEFFICIENT FROM HYSTERESIS Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
DAMPING COEFFICIENT FROM HYSTERESIS
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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A BIG THANK YOU!!! Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design
A BIG THANK YOU!!!
Nonlinear Analysis & Performance Based Design

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