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Motion of particles

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Kinematics of Particles:

Kinematics is the study of the geometry of motion; is used to

relate displacement, velocity, acceleration and time, without

reference to the cause of motion.

Motion in Two and Three Dimensions

Basic References:

Tipler, P. and Mosca, G.(2004) Physics for Scientists and Engineers. Vth Ed. Freeman and

Company

Beer, F. and Jonhston, E. R. (2007) Vector Mechanics for Engineers. McGraw-Hill

MECHANICS

Kinematics of Particles

Motion in One Dimension

Displacement, Velocity,

and Speed

Position xi. is defined

by a frame of reference

Velocity: The rate at which the position change, m/s

ds

dt

Traveled distance: s

total distance traveled

Average speed:

ratio of the total distance traveled

to the total time from start to finish

Instantaneous speed

ds

dt

s

t

ds

dt

The

magnitude of

the

instantaneous

velocity is the

instantaneous

speed

MECHANICS

Kinematics of Particles

Motion in One Dimension

Acceleration

Acceleration

Average acceleration, m/s2

( )

dx

dv d dt d 2 x

=

=

= 2

dt

dt

dt

Motion under constant acceleration, a = aav = constant; uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion

v = vo + at

1 2

x = x xo = vt + at

2

Eliminating t

v 2 = vo2 + 2ax

Practical Case: Objects in Free- fall falling freely under the influence of gravity only

Near the earths surface all unsupported objects fall vertically with constant

acceleration (provided air resistance is negligible) Gravity acceleration ~ 9,81 m/s2.

Exercises

in the figures? Write the equation

that describes the position and

acceleration in each case.

is represented in the

figure. Estimate the

acceleration at t=50 s;

t=120 s; What is the

traveled distance since

the origin of time to t =

60 s; t= 180 s

figure. Draw a graph displaying its velocity

and position versus time

xA

xB

of B with respect to A

vB / A = vB v A

aB / A = aB a A

Dependent motions

The motions of particles are linked,

they are not independent

Examples: Pulleys and objects linked

by inextensible strings

2 xB + x A = Constant

2 vB + v A = 0

2 aB + a A = 0

xB / A = xB x A

Problems

A student throws her cap straight upward with an initial speed of 14.7 m/s. (a) How long does it

take it highest point; (b) What is the distance to the highest point ? (c) Assuming the cup is

caught at the same height from which it was released, what is the total time the cap is in flight?

Problems

A ball is thrown

vertically upward from

the 12-m level in an

elevator shaft with an

initial velocity of 18

m/s. At the same

instant an openplatform elevator

passes the 5-m level,

moving upward with a

constant velocity of 2

m/s. Determine (a)

when and where the

ball will hit the

elevator, (b) the

relative velocity of the

ball with respect to the

elevator when the ball

MECHANICS

Kinematics of Particles

Motion in Two and Three Dimensions

Vectors

Addition and substraction

Parallelogram method

Vectors Components

Vector rectangular

components

Vectors

Addition of vectors can be

done by the head-to-tail, the

parallelogram method, or

analytically, using vector

components

3-3

Position, Velocity, and

Acceleration

r

r

r

r dr ds r

r

v = lim = = T = vT

t 0 t

dt dt

Curvilinear Motion

( )

r

r

r

v dv d vT

r

a = lim = =

t 0 t

dt

dt

Curvilinear Motion

r

r

r

r

r = xi + y j + z k

s dx r dy r dz r

v= i+

j+ k

dt

dt

dk

r d 2x r d 2 y r d 2z r

a= 2 i + 2 j+ 2k

dt

dt

dt

Exercises

A student throws her cap into the air with an initial

velocity of 24,5 m/s at 36.9 above of horizontal. The

path described by the cap is showed in the figure.

Draw the position vector, velocity and acceleration at

time t= 0, t=1, t= 2 and t = 3 (in seconds).

Draw a diagram motion about it displaying the

position vector, velocity and acceleration in

different positions of the path.

Curvilinear Motion

Consider the motion of a pendulum bob

shown in figure. Draw the position

vector, the velocity and the acceleration

at different times, t0, t2, t4, t6 and t8.

r r r

rB = rA + rB / A

r

r r

vB = v A + vB / A

r

r r

aB = a A + aB / A

r

rB / A

Axyz, or the position of B relative to A

r

vB / A

Axyz, or the velocity of B relative to

A.This is the derivative of relative position

frame Axyz or the acceleration of B

B / A relative to A. This the derivative of relative

velocity

The rate of change of a vector as observed from a moving

frame of reference is, in general, different from its rate as

The motion of B

observed from a fixed frame of reference.

with respect to the

fixed frame Oxyz is

However, if the moving frame is in translation, the rate of

referred to as

change of a vector is the same with respect to a fixed frame

absolute motion

and with respect to a frame in translation.

r

a

B

r

vB / A

r r r

rB = rA + rB / A

r

r r

vB = v A + vB / A

r

r r

aB = a A + aB / A

r

vA

3-4

Special Case 1: Projectile Motion

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