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TRAINING ACTIVITIES FOR

VISUAL-PERCEPTUAL SKILLS
ACTIVIDADES DE ENTRENAMIENTO
DE HABILIDADES VISO-PERCEPTIVAS
Visual Form-Constancy (Basic Level)
Constancia Visual de la Forma (Nivel Bsico)

Authors
Garca-Montero, Mara
Vidal-Lpez, Joaqun
Rodn-Gonzlez, Antonio
Gimeno-Galindo, Patricia
Javaloyes-Moreno, Beatriz
Muios-Durn, Mnica
Rif-Giribet, Montserrat
Codina-Fossas, Marta
Fernndez-Endrino, Enrique

TRAINING ACTIVITIES FOR


VISUAL-PERCEPTUAL SKILLS
ACTIVIDADES DE ENTRENAMIENTO
DE HABILIDADES VISO-PERCEPTIVAS

Visual Form-Constancy (Basic Level)


Constancia Visual de la Forma (Nivel Bsico)

Authors
Garca-Montero, Mara
Vidal-Lpez, Joaqun
Rodn-Gonzlez, Antonio
Gimeno-Galindo, Patricia
Javaloyes-Moreno, Beatriz
Muios-Durn, Mnica
Rif-Giribet, Montserrat
Codina-Fossas, Marta
Fernndez-Endrino, Enrique

TRAINING ACTIVITIES FOR VISUAL-PERCEPTUAL SKILLS


Visual Form-Constancy (Basic Level)
ACTIVIDADES DE ENTRENAMIENTO DE HABILIDADES VISOPERCEPTIVAS Constancia Visual de la Forma (Nivel Bsico)

Authors: Garca-Montero, Mara; VidalLpez,


Joaqun;
Rodn-Gonzlez,
Antonio;
Gimeno-Galindo,
Patricia;
Javaloyes-Moreno, Beatriz; MuiosDurn, Mnica; Rif-Giribet, Montserrat;
Codina-Fossas,
Marta;
FernndezEndrino, Enrique

Editors: Rodn-Gonzlez, Antonio; VidalLpez, Joaqun

Copyright 2009. Saera. Solutions for


Learning and Research, S.L.
(www.saera.es)

ISBN-13: 978-84-692-4349-7

TRAINING ACTIVITIES FOR VISUAL-FORM CONSTANCY

The term visual perception makes reference to the capacity that brain has to
understand and to interpret that eyes see (Gardner, 1986; Scheiman, 1997). Along
with the basic visual functions and motor skills, visual perceptual skills allow us to carry
out many activities of daily life (Chaikin and Downing-Baum, 1997; Erhardt and
Duckman, 2005; Van Waelvelde, De Weerdt, De Cock and Smits-Engelsman, 2004),
and guide our actions (Goodale and Milner, 2009; Jeannerod, 2006).
In our daily lives we do not perceive a world composed of isolated visual stimuli
(edges, lines and points), but for complex scenes and structured stimuli (numbers,
letters, figures and objects, faces, landscapes, etc.) that sometimes are presented in
dynamic conditions. These visual stimuli can be characterized by its attributes, such as
colour, size, contrast, orientation or motion. However, most visual stimuli are
recognized by one essential attribute: the form (Ullman, 1995).
The visual-form constancy is a visual perceptual ability that allows us to detect,
differentiate and select visual stimuli within a given environment, to discriminate or
differentiate them from other stimuli present.
The ability to discriminate forms is an important skill for the person to succeed in
their interaction with the environment, and thus plays an important role in human visual
perception (Bryan, 2004; Ullman, 1995), because it allows the person conducting the
visual recognition of objects, figures, faces, etc. (Jolicoeur, Ullman and Mackay, 1986).
The processing of forms of discrimination takes place in multiple brain areas
related to vision (Gulyas, Heywood, Popplewell, Roland and Cowey, 1994; Ullman,
1995), and the interaction between simple and complex cells of the visual cortex
involved in this kind of viso-perceptual ability, regardless of area of retina that is
stimulated by the observed object or visual stimulation (Kandel, 1985).
It is believed that the form-perception is carried out by two independent systems
(Gulyas et al.; Marsoleck, 1995): a) The visual abstract perception of form system
(VAPF), which processes and stores the visual information to discriminate between
different types of forms, and b) The visual specific perception of form system (VSPF),
which facilitates the representation of a specific form, for example, a person can
visually track their environment to find a pen, without seeking one specific (in this case
VAPF is the operating system) or search for a specific pen (mediated by the VSPF
system) (Zoltan, 2007).
Also, it has been suggested that form perception is carried out, to a greater
extent, by the accumulation of past experiences, rather than (as was thought), by
analyzing the pattern of visual stimulation (Purves, 2009).
Other authors (Fukushima, Kasahara, Kamigaki and Miyashita, 2008) have
reported that discrimination of shapes and objects requires a linkage between the
analysis of observed stimulus and knowledge about it. It is believed that neurons in the
inferior temporal cortex are involved in these processes, so that their responses vary
through experience or learning, so the perception of shapes and objects is linked to
visual associative memory.
Visual perceptual skills of children are not at the same level as for the adult, but
their perception of the world is also good (Arterberry, 2008). It has been estimated that

the form-constancy skills improve rapidly between 6 and 7 years of age, and stabilizes
between 8 and 9 years (Atkinson and Braddick, 1989; Williams, 1983).
However, any factor that interferes with the exploration of the environment may
interfere with visual perceptual learning process (Tsai, Wilson and Wu, 2008),
adversely affecting the ability to perform activities of daily live, such as games or
recreational activities, school work or other development tasks related to their age,
especially in school-age children (AOTA, 1991; Dankert, Davies and Gavin, 2003;
Kovacs, 2000; Loikith, 2005).
It is also reported that in school, performance in reading, writing and mathematics
may be negatively affected by inadequate form-perception skills (Cornoldi, Venneri,
Marconato, Molin and Montinari, 2003; Schneck and Lemer, 1993; Solan and Ciner,
1989, Weil and Amundson, 1994), given that these activities are usually working with
shapes, numbers, letters and words, which require, among other skills, the ability to
discriminate forms.
When a subject have deficiencies in this visual perception skill, may have
difficulties paying attention to subtle variations of certain forms, which could eventually
cause inability to recognize common objects (Zoltan, 2007). For example, he o she
might have trouble finding differences between a square, a rhombus and a rectangle.
Moreover, this difficulty to discriminate shapes can also affect the performance of
reading and writing, for example, finding no differences between letters like "s" and "z"
or words like "ride" and "side".
Some studies have encountered difficulties in this ability in patients with lesions in
the temporal and parietal lobe (Gulyas et al. 1994; Kosslyn, Chabis, Marsolek and
Koening, 1992), with refractive errors around 1.5 diopters (Leibowitz, Wilcox and Post,
1978), with dysfunction in sensory integration (Allison, Gabriel, Schlange and
Fredrickson, 2007), with deficits in the development of the coordination DCD (Hulme,
Biggerstaff, Moran and McKinlay, 1982; Hulme, Smart and Moran, 1982; Lord and
Hulme, 1987 and 1988; Schoemaker et al., 2001, Tsai et al., 2008) and in children with
low birth weight (Davis, Burns, Wilkerson and Steichen, 2005).
Some authors have shown that some children with amblyopia have difficulty in
the performance of discrimination tasks with shapes and texture-defined motion (Wang,
Ho and Giaschi, 2007), attributing these visual perceptual deficits to defects in the
processes of segregation of figure- ground.
Tseng and Chow (2000) have shown that children with low achievement in writing
speed have lowest scores on tasks of form-constancy.
Often, occupational therapists and other health professionals assess and treat
problems of visual perception that occur in school-age children (Kalb and Warshowsky,
1991; Todd, 1993; Wright, Bowen and Zecker, 2000) or in people of other ages, in
order to assess the presence and impact of the visual perceptual dysfunction in these
patients (Brown, 2008).
Ruf-Bchtiger (1989) has suggested the enormous importance of the evaluation
of some visual perceptual skills, to better understand children with visual perception
and to develop more effective methods of treatment. Davis et al. (2005) also found that
the visual perceptual assessment should be a vital part of the routine evaluation in
preschool children born prematurely, because early identification of visual perceptual
deficits could facilitate treatment, achieving an improvement in skills or visual
perceptual domains in these children at high risk.

In another report, Tsai et al. (2008) have considered the assessment of visual
perceptual skills in children with deficits in development of motor coordination has great
significance for the processing and implementation of strategies for better performance
on tasks of daily life.
This ability can be assessed by some tests that assess different visual perceptual
skills, including the form-constancy:

Formboard Test (Zoltan, Jabri, Panikoff, and Ryckman, 1983)


The Hooper Visual Organization Test, Manual HVOT (Hooper, 1983)
Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude, Adult Version DTLA-A (Hammill and
Bryant, 1991)
The Visual Object and Space Perception Battery VOSP (Warrington and
James, 1991)
Birmingham Object Recognition Battery BORB (Riddoch and Humphreys,
1993)
Developmental Test of Visual Perception, Second Edition DTVP-2
(Hammill, Pearson, Voress and Frostig, 1993)
Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Third Edition MVPT-3 (Colarusso and
Hammill, 2003)
Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Fifth Edition
VMI (Beery and Beery, 2004)
Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (non-motor), Third Edition TVPS-3 (Martin,
2006)

Once one or more of these tests was used, it is possible to determine if this visual
perceptual ability have or not the level of expected performance for the chronological
age of the subject. In cases where the results were below the expected values for age,
it is possible to train this skill with visual perceptual exercises.
Tsai et al. (2008) have reported that learning of visual perceptual skills can be
improved through practical experience in the same way the children learn to extract
relevant information from their environment in certain activities.
The present book of exercises is recommended for use by occupational
therapists, optometrists, educators, learning specialists and other health professionals,
and aims to train the ability to discriminate form-constancy in people who need to
improve it (mainly patients with learning difficulties or neurological damage, both
congenital and acquired), and people who want to enhance their performance in
carrying out these activities, for example, athletes or students who are preparing an
opposition.
This book consists of 200 plates containing different figures. In each of the plates
appears one picture in the upper half of the page that will serve as a reference
stimulus, and that person must observe in order to identify a single stimulus with a
shape exactly the same (although their size or orientation can be different than the
reference stimulus) within the possible answers given in the bottom half of the page.
The figures will rise in level of difficulty as you progress in the task.

ACTIVIDADES DE ENTRENAMIENTO DE LA CONSTANCIA VISUAL DE LA FORMA

El trmino de percepcin visual se refiere a la capacidad que tiene el cerebro


para comprender e interpretar lo que los ojos ven (Gardner, 1986; Scheiman, 1997).
Junto con las funciones visuales bsicas y las funciones motoras, las habilidades visoperceptivas nos permiten llevar a cabo numerosas actividades de nuestra vida diaria
(Chaikin y Downing-Baum, 1997; Erhardt y Duckman, 2005; Van Waelvelde, De
Weerdt, De Cock y Smits-Engelsman, 2004), as como guiar nuestras acciones
(Goodale y Milner, 2009; Jeannerod, 2006).
En nuestra vida cotidiana no percibimos un mundo formado por estmulos
visuales aislados (bordes, rayas o puntos), sino por estmulos estructurados y escenas
complejas (nmeros, letras, figuras y objetos, rostros, paisajes, etc.), que en ocasiones
se presentan en condiciones dinmicas. Estos estmulos visuales se pueden
caracterizar por sus atributos, como el color, el tamao, el contraste, la orientacin o el
movimiento. Sin embrago, la mayora de los estmulos visuales se reconocen por un
atributo esencial: la forma (Ullman, 1995).
La constancia de la forma visual es una habilidad viso-perceptiva que nos
permite detectar, diferenciar y seleccionar estmulos visuales dentro de un entorno
determinado, para poder discriminarlos o diferenciarlos del resto de estmulos
presentes.
La capacidad para discriminar formas es una habilidad importante para que la
persona tenga xito en su interaccin con el entorno, y, por ello, desempea un
importante papel en la percepcin visual humana (Bryan, 2004; Ullman, 1995), ya que
permite que el sujeto lleve a cabo el reconocimiento visual de objetos, figuras, caras,
etc. (Jolicoeur, Ullman y Mackay, 1986).
El procesamiento de la discriminacin de formas se lleva a cabo en mltiples
reas cerebrales relacionadas con la visin (Gulyas, Heywood, Popplewell, Roland y
Cowey, 1994; Ullman, 1995); adems, la interaccin entre clulas simples y complejas
de la corteza visual intervienen en este tipo de habilidad viso-perceptiva,
independientemente de la zona de retina que sea estimulada por el objeto o estmulo
visual observado (Kandel, 1985).
Se piensa que la percepcin de la forma se lleva a cabo por dos sistemas
independientes (Gulyas y cols., 1994; Marsoleck, 1995): a) El sistema visual-abstracto
de percepcin de la forma (AVF), que procesa y almacena la informacin visual, para
discriminar entre diferentes tipos de formas, y b) El sistema de forma visual-especfico
(SVF), que facilita la representacin de una forma concreta; por ejemplo, una persona
puede rastrear visualmente su entorno para encontrar un lapicero con el que pueda
escribir, sin buscar uno en particular (en este caso opera el sistema AVF), o bien
realizar la bsqueda de un lapicero concreto (mediado por el sistema SVF) (Zoltan,
2007).
Tambin, se ha sugerido que la percepcin de la forma se lleva a cabo, en mayor
medida, por la acumulacin de experiencias pasadas, en lugar de realizarse (como se
crea), mediante un anlisis de las caractersticas del estmulo visual (Purves, 2009).
Otros autores (Fukushima, Kasahara, Kamigaki y Miyashita, 2008) han informado
que la discriminacin de formas y objetos requiere una vinculacin entre el anlisis del
estmulo observado y el conocimiento del mismo. Se cree que las neuronas de la
corteza temporal inferior estn involucradas en estos procesos, de manera que sus

respuestas varan a travs de la experiencia o del aprendizaje, por lo que la


percepcin de formas y objetos est ligada a la memoria visual asociativa.
Las habilidades viso-perceptivas del nio no estn en el mismo nivel que las del
adulto, pero su percepcin del mundo sigue siendo buena (Arterberry, 2008). Se ha
estimado que las habilidades para perciber la constancia de formas mejora
rpidamente entre los 6 y 7 aos de edad, y se estabiliza entre los 8 y 9 aos
(Atkinson y Braddick, 1989; Williams, 1983).
Sin embargo, cualquier factor que interfiera en la exploracin del entorno de un
nio puede impedir el proceso de aprendizaje viso-perceptivo (Tsai, Wilson y Wu,
2008), afectando negativamente a la capacidad para llevar a cabo actividades de la
vida diaria, como juegos o actividades recreativas, trabajos escolares u otras tareas de
desarrollo relacionadas con su edad, especialmente en nios en edad escolar (AOTA,
1991; Dankert, Davies y Gavin, 2003; Kovacs, 2000; Loikith, 2005).
Adems, se ha visto que en el mbito escolar el rendimiento de la lectura, la
escritura y las matemticas puede verse afectado negativamente por unas habilidades
de percepcin de la forma inadecuadas (Cornoldi, Venneri, Marconato, Molin y
Montinari, 2003; Schneck y Lemer, 1993; Solan y Ciner, 1989; Weil y Amundson,
1994), dado que al realizar estas actividades habitualmente se trabaja con figuras,
nmeros, letras y palabras, que requieren, entre otras habilidades, la destreza para
discriminar sus formas.
Los sujetos que tienen deficiencias en esta habilidad viso-perceptiva, pueden
tener dificultades para atender a variaciones sutiles en determinadas formas, que se
puede traducir en una incapacidad para reconocer objetos relativamente comunes
(Zoltan, 2007). Por ejemplo, podran tener dificultad para encontrar diferencias entre
un cuadrado, un rombo y un rectngulo. Adems, esta dificultad para discriminar
formas tambin puede afectar al rendimiento de la lecto-escritura, por ejemplo al no
encontrar diferencias entre letras como la s y la z o entre palabras como dado y
lado.
En algunos estudios se han encontrado dificultades en esta habilidad en
pacientes con lesiones en el lbulo parietal y temporal (Gulyas y cols., 1994; Kosslyn,
Chabis, Marsolek y Koening, 1992), con errores refractivos entorno a 1.5 dioptras
(Leibowitz, Wilcox y Post, 1978), con disfunciones en la integracin sensorial (Allison,
Gabriel, Schlange y Fredrickson, 2007), con dficits en el desarrollo de la coordinacin
DCD (Hulme, Biggerstaff, Moran y McKinlay, 1982; Hulme, Smart y Moran, 1982;
Lord y Hulme, 1987 y 1988; Schoemaker y cols., 2001; Tsai y cols., 2008), y en nios
con bajo peso al nacer (Davis, Burns, Wilkerson y Steichen, 2005).
Algunos autores han revelado que algunos nios con ambliopa tienen
dificultades en el rendimiento de tareas de discriminacin de formas con textura y
movimiento definido (Wang, Ho y Giaschi, 2007), atribuyendo estos dficits visoperceptivos a defectos en los procesos de segregacin de la figura-fondo.
Tseng y Chow (2000) han visto que los nios con bajo rendimiento en la
velocidad de escritura tienen resultados ms bajos en tareas de constancia de forma.
Con frecuencia, los terapeutas ocupacionales y otros profesionales de la salud
evalan y tratan los problemas de percepcin visual que se producen en nios en
edad escolar (Kalb y Warshowsky, 1991; Todd, 1993; Wright, Bowen y Zecker, 2000) o
en personas de otras edades, con el fin de valorar la presencia y el impacto de las
disfunciones viso-perceptivas en este tipo de pacientes (Brown, 2008).

Ruf-Bchtiger (1989) ha sugerido la enorme importancia que tiene la evaluacin


de algunas habilidades viso-perceptivas, para entender mejor a los nios con
trastornos de percepcin visual y poder desarrollar de manera ms eficaz los mtodos
de tratamiento. Davis y cols. (2005), tambin han considerado que el examen visoperceptivo debe ser una parte imprescindible de la evaluacin rutinaria en nios de
edad preescolar nacidos prematuramente, ya que la identificacin temprana de los
dficits viso-perceptivos podran facilitar su tratamiento, logrando una mejora en las
habilidades o dominios viso-perceptivos en estos nios con alto riesgo.
En otro informe, Tsai y cols. (2008) han considerado que la valoracin del
rendimiento viso-perceptivo en nios con dficits en el desarrollo de la coordinacin
motora DCD, tiene una gran importancia de cara al tratamiento y a la aplicacin de
estrategias para un mejor rendimiento en las tareas de su vida diaria.
Esta habilidad se puede evaluar mediante algunas pruebas viso-perceptivas que
valoran distintas habilidades, entre ellas la de constancia de forma:

Formboard Test (Zoltan, Jabri, Panikoff, y Ryckman, 1983)


The Hooper Visual Organization Test, Manual HVOT (Hooper, 1983)
Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude, Adult Version DTLA-A (Hammill y
Bryant, 1991)
The Visual Object and Space Perception Battery VOSP (Warrington y
James, 1991)
Birmingham Object Recognition Battery BORB (Riddoch y Humphreys,
1993)
Developmental Test of Visual Perception, Second Edition DTVP-2
(Hammill, Pearson, Voress y Frostig, 1993)
Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Third Edition MVPT-3 (Colarusso y
Hammill, 2003)
Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Fifth Edition
VMI (Beery y Beery, 2004)
Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (non-motor), Third Edition TVPS-3 (Martin,
2006)

Una vez que se haya administrado una o varias de estas pruebas, se puede
determinar si esta habilidad viso-perceptiva se corresponde o no con el nivel de
rendimiento esperado para la edad cronolgica del sujeto. En aquellos casos en los
que los resultados obtenidos estuvieran por debajo de los valores esperados para su
edad, es posible entrenar esta habilidad viso-perceptiva mediante ejercicios como los
que aparecen en el presente cuaderno de actividades.
Tsai y cols. (2008) han informado de que el aprendizaje de las habilidades visoperceptivas puede mejorarse mediante la experiencia prctica, de la misma manera
que un nio aprende a extraer la informacin relevante de su entorno en determinadas
actividades cotidianas.
El libro de ejercicios que presentamos a continuacin est recomendado para ser
utilizado por terapeutas ocupacionales, optometristas, educadores, especialistas del
aprendizaje y otros profesionales de la salud, y pretende entrenar la habilidad para
discriminar la constancia de la forma en aquellas personas que necesiten mejorar
(principalmente pacientes con dificultades de aprendizaje o con daos neurolgicos,
tanto congnitos, como adquiridos), y en personas que quieran aumentar su
rendimiento al realizar estas actividades, por ejemplo, deportistas o estudiantes que se
estn preparando una oposicin.

Este cuaderno est compuesto por 200 lminas que contienen distintas figuras.
En cada una de las lminas aparece una figura en la parte superior que servir de
estmulo de referencia, y que la persona debe observar para poder identificar un nico
estmulo con una forma exactamente igual (aunque su tamao o su orientacin vare
respecto al estmulo de referencia) dentro de las posibles respuestas dadas en la parte
inferior de la lmina. Las figuras van subiendo en nivel de dificultad conforme se
avanza en la tarea.

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10

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12

ADMINISTRATION
NORMAS DE APLICACIN
In the following pages in the upper half of each plate a figure is presented. You
must to find the IDENTICAL figure in form or shape (although its size and/or its
orientation is different) among the responses that are displayed on the bottom
half. Please, do the same in other plates. There is only one correct answer in
each plate.

A continuacin, aparece en la parte superior de la lmina una figura. Trate de buscar


otra TOTALMENTE IDNTICA en cuanto a su forma (aunque su tamao y/ u
orientacin sea diferente) entre las diferentes respuestas que se muestran en la parte
inferior. Haga lo mismo en el resto de lminas. Solamente existe una nica respuesta
correcta para cada lmina.

CF - 1

CF - 2

CF - 3

CF - 4

CF - 5

CF - 6

CF - 7

CF - 8

CF - 9

CF - 10

CF - 11

CF - 12

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CF - 14

CF - 15

CF - 16

CF - 17

CF - 18

CF - 19

CF - 20

CF - 21

CF - 22

CF - 23

CF - 24

CF - 25

CF - 26

CF - 27

CF - 28

CF - 29

CF - 30

CF - 31

CF - 32

CF - 33

CF - 34

CF - 35

CF - 36

CF - 37

CF - 38

CF - 39

CF - 40

CF - 41

CF - 42

CF - 43

CF - 44

CF - 45

CF - 46

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CF - 48

CF - 49

CF - 50

CF - 51

CF - 52

CF - 53

CF - 54

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CF - 56

CF - 57

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CF - 65

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CF - 85

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CF - 89

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CF - 91

CF - 92

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CF - 99

CF - 100

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CF - 197

CF - 198

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TABLE OF ANSWERS PLANTILLA DE RESPUESTAS


The correct answers are shown below. If the correct answer is the first figure of the plate, the number 1 is shown; if the
correct answer is the second figure, a number 2 will be shown, and so on.
A continuacin se muestra la plantilla de correccin, que contiene el nmero de cada una de las lminas y la respuesta correcta
para cada una de ellas. Si la respuesta correcta es la primera figura de la lmina el nmero mostrado es un 1; si la respuesta
correcta corresponde con la segunda figura aparece un 2, y as sucesivamente.

ITEM
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

CORRECT
ANSWER
1
3
3
2
3
3
2
1
3
3
3
2
3
1
3
2
3
3
3
1
1
3
3
3
3

ITEM
#
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

CORRECT
ANSWER
3
1
1
1
2
3
1
2
1
3
1
1
3
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
2

ITEM
#
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75

CORRECT
ANSWER
3
1
3
3
4
2
1
4
1
4
3
3
4
3
3
2
3
1
2
3
3
3
2
3
4

ITEM
#
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

CORRECT
ANSWER
2
3
3
2
4
3
4
2
4
4
3
3
2
1
4
1
3
1
4
3
3
4
2
2
1

TABLE OF ANSWERS PLANTILLA DE RESPUESTAS


(CONTINUATION CONTINUACIN)

ITEM
#
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125

CORRECT
ANSWER
1
3
1
1
2
2
2
1
3
3
3
1
3
2
3
2
1
1
3
2
2
2
1
2
3

ITEM
#
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150

CORRECT
ANSWER
2
1
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
3
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
3
3
2

ITEM
#
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175

CORRECT
ANSWER
1
3
2
1
4
4
1
3
3
1
4
2
3
4
2
2
1
1
2
4
2
2
4
2
3

ITEM
#
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200

CORRECT
ANSWER
1
1
1
3
1
1
4
2
1
3
3
4
2
4
1
4
3
2
2
1
1
2
3
3
1