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I.

Thut ng v xe hi
1. Rc ri thut ng xe hi
M i hng mi kiu,i lc cc ch vit tt gn trn t nhnh ngi
tiu dng. Cng ch mt cng ngh m Honda th c VTEC, Toyota gi l
VVT-i cn BMW kh hiu hn vi VANOS.
T khi khai sinh cchy 120 nm, xe hi ko theo hng lot nhng thut
ng, t vit tt m dn d chng tr thnh ngn ng ca ring sn phm ny.
Trn mt mu xe hay mt cng ngh bao gi cng cng c ch vit ttnh
km. Chng hn,ng c V8 hay V6, chng b cng phanh ABS (Antilock
brake system),iu ha (A/C- Airconditioning), SRS (ti kh) tr nn rt
quen thuc.
ng c kiu VVT-i quen thuc ca Toyota.nh: Autoworld.
Tuy nhin, c nh ng t vit tt nh thch thc hiu bit ca mi ngi v
rc ri ch chng vn ch l mt cng ngh, hay mt thit b no. Dng
nh, mi khi sng to hay ci tin ci g mi, cc hng li c ngh cho n mt
ci tn khng b ln vii th khc. Tng t nh vy, sn phm cng c
"ui" theo sau khin nhiu ngi mua xe hng chc nm m khng hiu ht
ngha ca nhng t vit tt.
Khng ch "dn thng", nhng k s sng s trong lng cng ngh hay
gii am hiu ti lc cng phi b tay trc t vit tt. Nhiu lc, cc hng
pht minh ra mt t chng lin quan g n k thut m ch chm chm vo
mcch marketing. Khng nhng vy, c nhng tnh hung oi om nh cm

t cng b chnh thc li chng c trong s tay s dng. V vy, nu khng


hiu nhng g hng ni, cch tt nht l bn hy gn cho chng mt ngha
chung chung.
Diy l nhng t trn cc mu xe ph bin:
H thngiu chnh trc cam: GM gi n l VVT (variable valve timing bin thin thiim ng m van np). Toyota sau khi ci tin th gi thnh
VVT-i, vi ch "i" ly t t " intelligent
- thng minh". Honda gi n l VTEC, vit tt t cm t "Variable ValveTiming and Lift Electronic Control", tch hp trnng c ca Honda Civic.
BMW phc tp hn khi gi cng ngh ny l VANOS cn Subaru khng chu
km cnh di ci tn di ngong Dual AVCS (active valve control system)
T t c chngu m ch qu trnh tcng vo thiim m vng
vanng c, thng qua trc cam. Tuy nhin, mi hngng dng di mt hnh
thc, tcng vo mt hay nhiu thng s nn tn gi cng v th m khc
nhau. Mt vi hng da vo p sut dung c thayi v tr trc cam theo
trc khuu, trong khi c hng li dng cc coni.
H thng cn bngin t:y l cng ngh do hng thit b ni ting
Bosch pht minh vc Mercedes s dng trn cc mu xe hng sang cao
cp S-class. Tn giu tin ca h thng ny l ESP (Stabilittsprogramm chng trnh cn bngin t) nhng sau Bosch thng mi ha di ci
tn ESC (Electronic Stability Control). ESC hotng bng cch can thip
vo phanh, gim cng sutng c trong trng hp mt trong cc bnh mt
bmng. ESC ch l cng c li xe gi chc tay li v n khng th
thngc cc quy lut vt l.

D Bosch, m t hng th ba pht minh ra k thut ny, ESC vn b


cchiu thnh nhng ci tn khc nh VSA (Vehicle Stability Assist - h
thng h tr cn bng) ca Audi, VDC (Vehicle Dynamic Control - kim
sotng lc xe), DSC (Dynamic Stability Control - kim sot cn bngng
lc). Thm ch, Maserati, hng siu xe ca Italy, chuyn n thnh ring ca
mnh l MSP (Maserati Stability Program). Nu khng ch , rt nhiu ngi
lm tng nhng ch ci ny th hin cho cc cng ngh hon ton khc nhau.
ng c diesel: Do khng my ph bin nn nhiu hng phit thm hu
t ch loing c ny trn cc mu xe ca mnh. BMW nhanh chn chn
mt cchn gin l dng ch "d" pha sau tn nh BMW 525d. Mercedes th
dng cm t CDI (Common rail Direct Injection) cn Ford th dng thut ng
TDCi. Nh sn xut Italy Fiat s dng cm t JTD.
Renault c a Php c dCi, GMo trt t ca Ford thnh CDTi (dnh cho
nhng chic xe ca Fiat, hi hai hng ny vn cn lin kt vi nhau). Hyundai
s hu k hiu CRDi, Mitsubishi l DI-D cn Peugeot l HDi. Toyota, hng
xe ln th hai th gii chn ch D4-D cho ccng c diesel ca mnh.
t tn xe bng ch ci: Nhng ch vit tt trn thin v k thut cn c
th dch ra, nhng vi cc k t dng cho tng phin bn xe th khng hng
no ging hng no. V nh Mercedes quy nh cc kiu xe l SLR (Sport
Light Race), SLK (Sport Light Compact), CLS (Classic Light Sport), SL
(Sport Light).
Nh ng sn phm ca Lexus th theo th t trong bng ch ci m cao cp
dn nh IS, ES ri GS, LS (ch S th hin cho loi sedan). dng th thaoa

dng th l c hu t l "X" v ln cng tng dn theo ch ci, btu t RX


rin GX v c ln nht l LX.
Tro l u dng ch ci lm tn r r th cng l lc tranh chp thng mi
din ra. Cui thng trc, Infiniti, hng xe hng sang ca Nissan thua kin
BMW ti Canada do s dng tn "M6" t cho gi thit b dnh cho chic
sedan G35. Trong khi, M6 l dng xe th thao cao cp ca BMW
vcng k bn quyn. Kt cc, Infiniti b cmngn k hiu "M6"
trong bt c tnh hung no, trong c han, ch k hay qung co.
Nh ng chi sau ch tng phin bn nh DX, XLT, SE, ELX, HLX th
v s v ch nh sn xut mi hiu ngha v bit chng vit tt ca ch g,
bi khng c quynh bt buc. Cm ELX, HLX ch dng trn xe Fiat cn
XLT dng trn xe Ford. Thng thng, GLc mcnh m ch cho t
"Grand Luxe - sang trng cao cp" ca ting Php. DX ch "Deluxe - sang
trng" cn SE l vit tt ca "Sport Edition - phin bn th thao".
2. Thu t ng Din gii
4WD, 4x4 (4 wheel drive): Dnng 4 bnh (hay xe c 4 bnh chng). ABS
(anti-lock brake system): H thng chng b cng phanh. AFL (adaptive
forward lighting):n pha m di chiu sng theo gc li. ARTS (adaptive
restraint technology system): H thngin t kch hot gi hi theo nhng
thng s cn thit ti thiim xy ra va chm. BA (brake assist): H
thng h tr phanh gp. Cabriolet: Kiu xe coupe mui xp. CATS (computer
active technology suspension): H thng treoin t tngiu chnh
cng theoiu kin vn hnh.
Conceptcar: Mt chic xe hi hon chnh nhng ch l thit k mu hoc

trng by, cha


ca vo dy chuyn sn xut. Coupe: Kiu xe th thao ging sedan
nhng ch c 2 ca. CVT (continuously vriable transmission): C cu
truynng bngai thang tng bin tc v
c p. Dngng c I4, I6: Gm 4 hoc 6 xi-lanh xp thnh 1 hng thng.
Dngng c V6, V8: Gm 6 hoc 8 xi-lanh, xp thnh 2 hng nghing, mt
ct cm my hnh
ch V. DOHC (double overhead camshafts): 2 trc cam pha trn xi-lanh.
DSG (direct shift gearbox): Hpiu tc lun phin. EBD (electronic brakeforce distribution): H thng phn b lc phanhin t. EDC (electronic
damper control): H thngiu chnh gim min t. EFI (electronic fuel
Injection): H thng phun xngin t. ESP (electronic stability program): H
thng tng cn bngin t. Hatchback: Kiu sedan c khoang hnh l thu
gn vo trong ca-bin, ca lt pha sau vt thng t
n hu ln nc ca-bin vi bn l m ln pha trn.
Hard-top: Kiu xe mui kim loi cng khng c khungng gia 2 ca trc v
sau.
Hybrid: Kiu xe c phnng lcc thit k kt hp t 2 dng my tr ln.
V d: xe t
x ngin, xep my... iDrive: H thngiu khinin t trung tm. IOE
(intake over exhaust): Van np nm pha trn van x. Minivan: Kiu hatchback
c ca-bin ko di trm ca-p, c t 6n 8 ch. OHV (overhead valves):
Trc cam nm di v tcng vo van qua cc tayn. Pikup: Kiu xe hi 4

ch c thng ch hng ri pha sau ca-bin (xe bn ti) Roadster: Kiu xe


coupe mui trn v ch c 2 ch ngi. Sedan: Loi xe hm knh 4 ca, ca-p v
khoang hnh l thp hn ca-bin. SOHC (single overhead camshafts): Trc
camn trnu xi-lanh. SUV (sport utility vehicle): Kiu xe th thaoa chc
nng, hu htc thit k chng 4
bnh v c th vt nhnga hnh xu. SV (side valves): S thit k
van nghing bn sn. Turbo: Thit k tng p cang c. Turbodiesel:ng
c diesel c thit k tng p. Universal: Kiu sedan c ca-bin ko di lin vi
khoang hnh l. Van: Xe hm ch hng. VSC (vehicle skid control): H thng
kim sot tnh trng trt bnh xe. VVT-i (variable valve timing with
intelligence): H thngiu khin van np nhin liu bin
thin thng minh.

II. Bo dng xe
1. Bo dngc-quy t
Qu nhit v qu np l hai nguyn nhn ch yu khinc-quy htin sm. V
vy, cn theo
di v bo dng thng xuyn thit b ny,c bit trong ma nng.
c-quy l mt trong nhng thit b quan trng nht trn xe hi,m nim
vai tr tch trin nng, cung cp nng lng cho cc thit b tiu thin
(ph ti) nh my khing, kch thch my pht xoay chiu.c-quy s cung
cpin nng cho cc ph ti khi my phtin cha lm vic hoc vng tua
my chat tc quynh.
Sau khi khing v vng tua my ln, cc thit b trn t s s dngin
nng sinh ra t
my pht.ng thi,c-quyc npin tch tr nng lng cho cc ln
khing sau.
a sc-quy s dng trn t lc-quy ch. Chngc chia thnh cc
loi nhc-quy h (cquy nc) vc-quy kn (hay cn gic-quy kh).
Loic-quy nc c th bo dng nh thm nc, cnc-quy kh khng
cn bo dng v dng mt ln chon lc htin.
2. Bo d ngc-quy 'sng' lu a. Nhngiu cn bit vc-quy t
S qu nhit v qu np l hai nguyn nhn chnh dnn hin tngc quy
cht sm. Nhit
khi n cht lng bay hi, thayi nng dung dch, phnng din ra nhanh

v gy tn hi cho cu trc pha trongc quy. Bn cnh, nhng thit b b li


trong qu trnh sc nh biu chnhin th s khinc-quy b qu np, lm
h cc th v gim tui th. Cc b mt th (ch oxit) khng chm trong dung
dchin phn c th b h hng.
Ngoi ra, tr i lnh cng khinc-quy lm vic nng nhc hn do du
nhtc hn nn khi khi ng, n cn phi c nng lng ln vn hnh
h thng. Trong trng hp lu ngy khng s dng, bn nn npnh k
khong 6 tun mt ln.
Gi phn trnc-quy lun sch l mt trong nhng cch duy tr hotng
bnh thng ca n. Cc bi bn c th tr thnh cht dnin, lm mt nng
lng. Hn na, sn mn tch t lu lm cho cc mi ni b c lp, nncquy khng th s dngc.
D u hiu nhn ra ncin phn b r l sn mn trng khayc-quy v
kim loi xung quanh. Trong trng hp ny bn nn kim tra xemc-quy c b
qu nhit hay qu np hay khng b sung nc hoc kim tra b phn
np.ng thi, nn s dng hn hp soda v ncm (45 ml soda pha trong 1
lt nc), dng bn chi cng qut dung dch soda cc mt ca c-quy lm
sch. Tuy nhin, bn khng nn qut trc tip ln np hoc l thng hi bi
nu nc soda ri vo trongc-quy, phnng c th xy ra v lm trn dung
dch axit ra ngoi.
b. Nhng lu khi bo dng, sa chac-quy
Khng mang nh n, vng,ng h hoc dy chuyn khi gnc-quy v nu
chng may lm ngn mch, dngin cao c th chy qua khin bn b bng
nng. Ngoi ra khi thoc-quy, lun lun tho dy cc m hoc cc mt trc.

Nu sau bn v tnh chm mt cc c cch in, dy cung cpin hoc dy


nng, hin tng ngn mch s khng din ra.
Trong tr ng hp scc-quy, bn cn ni thng gi tt do hi thot ra
trong qu trnh ny rt d n. Khng cc ngun la nh tia lain, thuc
lang chy gnc-quyang np in bi chng c th lm n, bn dung
dchin phn ra xung quanh.
3. Bo dng v kim trac-quy
Nh ng thit bin t c th lm tiu hao nng lngin trongc-quy mt
cch nhanh chng. Trc khi ra khi xe, bn cn kim tra xem cc thit b
nhiu ha, loa,n tt hon ton hay cha. Mt chicc-quy c tui th 35 nm nhng cng c th "cht" sau vi ngy khng s dng xe.
Tnh n ng ca nhng chic xe mi hin nay cao hn rt nhiu so vi 20
nm trcy. Cc thit bc ci tin v tt c gn nhu s dngin.
Tuy nhin, c mt cn tr m cc hng xe thng phi vt qua l h
thngin vc-quy trn xe hi ngy cng phnh to, gy kh khn khi lp rp
v sn xut xe. V vy, nhng tnh hung tr tru cng v th m xut hin nh
sau vi ngy khngi,n khi khing th bn mi nhn rac-quy cht.
B n kim tra thy cang, h thng m thanh,n cng tt v khng
th tm nguyn nhn trc tip khinc-quy htin nh vy. Trong trng hp
ny, mt b pin sc 12 volt c th gip chng li vic rin, tuy nhin gii
php ch thch hp vi nhng xe trong vi thng m khngi.
Cc thi t bin hini c th lm choc-quy cht nhanh hn so vi
nhng chic xei 1970 hay xa hn. Mi thit b s dng mt chtin ngay

c khi mi th tt. Nhng chic my tnh tch hp trn xe l b phn tiu hao
nng lngin nhiu nht. Cc my tnhiu khin phun nhin liu, kim sot
nhit vng, module khing,iu khinn pha, dn radio k thut s,ng
h, gh nh cc v tru lmnh hng ti bn cac-quy.
Tin ti n hn 20 nm trc, cng ngh ngy nay gip xe hi gn nh ri
vo gic ng v lun trong trng thi sn sng. Bt c khi noc kch
hot, chng s hotng. Cc b phniu khinin t vn hotng m thm
v tiu th mt cht nng lng. Nhng ch cn qua vi ngy, chng c th
lm cn mt bnhc-quy. Vi thit b khc cng s dngin tc-quy mc d
trng thi khng hotng nh my pht in, biu chnh dng, h thngnh
la. Bn cnh, nhng chic diode (b phn nn dng mt chiu nm trong
cc thit b) c th b hng v dngin c cng ln si qua. Tuy nhin,
tnh hung ny him khi xy ra.
bit mc s dngin ca cc thit b, bn c tho dng x khi
tt khanh la. Tuy nhin, cn lu rng cc my tnh trn xe hi s dng
dngin 5-8 mA gi cho b nh hotng. Hu ht cc mu xe hini c
gii hn dng khong 25-28 mA hoc thp hn ngoi tr vi loi xe hng
sang c mc cng dngin cao hn mt cht. Ringn cho xe ti cn
cng dng 900 mA hay 0,9 A v c th s dng htc-quy trong vng
mtm.
o cng dngin, mt s mu xe cn phi ngh 30 pht trc khi
tin hnh. Nuo ngay, cc my tnh c thang trng thi thc v tiu hao
nhiu nng lng, v vy, kt qu khng hon ton chnh xc. Khi cc thit
bi vo trng thi ng, kt quo mi chnh xc. Thm ch, vi nhng

chic xe trang b b gim xc bng kh nn hoc h thng cn bngin t c


bn cn phi ch t nht 70 pht trc khi tin hnh. C mtim cn lu l
khiango, bn khngc m ca (lm sngn ni tht), xoay cha
khing hay btn pha bi c th lm hng am-pe k.
Cu i cng, mt s yu t khc cngnh hng ti tui th cac-quy.
Nhit cao khin cc phnng trongc-quy din ra nhanh hn v v th n
cng cht nhanh hn. Hn na, cc cht bn trnin ccc-quy khin n
khng th xcin t my pht. V vy, hy gic-quy sch, mt v kh nng
cao tui th ca chng.
4. Bo dng lp xe
B m khngng p sut, khngo lpnh k v lp lch l nguyn nhn
ph bin dn ti gim tui th lp v gy nguy him khi li. V vy, nn kim
tra lp 2 ln mi thng tm ra cc hin tng bt thng mt cch kp thi,
trc khi chngnh hng ti an ton ca xe.
Gi ng nh cn gt nc v b lc du, lp l b phn thng xuyn b
mn trong qu trnh s dng thng thng. Hn na, lp cnh hng ln
ti an ton ca xe khi n l ni chu trch nhim chnh trong qu trnh xe
chuynng. Nhng du hiu hng hc ca lp thng rt d nhn bit da
trn hin tng mi mn. V nu thng xuyn kim tra lp, n s cho bn bit
nhng thng tin ht sc qu gi khc phcng lc.
a. Kim tra lp
Hai y u tu tin m bn cn quan tm l thnh v ta-lng lp (phn b
mt tip xc vi mt ng). Ta-lngc gia c bng cc dy thp nhm

tng kh nng chng li cc vt nhnm vo, trong khi thnh lp li khng c


tc dng.
Do s khc bit ny nni vi tt c cc loi lp, bn nn btu t
thnh lp v kim tra tht cn thn. Quan st tt c cc vt xc, ccm ni
hay vt rn. Nu tm thy bt c du hiu no, bn nn tho lp v mang tii
l hay gara uy tn kim tra k hn. Doc tnh mng, hay hng khi b
tcng ca thnh lp nn bn cn c lp d phng trc khii xa.
Ti p theo, ta-lng l nic bit quan trng. Vi chi tit ny, bn cn
xem su ca chng bit bn c thi bao nhiu km na trc khi thay lp
mi. Thng thng, mi chic lp thng c du hiu xcnh mn ta-lng
v su ca rnh. Nu ccng gn to nn mt mt phng, tt nht hy thay
mt chic mi. Mt phng php khc ltng xu 1.000 vo rnh lp. Nu
bn nhn thy ton b quc huy khit mt ngang mt lp, lc nn thay mi.
Bn c nh, bn cng nn ti cc vt mn bt thng. Nu su ca
rnh lp khng bng nhau chng t hin tng mn btu xut hin. C nhng
nguyn nhn chnh khin lp mn nh bm lp khngng cch, lp khng
thng v khngo lpnh k.
b. Bm p sut
B m lpng tiu chun l cch gim mi mn tt nht. Thng thng,
nhng chic lp khng hi c thnh lp b ln, khin b mt lp b mn v
hai mp trong khi phn gia khng b mn nhiu. Bn cnh, lp non cn gy
nn hin tng qu nhit do tng ma st vi mt ng dnn mn nhanh hn,
thm ch b n ra.
Tuy v y, nhng chic lp qu hi cng gy nn nhiu phin toi v ch b

mn phn gia talng trong khi hai mp vn bnh yn. Nu qu p sut


quynh, lp s mn nhanh hn v cch tt nht l bn x bt hi. Thng
thng, cc nh sn xut lp khuyn co nn kim tra p sut lp 2
ln/thng. xem ch tiu p sut lpi theo xe, bn c th tm thng tin trn
bng ch dn gn khung ca pha ti.
Khi bm lp, bn cng nn ti nhit mi trng. Trong nhng ngy tri
nng, p sut
l p thng tng khong 0,06-0,1 atm cn khi tri lnh khip p sut
gimi tngng. c.o lpnh k Phng php th 2 tng tui th lp l
chnh cho n khng b lch. Nu lp lp khng tip
xc t iu vi mtng, hin tng mn xy ra khngu, bt thng v
nhanh chng. Khi b hin tng ny, lp thng mn mt pha no v to
gc vi mtng khin gim bm. Cch tt nht khc phc li ny l
mang xe ti cc gara chnh li.
Giai on tip theo trong qu trnh kim tra lp l so snh mc mn
gia lp trc v lp sau. Thng thng, lp trc mn nhanh hn lp
sau,c bit khi xe r, bi lc mat st vi mt ng tng ln. S khc bit
ny rt r khi chic xe s dng h dnng bnh trc v gii php l bn
nno lp xenh k sau khong 8.000-12.000 kmic.
d. Cn bng lp
Cc th xe thng gn cc mu nh kim loi trn vnh to cn
bngng cho lp. V vy, bn nn ch vng vt nhng chi tit nu
khng bit tc dng. Bnh thng, trong qu trnh s dng, cc v tr ca lp

c mn khc nhau khin s phn b trng lng khngng u. to


cn bng, trnh rung vo xe khi li, cc th sa thng thm cc ming kim
loi b khi lng b mt trn lp. xcnh cc v tr lch ngi ta phi
dng thit b chuyn dng v th phi c kinh nghim, v vy, bn nn mang xe
ti cc trm sa uy tn.
5. Bo dng du phanh
a s ngi s dng xe hi qun bo dng du phanh v ch ch n
chi tit ny khi gp s c. Tuy khng cn kim tra mc du phanh thng
xuyn nhng nn thay chng mt cchnh k. Du phanh ph bin nht m cc
hng xe s dng ti Vit Nam l DOT 3, DOT 4, c thnh phn da trn gc
glycol.
Cc hng s n xut khuyn co khch hng nn thay du phanh hai nm mt
ln. Thi gian thay du phanh ph thuc vo nhiu yu t nh loi phanh v
hotng ca phanh ph thuc nhiu vo thnh phn ny. Du gi lm mt
nhiu nng lng phanh, khin nhng b phnt tin hng nhanh. Tuy nhin,
trn thc t, tnh chn ch khin chng ta hayin khi c dp hoc hng hc
xy ra mi n n.
C nhi u loi du phanh trn th trng nh DOT 3, DOT 4, DOT 5. Cc
loi ny phi c nhit si cao trnh du bay hi do nhit cao t h
thng phanh. DOT 3 l loi du phanh thng dng M, Vit Nam v c ngun
gc glycol.
Theo quy nh ca Hip hi k s t M SEA, nhit si ca du phanh
DOT 3 phi cao hn 205 C v tng thch vi nhng vt liu khc trong h
thng phanh, c kh nng chngn mn v khng xy ra bini ha hc khi

trn vi cc loi du phanh khc. Nhit si ca du l mt trong nhng yu


t quan trng nht. Trong trng hp du si s sinh ra bng kh trong h
thng kn. Khi nhn chn phanh, mt phn p sut phanh tcng ln nhng
bng kh ny m khng tcng hon ton voa phanh khin tnh nng phanh
gim v chn phanh nh.
K thut bo dng xe
M t vi hng xe chu u s dng du phanh DOT 4, c gc glycol tng
t DOT 3 nhng c nhit si cao hn, 227 C.im yu ca gc glycol
trong DOT 3, DOT 4 l tnh ht nc cao v ht him vo h thng phanh.
Nc c nhit si thp hn nhiu du nn n s to nhiu bng kh,nh
hng ti cht lng phanh. Nhiu sn phm du phanh ca cc nc chu u
c nng nc di 3%. Tng t DOT 3, DOT 4c dng kh ph bin
ti Vit Nam.
Bn c nh nhit si thp, nc cn gyn mn cc chi tit kim loi.i
vi cc xi-lanh, chuynn mn khng qu ti t nhng vi h thng chng b
cng ABS c gi hng nghn USD, s l vn ln. Thay du phanh khng
nhng tng hiu qu phanh m cn ko di tui th ca cc h thng thy lc
khc.
Khc v i DOT 3 v DOT 4, DOT 5 s dng ha cht c gc silicone.
DOT 5 khng hp th hi m t khng kh v khng tn cng b mt sn nh
glycol. Th nhng,im yu ca silicone l nht ca n khng thch hp
vi DOT 3, DOT 4 (thngc s dng trong nhng thit b nh ABS). Hn
na, silicone rt hay b r ra ngoi nn kh hn kn.

uim ln nht ca DOT 5 l nhit si cao, gn 260 C. Silicone v


glycol khngc trn ln vo nhau nn cc bn cn thn khi thay du phanh,
khng thay du DOT 5 cho DOT 3 v DOT 4. Trc ht, nn ra
schngng khi thay loi ny bng loi kia hoc ch thay cng mt loi
du trnh nhng phin toi khngng c.
Hi n ti, cc hng sn xut cho ra l mt sn phm du phanh mi c
nhnguim ca silicone v glycol di ci tn du tng hp.uim
chnh ca n l c nhit si cao, 250 C v ph hp vi mi loi du
phanh khc.
6. Bt bnh ca phanh
Phanha d c nhiuuim hn phanh tang trng nhng vn c bnh nh to
ting ku, chn
phanh khng nh hoc b rung.
Phanh l m t trong nhng thit b c tn s hotng vo loi cao nht
trn xe hi. Chc nng ca n l gim tc, dng v gip xeng yn trn
cc mtng dc. Gn nh tt c cc loi t hin nayu trang b hai h
thng phanhc lp vi nhau l phanh chn v phanh tay. Trong , phanh
chn ch hotng khi nhn vo bnp phanh v khi nh chn thng thi
phanh cng nh. Phanh tay th ngc li, n vn duy tr lc hm khi nh phanh.
Thng thng, phanh tay dng c cu hm trc truynng cn phanh chn
dng c cu hm bnh xe.
Theo cch phn chia theo c cu hm, phanh chnc chia thnh phanh
tang trng v phanh a. kiu phanh tang trng, p sut thy lc tcng ln

piston v truyn cho m phanh p st vo tang trng. Vt liu ma st trn m


phanh s tip xc vi tang trng, lm chm tc quay ca tang trng v trc
bnh.
Cn v i phanha, vt liu ma st (m phanh) kpa kim loi (quay cng
vi trc bnh) nh p sut thy lc t chn phanh. Phanha khng c xu
hng phanht ngt (xe git mnh) nh phanh tang trng m c cn bng
tt hn khi dng.
M i loi phanh cu nhcim ring v trn mt s xe hini, cc
hng vn trang b c phanh tang trng ln phanha. D th no, hai loi phanh
ny cim chung l chngu c nhng bnh ring ca mnh, ty theo tng
loi.
a. Bnh ca phanh tang trng
Hi n tng ph bin nht ca phanh tang trng m cc xe (k c t v xe
my) hay gp phi l phanh ht c nhng li khng hiu qu. Chng hn nh
trn t, ti x cp chn phanh chm sn, xe vn khng dng theo mun.
C nhiu nguyn nhn dnn hin tng ny nh cn y piston xi-lanh chnh
b cong, thiu du hoc lt kh trong h thng, m phanh qu mn. Trong
trng hp cny piston chnh b cong hoc m phanh mn, gii php cn
lm ngay l thay chic mi. Nu thiu du, bn nn ti cc garage hoci l
chnh hng b sung theo ng loi m nh sn xut khuyn co nh DOT3,
DOT4 hay DOT5. Cn nu h thng thy lc b lt kh, cci l s tin hnh
x kh, m th hay gi l "x e", bt ngun t t ting Anh "airkhng kh".
M t hin tng him gp nhng ht sc nguy him l xe b lch sang mt
bn khi phanh. Nguyn nhn ca hin tng ny l do lc phanh tcng ln

cc bnh khngngu, do mt trong s chng dnh du, khe h m phanhtang trng khngu,ng dn du b tc cc b. Khi gp phi tnh hung ny,
bn nn ti ngay cc garage sa cha bi n khin xe rt d lt, mt li
khi tc cao, mc bit vi cc loi kch thc ln nh xe th thaoa
dng.
Ngoi cc hi n tng trn, mt vn m ngii xe thng gp phi l
ting ku khi phanh. Du hiu ny cho thy m phanh qu mn, trinh tn
v chng ma st vi tang trng gy ting kt kt rt kh chu. Phnng duy nht
l bn thay m phanh mi, gip phanhn hn v xe i cng d chu hn.
b. Bnh phanha
Phanh a cuim l c cn bng tt khi dng. Xt theo kha cnh s
dng cho xe c nhn, phanha c t nhcim v cng t bnh hn phanh tang
trng. Tuy nhin, do cc dng sedan (xe 5 ch) hay SUV thngi vi tc
cao nn vic theo di, bo dng, kp thi pht hin hng hc l ht sc cn
thit.u tin, nu bnp rung khi phanh, bn phi ngh ngay ti trng
hpa phanh v vnh, b dy khngu v gii php l thay tha phanh mi.
B nh thng thy hn ca kiu phanh ny l ting ku khi bn nhn chn
phanh. V nguyn nhn ch yu l m phanh qu mn.a tip xc vi m mn
to ra ting ku lot xot, xut pht t s va chm gia kim loi trn m (ht
lp vt liu ma st) via phanh.i vi xe my, k thut vin thng x l
bng cch mi mna loi cc vt xc. Tuy nhin vi t, lc phanh
thng ln hn nn cch gii quyt duy nht l thay m va phanh mi.
Hi n tng thng gp th hai l phanh khng nh sau khi b bnp

phanh.y l du hiu cho thy b tr lc phanh hng, bnp cong nn khng


tr v v tr banu. Ngoi ra, mt l do na l cny bm chnhciu
chnh khngng v cch khc phc l ti cc garage kim tra, hiu chnh.
7. Hng hc ca h thng lm mt
H thng lm mtm bong c khng b qu nhit v hotngnnh.
Nhng vn ch yu ca h thit b ny l r r cht lm mt ra ngoi hoc
vong c, cht lm mt b qu nhit gy si v bm yu hoc khng
hotng.
Qu nhi t l mt trong nhng vn quan trng ving c bi n c th
ph hy cc mi ni, v mingm, mo xi-lanh v nhiu hu qu khc. Mc
d nhitng vai tr quan trng khi xe khing, nht l vo nhng ngy tri
lnh, nhng thng thng khi xec lmm va phi, n hon ton c th
khing mt cch d dng. gii ta nhit sinh ra tng c, xe nht thit
phi c h thng lm lnh nhm gi khong nhit ph hp. Khi xe gp phi
hin tng qu nhit, n lm tng nhit cht lm mt, qua tng p sut
cht lng, khin van gim p trn np p sut m rng nn cht lng vo bnh
gin n nhiu hn. Nu lng cht lm mt qu nhiu, hin tng si c th
xy ra.
a. Kim tra
H thng lm mt thng khng nm trong tm quan tm ca cc li xe v
v vy, nhiu ngi khng ti khi nhit k chm mc vch bong ti
mc xe khng th khingc na hay thy cht lng mu xanh ri gm
my. Mc d khng th kim tra thng xuyn nh p sut lp hoc mc du
nhng h thng lm mt nnc bo dng mt cchnh k.

on bnh xe qua mi
- Tm bnh qua ting ku
- Bt bnh bugi Sau khi kim tra mc du, bn nn xem h thng lm mt. Bn
c th tm cc vt nt, rn hay
cc nt ph ng trong cm gia nhit hayng li tn nhit, cc v tr gn
vng kp hoc gn vt chuynng. Tipn lm kim tra mu sc cht lm
mt. Ty thuc vo tng nh sn xut khuyn co, tng loi nht c th c mu
xanh neon, hng hoc vng cam. Nu cht lm mt c mu ca g st, chng t
h thng b h do chngn mn cc chi tit. Bn nn kim tra li tn
nhit,c bit ti cc khp ni b han v cc v tr c him.
N u cc thit b trn khng c hng hc, bn c th kim tra biu nhit
v cc mi hn ca bm nc. Sau l kim tra cc mi ni b gia nhit, bao
gm cng c v b cch nhit. Nu c hi nc hoc thm gh trc bm
chng t b gia nhit b hng.
N u vn cha tm ra nguyn nhn, bn nn kim tra phn di ca li
tn nhit, ni lin kt vi ng c. Cui cng l kim tra ngay cng c. Nu
khi khingng x c khi trng, bn nn ngh ti vic cht lm mt vo
xi-lanh.y l mt trong nhng vn nghim trng bi cht lng s lmy
mt phn xi-lanh. Khi khing, s di chuyn ca piston c th lm thanh
truyn b cong hocu xi-lanh b nt. Tnh trng nyc gi l s nght thu
tnh.
N u li tn nhit hay bnh chng trn vn c mc nc thp m khng
tm thy ch thng, c th do cht lm mt r qua li tn nhit v b qut gi

ha hi. kim tra, hy khingng c v xem c sng m cnh qut


khng, nhng bn nn gi khong cch an ton vi cnh qut bi n rt nguy
him.
b. Sa cha
N u pht hin thy hin tng r r, bn c th t sa bng cch s dng
cc cht lm kn. Khi cho vo h thng lm mt, cht lm kn s hn cc vt r
ti nhng ni khng d hn nh li tn nhit. Tuy nhin, nu hin tng qu
nhit nghim trng trong khi bn khng th t xcnh nguyn nhn, hya xe
ti cc garage cc th c kinh nghim hn phnon v tm cch sa tiu.
8. Kh mi hi trn t
Thi t b kh mi ph bin nht hin nay l my sinh ozon hoc ion vi gi
t vi trm nghnn hng triung. Tuy nhin, vic s dng chng phing
cch v ozon c tnh oxy ha rt cao, nh hng ti h h hp v cc thit b
khc.
C nh ng chic xe lu ngy khngi hoc ch sau mtm bng nng
nc mi kh chu. iu ny rt bt tin trong ma h dong ca btiu ha
nn mi hi khng thotc v ngy cng kh chu.i vi nhng xe c,
nc thng chy qua knh sau ri thm xung thm. Sau, nu lu ngy
khng lau, chng lm cho vi khun pht trin v sinh ra mim mc rt kh
chu. Trong trng hp ny, cch tt nht l thay mingm chn knh v mang
thm xe ra git sch.
Nguyn nhn khc l mi sinh ra do th cn tha ri xung gh b phn
hy. Nu ch nhn ht thuc, khi thuc l s bm trn b mt gh v tr nn
cay nng. Nhng mng da lu ngy khng lau chi, b bm bi, m hi v

him cng c th to ra mim mc v kht.


M t thit b sinh ra nhiu mi kh chu na l h thngiu ha. Dom
nhim vai tr lu thng kh cho ca-bin xe nn thit b ny thng xuyn phi
hng chu bi bn, ha cht, kh thi t mi trng xung quanh. Nu khng v
sinh tt, vi khun s pht trin v gy nn mi hi nng rtc trng.
Cch khc phc
i vi nhng loi mi sinh ra do cht bn, da lu ngym mc hay do
thcn tha vng vi, bn c th dng cc cht ty chuyn dng cho ni tht
xe lm sch. Ging nh ra xe, bn khng nn s dng nhng loi nh x
phng git, nc ra chn lau ni tht do chng c th lm xn, mt mu da
hoc n. Nng cc cht nh kim, axt trong nc ra chn hoc x phng
rt ln nn chng c th ha tan, phn hy mu hoc lm hng lp da b mt.
Trn th trng hin nay c kh nhiu loi ty ra ni tht, cc loi t bnh
dn ca Trung Quc hay cao cp hn l cc sn phm nhp khu t M,
Nht,c. Nu mun r tin, bn c th chn loi ca Trung Quc nh
Jourking dng cho n vi gi 50.000ng mt chai 1 lt hoc loi Turtle wax
dng cho da khong 120.000ng l 500 ml.
V i nhng loi nh Sonax, git hn kh nhiu. Cng dung tch 1 lt
nhng gi ca Sonax vo khong 350.000ng. Vi loi 3M ca M, gi c
cng tngng nh Sonax v cht lng kh tt. Ngoi ra, bn cng thng
xuyn kim tra h thngiu ha vy l ni sinh sng ca nhiu loi vi
khun.c bit vi nhng xe thng xuyni trong vng nhim, mi v
bn ca h thngiu ha kh nng. Gii php l bn c th mang xe ti cc

garagein lnh nh bo dng, sc sch dn lnh, to dng khng kh trong


lnh v thong mt.
Trong tr ng hp lo s cc cht ty lm mt mu da xn, bn c th dng
phng php kh trng bng hi nc. Mt thit b nhp khu, c gi khong
150 USD, gip bay hi nc thnh dng sng m. Ch cn lp bnh nc pha
dung dch kh trng, bn c th kh trng bt c khe gh hay ch kn no.
Phng php ny khn gin, hiu qu nhng gi thit b v cht kh trng
kht, ch thch hp vi xe sang, dch v cao cp.
Sau khi lo i ht mi bng cch v sinh sch s cht bn, ni tht chic x
hp c th thm hn rt nhiu. Nu mun gi n lun lun sch, mt sn
phmangc s dng nhiu hin nay l my kh mi.
Lo i my kh mi ph bin l kiu sinh kh ozon (O3). Kh ozon c kh
nng oxy ha cao nn n loic vi khun, phn ha cc cht bn. Gi c ca
n cng v cng, t loi bnh dn gi r ca Trung Quc, Hn Quc mc
300.000ng ti loi nhp khu gi ti vi triung. My sinh ozon dng
ngunin 12 volt ly t chm thuc l vct pha trn np bng tp-l.
Tuy nhin, b nng qu ham r m chn cc thit b khngng tin cy v
ozon cnh hng khng nh ti sc khe con ngi. Nu vt qua ngng
gii hn nng, n s ph hy mng cht nhy trong h h hp khin hnh
khch b ho, kh ming vau mi, hng. Nu dng trn t, nht thit bn phi
chn loic tinh lc qua h thng than hot tnh.
Ngoi lo i my sinh ozon, trn th trng cn c my sinh ion. Tnh nng
ca loi sn phm ny c qung co l cao hn loi sinh ozon rt nhiu.
Tuy nhin, kh nng oxy ha ca loi cng cao hn ozon nn vic s dng n

phi nm trong gii hn v tun th theo hng dn ca nh sn xut.


Lu s dng
Khng ht thu c l trong xe liu bn cn phi nhu tin. Tip, hn
chn ung trn xe nhm trnh gy vng vi hoc trn ra sn khin vic v
sinh kh khn. Sau mi chuyni xa, nn thay ngay thm chn nhm trnh
vic cc cht bn t giy dp ri ra phn hy thnh mi.
V sinh thng xuyn my lnh, kim tra cc v tr nhy cm nh knh ca,
knh sau bi ch cn
s sut, nc s c c hi chui vo nhng ch m bn kh c th can
thip. 9. Bo v chic xe cng trc thi tit Ma man trang b mt lp
bt ph, ma nng th dn phim kim loi V-Kool chng nhit, bn
s yn tm hn khi phi b mc con xe yu du trn h ph di mi tcng
ca thi tit.
Khng ph i ai cng c garage ring hay nh rng dnh nguyn tng 1
cho chic xe cng, nh phi t tm cch xoay s. Ai may mn th thuc
mt ch trong mt cng s no, nhng ngi cn li ch bit ph mc chic
xe cho ng tri. Cng nh chi dnh cho ngi thch ni bt, cc sn phm
bo v chic xe lp tc xut hinpng nhu cu th trng.
i khi gia tra nng, bn c th bt gp venng mt chic xe ph bt
kn mt, c c ti bao hai gng chiu hu hoc nhng tm che nng nhn mt
vp ca xe. Nhng loi ny ch yu dnh cho xe 4 ch hoc 7 ch. Bt
Trung Quc khong trn di 200.000ng, cn loi cao cp hn cai
Loan gi chng 500.000ng.

ng Quang, ph trch kinh doanh cng ty ni tht xe hi Con Rng,


cho bit, sn phm ny bn chy ty theo thiim trong nm, ma ma tht
hng hn ma nng. Hn na, gny ca hng cng t nhp v sn phm ny
mt phn do cci l bn t thng dng chng lm qu tng cho khch
hng. V th, khng c g l khi tu thng 8, ca hng ni tht t s 331
Trn Kht Chn, H Ni ca ng Quang ch bnc hai b bt che.
Theo anh Tu n, ch s hu ca mt chic Toyota Zace, bt ch yu c
cng dng chng xc v che ma, nht l trong ma bo sp ti, ch khng
my c tc dng chng nng. Di thi tit ma h, phi s dng phim dn
knh xe. Trn th trng hin nay dng ch yu l giy can nha thng
thng, gi t 200.000ngn 500.000ng/m2. Tuy nhin, tc dng chng
nng ca giy can thng khng cao, xuyn sng khng tt, hn na li vi
phm quynh v cm s dng knh mui vi xe t.
Cao c p hn c th s dng loi phim kim loi V-Kool. Theo nh sn
xut, phim kim loi ch to ti M ny l sn phm duy nht Vit Nam loi
trc hu ht tia hng ngoi v tia cc tm, gim 55% h s hp th nhit
trong nh nng mt tri m vn cho 77% nh sng t nhini qua. Anh Hng
cho bit khi s dng V-Kool cho chic Mazda 6 ca mnh, tm nhn khng b
nh hng khi li xe di tri ma to hocm ti,ng thi chm dt
cnhu xe lu di tri nng, phi btiu ha trc 5-10 pht mi dm
bc vo trong.
ng Nguy n Trung Kin, Gimc Trung tm V-Kool Si Gn, cho bit
s bo hnh 5 nmi vi nhng trng hp phim b bong trc, rn nt hay

bay mu. Do c tc dng hn hn nn gi thnh V-Kool cng khng r. Dn


mt chic xe sedan (gm knh chn gi, 4 cnh ca v knh sau) gi t 330
USDn 413 USD ty loi phim. Tuy nhin, nh ng Quang Cng ty Con
Rng nhnnh, th trng min Nam dnh cho sn phm ny c tim nng
hn ngoi Bc. "Thi tit min Nam gn nh nng quanh nm, trong khi ngoi
Bc li phn chia 4 ma r rt m V-Kool c tc dng cao nht trong ma
nng", ng Quang ni.
10. Cch ra xe chuyn nghip
t m i c th gic 90% nc sn sau 2 nm nu ngi s dng lu
vi chi tit nh nh khng nn ra xe bng khn nylon, khng ra di tri
nng vc bitng bao gi dng nc ra chn hay x phng. Ra xe l mt
trong nhng qu trnh bo dng quan trng bi nnh hng ln ti mi
v sch s ca mt chic xe. C nhiu ngi rt thch chm sc xe bng cch
t mnh "tm ra" cho n. Tuy nhin, khng phi ai cng lm ttiu ny.
Btu mt cchngn
Tr c tin bn cn chun b nhng th nh ngun nc, vi cotton mm
khng rng lng v trnh dng vi nylon. Tt nht bn nn chn loi thit b
ra chuyn dng. Mt sai lm m nhng ngi t kinh nghim thng mc phi
l dng x phng git hay nhng cht ty ra c sn trong nh ra xe. Thm
ch c ngi cn dng nc ra chn bi sau mi ln ra, nc sn bng
hn. Tuy nhin, li bt cp hi, xe bng l do mt lp bo v pha ngoi v
ch cn sau vi ln nh th, b mt xe s xni v btu mt mu nhanh
chng.
Nguyn nhn c a hin tng trn l do x phng hay v cht ty chn cha

nhng thnh phn gy hi cho lp sn trn b mt. Chng hn nh nng axt


ca nc ra chn cao hn nhiu so vi cht ty ra t chuyn dng. Trong
khi, theo cc chuyn gia, cht ty dnh ring cho t gm nhng thnh phn
lm sch cht bn bm v c cu to khc xa so vi nhng cht dnh cho qun
o hay knh.
V vy, cc chuyn gia c mt li khuyn rt d nh l "ng bao gi ln ln
nh bp vi
garage".
Ngoi nh ng lu trn, bn cn phi kim tra xem sn xe ca mnh c
thuc loi quc bit hay khng. Nu c, hy xem hng dn s dng ca nh
sn xut chnc loi cht ra ph hp.
Trn th trng hin nay, c rt nhiu loi nc ra xe ca cc hng nh
Sonax, Sumo, Trinity, 3M vi nhiu mc gi khc nhau vc by bn ph
bin trong cc siu th. Sonax c gi khong 115.000ng cho chai 1 lt.
Nhng loi r tin hn th khong 10.000ng chai 200 ml.
Cc thao tc cn ch
Theo nh ng ngi c kinh nghim, bn nn ra xe mi tun mt ln bi
n thng xuyn phi hng bi, nha cy, phn chim v hng trm th khc.
Vi phn chim v nha cy, bn nn ra ngay bi nu lu, cc chtn mn
mnh s ph hy b mt lp sn. Ngoi ra, nu sau mi chuyni xa hay qua
mt ngy ma, ra ngay sau sm bo cc ht bi khng lm xc sn.
M t lu nh l bn nn ra di bng rm bi nu tin hnh khi c
nng, b mt xe c th kh trc c khi cc cht bnc loi ht. Trong

trng hp bi bm nhiu, nn dng vi phun v khngc dng khn lau ch


ln bi s gy xc. Tuy nhin, p lc nc phun khngc qu mnh v nh
vy s chng khc dng tay c l bao. Mt sai st kh ph bin cc trm ra
xe hin nay l dng vi phun p sut lc cao do th ra xe mun xong nhanh.
Bn nn ra t trn xung di v ra tng phn. Tuy nhin, mt vi tay th
chuyn nghip li hay ra t di ln trn. Theo cc chuyn gia, ra t trn
xung di s gim nguy c lm xc sn bi cc cht bn khng bm vo
khn lau. Phn di xe thng c nhiu cht bn v ht bi to, nu lauy
trc, bi c th bm vo dng c v gy xc sn. Cn nu ra t trn, nc
v cht ty chy xung v lm bong phn no cht bn trc khi chng ta lau
ti.
Cc b c ra xe bao gm:
- Lau nh ton b xe bng nc loi bi.
- Lau v ra tng phn, t trn xung di nhm trnh hin tng mt s ch
kh nhanh qu, lm kt cht bn trn.
- Ch nh tay.
- Bn phim bo rng lun lun ch nh, khng nn dng li mt ch qu
lu nhm ngn khng c cht bn kt li mt ch.
- Dng nc trng ton b xe cun ht chn bni.
- Cui cng l lau kh nhng vt ncng. c bit,ng ph Vit Nam c
nhiu ct, bi nn bn phi ra tht k bnh, ch ti cc thit
b gn mtng, ni m ct hay tch t li. lmciu ny tt nht, bn
c th s dng
vi bm p sut cao.

Trong qu trnh r a, bn nn ti cht bn tch t hc vnh. Mt hin


tng kh th v l vnh bnh trc thng bn hn vnh bnh sau bi bnh
trc thng tch t mt lng ln bi phanh sinh ra t phanha. Hin ti,
trn th trng c kh nhiu sn phm chm sc gip loi b hon ton bi
phanh.
11. Nhng thao tc bo dng xe hng ngy
Gi xe cho sch s, kim tra mc du, nhit nc lm mt, l nhng
thao tcn gin bt c ai cng c th thc hin nhng li c th gip chic xe
ca bn an ton hn, tit kim thi gian cng nh tin bc.
Khng c n phi l mt th my chuyn nghip gi cho xe chynnh
hng ngy. B ra vi gi mi thng, vii ba thao tcn gin, bn c th
trnhc nhng phin phc bt ng. Kim tra xe cng khngi hi k nng
phc tp hn vic bn dn dp nh ca.
Gi xe sch s
R a xe khng h lmnh hng ti nc sn m cn c th gip cho n
sng hn, bn hn. Hin trn th trng c mt s loi dung dch chuyn dng
ra xe, khng ch lm bng sn m cn c tc dng bo v. Khi s dng ch
cn ha mt t vo nc v ra bnh thng. Thng xuyn ra xe bn cng s
tm ra cc vn trc khi n tr nn nghim trng. Chng hn, mt vt rn
trn knh chn gi c thc hn lin gin thay v phi thay ton b knh
nu khng pht hin kp thi.
N uc ht bi v git thng xuyn, thm chi chn s bn hn. Mt
vi vt nt nh trn cc b mt nha hoc gi g c th dng keo hn li kp

thi trc khi n kp toc ra v phi th chuyn nghip mi c th gii quyt.


Du
C n kim tra mc dung c t nht mt ln mi thng,ng ch da
von bo trn bng ng h. Du c tc dng bo v v ko di tui
thng c. V vy, khi c th,u xe ch bng phng v kim tra mc du
khing c ngui. Tm trong sch hng dn bitc que thm du
nmu (thng thng mc quec lm bng nha vng hoc d gy ch
). kim tra, rt que thm du ra lau sch, sau cm tr li v rt ln ln
na. Nu thy c mt lp du mng bm khong gia khcnh du mc thp
nht v cao nht (min v max) trn u que thm du th mi th vnn. Nu
du bm di mc thp nht (min), bn cn chm thm du chong c.
N p du ngay trnng c v c in ni ch "oil" (du), tuy nhin, nu
khng chc chn lm bn c th kim tra bng sch hng dn ca nh sn
xut. Trong sch cng s cho bit loi du no thch hp ving c ca xe.
Lc ny, ch cn chm thm du v kim tra cho ti khit yu cu.
Lp
Th ng xuyn kim tra p sut lpm bo an ton trong khi li xe. Sau
khinh xe ti mt garage, tt nht hy ch vi pht cho lp xe ngui tr li
hy kim tra v khi nng, p sut lp cao hn thng thng. p sut chun cho
lp xec ghi r trong sch hng dn. Lu l p sut cho lp trc v sau
thng khng ging nhau. Nu p sut lp thp, cn bm chon khi nt
mc cn thit. Nu lp qu cng, c thn gin x bt bng cchn ti trn
van hi.
Ki m tra mn ca gai lp bng dng c hoc quan st vi mt thng.

Nu p sut mc tiu chun, gai lp cha mn qu th cng chang ngha


vi vic bn c th an tm khi hnh cho mt chuyni di. Mt mu kim loi,
mnh knh v hay bt k vt th sc nhn no cng c th gm rt lu trn lp
xe trc khi gy ra nhng vt rch ln.
H thng lm mt
Khng nc lm mt s lmng c nhanh nng v dnn nhng tn
hi nghim trng. Kim tra bnh nc ph v chm thm nc lm mt nu
khngt yu cu. Cng nh khi kim tra mc du, xe ch bng phng,
chng c ngui v kim tra xem liu nc trong bnh c t mc cci
hay khng. Nu thng xuyn phi chm thm nc lm mt, nhiu kh nng
b tn nhit b r r, cn phiem xei sa. Phn ln cc nh sn xut
khuyn co nn thay nc lm mtng c xe hi sau khong 24 thng.
12. Cch gim chi ph khi bo dng, sa cha
N u khng mun mt nhiu tin cho nhng ln bo dng hoc sa cha,
bn hy ln danh sch cc dch v cn lm da theo s tay hng dn,a xe
ti cci l hay garage quen vng bao gi b mc xe cho th.
Nh ng chic t hini ngy cng tr nn phc tp do tch hp nhiu
cng ngh. Cc hot ng ch yuciu khin bng vi tnh v trn mi
chic xe, c hng t h thngin t tch hp phanh,ng c, bnh v trong
ca-bin. Tuy nhin, tr ngi ln cho nhng ngi s hu xe hi ngy nay bt
ngun t chnh s hini ca n. Bi nu mun tm mt li no, h hon
ton ph thuc vo cng c xcnh li m khng c cch no t khc
phcc.

Ch ng hn nh rt nhiu ngi phn nn v vic bng dngn Check


engine sng m khng r nguyn do. Sau cng, h ch cn cch mang xe ti
xng nh cc nhn vin dng thit b kim tra v xa li tt cin "ng
ght". Cng v ph thuc qu nhiu vo my mc m ch nhn nhng chic
xe thng ph mc cho cci l chnh hng hay cc garage "mun lm g th
lm", khin chi ph tng ln. Trong khi, c nhng c hi v phng php rt
hu hiu h gim thiu nhng khon tin "nui" xe.
Khng cn thit phi tii l
bo dng, bn khng nht thit phi ti cci l bi, gi dch v
thng cao hn nhiu so vi cc ni khc. Bn c th chn mt garage uy tn
no tin hnh nhng dch v nh thay du, sa cha h thng lm lnh.
Nhng quynh hin nay cha cpn vic thi hn bo hnh bnh hng
do tin hnh bo dng bn ngoi cci l ca hng.
Lit k cc dch v cn thit
a s khch hng thng khng quan tm ti "bo bi" trong tay mnh,
l s tay s dng m cc hng cp cho khi h mua xe. Tt c nhng thng tin
cn thit trong qu trnh s dng xeu c th tm thyy. Trc khin ni
bo dng, bn cnc k s tay hng dn v lit k danh sch cc dch v
nh c thay du hay khng, thay loi no; bo dng phanh hay c phi thay
lp hoco lp hay khng.iu ny gip bn chng hon ton trc nhng
li "cm d" ca k thut vin khi ngh lm thm ci ny hoc ci kia.
C nh ng khch do khng nm chc thi hn bo dng nn thng gp
"h". Chng hn nh c ngic ngh thay cua-roa cam sau khii 96.000

km vi gi gn 250 USD. Th nhng, theo ch dn trong s tay, thit b ny ch


phi thay sau 170.000 km.
Tm hiu k gi dch v
Nhi u khch hng cho rng gi cho cc dch v tii l l thng nht.
Tuy nhin, nhng nhn nh trn khng chnh xc. Thng thng, mt si l
thc hinng theo hng dn trong s tay trong khi s khc li thm vo cc
dch v ph. V vy, gi chnh lch nhau kh ln. khng b mt qu nhiu
tin cho nhng vn nh th ny, tt nht bn hy lin h trc vi cc i
l, hi v gi c v chi tit qu trnh bo dng khng b ri vo th phi
tr qu nhiu tin.
Sa cha tii l
N u xe ca bn gp vn khi vn trong hn bo hnh, hnhng duy nht
lc l mang ti i l chnh hng sa cha. Ngoi ra, cc hng thng c
chin dch kim tra sa cha min ph vng bao gi b l c hi nh th.
Mt lu nh l bn c th mang xe ti bt ki l no, khng cn phi ti
ni mua xe.
Cn trng ti cc garage
Trong tr ng hp ht hn bo hnh, bn nn chn mt xng sa cha c
uy tn, kinh nghim cng nh cy cc thit b cn thit. Khi cc
ning , hy ti vo cc ln sau th sa c th theo di s c cng nh
hotng ca xe mt cch h thng. Nu thayi ni sa qu thng xuyn,
bn s gp phi tnh trng xng ny yu cu bn thay b phn m bn mua
xng khc. Lc, chi ph si ln rt nhiu.
Khi s a cha, nu c th hy ngi v tr tht gn quan st v yu cu th

hi kin trc khi thay th mt b phn no. Khi theo di st sao, bn s


loi tr nhng li (v tnh hay c ) ca th v yn tm hn khi nhn li xe.
D khng phi tt c nhng thnh thong vn c khch hng phn nh v vic
b thay hay sau khi nhn xe v li b nng hn.
Ngoi ra, hy hi tt c nhng vn m bn thc mc bi rt nhiu ngi
thng ngi ngng
khi cpn k thut. Trong khi chnhiu lim yu nhng tay th
lu c bp bm. 13. Nhng yu cu an ton khi sa xe xe mt cch chc
chn, s dngng dng c nh khng dng c-l h inch choc h mt,
thong heo tay l nhng lu c bn khi sa cha bo dng xe t.
Vm bo an
ton, bn hy trang b nhng kin thc cn thit cng nh tp thi quen kin
nhn.
Khi s a xe, bo dng hay kim tra mt b phn nghi ng hng hc
no, bn nn chun b cho mnh nhng yu cu an ton cn thit, bi nu
khng rt d gp phi nhng tai nn bt ng. Mt trong nhng nguy c chn
thng cao l xe v tr khng thch hp khin n c th ln ngi th
pha bn di. S dng thit b khngng quy cch hay khng ph hp cng
c th dn ti tai nn, thm ch do mc qun o qu mn.Yu t quan trng
nht khi sa xe l thao tc ca ngi th. Tip theo l yu t tm l. C th
ni chc rng bn khng th sa xe nu khng c s kin nhn. Nhng
hnhng hay quytnh vi vng trc ht s khin bnau, sau gy hng
hc thm cho chic xe. Chng hn tho mt conc rt cht, bn nn xcnh

xem tay v tr no thun tin nht, khi vn c b vng hay khng.


C ng nh vy, khi sit cht mt conc, cn xem qua xcnh n c va
hay khng, cn mt lc bao nhiu. Trc khi sang x hay lm vic
quanhng c, phim bo chng ngui khng gy bng. V bn hy
thng xuynt nhng cu hi trn cho chnh mnh to nn thi quen cn
trngng qu.
trnh qun o b mn v khng chy nc mt khi nm di gm xe,
cch tt nht l hy nng chic xe ln cao hn bng kch, hoc h thp ngi
xung. Khi dng gng tay trong cc thao tc c tip xc vi cht lng hoc
nhin liu, bn nn chn gng lm t si nitrile,ng s dng gng tay cao su.
Qun o lm t si hu c nh cotton, len rt an ton bi chng khng b chy
do cht ha hc hay nhit. Bn ch bo v mt trong tnh hung lm vic vi
dng khng kh p sut cao hay khi nm di gm xe. Mt yu cu quan trng
nhng thng xuyn b qun, l bn nh b ht trang sc, vng, nhn hayng
h trc khi sa cha.
Ngoi ra, khi s dng cc thit b, bn cng nn lu khng dng c-l h
inch vnc h mt v ngc li. Khi dng m-lt nn ti chiu tc dng
lc v khng ni thm tayn cho cc dng c xit bu-lng,c vt. Khng
cc vt dng kim loi trong ti o bi c th va chm vi ngunin, gy git.
Cc chuyn gia lit k 8 li hay mc phi nht vi ngi th sa xe chuyn
nghip.
Th nht, khng tho dy nic-quy trc khi sa h thng khing v
scin. Th hai, dng mtc-quyng conc, c-l. Th ba, lm chy xng
khing c vn cn nng. Th t,ng trc hocng cnh qut ging c

khi vn lm vic m khng kim tra cc hng hc qut gi trc. Th nm,


khing xe ngay t cm my m khng xcnh hp s ng v tr cha.
Th su, dngn pht nhit kim tra bnh xng. Th by, th xe sau khi sa
phanh m khng kim tra chn phanh trc khi cho xe ra khi gara. Cui cng
l li chnh ccng dn ni vi hp s tng khing c vn cnang
chy.
i vi nh xng, trc ht hy chn mt v tr tt, bng phng, c
bmu xe. Cc thit bct v tr d ly, d nh. Khi sa xe cn c
qut thng gi,c bit nung c vn ang n bi xe c th thi ra cc
chtc hi cng nh xng b r. Thi quen ht thuc khiang lm vic rt nguy
him, nht l trong cc nh kn gi bi hi du hi xng d bt chy khi c
ngun nhit.

III. Hiu bit v kinh nghim


1. Cch phn hng t chu u
Tiu chu n phn hng xe hi ca chu u da trn kch thc, v thng s
chnh so snh l chiu di. 6 hng chnh s dng k hiu t An F bng
ch ci Latin. Ranh gii gia cc hng ch c tnhc l vang dn mi
bi vic ci tin kiu dng ca cc nh sn xut.
Th t phn hng btu t cc xe nh nht, t ngn hn 3,6 m thuc
hng A, loi xe tit kim nhin liu ny hng ti nhng ngi thc dng.
Chngc coi l xe dnh cho 2 ngi v thng l chic xe th 2 hoc 3
trong gianh. V din hnh cho xe hng A l VW Lupo, Opel Agila, Fiat
Ciecento.
Ti p theo l xe hng B, loi c chiu di 3,6-3,9 m,c s dng ph
bin chu u, nht l vnga Trung Hi. Khung sn xe thuc kiu
hatchback, tin nghi v trang b kh, gh sau ch 2 ngi ngi thoi mi. Xe
loi ny khnga nng c th l chic duy nht trong gianh, i tng mua
xe ch yu l ph n. V d: Opel Corsa, Peugeot 206, Fiat Punto
H ng C l nhm xe thng dng vi chiu di 3,9-4,4 m, chng
thngc gi bng mt ci tn khc l Golf-class v s hm m mu xe VW
Golf trong sut 1/4 th k qua chu u. Xe c th ch 5 ngi (3 ngi ngi
hi cht hng gh sau). Mt s mu xe hng Cin hnh: Opel Astra, Nissan
Almera, Ford Focus
Xe h ng D l nhm c chiu di 4,4-4,7 m v thng gi l xe hng trung.

Hng nyc chia khng chnh thc thnh nhm xe gianh (Citroen C5,
Toyota Avensis) v xe cao cp (Audi A4, BMW Serie 3, Mercedes-Benz
C-Class, Jaguar X-Type, Volvo S60). Mercedes c cch gi hng ring,i
khi khng trng vi tiu chun chu u. C-Class ca h tngng hng D,
nhng trang thit b mc cao,ng c mnh ngang nga vi nhm coupe th
thao.
Xe h ng E l nhm sang trng, di 4,7-5 m, ni tht rng v trang thit b
cao cp, tin nghiy . Cc mu xe hng Eca chung hin nay l
Mercedes E-Class, BMW Serie 5, Audi A6
Cu i cng l hng F - loi sedan c chiu di vt qu 5 m. Ni tht rt
sang trng,ng c t 6 xi-lanh tr ln, trang b cc h thngin t tin tin
nht. Nhng mu xe hng Fca chung nht l: Mercedes S-Class, BMW
Serie 7, Audi A8, Jaguar XJ8 v Lexus LS430
Hi n nay, khi nng cp xe, cc nh sn xut thng tng chiu di mu c
thm 10-15 cm. V d VW Polo v Fiesta l xe hng B, khi nng cp, cc mu
miu di hn 15 cm, vt qua mc
3,9 m v trn l thuyt, c th lit vo hng C.
2. H thng tiu chun kh thi chu u
Theo l trnh, giaion 2005-2008, nc ta s xy dng tiu chun cht lng kh thi xe hi ph hp
vi Euro I trong h thng tiu chun chu u.y l mt trong nhng h thng tiu chun tin tin nht,
c p dng rng ri trn th gii, gm c Trung Quc v cc ncng Nam .
Chu u l ci ni c a ngnh cng nghip t th gii bi nhng pht minh sng chu tin vng
c t trong rai t lca ny. S pht trin vt bc ca th trng t giaion 1960-1970 v bi hc
v ci cht ca 80 ngi dn New York trong 4 ngy thi tito ln do nhim khng kh, buc chnh

ph ca cc nc chu u xy dng mt chng trnh ct gim kh thi xe hi vo nm 1970. Tuy nhin,


phin nm 1987, d lut hon chnh quynh gi tr nng gii hn ca cc loi kh thi mic
thng qua v ngi ta vn thng gi l Euro 0. Tri qua 18 nm, thm 4 tiu chun nac ban
hnh bao gm: Euro I nm 1991, Euro II nm 1996, Euro III nm 2000 v Euro IV nm 2005. Vi mi
tiu chun mi rai, nng gii hn ca kh thi li thp hn tiu chun trc.
H thng Euro p dng cho tt c cc loi xe trn 4 bnh lpng ct trong chy bng nhin liu
xng, du, LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) v chia theo tnh nng nh: xe du lch, xe cng sut nh, xe
cng sut ln v xe bus.
Mi ngy mt 1 t do nhim
Kh th i gy nhim l nhng hp chtc hi cnh hng trc tip ti sc khe con ngi v mi
trng trong thi gian di bao gm: cacbon oxt (CO), nit oxt (NOx), hydrocacbon ni chung (HC) v
thnh phn bi bay theo (Particulate Matter-PM).in hnh nht trong s cc kh trn l cacbon oxt
(CO), sinh ra do qu trnh chy khng hon ton cc hp cht cha cacbon. Loi kh ny c kh nng
lm mt vai tr vn chuyn oxy ca hemoglobin mt cch nhanh chng nh to lin kt bn vi nguyn
t st (Fe) - thnh phn quan trng ca hemoglobin- v l tc nhn chnh gy ra hin tng ngt do ht
phi qu nhiu khi l gch cc vng qu Vit Nam.
Phng php xcnh
Trong cc ti li u v h thng tiu chun Euro, gi tr nng kh c th khc nhau ty theo
cchnh gi. Cch th nht xcnh nng kh thi theo hnh trnh ca phng tin bngn v
g/km. Cch th hainh gi theo cng dong c sinh ra, lc gi tr nng kh thi c th nguyn
g/kWh.
Bn c nh kt cung c, lng kh thi ph thuc rt ln vo nhng yu t nh: thi gian khing,
ti trng, vn tc,nnh ca vn tc v loing vn hnh. Nhma ton bnh hng ca nhng
nhn t trn vo m hnh ha thc nghim, cc nh kimnha ra hai phng php: ESC (European

Steady Cycle - Chu trnh thc nghimnnh) v ETC (European Transient Cycle - chu trnh thc
nghim tc thi).
ESC l ph ng php kimnh tin hnh theo nhiu giaion. mi giaion, vn tc v ti trng ca
xe khngi. Nhng khi chuyn sang giaion khc ngi ta s thayi hai thng s mt cch ngu
nhin. Trong sut qu trnh thc hin, kh thi lin tci qua thit bo nng v gi tr cui cng l trung
bnh cng ca ton b cc giaion. ESC ph hp viiu kin vn hnh trnng trng, t thayi
vn tc v ti trng.
Khng gi ng vi ESC, phng php ETC da trn vic thayi vn tc, ti trng mt cch tc thi.
Ngi ta khng cho kh thi qua thit bo ngay m gom vo mt ti kh plastic v phn tch sau khi kt
thc thc nghim. ETC thch hp choiu kin chy trong thnh ph, phi lin tc thayi vn tc cng
nh ti trng.
H thng tiu chun Euro thng xuync nghin cu, cp nht theo tnh hnh s dng t cc
nc thnh vin lin minh chu u. Nhng bo co v lng xe hi v nng kh thi trong khng kh l
c s cc nh chc trcha ra nhng quynh mi do khong thi gian p dng ca Euro thng
khng nnh trc. V nh ch 3 nm sau khi c hiu lc, Euro IV sc thay th bng tiu chun mi,
Euro V.
B trung ha kh thi
Nh ng quynh ht sc kht khe ca Euro V khin cc hng sn xut t li tip tc thayi kt cu
ng c nhm tng hiu sut chy, lpt b chuyn ha xc tc (catalytic converter), thayi ngun
nhin liu v nghin cu thit k quy trnh sn xut thn thin vi mi trng. Bn cnh, Euro cn quy
nh cc loi xe hotng ti chu u phi tha mn tiu chun trong vng 80.000 km. Nu khngp
ngc yu cu trn, nh sn xut s phi thu hi ton b loi sn phm.
Vit Nam v Euro

M c d mc nhim khng kh ti cc thnh ph ln lng bong nhng do kh khn v kinh


th, k thut nn Vit Nam cha th p dng ngay h thng tiu chun Euro.n 2007, chng ta mi c
th quynh Euro I cho xe hi, tipn l Euro II nm 2010. Trong khi, hu ht cc ncng Nam
vang chun b chuyn sang Euro II, thm ch l Euro III. D sm hay mun, p dng tiu chun
Euro kim sot lng kh thi l nhim v cn thit bi nhngnh hng v mi trng v sc khe
con ngi l ht sc to ln.

3. nghaimnh gi an ton xe hi
im an ton l mt trong nhng thng s quan trng nht m ngi mua
xe quan tm, bi n nh hng trc tip ti tnh mng ca h. Da trn phn
trm sng st ca hnh khch, mi t chcnh gi c phng php th
nghim v choim ring ca mnh, nhng thng dng nht l choim theo
sao.
Trn th gii, 3 t chcnh gi an ton uy tn nht l C quan an ton
giao thng quc gia M NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration), Vin nghin cu an ton giao thng quc gia M IIHS
(Insurance Institute for Highway Safety) v chng trnhnh gi xe mi
EuroNCAP (European New Car Assessment Programme).
Nh ng th nghim an tonc cc t chc ny tin hnh lnu tin
vo nhng nm 1970, ring IIHS mi btunh gi cho khch hng t nm
1995. Nu NHTSA v EuroNCAPc chnh ph M v chnh ph cc nc
chu u bo lnh th IIHS li phc v cho cc hng bo him t. kt qu
mang tnh ph dng cao, cc t chcnh gi thng chn nhng mu xe nhiu
ngi s dng, c cu trc v cc thit b an ton khng c s khc bit ln so

vi mu xe u tin.
Th nghim va chm pha trc
Trong th nghim va chm trc, nhng hnh nmct trong xe di
t th nh ngi ngi v ngi li tht s. Khi chic xe va chm vi tng
cnh tc 56 km/h, lc tcng ln cc hnh nmc tnh ton v
NHTSA sa ranh gi theo cc "sao" da trn phn trm sng st ca
ngi ngi trong xe.
S sao ngha

5 Nguy c tai nn nghim trng thp hn 10%

4 Nguy c tai nn nghim trng t 11-20%

3 Nguy c tai nn nghim trng t 21-35%

2 Nguy c tai nn nghim trng t 36-45%

1 Nguy c tai nn nghim trng cao hn 46%

Trong khi , IIHS li tin hnh va chm theo mt pha ca mi xe (offset)


vo tng tc 64 km/h, tngng vi vn tc hai xe va chm cnh mi
vi nhau.nh gi ca IIHS chia theo thang: "Tt" (good), "chp nhnc"
(acceptable), "yu" (marginal) hay "ngho nn" (poor). IIHS khng da trn
phn trm may mn nh NHTSA mnh gi vo chn thng ca hnh khch
v quan tm ti cu trc cc thit b an ton ca chic xe hn.i vi IIHS,
bt k kt qu ttnu, nu mt chic xe khng c ti kh hay ti kh
hotng khngng nguyn tc th n vn bnhim "ngho nn".
Trong th nghim ca NHTSA, hai hnh nm, c kch thc tngng
vi ngi trung bnh ct hai gh trc. Mt vt c khi lng 1.368
kgm vo cnh xe vi vn tc 62 km/h. Lc tcng ln cc v tru, c,

ngc v xng chu ca hai hnh nmc tnh ton nhng mcnh gi theo
"sao" li ch da trn chn thng ngc. Chn thngu khngc nh
gi voim "sao" m ch ghi ct "an ton lin quan" nu mcng quan
tm.
S sao ngha

5 Nguy c chn thng thp hn 5%

4 Nguy c chn thng t 6-10%

3 Nguy c chn thng t 11-20%

2 Nguy c chn thng t 21-25%

1 Nguy c chn thng cao hn 26%

Trong th nghim ca IIHS, hai hnh nm l ph n hoc tr em 12 tui


(cao 1,5 m, nng 50 kg) t gh li v gh ngay sau. Kch thc ca vt va
chm trong th nghim ca IIHS cng khc. N nng 1.497 kg v c hnh dng
tng t nh phnu ca mt chic xe th thaoa dng (SUV). Tc va
chm l 50 km/h.
Th nghim lt xe
Th nghim ny ch c NHTSA tin hnh. Vn phng lin bang s ghi
nhn ktnh gi lt xe da trn tnh ton ton hc v khi lng xe v trng
tm gy lt. Thng snh gic NHTSA gi l "Static Stability Factor tha s cn bng tnh". Tuy nhin, tnh ton ny ca NHTSA b ch trch rt
nhiu do n khng xem xt tiiu kin vn hnh thc. Ti nm 2004, NHTSA
btu s dng yu tng hc vonh gi lt v kt qu da trn s kt hp
gia th nghimng v th nghim tnh. Th nghimngc tin hnh khi

chic xe ch 5 hnh khch vy bnh nhin liu, di chuyn trniu kina


hnh thayi thng xuyn v cc dng c so cc thng s ca lp. Nu hai
lp cng nng cao 5 cm khi mtt th chic xec coi l "lt p", giaion
chun b lt.im cho th nghim ny c ngha:
S sao ngha

5 Nguy c lt thp hn 10%

4 Nguy c lt t 11-20%

3 Nguy c lt t 20-30%

2 Nguy c lt t 30-40%

1 Nguy c lt cao hn 40%

Va chm pha sau


Ch c IIHS tin hnh th nghim ny. NHTSA khngnh gi loi va
chm ny do n t gy ti nn nghim trng, ch c 5% hnh khcheo dy an
ton b t thng trong cc tai nn kiu trn. Tuy s ngi cht thp nhng n
li ph bin nht trong cc kiu tai nn. Mt hnh nm ct vo gh v cho
xe va chm tc 32 km/h vi mt xe khc cng khi lng pha sau. Cc
lc tcngc tnh ton theo cc thng sng v tnh hc choim t
"tt" ti "ngho nn".
Bn c nh cc th nghim quan trng trn, IIHS cn c mt th nghim "va
chm ba-sc tc thp". Tuy nhin, IIHS khng dngnh gi an
ton mnh gi chi ph sa cha. Mt chic xe va chm vi tng tc 8
km/h trong 4 ln khc nhau ri mangi sa cha v mc nh gi "tt" hay
"ngho nn" s da trn s tin b ra.
M i t chc c cchnh gi ring ca mnh. Nu NHTSA v EuroNCAP

hotng di s bo tr ca chnh ph v kt qunh gi ca hai t chc


nyc dng ra quytnh thu hi xe th IIHS ch phc v cho cc hng bo
him. Do, kt qu ca IIHS snh hng ti mc tin bi thng m ch xe
nhnc. V vy, ngi tiu dng cn phn bit v so snh cn trng nhng
s liu m cc hng xea ra.
4. Khc bit gia ch ha kh v phun xngin t
uim ln nht ca phun xngin t l to nn ha kh c t l l tng tt c cc xi-lanh. Tuy
nhin, do phc tp nn mi khi hng hc, h thng ny cng gy nn nhiu vn.
Ch ha kh (hay cn gi l bnh xng con),c s dng trn c xe my v t t nhng nmu
ca ngnh cng nghip ny. Nhim v ca n l ha trn khng kh v xng chong c. Khng kh v
nhin liu sau khii qua ch ha kh b ht vo xi-lanh v thc hin quy trnh nn-n tiy. Ch ha kh
ch c ccng c xng, cnng c diesel phun nhin liu trc tip vo bungt.
Ch ha kh hotng theo nguyn tc: Khng khi vo quang dn hp (ca phun) to thnh
chn khng mt phn. Do chnh lch p sut gia ca phun v bnh cha nn nhin liu si quang
phun v ha ln vo dng khng kh. Mt s xe s dng loi ca phun cnh (Fixed Venturi-FV) trong
khi s khc li dng loi ca bin thin VV (Variable Venturi-VV). loi ca phun bin thin, kch thc
cang dn khng kh thay i theo s thayiiu khin lng nhin liuc phn phi.
M c tiu ca tt c cc ch ha kh l to nn mt ha kh c t l khi lng tiu gia khng kh
v nhin liu l 14,7:1. Vi nhng ha kht t l trn, n s chy hon ton. Mt hn hp no c t
l thp hnc gi l "giu" do c qu nhiu nhin liu so vi khng kh. Ngc li, hn hpc coi
l "ngho".
H n hp giu s khng chy ht do tha nhin liu v gy hao xng. Trong khi, hn hp ngho
khng sinh ra cng tia, khinng c lm vic yu v thiunnh. thc hiniu ny, ch ha kh
phi kim sotc lng khng khi vong c v thng qua cung cp mt lng nhin liu ph

hp. Tuy nhin,im yu ca cc loi ch ha kh l chpng t l l tng khong vn hnh nhtnh


nn xe hotng khng hiu qu.
H thng phun nhin liuin t
Xu t hin sau kiu phun nhin liu ch ha kh khong 70 nm nhng h thng phun nhin liuin t
EFI (Electronic Fuel Injection) nhanh chng tr nn ph bin bi n khc phccim yu nht ca
ch ha kh.
Do v n hnh tng nn h thng EFI cn c cc thng siu khin kim phunng m trong
khong thi gian sao cho lng nhin liu va to nn hn hp l tng. Cc thng s cn thit
EFI hotngnnh l gc quay v tc trc khuu, lu lng kh np, nhit kh np, nhit nc
lm mt, t l hn hp, nng oxy kh thi....Nhng s liu nyc thu thp t cc cm bin t khp
ni trongng c.
Phn lo i theo v trt kim phun, EFIc chia thnh loi phunaim MFI (Multiport Fuel
Injection) v phun xng tp trung (kim phunt trc bm ga). MFI, mi xi-lanh s c mt kim phun
tcng c V6 s c 6 kim phun v V8 s c 8 kim. Khng kh v nhin liu s ha trn ngay ti xi-lanh.
Trong khi, loi phun xng tp trung ch c mt kim phunt trnng np cho cc xi-lanh.
u nhcim ca cc loi
S ph bin ca phun xngin t EFI chng tuim ln ca n. Khc vi ch ha kh, EFI m
c bit l loiaim MFI c th to nn nhng ha kh c t l gn ngng l tng tt c cc xilanh,
ty theoiu kin vn hnh ca chng.iu ny c ngha ha kh cc bungtu chy ht, qua
sinh cng tia trong khi lng nhin liu tiu th mc va.
Ngoi uim trn, EFI c thiu chnh lng xng theo tng ch vn hnh cang c. Chng
hn nh khi khing, ha kh cn giu xng chy, h thng s phun xng nhiu hn. Khing cn
nh, my tnhiu khin sao cho nhin liu mc va. Nh vy, xt trn phng din s dng nhin

liu, EFI r rng c nhiuuim hn so vi ch ha kh.


Tuy nhin, r c ri ca EFI bt ngun t chnh s phc tp ca n. Nu xy ra hng hc, ngi s
dng ch cn cch mang xe vo garage, nh cc k thut vin dng myc li xcnh nguyn nhn.
Trong khi vi ch ha kh, mt ngi th bnh thng cng c th chnon v khc phcc. Ngoi
ra, EFI s dng rt nhiu cm bin nn ch cn mt chic b hng, c h thng s bnh hng,ng c
lm vicnnh.
H ng hc thng xy ra nht vi nhng loi xe s dng EFI Vit Nam l tcu kim phun.
Nguyn nhn do cht lng xng nc ta cha cao nn d to cn trnu kim, gy tc khinng c
khng khing hoc cht my.
Hi n nay, mt vi hng nhn c hi ny gii thiu nhng sn phm c kh nng lm schu kim
bng cch pha vo xng. Tuy nhin, vi nhng cht gy tcngn c h thng cp liu, bn khng nn
dng ngay m tham kho thm nhiu ngun. Cch tt nht l hy s dng sn phm ca nhng nh sn
xut tn tui v cm bo t hng xe m mnh s dng.
5. Li thng gp ca h thng phun xngin t
Bm xng khng chy hoc yu, kim phun b tc, biu khin trung tm hng l nhng bnh thng
gp nht trn h thng cung cp nhin liuin t.
S ph bin ca h thng phun xngin t (EFI) chng tuim ni tri ca cng ngh ny.
Thm ch, miy Honda Vit Nam cna EFI ln mu xe my Future Neo FI. Nh tiu ha lng
xng bm to ha kh c t l chy tt nht tng xi-lanh, EFI gipng c lm vicnnh, tng cng
sut v gim mc tiu hao nhin liu.
hotng bnh thng, EFI cn rt nhiu thng s nh gc quay v tc trc khuu, lu lng
kh np, nhit kh np, nhit nc lm mt, t l hn hp, nng oxy kh thi... Nhng s liu ny
c thu thp t cc cm bint khp ni trongng c. Chng hn nh cm bin pht hin nng
oxy d trong kh thi qu ln, biu khin trung tm (ECU) s ra lnh cho h thng bm t xngi,

sao cho nhin liu lun chy ht.


Do c n qu nhiu thng s tiu ha qu trnh phun nhin liu nn EFI rt d gp s c. Ch cn
mt cm bin no hotng khng bnh thng, gi sai thng tin snh hngn ton b h thng.
Nu cm bin "cht" hoc thit b no hng, thng s m n chu trch nhim thu thp s khng tn ti
v ECU s bo li lnng h "check engine".
Nh ng s c lin quann tng cm binc m ha trong b ECU. kim tra, cc k thut vin
s dng b gii mc li. Trong trng hp li lin quann phn mm, thit b ny c th xa n
khi b nh ca ECU. Tuy nhin vi li phn cng th cn phi sa cha. Nh myc li, th sa xe c
th bit chnh xc thit b no b hng ln phng n khc phc ch khng phi m mm nh vi xe
trang b ch ha kh.
D u hiu d nhn thy hng hc ca phun nhin liuin t l cht myt ngt, khng
khingc, hao xng bt thng. Khi gp phi tnh trng ny,iuu tin bn nn ngh ti l h
thng bm nhin liu. Khc vi ch ha kh, EFI s dng bmin. bit bm c hotng hay khng,
bn c th nghe qua mingng xng khing mchin bm. Ngoi ra, bm khng p sut, lu
lng thp cng c th gy chtng c. Nu bm khng gp trc trc, bn kim tra tip ti ccng
dn nhin liu. Mi xng nng nc di np ca-p c th l du hiu ca mt vt h. Trong trng hp
xng r thnh git nn ti ngay cc garage hn li.
S c nghim trng nht lng c v kim phun l ni b nghi vn nhiu nht. Trong qu trnh phun,
nu cht lng nhin liu khng tt, b lc lm vic khng hiu qu s rt d dn ti vic kim phun b
tc,ng cn. Khi kim b tc, lng xng cung cp khng theo nhu cu thc t nn xe yu v thng
xuyn cht my. Nhng yu t khcnh hng ti hotng ca kim phun cn c th do dngin
khngpng yu cu.
V n cui cng c th nm chnh thit biu khin trung tm. Khi xcnh chc chn hng th
bn phi thay mi n. Hin ti, cc ECUuc sn xut cho ring tng mu xe v cc thng s, k c

cc kt cu vi mch v d liu chunc lu trong b nh cht PROM, ngi s dng khng th bit.
V v y, khi xy ra hng hc ch c th kim tra cc thng s vo v ra ca ECUnh gi tnh
trng hotng ca n. Nu cc cm binu hotng tt nhng thit biu khin nh kim phun xng
khng kch hot chng t ECU b hng.
6.u nhcim ca cc h dnng
M i h dnng cu trc, cu sau, 4 bnh v ton b cc bnh cu v nhcim ring. Ty
thuc vo nhu cu s dng v ty vo tng loi xe m cc hng c cch p dng thch hp. Chng hn
xea hnh thng l dnng 4 bnh cn sedana s s dng h dnng cu trc.
ng c sinh ra cng sut v m-men xon. truyn nng lng ti cc bnh khin chng quay,
chic xe ca bn cn phi c c cu dnng. Tuy nhin, khng phi tt c cc bnhu trc tip nhn
cng sut v m-men xon tng c. Ty thuc yu cu k thut gia cc loi xe v ti tng thiim
m ngi ta c nhng phng php truynng khc nhau.
M t cch tng qut nht, hin c 4 c cu dnng gm AWD (all-wheel drive) tc l h dnng
tt c cc bnh; 4WD (four-wheel drive) ch xe dnng 4 bnh; RWD (rear-wheel drive) l h
dnng cu sau v cui cng l FWD (front-wheel drive) - dnng cu trc. Bnh no trc tip nhn
cng sut v m-men xonc gi l bnh dnng.
a. Dnng cu trc FWD
G n nh tt c cc xe ngy nayu s dng h dnng cu trc. Nhng nmu th k 20, kiu
FWD thuc loi "him c kh tm" nhng giy, nc trang b trn khong 70% s xe mi xut
xng. Nh vy, r rng c mt cuc dch chuyn ngon mc trong ngnh cng nghip t khi t h
dnng cu sau chuyn ht sang dnng cu trc.
Nguyn nhn chnh n m ch cc xe hiniu cng ct trc thay vt sau nh trc kia.
V vy, loi b c cu truynng t trc ra sau vn "lng nhng" v tiu hao nhiu nng lng,

truyn cng sut ti ngay bnh trc l gii php kh thi nht. Ngoi ra, p dng FWDng ngha vi
vic cc nh sn xut c th gim bt cc chi tit, h thp chi ph.ng thi, khi lng xe gimi cng
khin n "n" t xng hn. uim quan trng na ca h dnng FWD l dong ct pha trn trc
trc nn trng lng ca nc truyn thng xung bnh dnng khin bmng tng ln, gip
xe hotng tt cc mt ng trn trt.
Ngoi nh nguim trn, FWD cn c nhcim lin quan ti tnh nng ca xe.u tin, trong
trng hp phn b trng lng tp trung xung pha sau, h dnng cu trc rt kh tng tc v lun
tht th trn cconng thng.iu khin cc xe s dng FWD rt d b hin tng "oversteer", tc
bnh sau b trt v khng cn ma st. Nhcim cui cng l d FWD ht sc thc t nhng thit k
ca chng li mu thun vi tnh nng vn hnh ca xe. Ti sao xe ca bni bng 4 bnh nhng lit
tt c nhim vnh hng, phanh v tng tc ln hai bnh trc?
b. H dnng cu sau RWD
R rng hai ki u FWD v RWD c nhngu nhcim tri ngc nhau. Vi RWD, xe tng tc tt
hn. Hai bnh trcc gii thot khi nhim v dnng v ch tp trung vo vic dn hng (bnh
li). Tuy nhin,uim ny khng lm RWD tri hn so vi FWD. Thi ku, s dng RWD xe phi c
trc truynng v mt b vi sai truyn cng sut tng c xung trc sau. Thit b ny lm tng gi
thnh sn xut v cng vi, trng lng xe tng ln. V vy, RWD thc t l khng hiu qu hn
FWD. Ngoi ra, khii xe dnng cu sau m khng c h thng kim sot bmng, ti x rt d
mt li cconng trn trt hay mc kt xung rnh, mng, g.
c. Dnng 4 bnh (4WD) v ton b cc bnh (AWD)
Hai h dnng gii thiu trn ch s dng mt na s bnh dnng. V tt nhin, s c
ngit ra cu hi ti sao khng s dng c 4 bnh.p li, ngnh cng nghip t c cu tr li rt
sm khi m hng xe H Lan Spyker trnh lng h thng dnng 4 bnh ton thi gian (full-time) t nm
1903 ti trin lm xe hi Paris.

Tr c ht, cn phi ni r rng ti sao li c s khc bit gia dnng bnh 4WD v dnng tt
c cc bnh AWD. Thut ng 4WD hnh thnh trn c s dng ch kiu dnng 4 bnh thi ku
ca hng xea hnh Jeep v xe ti. N m ch cc xe c ch chn dnng 2 bnh hoc 4 bnh bng
cng tc gn trong xe.
Trn cc m u xe s dng 4WD thng c ch "low - thp" v "high - cao". Khi chn "low", h
truyn ng cp nhiu m-men xon hni trn cconng g gh hay troo. Cn ch "high"
s dng trn cconng trn trt. 4WD cn s dng b kho vi sai trung tm nhm trnh nhng
chnh lch khng cn thit gia bnh bn tri v bn phi khii trna hnh khng bng phng.
AWD dng ch cc xe dnng 4 bnh ti mi thiim v khng c ch "low" hay "high".
Trong khi khi nim 4WD ch yu dng cho xe th thaoa dng SUV, lin quan ti kh nng vta
hnh th AWD li quen thuc vi cc xe sedan, wagon,a dng minivan. AWD c ngha gip ci
thin bm ng trongiu kin thi tit xu. Mt vi mu xe nh Lexus RX330 l v din hnh, mc
d chng l xe SUV nhng li s dng AWD thay v 4WD. V th, ngi ta gi kiu xe l "crossover".
Ch "all - tt c" trong t All Wheel Drive c mt cht mu thun v d gy hiu lm khi m hin
nay hu ht cc xe AWD c kh nng phn b ton b cng sut xung bnh sau khi pht hin bnh
trc b trt. Nhng chic Subaru hay Chrysler c thi trnng trn trt mt cch thoi mi v
chng c th chuyn cng sut t bnh trt (mt bmng) sang bnh khng b trt.
V i nhng kh nng nh vy 4WD hay AWD dng nh l h dnng tt nht. Nhng thc t li
khng hon ton chnh xc. C haiu c trng lng tng lnng k, thit k phc tp v gi thnh
cao. Chng cn lm tng mc tiu hao nhin liu bi tng sc cn gi do cng knh.n mt lc no,
khi b kim sot bmng tr nn ph bin hn trn cc xe RWD hay FWD, 4WD v AWD s tr
thnh d vng.
V i tt c ccu nhcim trn, khng th c h dnng tt nht trong tt c cc h quy chiu.
V vy, bn hy chn cho mnh mt chic xe c ch hp l, tu thuc voiu kin, cng vic v s

thch ca mnh.
7. Cch s dng s tng an ton v tit kim
H p s tng vn b coi l tiu hao nhiu nhin liu, d cuim gip ngi li gim bt thao
tcp chn cn v chuyn s. Do d s dng nn c nhng thi quen s dng thiu k thut, an ton,
m ngi li mc phi nh chuyn sang s P, s R hay N khi xeang chy.
H p s tngu tin trn th giic s dng t nm 1940 khi hng xe Oldsmobile (hin khng
cn tn ti), M, sn xut hng lot v mang tn Hydra-Matic. Banu, Hydra-Matic ch c khp ni
thy lc (fluid coupling) ch khng phi b bin m (torque converter). Ti 1948, b bin mu tin
trnh lng trn chic Buick Dynaflow. Hin ti, 80% s xe M trang b h truynng ny nhng chu
u, ngi s dng vn khng mn m vi n do tiu hao nhin liu v gim cng sutng c.
Tuy nhin, cng v i nhng ci tin k thut, hp s tng ngy cng hiu qu hn v tr thnh xu
hng mi ti cc ncang pht trin.uim ln nht ca s tng l gim thiu thao tc ca ngi
li, ph hp vi nhng ngi mi tpi hay ph n vn khng thnh tho khi s dng s sn. Ngoi ra, s
tng c t s truyn bini mt cch tiu theoiu kin vn hnh nn gipng c hotng nnh,
xe chy m i.
Do n gin khi vn hnh nn hp s tng d gy nn nhng thi quen khng tt. Theo cc hng
dn vin ca Ford Vit Nam trong bui l li th xe v hng dn s dng hp s tng hp l din ra
ngy 29/7, mt s ngi thng mc li chuyn sang s P () hay s R (li) khi xe cha dng hn.
Thao tc ny c th lm m cc bnh rng s, bi khi chng vnang c chuynng quay v vic
hm hoc i chiu quayt ngt s c tcng khng tt. Bn cnh, cc k thut vin cng lu
khng nn chuyn v s P khi tc vng tua my cao hn tc khng ti, v lun gi chn phanh khi
chuyn t s P sang cc s khc.
Khi xe vi ra ngoi,m bo, ngi li nn s P v ko phanh tay. Trong trng hp

dngn, ti x c th v s N (s trung gian) v ko phanh tay hoc nhp phanh chn. Mt s ti x


trc khi dngn thng v s N xe tri t do nhm gim mc tiu hao nhin liu. Tuy nhin, cch
ny rt nguy him khii trnng ph Vit Nam do c nhiu loi phng tin tham gia giao thng cng
mt lc. Hn na, do yu t an ton, ch nn v s N khi xe dng hn v chy tc khng ti.
cc mu xe nh Ford Focus S hay Premacy, ngi li c th chuyn t s D v N v ngc li
m khng cn bm nt kha trn cn s. D s tng tiu hao nhin liu hn s sn khi so snh
cngiu kin, nhng gi tr cn ph thuc ch yu vo phong cch li xe. Khi s D (s tin), ngi
cm li nn gi tc xeu, trnh tng ga v gim gat ngt. Tng tc t t khin xanh bt v dng
dn dn khi gpn. K thut li c th gip tit kim 35,4% nhin liu cho chic th thaoa dng
SUV. Khi nim t tyc cc k s tnh ton bng thi gian tng tc t 0 ln 100 km/h trong
vng 20 giy.
8. M lc - thco cng sutng c
Trong hng lo t thng s, cng sutc ch nhiu nht bi nc trng nhanh ca chic xe.
C nhiu phng php xcnh cng sut khc nhau nhng chnguc ghi thnh m lc khch
hng d hnh dung.
Cng su t thngc cc nh sn xut ghi di dng m lc nhng trn thc t, khng phi ai
cng tng tn v m lc. Thut ng "m lc" c tn ting Anh horse power v Jame Watt l
ngiu tin a ra khi nim trn vo nm 1782. Lcu, Jame Watt cha phn chia cc loi m lc
khc nhau nn sau, cc nh khoa hct tn cho cch gi ca ng l m lc c hc (mechanical
horsepower). Mt m lc c hc c gi tr chnh xc 745,69987158227022 W, ngha l cng sut 1
bngin 100 W s bng 0,13 m lc.
c hnhnh trc quan hn, m lc c hcc m t l cng m mt ch nga b ra ko 33.000
pound (1 pound = 454 gram) ln 1 foot (30,48 cm) trong thi gian 1 pht (minute).
Sau th iim Jame Watta ranh ngha m lc, c hng lotn v cng sutc sng to ph

hp viiu kin tng ngnh. Tnhn hin ti, c ti 4 loi m lc khc nhau gm: M lc c hc (trng
vinh ngha ca Jame Watt), m lc theo h mt (metric horsepower), m lcin (electrical
horsepower, s dng cho ngnhin) v m lc ni hi (boiler horsepower).
i vi ngnh cng nghip xe hi, m lc c hc (mechanical horsepower) v m lc theo h mt l
ph bin nht. M lc theo h mt khai sinh tic trong th k 19 v m rng sang chu u v chu
. Khi du nhp sang cc nc, m lc h mt lic k hiu khc nhau nh: PSc, CV Php,
PK H Lan. V c bn, ccn v ny xp x bng m lc c hc (vo khong 98,6%) do
chngco bng ccn v khc nhau.
V c s khc bit nn khi cc hngua nhau sn xutng c cng sut ln th mi chuyn tr nn
ri rm. Thm ch, cng sutng cc nng ln gpi khi chuyni cc ho lng khc nhau. V
d, Bugatti lun cho rng chic siu xe Veyron 16.4 c cng sut ln ti 1.001 m lc th b kiai Ty
Dng, cc k s M khng khng cho rng n ch c 980 m lc theo h SAE.
Cch xc nh cng sut theo m lc cng l cng vic phc tp v tn km. Cng sutng c m
cc nh sn xut ghi trong bng thng s k thut xe l cng sut cci, ngha l cng sut ln nht m
chic xe c thtc ti vng tua nhtnh.ng cong biu din cng sut theo s vng tua my lun
tn ti mtim cci, v gi tr cng sut tiim l cng sut tia cang c. Cng sut th hin
cho kh nngt vn tc tia ca chic xe nhng n khngi din cho kh nng tng tc. V vy, cng
sut cao cha chc xe bc m cn ph thuc vo m-men xon v vng tua my.
G ny, cc nh sn xut thng ghi cng sutng c theo ch vit tt l hp. Nhng thnh
thong, vn c hng ghi bhp khin nhiu ngi phn vn. Thut ng bhp dng ch gi tr cng sut
xc nh bng lc k hm (brake horsepower). Lc k hmc gn vou trc c, sau, cc k s
s hm vng quayo lc xon ca trc c trong mt khong thi gian nhtnh. Th nguyn bhp vn
c dng rng ri ti Anh, nhng Bc M th cch tnh tng cng sutng c bng m lc (hp) ca
SAE (Hip hi K s t M) li l cch tnh tiu chun.

Tr c 1972, gi tr cng sutca s cc hng chp nhn l "hp" theo tiu chun SAE. Th
nhng, ngy cng c nhiu hnga ra cch tnh khc nhau phc v li ch ring. C hng nng cao
cng sut "nnh" ngi mua thch cng sut ln nhng c hng li gim cng sut trnh mc bo
him cao. Gia cc ccho khc nhau cng khin nhiu ngi ngc nhin. V d, chic Chrysler 426
Hemi nm 1971 c cng sut 425 m lc nhng khio li theo chun mi ch cn 375 m lc.
V vy, cng sut m nh sn xuta ra ch l gi tr tham kho, cn mun bit sc mnh thc s ca
chi c xe, ch cn cch li th. 9. Tit kim xng vi h thng xi-lanh chng Khi gi nhin liu
tng cao l lc nhng chic xe tit kim nhin liu hay hybridc quan tm nhiu
hn. Bn cnh, gii php dnh cho ccng c xng hay diesel lng dng cng ngh xi-lanh ch
ng.
Xu t hin trn th trng t 2004, h thng xi-lanh chng (Cylinders de-activation) dn chng
tc vai tr ca n. Cc chuyn gia tp ch Canadiandriver, sau gn mt nm chy tha ra
nhngnh giu tin v h thng ny.
Hi n ti, c 3 nh sn xut cung cp h thng xi-lanh chng bao gm Chrysler vi sn phm
thng miu tin MDS (Multiple Displacement System - xi-lanha dung tch) chong c Hemi, GM
vi cng ngh DOD (Displacement on Demand - dung tch theo yu cu) v Honda vi VMC (Variable
Cylinder Management - xi-lanh hotng bin thin).
Khi ch tong c Hemi V8, Chrysler c tng v h thng "xi-lanha dung tch". Hin
ti,ng c Hemi 7,5 lt no ca Chrysler cng c kh nng tch hp MDS vi mt vi ph kin khc. Ch
cn thm 8 coni, 4 nam chmin v mt cm bin,ng c s hotng hiu qu v tit kim hn.
V i MDS Hemi trn chic pickup Ram 1500i 2006, ch nhn ca nhng chic xe ny c th nhn
c nhng li chng k. Cc chuyn giac tnh MDS c th gip tit kim 20% chi ph nhin liu
trong nhngiu kin li nhtnh. Cn cc quan chc ca Chrysler tin rngn nm 2007, c khong 1

triu chic xe trang b MDS v khi, MDS s gip tit kimc 230 triu lt xng mi nm.
H thng xi-lanh chng c kh nng ngt mt vi xi-lanh no nu thy khng cn thit. Tt c
cc cng ngh xi-lanh chng hin nayu ngt mt na s xi-lanh. Trn ccng c V8, h thng s
ngt 4 xi-lanh, trn V6, ngt 3 xi-lanh. lmciu, kim phun xng v cc van cng phic
ngt. Chrysler v GM s dng nam chminiu khin dng du ti cc coni thu lcc bit. Khi
dng du thu lc ngt, conic gii phng, chim ly chuynng ca trc cam, lc trc cam ch
vn hnh conic bit ch khng lm chuynng van. Khc vi Chrysler v GM, Honda li p dng
cng ngh i-VTEC chn cc van trn ti mt na trong s cc xi-lanh.ng c i-VTEC ca Honda s
dng trc cam trn vi mt bnh xe tip xc. Hai cny (c m)c ni vi bnh xe ny khi n
quay, cc cny s m van xi-lanh.
Cc chuyn gia k thut xem xt mc hao mn trn nhng xi-lanh hotng ton thi gian v
nhng xi-lanhc "ngh". Vi sn phm ca c 3 nh sn xut trn, khng c bt c s khc bit no v
mc mi mn gia hai loi xi-lanh. H thng ch hotng khi chic xe c ti trng nh v c rt t
tcng xu ln vng gng, piston v thnh xi-lanh. Mt lo ngi ca cc khch hng l mt na xi-lanh
khng hotng s gy nn hin tng my "nng" khngu, lm tng nguy c mi mn cc b.
khc phc hin tng, h thng thnh thong li kch hot ton b cc xi-lanhm bo khing c
c nhitngu.
Khi ng c chuyn t trng thi "ngh" sang trng thi hotng ton phn, cng sut tng ln
gpi nhng chic xe vn vn hnh m khng c bt c s thayit ngt no. Ngay c khi ngi li
xe ch tm quan st s thayi th cng rt kh nhn ra. H thng kim sot bm gain t s gi
cho vng tua my v cng sut mt mc nhtnh khi cc xi-lanh khcc kch hot.
C r t nhiu cch tit kim nhin liu v h thng xi-lanh chng l mt trong s. N l mt
trong s t nhng cch m va tit kim nhin liu, vam bo cng sut theo mong mun ca ngi
tiu dng.

10. Cc kiu lp xe hi
Khng mt loi lp xe no c th thchng vi mia hnh hay miiu kin thi tit khc nhau. Mi
loiu c nhnguim ring, nhngng thi lun km theo mt s hn ch nhtnh.
L p dng cho mi ma (all season tyre): loi lp thng dng nht, ph hp vi nhiuiu kin
khc nhau.u th ln nht ca loi lp ny l gip to ra s cn bng gia kh nng bm
mtng,ng thi to thun li cho li xe khiiu khin. Gn lp bn v khng gy tingn. Mt
liim na ca loi lp ny l gi c tngi phi chng.
Touring all season tyre gipiu khin xe chnh xc hn. So vi lp dng mi ma, chng th hn
v do , gyn hn. Git hn loi lp radial thng thng, lp ny c bn tngng. Mt s nh
sn xut tu tin thm ch touring vo tn sn phm hng bn chy hn.
L p cao cp (performance tyre) c gn ln v ngn, trng bt mt nhng quan trng l n c
bm tt hn. Nhng loi lp cao cp thng gy nhiu tingng, bmng khng cao khi gp tri
ma v rt km nu c tuyt ph.im t nht l chng mn rt nhanh v gi c cngt hn. Loi lp
siu cao cp (ultra-high performance tyre) c th khin bn chong vng vt.
Light truck tyre c thit kc bit dnh cho xe trng ti nh v xe th thaoa dng. Kiu lp
ny ch trngn vic tng kh nngiu khin xe, tng s m i khi vn hnh. Tuy nhin, khi chy
trnng bng, chng hin hn v hi knh cng. Do kch thc ln, chng chu ti tt hn v gi
cngt hn. Rnh gnc khot su hn cng c ngha l bn mc cao.
L p dng khi tri c tuyt (conventional snow tyre)c sn xut vi gn ngn, cng, nhm bm
su hn vo mtng ph tuyt hay trn nhy v bng gi. Cng v th kiu lp ny gyn, khiu
khin hn khi chy trongiu kin bnh thng.t hn lp radial thng thng, lp dngi tuyt bn hn,
ch yu l v ngi ta ch s dng chng c na thi gian trong mt nm. Lpi tuyt ngy nay tr nn t
thng dng hn vi thp k trcy, nhng nu sinh sng ti mt ni m mang tri tuyt v bn

li s hu mt chic xe dnng cu sau, hy trang b mt b lp nh th.


High tech snow tyre c gn lp b tr vi s tnh ton lm sao tng kh nng dng hoc
bmng trnt. Loi lp ny c th chy quanh nm, nhngn v knh cng khi chy thi tit kh.
Thm na, chngt v mn rt nhanh.
Ngoi ra, cn c th k thm mt s loi lp chuyn dng sau:
L p tri ma (rain tyre), c rnh gnc bit gip nc thot khi b mt lp hiu qu hn so vi
loi rnh nc thng thng. High floatation tyre l loi lp ln, b mt rng, thng lp trn xe ti
dnng 4 bnh v xe th thaoa dng chy trnng ct m khng b ln. Lp ny c bm km
khii mtng bng bng v hay ph tuyt.
Directional tyre c gn b trun, theo chiu quay ca lp xe. Asymetrical tyre c gn b tr
nhiu kiu, c tnh nnga dng hn. Self-sealing tyre bao gm mt lp lt trong, tng bao quanh
vt rch nu c, ngn khng kh thot ra
ngoi.
Twin tyre l cch s dng hai lp trn cng mt bnh xe. Nu mt lp x hi, lp cn li vn tip tc vn
hnh. Lifetime tyre dngc trong nhiu nm, nh ci tn ca n cho thy. Lp ny bmng
cng rt tt. 11. Hai thit b an ton quan trng ca xe hi Ti kh bn v h thng cn bngin t
l hai thit bcnh gi l rt quan trng trong vic bo v
hnh khch. Tuy vy, khng ch xe sn xut Vit Nam, ngay c vi nhng nhn hiu hng sang trn th
gii, khng phi xe no cng c cc trang b ny.
Khi i mua xe, khch hng phi cn nhc rt nhiu th, t gi thnh, nhn hiu, kiu dng, mu
sc,ng c, cc tin nghi ni tht nhiu ha, chng nng... hay thm ch c vic hnh khch ngi gh
sau c duic chn thoi mi hay khng. Theo cc chuyn gia, hai trang b thuc loi "phi c" trong
danh mc cc th cn quan tmi vi mt ngi chun b mua xe l ti kh bn (side airbag) v h
thngn nhin t ESC (electronic stability control), c tc dng gip li xe ly li hngiu khin ca

mt chic xe chy chch hng bng cch tng phanh xe. Nhiu nghin cu cho thy hai trang b nu
trn c tc dng nht trong hng lot cc cng ngh mi v an ton trn c xe con (passenger car) v xe
ti (truck).
Ti kh bn v ESC l trang b tiu chun (standard) trna s cc xe cao cp nhng li ch l la
chn (option) ti nhiu mu xe. Ty thuc vo tng kiu xe, tng hng m chi ph lp thm c th t vi
trm n vi nghn USD. Theo cc nghin cu, hai thit b trn c th cu sng hng nghn mng ngi
nu cng dng rng ri hn, chng hn, ESC gip gim 35% nguy c t vong trong tai nn xe hi.
"Ti ngh chng nnc coi l trang b tiu chun ch khng phi l la chn thm cho khch hng",
R.David Pitttle, Ph ch tch Hip hi ngi tiu dng M, ni khi tr li phng vn t New York Times.
*T m quan trng caai an ton *Chc nng bo v ca ti kh Priya Prasad, chuyn gia hngu
v lnh vc an ton ca tpon Ford Motor, cho bit s ch mua xe c
cc trang b an ton trn, chng hn nh chic SUV Mercury Mountainer m ng mi tng c
con gi 23 tui. Prasad, pht biu trn bo New York Times, nu ln vi nghin cu gny lm minh
chng: "Tnh hiu qu ca chng rt cao, gn tngng viai an ton".
T i Vit Nam, phn ln cc xe ch c hai ti kh dnh, mt cho ngi li v mt cho ngi ngi gh
trc. BMW serie 3 c s dng 4 ti kh; BMW serie 5, Ford Mondeo 2.5 cng tt c cc mu sedan
ca Mercedes c trang b tiu chun 6 ti kh (hai pha trc, hai hai bn v hai pha trnu hng gh
trc).
Chic SUV trn ch mt chic t lnh nng khong 170 kg, gn nh b lt khi r v khng c ESC.
Chic xe bn di, c ESC, t ra rt an ton cng mt gc r.
Ti kh bn b tu xut hin trn xe hi tu nhng nm 1990. Thotu, n c nhim v bo v
phn thn ngi trong cc va chm t bn cnh xe v hin c thm c ti kh bo vu,c gn pha
trn trn (curtain airbag). Hu ht xe ca Chrysler, thuc s hu tpon DaimlerChrysler,u c gn

ti kh bo vu.
Vi t Nam hin c hai nh my,t tr s ti khu cng nghip Nomura, Hi Phng, cng thuc
tpon Toyota ton cu, l Toyoda Gosei sn xut ti kh thng v Toyotabo chuyn v ti kh bo
vu. Nhng bn thn Tng gimc Toyota Vit Nam, ng Makato Sasagawa, trong mt cuc hp
bo gn y, tha nhn sn phm ca hai nh my trn hon ton hng ti mc tiu xut khu do cha
tmc i tc tiu th trong nc vo thiim ny.
X ngng vi danh ting ca mt nhn hiu xe hng sangngu th gii, xe ca Mercedes-Benz
khng ch c 6 ti kh m cnc trang b tiu chun h thng cn bng ESC. Cc mu sedan ca hng
sn xut ti Vit Namu c cng ngh ny (c gi hi khc l ESP - Electronic Stability Program).
Nu nh ti kh hayai an tonc coi l cc bin php an ton thng nh tc dng lm gim mc
thit hi khi s c xy ra, ESC c mcch ngn chn tai nn. H thng ny bao gm mt my tnh thu
thp thng tin t cc cm bin kim tra hotng ca v-lng, p lc phanh, tc quay ca bnh xe v
hng chuynng.
So snh h ng xe chy vi hng li thc t ca ngi li, nu xcnh thy li xe b khng cn
kh nng kim sot, my tnh tng thc hinng tc phanh vi mc khc nhau mi bnh ly li
s cn bng. ESCc xem lc bit hu dng trn xe th thaoa dng SUV (sport utility vehicle) v
chng thng d b lt hn cc loi xe di 5 ch mt khi mt kim sot.
Th ng k cho thy tai nn kiu ny gy ra 10.000 ci cht mi nm. l l do v sao tun trc,
General Motors tuyn b s lp ESC cho 1,8 triu xe SUVi 2005, trong c Chevrolet Tahoe,
Suburban, Avalanche v Trailblazer; GMC Envoy; Hummer H3, Saab 9-7X; v Buick Rainier. Cng lc,
Ford, nh sn xut xe t ln th nh nc M, cng khngnh nm ti, khong 500.000 xea dng ca
hng, gm c Ford Explorer, Mercury Mountaineer, Lincoln Aviator, Lincoln Navigator v Volvo XC90,
s c trang b h thng cn bng ESC, vn t trc ch c trn xe sedan hng sang hay xe th thao.
12. K nng phanh an ton

S dng phanh l k thut quan trng. Kin thc v thao tc phanh s gip bn s dng h thng an ton
chng ny mt cch hiu qu, trnhc nhng thit hi v ngi v xe.
Tr c ht, cn nmccim ca loi phanhc trang b trn chic xe ca mnh. Cc h thng
tin tin nht hin nay l ABS, EDB, BA... Chng h trc lc cho li xe, gip vic phanh xe d dng
v hiu qu hn rt nhiu. s dng tt chc nng ny, cn hiu bit v thao tc kh tinh t.
V tr chn v t th ngi phing, khng qu xa lcp mnh khi phanh gp. Nhng gh qu
gn th li gy kh khn trong vic chuyn chn t bnp ga sang phanh, hn na, sc nng ca chn
li p lin tc ln pan, gy tnh trng r phanh khi xe chy.
Quan st v phn on tnh hung l k nng hngu trong khi li xe, to khong thi gian cn
thit x l s c. Quytnh phanhn t bi cnh pha trc, nhng mc phanh cn ph thuc vo
vic kim sot gng hu, nu khng mun tr thnh nn nhn ca nhng xe pha sau.
Vi c phanh gp d gy trt xe, kh kim sot tay li. Vi h thng ABS, thao tc phanh gp khi
vo cua c th khin xe mtnnh. Nn trnhp phanhng ch xc, v khi tc gim thng nng
ca xe dn ln phanh v b nhn, cng thm tcng t mtng xu, cc c cu ny s nhanh hng.
Tt nht l gim ga r phanh t trc nhng g.
Cch p phanh ph bin nht l p mnh pan chon khi cm nhnc xe btu trt th t t
nh bt, ngay sau li tip tc p phanh ri nh chm chon khi xe dng li. Vn tc cng ln cng
i hi lcp mnh.y l k thut hiu qu khi xe chy trn 100 km/h. Ti x thnh tho k thut ny
s trnhc tnh trng trt bnh mt li.
Phanh k t hp v s l k nng hiu qu nht,c bit trn nhngonng trn trt (lng nc,
bng tuyt hay bn...). Thao tc nyi hi li xe phi linh hot v tnh to,u tin r phanh kiu p
mnh dn. Khi xe btu gim tc v c triu chng r bnh lp tc dn s xung nc thp hn, kt
hp nh phanh v cn tip tc chu trnh phanh v v s tip theo, ti s 1 l xe phi dng hn. Cch
phanh ny mn t s truyn ngc ca hp s vo h thng xi-lanh piston cang c, hm vng quay

ca bnh xe m khng lm n b ri nn rt hiu qu.


Trn lo i xe khng c ABS, cch phanh phng theo nguyn tc ny cng kh hiu qu.p nh lin
tc pan s gip cho xe khng r bnh v dng li nhanh chng. Thc hnh nhiu ln k nng ny s
hon thin, s lnp nh s tng ln, chn phanhiu luyn hn.
13. Cc yu t cn kim tra khing c khng n
Khng kh, nhin li u v h thngnh la l 3 yu t c bnng c xng hotng bnh thng.
ng c khng khing hoc yu c th do b lc khng kh b bn, nhin liu khng p sut hoc
bu-gi khngnh la. D cng ngh xe hi pht trin hn rt nhiu nhngng c xng vn cn 3
thnh phn chnh. S chy cang ct trong khng khc so vi s chy thng thng, nh khi bnt
mt cyuc. Nhin liu l xng, bu-ging vai trnh la v khng kh cung cp oxy. Mi chuyn c
vn gin nhng vi k thut hini, tng yu tciu khin thng qua my tnh nn chng tr nn
phc tp hn.
a. B phn cp kh B lc kh khi b bn. (Edmunds) Yu tu tin m chng ti cp ti l h
thng cung cp kh. Trn tt c cc loing c, dng
khng khng kh i vo t c ht, saui qua bu lc loi bi bn, qua ch ha kh (haya bm
ga), ti b gp kh np v theo van np vo bungt.ng c hotngnnh, dng khng kh khng
b tc v cc van m ngng thiim khng kh b nn - x mt cch hp l. Trong nhng vn v
khng kh, hng hc ph bin nm b lc v van.
*Nguyn nhn xe khng kh ing *on bnh xe qua mi *Tm bnh qua ting ku B lc l ni
hng bi t mi trng xung quanh nn nhanh bn. Mtng c bnh thng ht khong
10.000 lt khng kh t 1 lt nhin liu lng, v vy, mt lng ln cc ht bi, ct c kch thc ln
hn mt phn mt triu mt (micron mt) b b lc gi li. Nu khng bo dng thng xuyn, b mt
ca n thng c nhng vngen, lm gim din tch hu ch khin lng khng kh vo t v kh hn.

Bn c th thay b lc mi hoc sc b lc loi cc cht bn.


Bn c nh, nhng chic van c vai trc bit quan trng bi nu chng b h, ha kh nhin liu
khng kh s khng th nnc. Thng thng, van b mn hoc nhin liu khng chy ht ha cm trn
thnh van l hai nguyn nhn chnh. Van b h l ni s ca ngii xe bi n gy ra nhiu vn nh xe
hao du, my yu,ng c mn nhanh khin cng sa cha v chi ph tng ln.
M t kh nng khc cng cn kim tra l h thng x. Nu khng c kh x th kh np cng khng
th vo c. C nhiu cch kim tra dng khng kh nhng cch ph bin nht l th nghim sc nn.
C th th sa cha so chn khng ca b gp kh np hoc p sut kh x nhng phng phpn
gin nht lt tay lnng p khi mt ngi khc quay my. Nu c dng kh tcng vo tay, ngha l
h thng cha hng nng hoc vn bnh thng.
b. Vn nhin liu
Nh ng vn do nhin liu gy ra thng rt phc tp,c bit khing c khng hotng trong
mt thi gian di. Khi xng bay hi, n li nhng cht nha c phn t nng lm tc ch ha kh
hayu kim phun. V vy, bn nn xng mi trc khi khing mt chic xe lu ngy khng s dng.
C th dng dng kh p sut cao cun nhng cht bn trn, nhng thnh thong, bn nn tho ccng
dn nhin liu ra ra. Trong trng hpu kim phun b bn, chng c thc lm sch mt phn khi
ng c hotng nhng qu trnh ny mt vi pht. yn tm hn, c th s dng cht ph gia lm
sch ch ha kh hoc kim phun. Loi ph gia nyc pha vo xng vi liu lng theo chnh v
khng nn lm dng n trong mt thi gian di.
c. H thngnh la
Nguyn nhn cu i cng l h thngnh la. Nu nhin liu v khng kh khng phi l nguyn nhn
khin xe hotng bt thng th l do cn li l bu-gi.ng c khng hotng hoc xe chy yu nm
trong s nhng hu qu do bu-gi c vn. Thng thng, bu-gi hotng tt cin th khong 40.000100.000 volt. Trn thc t, rt d kim tra h thng ny. Ch cn tho bu-gi, n gn mt ming kim loi

vo quayng c, nu c tia lain, n vn hotng cn nu khng, bn nn thay mt chic khc.


Nhng du hiu v mu sc,t hay bm mui trn bu-gi cng cho bn bit v tnh trng ca ng c.
V d, nu bu-git ven ca du chy chng tng c b r du t van hoc t sc-mng.
C nh ng hng hc rtn gin nu bn nm vng nhng vn c bn. Kin thc nn tng khng
gip khc phcc s c nhng cho bn nhng phnon banu nhn ra tm quan trng ca nhng
hng hc trn chic xe.
14. Cc vt dng cn c trn xe hi
Bn, mt chic , bt, knh rm hay b cp cu l nhng th cn sn c trn xe. Khng phi mi
lc bnu dng ti nhng trong nhng tnh hung quan trng v khng ng ti, chng thc s hu ch.
Trong nh ngiu kin c th, ty thuc voc tnh cng vic m bn cn phi c ci ny hay ci
khc. Thm ch,i khi qu nhiu li khuyn khin bn khng bit nn mang theo ci g. V nh c nhng
ngi cho rng chng cn mang theon pin v c 2 chicn pha tri vn pha phi. Tuy nhin,
trong nhiu trng hpn pha cng chu "b tay" nn nhng suy lun nh vy khng hon ton chnh
xc. V vy, danh sch 10 th lun phi c trn xe mang tnh chung nht m bt c ai, lm ngh g cng
nn c.
Bn
B n dng nh l mt li khuyn khng myng trongiu kin Vit Nam bi giao thng ti cc
thnh ph v cc tnh khng qu phc tp. Th nhng,i vi nhng ngi thng xuyni xa hay mi i
lnu, chic bn s gip xcnhngi mt cch thun tin m khng tn nhiu thi gian.
che ma
y l mt trong nhng tnh hung mnh lut Murphy c xc sutng cao nht. Nhng ngy bn
mang , tri hon ton kh ro nhngng vo ngy c cuc hn gp m qun n nh, tri li ma
tm t. V vy, hy lun th trong cp chic d ngy nng hay ngy ma. N s rt hu dng khi bn
ti mt cuc hp quan trng haya em bi chi. C nhiu loi khc nhau nhng bn nn chn sao

cho n chim t din tch nht.


Bt
ang li xe, nhn mt cuc gi v cn phi ghi li thng tin, bn mi t hai kim mt chic bt m
khng thyu. Lc, nu chun b sn, bn s thy n c tc dng nh th no.a s cc cuc gi
quan trng li thngn vo lc bni trn xe v nh hayi chi xa, v vy, hy lun nh mang theo mt
chic bt bn mnh. Nu khng, dnh ring mt ch cho n trn xe.
n pin
H u nh tt c nhng ngi cm liui trongm. Nhiu tnh hung kh khn xy ra nh xe b
hng giang ti, bn cn phi c thit b ny tr gip.y l li khuyn c l km quan trng nht
nhng xt trn mi phng din, cn thn vn hn.
B cp cu
Ni t i n, khng ch trn xe m ngay ti nh bn cng cn c. B cp cu nh cn y t, bng,
thuc, nc st trng, bng cu thngc bit hu ch khi bn b chn thng hay gp ngi b nn. C
nhng tnh hung xe hng giang, ch nhn xung sa v gp mt vt xc hay vt bng. Khi,
nu khng lm v sinh ngay, vt thng rt d b nhim trng do tip xc vi cc cht bn nh du nhn,
bi ct. Ngoi ra, khi c tr nh trn xe, do bn tnh nghch ngm ca chng nn bn phi d phng cho
mnh hu ht cc phng n khng ri vo th bng.
ng ho p sut lp
Thi quen ki m tra p sut lp cha thc s quan trng via s mi ngi bi n khngnh hng
trc tip ti vic li xe. Tuy nhin,m bo p sut l mt trong nhng tiu ch quan trng gim mc
tiu hao nhin liu ca xe. Trong cc bngnh gi th nghim tiu th xng, du, p sut lp lun nm
trong nhng yu t cn phim bo.i bng nhng chic lp non hi, xe ca bn sn xng hn nhiu
cn nu lp qu cng li nhanh mn hn.

Knh rm Mt chic knh rm rt c ch khi li trnonng nng chi. L nc hoa Hu nh tt


c xe hiu c bi n gi cho ni tht thm v to cm gic sch s. Ty theo thch ca
ch nhn nhng bnng nn chn loi c mi qu hc, d gy cm gic kh chu cho mi ngi. B
lm sch khng kh Hin ti, c rt nhiu chng loi ny nh lm sch bng ozon hay bng ion. Phn
ln thi gian xeng
c a nn cc vi khun, vi trng hotng mnh, gy nn nhng mi kh chu. V vy, gi cho cabin thong, mt v sch, mt b lc khng kh l hon ton thch hp. Tuy nhin, bn lu chn b
lcng tiu chun, to lng tc nhn kh va bi nhiu ozon qu li gy tc dng ngc li.
Mt chtn nh
Gi bim bim, chai nc hay ming bnh quy s lm bn bun chn khi phi ngii trn xe. Ngoi ra,
n c tc dng xua cn bun ng trong nhng chuyni di.
15. Kim tra xe trc khii xa
M t chuyni di ngy l dp th nghim quan trng vi chic xe v vy, nhng chi tit nh mc du
ng c, du hp s, cht lm mt, h thngin cn phi kim tra trc bn trnh gp phi nhng rc
ri khngng c. Nhiu khi, ch cn cn gt nc khng hotng cng gy ra nhiu kh khn.
D iy l nhng thit b m bn cn kim tra trc khi khi hnh, tuy nhin, danh sch ny khng
bao gm tt c nhng hng hc c th xy ra m ch l nhng vn thng xuyn nht. Bn cng nh
nn kim tra trc khi khi hnh vi ngy c thi gian sa cha.
Kim tra mc dung c
R t nhiung c gp s c do thiu du bi trn hay du khngc thay kp thi. K c khi mi
thay du, bn cng cn c bc kim tra ny.o mc dung c, trc ht, bna xe ti vng
rng, bng phng v my ngui. Sau khi ttng c vi pht bn mio mc du bi nuo ngay, du
cha v cc-te ht khin kt qu khng chnh xc. Nu du mc nhng c muen, bn cng nn

thay du mi, nhng nh thay du cng chng loiang dng bi cng loi dung c nhng mi hng
c cng thc pha ch v ch tiu k thut ring.
Kim tra du hp s tng
kim trac mc du hp s, bn cn lmm xe,a ti b mt phng v ko phanh tay.
Bn s P v chong c hotng cm chng (quy trnh ny ty thuc tng loi xe v rt khc nhau,
bn hy kim tra sch hng dn trc khi thao tc). Sau, bn rt que th mc du hp s, lau sch
v cm tr li ri rt ra kim tra mc du. Thng thng, du hp s c mu hoc mu hng khi
mi. Qua thi gian b lo ha nhit cao, n bin thnh mu nu. Nu du quen l lc bn nn thay
mi.
Kim tra cht lm mtng c
B n nn kim tra cht lm mtng c ti bnh cha trn, thit b rt d nhn ra t ngoi. C 2 mc
gm Min - thp v Max - cao. Tuy nhin, nn nh khngc m cp ni li tn nhit khing c
cn nng. Nu mc cht lm lnh di quynh, bn kim tra xem c b r ru hay khng. Bt k l
thng nh th no cng cn phic hn ngay bi thiu cht lm mt c th gy ra hin tng qu
nhit, lm hngng c mt cch nghim trng. Nu mc cht lm mt khng qu thp, bn c th s
dng hn hp 50% nc v 50% cht lm mt b sung.
Kim trac-quy
Trn th c t khng c cch no kim tra xem khi noc-quy cht, v vy, thnh thong n li gy
nn nhng phin toi khngng c. Thng thng,c-quy c tui th t 2n 5 nm. Nu xe ca bn
cha thayc-quy trong 4-5 nm th bn nn tnhn chuyn mua mi trc mt chuyni di. Nu pht
hin axt trn,c-quy v hoc hng, bn cn thay ngay. Ngoi ra, cnm bo ccng dy ni khng b
mn.
Cc thit b khc cnhng c
Bn c nh mc dung c, du hp s, bn cng nn kim tra cc dyai truynng, nu chng b

nt, lo ha hy thay chng ngay. Kim tra thm du phanh, du tay li v bnh cha nc lm sch knh
cn y. Nu khng nh thi gian ra b lc kh, bn cng nn thay n. Mt b lc bn khin gim cng
sut my v tiu hao nhiu nhin liu.
m bo p sut lp
p su t lp l mt trong nhng thng s cn kim tra thng xuyn,c bit khii xa. Lp
khng cng to nn sng c hc mi mn lp v gy nguy him khiiu khin xe do khng th tng
tc nh mun. Hn na, cng khngngu gia cc bnh s lm mt cn bng v khng an ton
khi li.
Kim tra h thng treo v h thng li
Cc h ng hc trong 2 h thng ny ch c th gii quyt ti cc garage sa cha. Tuy nhin,
diy l mt vi du hiu nhn ra cc vn nh h thng c rung khng, c xut hin m thanh bt
thng hay nhng ting vap khi li qua ch xc? kim tra h thng treo, bn xem 4 thanh gim xc
xem c kh hay khng. Nu xut hin du trn, bn cn phi thay ngay v nu du thy lc trong h
thng treo t s khin xe b ny khii quaa hnh khng bng phng.
Khp ning tc
T t c cc xe dnng bnh trc v nhiu xe dnng 4 bnhu c khpng tc, c tc dng
chuyn m-men xon ti cc bnh trc. Khpng tcc bi trn bn trong v lm kn bng giong
cao su. Nu b v, m s chy ra v khpng tc lm vic khng hiu qu. V vy, khi xut hin du
hoc m trn khpng tc, bn cn mang xe ti garage sa cha.
Kim tran v cc thit b khc
Ngoi nh ng chi tit trn, hotng can pha, cn gt nc cng quan trng khng km. Bn nn
th sng, xcnh li thi gian lpn mi c th thay nu thy cn thit. Cn gt nc phi
hotng tt, khng b mn, bnh nc ra phiy. H thnginnnh, ci hotng tt l nhng yu
cu khc cn chun b cho mt chuyni tht an ton v sun s.

16. Lu khi mua xea dng


Trang thi t b an tony l yu t hngu ca mt chica dng, bi nnh hng ti tnh mng
ca c gianh. Ngoi ra, mc tiu hao nhin liu, tin dng, kh nng ch, ch ngi cng l nhng
tiu ch cn thit.
Phn khc xe a dng MPV (Multipurpose Vehicle)angc ngi tiu dng Vit Nama chung
trong 2 nm gny. D s mu ch kim tn con s 8 nhng doanh s ca dng xe ny gpi so vi
xe 5 ch, kiu xe ph bin nht vi s gp mt ca khong 25 sn phm. Hin ti, xe MPV Vit Nam
gm c Toyota Innova, Ford Everest, Mitsubishi Jolie ( ngng sn xut), Mitsubishi Grandis, Kia
Carnival, Fiat Doblo, Mazda Premacy, Isuzu Hi-Lander.
L i th ln nht ca xea dng l ni tht rng ri, kh nng vn chuyn ln. Cc hng gh linh hot
gip cng gia vic ch ngi v ch hng. Hu ht cc xea dngu c chung thit k, phn loi
thnh nhng kiu nh 5 ca, ca trt.a s c 3 hng gh v hng th ba c th gp gn.
Ngoi ra, nh khng gian ln nn xea dng to cm gic thoi mi, thongng cho hnh khch.
C gia nh c th nghe nhc, xem phim nhng nu mun ch nhn ca n c th th gin mt mnh.
Chnh v nhng thun li m khch hng ca dng xe ny rta dng, t gianh, cng ty ti c nhn.
Khng gian ni tht
N u xe sedan, khch hng quan tmu tinnng c th xea dng, yu t quan trng nht l
thit k ni tht. Nhng chica dngng ngha phi c khng gian thong c pha trnu v di
chn. Khi ngi, chng khng to cm gic cht chi hay vng vu (i vi ngi c tm vc trung bnh).
Cc cnh ca c khong m rng, d vo ra. Theonh gi, kha cnh ny, cc mu xe ti Vit Nam
khng my tin dng.
Gh
T t c cc xea dng c th ch tia 7 hoc 8 ngi ty theo cu trc gh. Thm ch trn chic

Odyssey nhp khu, xea dng mu mc nht, Honda trang b mt gh ding, tc khi ch 7 khch,
ngi ta c th tho n ra, cn nu thm mt hnh khch na, ch cn lp gh ph vo. Cc hng gh
phi to cho hnh khch cm gic thoi mi, m ly thn, khong chn rng v khng b b gi.
Trong cc sn phm ti Vit Nam, Grandis v Carnival l c thpng tiu chun ny cho nhiu hnh
khch c kch c khc nhau. Zace, Jolie v nhiu mu na kh cht vi nhng ai to cao.
ng c v hp s
H u ht cc xe lp rp ti Vit Nam lpng c I4 (4 xi-lanh thng hng) vi cc mc dung tch t
1.8 n 2.5, ngoi tr Kia Carnival s dng V6.iu ny kh ngc vi cc th trng khc khi mng
c thng thy trn xea dng l 6 xi-lanh (V6 hoc I6). Tiu ch quan trng nht ca xe MPV l cn
bng gia kinh t v kh nng vn hnh. V vy, bn nn la chn chic xe c tnh nng li tt nhng vn
tit kim nhin liu. Nu thch loing c diesel, Ford Everest v Isuzu Hi-Lander V-spec l la
chnng .
ng c tt phi n m, nh nhng. Khi ch khng ti, rung v tingn mc chp nhn
c. K c trong trng hp "thc ga", ting my khng bao gi b gn.
H u ht xea dng ti M s dng hp s tng, nhm gip li xe (c bit l cc b m) nhn
hn khi iu khin. Trong khi ti Vit Nam, ch Mitsubishi Grandis, Isuzu Hi-Lander (bn V-Spec v
XTreme), Mazda Premacy trang b hp s tng 4 cp tiu chun. Cn li Innova, Everest, Jolie hay
Carnival dng hp s sn 5 cp.
Mc tiu hao nhin liu
y l mt trong nhng tiu ch quan trng nht,nh hng ln ti quytnh mua xe no ca ngi
tiu dng. Ti cc nc pht trin, cc hng bt buc phi ghi mc tiu hao nhin liu (do mt t
chcc lp nh gi) ln tng chic khi bn th Vit Nam, ch tiu ny hon ton do nh sn xut cng
b, cn ch nhn th t thmnh ring cho mnh.
S thnh cng ca Innova vi gn 10.000 xe bn ra ch trong 2006 c sng gp khng nh t kh

nng tiu hao nhin liu thp nht trong cc xe cng phn hng, khong 8 lt/100 kmng trng v 10
lt trong thnh ph. Khi mua xe s dng cho c gianh, phn ln khch hng c sn tm l chn xe
tit kim nhin liu. Bi gi xng du ngy cng tng th l chi ph ph cao nht. C l v nguyn nhn
ny m cc nh sn xut trong nc ch lpng c I4 thay v V6 nh cc th trng pht trin khc.
Khoang ch
Hng gh th ba trn tt c xea dng c th gp xung hoc nng ln tng din tch ch hng.
Tuy nhin, chc nng ca xe lp rp trong nc kh "lc hu" khi m nhng mu ni ting nh Honda
Odyssey hay Nissan Quest cn cho php gp phng gh xung sn, tng din tch hu ch v an ton khi
ch d v nh t knh, t lnh...Trong cc mu xe ti Vit Nam, ch Carnival c chc nng ging nh
Odyssey.ng thi, hng gh th ba trn Carnival kh nngng, cho php to nhiu trng thi nh xoay
ngc li pha sau.
Trang thit b an ton
Do tnh ch t thng xuyn s dng cho c gianh nn an ton xea dng c nghac bit.
Nhng trang thit b tiu chun cn c l ti kh trc, dyai an ton 3im. Ngoi ra, trn th trng
cn c loi ghc bit dnh cho tr em,ng vai tr chng rung khi xe di chuyn vm bo an ton nu
xy ra va chm.
Khng nn v gi thnh m khch hng b qua nhng cng ngh rt hu ch, bo v gianh bn nh
chng b cng phanh ABS, cn bngin t ESC, kim sot bmng... Xe s an ton hn nu tch
hp thm nhng thit b tin tin nh hin th p sut lp, tng tht cht dy an ton, cm bin ti kh
pht hin tr em.
17. Nhng lu khi mua xe 5 ch
Chnng c, hp s ph hp vi kh nng ti chnh v nhu cu s dng, xem xt k thit k nh m
ca cnh ca, cp xe l cch khch hng muac mt chic xeng .
Trn th trng Vit Nam hin c khong 19 mu xe thuc dng 5 ch (sedan) do cc lin doanh

trong nc sn xut vc phn chia thnh cc phn khc khc nhau nh xe hng nh, hang trung v
hng sang. Ngoi sn phm trong nc, xe nhp khu cngngo khng km vi khong 12 mu phn
phi chnh thc qua cci l, cha k ti nhng chicc nhp v theont hng ca ccu nu.
Vi s lng, khng kh ngi tiu dng la chn cho mnh mt chicng .
Xt v kha cnh k thut, li th ca dng xe 5 ch so vi cc kiu xe khc l kh nng cng
mnh, cn bng tt, tnh nng cao, d chu, tit kim nhin liu, an ton v d s dng. Diy l
nhng im m khch hng khi mua xe cn lu chnc cho mnh mt chic xe ph hp.
Chnng c v hp s
Cc m u xe 5 ch c cc kiung c kh phong ph. Nu thch xe c dung tchng c nh di
1,5 lt, tit kim nhin liu, khch hng c th chn Daewoo Matiz (796 cc), Kia Morning hay Daihatsu
Charade nhp khu (my 1.0), hay Kia Picantong c 1.1. Ln hn cht l cc mu hin bn kh tt,
c dung tch xi-lanh trong khong 1,5-1,8 lt nh Toyota Vios, Mitsubishi Lancer, Mazda3, Honda Civic
1.8.a dng,t v cao cp hn l nhng chic c dung tch my t 2 lt tr ln l Honda Civic 2.0,
Camry 2.4, Mercedes E200K... Mu xe 5 ch cng c ln nhtc lp rp ti Vit Nam l Camry
3.5Q (3,5 lt).
Ngoi dung tch, ng i tiu dng cn hay phn vn la chnng c no, I hay V. Hu ht cc mu
5 ch c dung tch my trong khong 2.0-3.0u s dngng c I4 (4 xi-lanh thng hng), ngoi tr
Mercedes C280 v E280 dngng c V6 (6 xi-lanh xp thnh hnh ch V). Nhiu khch hng cho rng
ng c I4 tit kim nhin liu hn V6 nhng trn thc t, ccng c V6 hini cn tiu th xng
bng, thm ch t hn c loi I4, trong trng hp cng dung tch my.
Vi c chn loi no hon ton ph thuc vo nhu cu s dng v kh nng ti chnh. Mt cch chung
nht, s chm cng ln (nh Camry 2.4G v Camry 3.5Q) th xe cngt v tin xng cho n cng
cao hn. Li th cang c ln l xe vn hnh mnh m, to cm gic thoi mi v trang thit bi km

thng cao cp hn.


Ch n hp s tng hay s tay cng l vn khin nhng ngi mun tu xe phiauu. Hp s
t ng thch hp vi nhng ngi mi bit li v rt d chu khii trong thnh ph do thng xuyn phi
dng, xe. Tuy nhin,im yu ca n theonh gi l "n" nhiu xng vt hn s sn khong mt vi
nghn USD ty loi.
Chn h dnng
G n nh tt c cc mu 5 ch hin nayu s dng dnng cu trc FWD (front-wheel drive), c
kh nng cho bmng tt hn dnng cu sau RWD (rear-wheel drive),c bit trong nhng tnh
hung mtng trn trt. Ch nhng chic xe sang, xe th thao nhp khu mi dng h dnng cu
sau.
Nguyn nhn chnh n m ch cc xe hiniu cng ct trc thay vt sau nh trc kia.
V vy, loi b c cu truynng t trc ra sau vn "lng nhng" v tiu hao nhiu nng lng,
truyn cng sut ti ngay bnh trc l gii php kh thi nht. Ngoi ra, p dng FWDng ngha vi
vic cc nh sn xut c th gim bt cc chi tit, h thp chi ph.ng thi, khi lng xe gimi cng
khin n "n" t xng hn.
Mc tiu hao nhin liu
y l mt trong nhng thng s m ngi tiu dng quan tm nht, bt k ti Vit Nam hay cc th
trng ln trn th gii. Tuy nhin, trong khi cc nc pht trin, cc hng xe bt buc phi ghi mc
tiu hao nhin liu (do mt t chcc lpnh gi) ln tng chic khi bn th Vit Nam, ch tiu ny
hon ton do nh sn xut cng b cn cc ch nhn th t thmnh ring cho mnh.
Theo nhnnh chung, xe ca cc hng Nht Bn thng vt tri v kh nng tit kim nhin liu cng
nh bn b. Kh nng ra vo xe Khi mun so snh nhng mu 5 ch vi nhau, khch hng nn
th thoi mi khi vo v ra khi xe,
tt c 4 ca. Mt chic sedan thit k tt th ca phi c m rng, khong khng pha trnu.

Ngoi ra, k c khi vo hng gh trc v hng gh sau, bn khng b "cc"u vo khung xe.
Khoang ch Kch thc khoang ch ca cc mu sedan khng t l thun vi ln ca n. Ty
theo thit k ca
nh s n xut nn bn khng th ch nhn b ngoi xe kt lun v dung tch khoang ch. Ngoi
dung tch, mt lu nh l m ca np (cp) cngng vai tr quan trng. Nu cp c m nh, bn
s rt kh cho v ly vt ra.
Trang thit b an ton
y l nhng thit b d b b qua nht ti Vit Nam. Nu cc th trng ln, nh sn xut bt buc
phi trang b ti kh, th cc nh sn xut trong nc vn bn nhiu mu khng c thit b an ton ny.
Nu c iu kin, bnng tic r khi trang b thm ti kh hoc chn mu c sn. H thng chng b
cng phanh ABS, cn bngin t ESC c tht nhng chng thc s cn thit trong nhng tnh hung
m ngi li c th phi tr gi cao hn nhiu.
Cn nu tin tu hng cao cp nh mt chic Mercedes E-class 2007 vi Pre-Safe, 10 ti kh hay
Camry 3.5Q th khng c g ph i bn ci v an ton, viiu kin cc h thng lm vic tt. 18.
Chn mua xe theo gi Ty theo kh nng ti chnh mi khch hng c th la chn cho mnh mt sn
phm thch hp. Nu c
di 20.000 USD, xe hng nh nhp khu nh Kia Morning hay Matiz l thch hp nht. Cn nu "khm
kh" hn, ngi tiu dng c th chn Innova, Mazda hay Nissan nhp khu.
Sau khi nh ng chnh sch th tr nn r rng, th trng t bng tr nn sing khi rt nhiu
ngi mun tm mua mt chic xe hi s dng trong dp Tt. Ty theo nhu cu ring ca tng ngi m
c th mua xe ny hoc xe kia. Tuy nhin, mt trong nhng yu tc nhiu ngi quan tm hngu
l vi lng tin c trong tay, liu tuc chic no th trng t ngy cng phong ph.
Nh ng xe lit k diyu l dng xe c gi di 40.000 USD vnc nhiu ngi quan tm.

Nhng mu xe c gi cao hn thng l xe hng sang v khch hng phn khc chim t l nh
ng thi kh nng ti chnh tt hn.
Di 20.000 USD
y l mc tin m nhiu ngi c kh nngpng nht. Rt nhiu gianh sau vi nm dnh
dm c v vic cn li l tm mt chic t. So vi nhng nm trc, s mu t c mc gi trn
phong ph hn rt nhiu bao gm c nhng mu xe c, mi nhp khu nguyn chic v xe lin doanh
trong nc.
N u thch loi xe 5 ch trong nc, Vidamco (n v lp rp v bn xe GM Daewoo) l hngu
tin phi nhc ti do s hu nhiu sn phm tm gi ny nht. Trc ht l Matiz, gi nim yt 13.100
USD cho bn SE v 13.400 USD cho bn SE Color. Tipn, GM Daewoo cn c mt mu khc l
Gentra cng vi hai bn S gi 18.400 USD v SX gi 18.900 USD. S khc nhau l Gentra SX c tr
lc li v n sng m trong khi Gentra S khng c. C haiu trang bng c 1,5 lt, cng sut 86 m
lc.
S n phm khc ca Vidamco l Lacetti EX 1.6,c bn 19.800 USD. Vi thit k hini,ng
c 1,6 lt cng sut 107 m lc, Lacetti EX bn kh chy sau khi ra mt nm 2004 nhng nm ngoi,
Vidamco ch tiu thc 107 chic. R hn Lacetti khong 2.200 USD, Lanos SX 1.5 cng nm trong
danh sch. Thit k ca Lanos khng tht hini v nm 2006, c 210 chicc thiu th.
Ngoi Daewoo, Fiat c ng c Albea ELX ca Fiat do lin doanh Mekong Auto bn mc 19.900
USD. Trong nm qua, c 105 ngi chn mua Albea ELX v kiu dng vn lim yu nht ca mu
ny. Nh hn mt cht, Suzuki Wagor R+ cng ch tiu tn ca khch hng khong 15.900 USD. Thi
gian gn y, lng xe c nhp khu v nhiu nht l Kia Morning. Hin ti, mu xe nyc bn vi
gi t 15.000 USD tr ln ty tngi l v ty theo trang b theo xe. Kia Morning mit hn 2.0003.000 USD.
i vi dnga dng th s tin di 20.000 USD ch tu chic Suzuki APV GL gi 19.900

USD. Trongt khuyn mi ca Mitsubishi, khch hng c th muac Jolie SS gi di 19.000 d


nim yt 20.900 USD.
Gi trong khong 20.000-30.000 USD
Nu c s tin ny, nhng mu xe ca Ford, Mercedes, Honda vn cha nm trong danh sch m ch
yu
l ca Toyota, GM Daewoo hay Mitsubishi.
L a chn s mt hin nay l chica dng Innova vi gi phin bn G 29.900 USD v bn J l
26.900 USD. Ngoi Innova, Captiva bn LS cngangn khch khic bn ra mc 28.900 USD. Nu
chn Captiva LS, ngi tiu dng s khng c tay li tr lc, ca knh khngiu khinin, khngn
sng m v vnh thng.
Ti p theo l Premacy ca Mazda, gi 25.100 USD. Premacy nh gn, thch hp vi n gii v nm
ngoi, c 93 khch hng chn n. Thm vi nghn USD so vi Premacy, Carnival LS rt thch hp mc
28.900 USD. Nu xt theo tiu ch xea dng, Carnival l mt trong nhng sn phm mu mc nht do
khng gian thong, nhiu chc nng v tin ch dnh cho gianh. Cui cng trong danh sch l Terios
ca Daihatsu, Suzuku Vitara v PMC Pronto.
dng xe 5 ch, Toyota Vios 1.5G mi bn 25.200 USD km theo nhng khuyn mi hp dnang
t hng. Tuy nhin, nhng ai thch xe Mitsubishi s tin ly mu Lancer 1.6 (c s tay v s t
ng) kh hini v bt mt khi b ra 25.300 USD. Nhng mu khngt hng my trong nm 2006
nhng nu thch khch hng vn c th chn l Kia Spectra, Fiat Albea HLX.
Mu xe nhp khu him hoi nm trong khong ti chnh ny l Hyundai Getz. Getz trang bng c 1.4
v do cng ty C phn Hyundai Vit Nam phn phi. Gi 30.000-40.000 USD y l tm tin c
nhiu la chn nht cho ngi tiu dng. C th chn tt c cc bn Focus, mt trong
nh ng chic sedan thnh cng nht ca Ford. Ngoi ra, cn nhiu sn phm na nh Honda Civic,
Mazda6, Mazda3, Toyota Corolla Altis hay Magnus ca GM Daewoo. Nu thch Mitsubishi, ngi tiu

dng ch c c mu sedan duy nht l Lancer Gala 2.0 gi 32.340 USD.


Nh ng chic xe c nhp khu cng c nhiu nh Smart ForFour hay Smart Roadster dng tr trung
v snhiu d kch thc hi nh so vi khon tin 33.000 USD. Nhng khch thch xe to hn c th
chm Nissan Tiida gi 36.000 USD (tham kho) hay Nissan Micra 32.000 USD hon ton mi nhp
khu nguyn chic. Ngoi ra, Toyota nhp khu cn c xe hng nh xA (36.000 USD), Yaris(34.000
USD) v Mercedes A170.
Dng xe a dng gm vi mu cao cp nh Ford Everest, Chevrolet Captiva LT hay Kia Carnival
GS. Trong nhng dp Mitsubishi khuyn mi, chica dng Grandis s l c hi nhng ngi cha
40.000 USD muac.
19. Ph gia du bi trn - nhngiu cha bit
Trong t t c cc sn phm du nhn thng mi khng th thiu mt thnh t quan trng l cht ph
gia. Tuy ch chim t 0,01n 5% nhng ph giang vai tr sng cn v l yu t quytnhn cht
lng ca mt thng hiu du nhn.
D u nhn thng mi l sn phm cui cng, pha trn t hai thnh phn chnh. Thnh phn th nht
l du gc,c cc hng sn xut t du m thin nhin hoc tng hp. Du gc cha cc phn t
hydrocarbon nng v c cc tnh cht ha l tng t nh du thnh phm. Tuy nhin, ngi ta khng
th s dng ngay loi du ny bi tnh cht ha l ca n chapng yu cu bo vng c. ci
thin cc tnh cht, cc hng phi pha trn thm thnh phn th hai l cc cht ph gia.
Ph gia l cc cht hu c, v c hoc nguyn t c tc dng ci thin mt hay nhiu tnh cht
nhtnh ca du gc. Yu cu ca ph gia l ha tan v tng hp vi du gc. Nng ca cc ph
gia nm trong khong 0,01 - 5%, trong nhng trng hpc bit c th ln ti 10%. Cc loi ph
giac phn chia theo chc nng nh: Ph gia chng oxy ha, chngn mn, chng g, chng to cn,
tng ch s nht, chng to bt, to nh, ph gia dit khun, ph gia ty ra

Trong cc lo i ph gia trn, ph gia tng ch s nht, chng oxy ha, chngn mnng vai tr
quan trng nht cho du nhnng c 4 th. Ph gia tng ch s nht gip du nhn c nht t ph
thuc vo nhit, do, bo vng c nhiuiu kin khc nhau cng nh d khing hn. Ph gia
chng oxy ha gip du khng b phn hy v khng b oxy ha diiu kin khc nghit nh nhit
cao, p sut ln cang c. Nu du b oxy ha, n s to ra nhiu cn v sinh ra cc thnh phnn
mn ng c. Ph gia chngn mn c tc dng trung ha cc axt sinh ra trong qu trnhng c
hotng v bo v cc b mt kim loi.
Ph gia chng mi mn cho du nhn. (Liqui-Moly)
Ch t ph giang vai tr quan trng nhng cng chnh v vy, n tr nn ngnh vi ngi s
dng.iu kin cn v c sn phmnnh l cc ph gia khng xungt vi du gc v khng
xungt vi nhau. Cc hng sn xut du nhn phi thng xuyn nghin cu nhm xcnh t l v
loi ph gia pha trn c sn phm hon ho nht.
V l do , vic thm ph gia ty tin vo cc sn phm thnh phm thng khngc nh cung
cp ng nu khng c nhng th nghim v t chc chuyn ngnhnh gi. Nu thm mt cht ph
v c tnh khng du gc hay xungt vi cc ph gia khc, n s mt kh nng v lm hi ti tnh
cht chung. Ngay c lng ph giaa vo cng l mt thng s cn tnh ton k lng bi n c th
gy tnh trng qu bo ha, gy lng ph gia ngay trong du v sinh ra cc cht gy hi.
Tuy nhin, do tnh ph c tp ca quy trnh tng hp m ngoi cc hng du nhn sn xut ph gia cn
c cc hng chuyn nghin cu v sn xut ph gia nh Liqui-Moly cac, Elco hay Chevron
Nhng sn phm ca cc nh cung cp nyc cc hng xe, hng du nhn v cc t chc tiu
chun th nghim v cho php s dng ti hu ht cc th trng trn th gii. Ph gia ca cc hng
thngc ng gi, ngha l trn sn cc loi khc nhaum bo khng gy ri khi thm vo du.
Tuy nhin, khi s dng, ngi tiu dng vn cn mua sn phm chnh hng v thc hin theo hng dn
ca nh sn xut mt cch nghim ngt.

IV. Lch s mt s hng xe t


1. Logo Renault theo dng lch s
H n 100 nm lch s, nh hu ht cc hng xe danh ting ngy nay,
Renault tri qua nhng thi khc kh khn, cayng v vinh quang nht.
Trong sut qung thi gian, hng 8 ln thayi logo ph hp vi tng
hon cnh c th ca ngnh cng nghip t v th gii.
1900-1906
N m 1898, nhn ngy sinh nht ln th 21, chng trai Louis Renault
chn dpc bit bn chic xe mang ci tn rt cin do chnh anh ch
to, Renault Type A. Nm 1899, Louis cng hai ngi anh em Marcel v
Ferand m cng ty "Renault Frres - Anh em nh Renault", ti s 10,i l
Cours, Billancourt. Nh ngha ca t "Frres", Renault thit k logou
tin ca hng bng hai ch "R" lng vo nhau, theo phong cch ngh thut cu
k nhng nmu th k 20.
1906-1919
M i nm sau, Renault Frres ginhc nhng thnh cng lin tip:
1902 nhn bng pht minh sng ch vng c siu np; nm 1906, sn xut xe
bus v btu sn xutng c my bay vi nng sut 3.800 chic mt nm.
Cng trong nm, Renault thayi logo nhng bng hnhnh thc t vn
gin hn nhiu: chic t lng trong vng bi c kh.
1919-1923
Tuy nhin, c ng tngy thi gian, Louis phi chng kin hai ci cht ca

Marcel nm 1903 ti giiua Paris-Maldrid v Ferand nm 1909. Mt mnh


Louis s hu Renault Frres, nhng ngay sau, v thng nh hai ngi anh,
ngi tn thnh Les Automobiles Renault - Cng ty t Renault.
1923-1925
Chi n tranh th gii II n ra, theo yu cu ca pheng minh, Renault
ngng sn xut t m tp trung vo xe tng v my bay. Theo, logo ca
hng cngc thayi cho ph hp vi tnh th chin tranh. Chic tc
thay bng hnhnh xe tngang leo dc.
Sau chi n tranh Louis Renault nhn huy chng anh hng v tip tc sn
xut t vi cc mu xe 10CV hay 6CV. Nm 1923, b li s khc lit ca
chin tranh tr li vai tr chnh, logo Renault thayi ln th 3 vi hnh trn
lm khung chnh, bao quanh nhngng gch ngang m phng li tn nhit
v dng ch "Renault".
1925-1960
Sau hai nm, Renault thay th hnh trn bng hnh thoi v ly lm logo
chnh thc ca cng ty. Tuy nhin, trc 1925, logo hnh thoi tn ti trna
s cc mu xe bi mt l do ht sc ngu nhin; xut pht t chnh phong cch
thit k np ca-p ca hng. Lc, np ca-p trn cc xe Renault ko di
xung tn thanh cn trc vi g ni chnh gia to nn nh giao tuyn ca hai
mt phng.
Nh ng kiu thit k gp tr ngi do ci nm ngay pha di. Bi
vy, ting ci thot qua ngoi, cc k sc phn mi xe thnh cc khe h
song song, tp hp li thnh mt hnh thoi. Vi dng ch Renault chy ngang,
v tnh hnh thoi nyc coi l logo chnh thc.

1960-1972
H ng chu nhng tn tht nng n t khng hong kinh t nhng nm 1930
vi chin th gii th hai,n nm 1960 Renault mi hi sinh vnh du
cho thi k pht trin mi, cng ty quytnh thayi logo ln th nm. Mu
logo mi ci cht thayi so vi nm 1925. Ch "Renault"c lmm v
cao, ni bt trn nn khung hnh lc gic trng. Cc nt ct ngang tha vm
hn. Renault s dng logo ny chon nm 1972, trc khi thayi n ln th
su.
1972-1992
Logo Renault th 7 t b kiu thit k "ch-hnhnh" quen thuc. Ch cn
li hnh thoi, nhng n bao gm nhiung thngc ni vi nhau trn trc
ta 3 chiu, to ni kh "mng lung" cho ngi quan st. Tuy nhin, trn
cc vn bn, Renault vn s dng logo c dng ch "Renault" bn cnh.
1992-2004
Nm 1992, logo th 8 rai. Khng cn ccng k m thay vo l mt
phngng nht
sn hai muen trng,i xng vi nhau qua trc thngng.
V n c ni nh 20 nm trc nhng bti phn phc tp v "nhc
mt", logo nm 1992 thn thin, bng by v mang tnh cng ngh cao
hn.c Renault s dng trn li tn nhit cc i xe t nm 1992, nhng
trn cc vn bn, hng vn dng mu mang dng ch "Renault" pha di.
Logo th 9 nm 2004.
N m 2004, Renault trnh lng logo th 9 v gi nguyn nhng nt cu trc

c bn. Ni bt nh b mt sn bng v nhngng gp trn thnc m


crm, logo th 9 th hin cho cng ngh, sc sng to khng ngng trong sut
qu trnh hnh thnh v pht trin ca hng.n gin v mang tnh thng nht
cao, c l Renault v s hi lng vi biu tng ca mnh trong khong thi
gian xa na.
2. Xe hi Anh Spirit of Ecstasy - biu tng ca Rolls-Royce y l
biu tng ni ting tim cho mt trong nhng nhn hiu xe hi sang trng
nht.c
thit k bi Charles Robinson Sykes, Spirit of Ecstasy l vt trangim trn
mi cc xe Rolls
Royce sut t nm 1911.
Bi u tng ny ly nguyn mu t mt ngi ph n c scp m hn,
thng tu v hi hc, nhnga v x hi ngn cn c ly ngi mnh yu.
Mi tnh ca Eleanor Velasco Thornton v John Walter Edward-ScottMontagu, thuc dng di qu tc Anh quc, ko di mt cch b mt trong hn
10 nm nh s thn trng tuyti cai tnh nhn. John Scott, tha hng
tc hiu ca cha mnh, l mt ngii tin phong trong vic cng pht
trin ngnh cng nghip t x s sng m. T nm 1902, ng gi cng v
bin tp ca tp ch Xe hi. Eleanor Thornton l th k ca Scott. Bn bu
v nh khng bit mi quan h gn gi gia 2 ngi.
Montagu t hng nhiu khc Charles Robinson Sykes, bn ng, mt
biu tngc bit gn ln chic xe ring Rolls Royce Silver Ghost. Bc
tng nh m t mt ph n tr, vt o bay trong gi, vn mnh v pha
trc, vi ngn tay trt trn mi. Tc gi chn chnh Eleanor Thornton

lm ngi mu vt tn cho cho tc phm ca mnh l Whisper (Li th


thm). Bc tng nh gn trn mi xe mau chng tr thnh mt th mt thi
thng. Rt nhiu khch hng ca Rolls-Royce bt chc Montagu, nhng li
chn nhng ch phng tng hn nhiu, thm ch th tc.
Noi g ng Montagu, lnho hng Roll-Royce yu cu Charles Sykes to
ra mt biu tng c th tim cho bt k chic Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost
no. Thng 2/1911, Spirit of Ecstasy ra mt v ngay lp tc ngi ta nhn thy
n l mt bn sao ca Whisper. Khng c g ngc nhin v s tngng gia
2 biu tng ny, khi bit rng c 2 ln, ngi mu m Sykes la chn u l
Thornton.
Spirit of Ecstasy c ch to bng mt phng php c xa l khun
sp ong, dnn kt qu khng c biu tng no ging nhau tuyti. Sykes,
vi s tr gip ca con gi ng l Jo, m trch vic sn xut Spirit of
Ecstasy trong nhiu nm. chn mi sn phm, ng cho khoan dng ch
"Charles Sykes, February 1911" hoc "Feb 6, 1911",i khi chn gin l
"6.2.11". Nm 1948, cng vicc giao li cho Rolls-Royce nhng cc biu
tng vn tip tcc nh du nh th cho ti nm 1951.
Trong kho ng thi gian t 1911 ti 1914, Spirit of Ecstasyc m bc,
dn ti s nhm tng rng n lm t kim loi qu v tr thnh mn mi cho
nhng tay chm cha. Bciu khc ny ng vng v tr banu ca n
cho ti tn ngy nay, trn cc kiu xe hini nh chic Rolls-Royce Phantom,
kch thc nh hn, bng hp kim m kn. Qua nhiu nm, bc tng nh ca
Sykes c nhiu thayi. Trn nhng xe Rolls-Royce ch to ti nh my

Springfield, M, biu tng ny vn mnh nhiu hn v pha trc, trnh lm


vng np ca-p khi m ln. Bn thn Royce, ngi sng lp ra hng xe khng
thch Spirit of
Ecstasy, ng cho r ng n ch lm mt mn trang sc r tin, chy theo
mt. Royce phn nn bc tng nh ny lm vng tm nhn pha trc. Vic
hng xe hi Anht hng biu tng ny din ra trong lc Royceang nghm.
Chnh v vy, ring nhng chic xe chnh hng do Royce s hu khng h xut
hin biu tng Spirit of Ecstasy.
Vo cu i thp k 20, thit k kiu mi lm thn xe hic h thp hn.
Royce nhanh chng nghn vic to ra mt biu tng Spirit of Ecstasy thp
hn. Sykespngc yu cu ny vi mt bc tng c chn qu. Sau
Th chin II, nc s dng cho cc xe Silver Wraith v Silver Dawn. Tuy
nhin, tt c nhng mu sauu tr li vi biu tng c, c kch thc
gim xungng k.
Thut ng Spirit of Ecstasy khng ph bin bng ci tn Emily, cn ngi M
thng gi l
Silver Lady hay Flying Lady.
Vo 1920, Roll-Royce mang Spirit of Ecstasy n Paris tham d mt cuc
thi cc biu tng c yu thch nht trn th gii. Bc tng Spirit of
Ecstasy m vng mang li cho hng v tr s mt. K t, cc phin bn m
vng ca Spirit of Ecstasy tr thnh mt trong nhng la chn dnh cho khch
hng.
T i mt s nc, quynh v an ton khng cho php xe Rolls-Royce xut
hin vi biu tng ca n. Ngi ta cho rng Spirit of Ecstasy, bng kim

loi, nh ln t mi xe, c th gy nguy him cho ngi khc khi gp tai nn.
V vy, Thy S na cui thp k 70, khch hng ca Rolls-Royce nhnc
xe ca mnh vi bc tng nhc gi cn thnt trong xe. Vn chc
gii quyt khi cc biu tng Silver Spirit v Silver Spur ra mt.
Eleanor Thorton khng c chng kin s thnh cng m bc tng ly
nguyn mu t b mang li. Ngy 30/12/1915, con tu ch Eleanor Thorton b
trng ng li ca tu ngmc gn o Crete, khiang trnng tin.i
cng vi Thorton lc c Ngi Montagu, ngi chun b ti nhm chc ti
thucia ca nc Anh. Tuy nhin, Montagu sng st,c mt con tu vt
ln sau vi ngy. Trn hnh trnh tr v nc Anh, Montagucc li
co ph ca ngng trn bo.
Rolls-Royce v chngng lch s
102 n m vi tng s 100.000 xe tiu th, Rolls-Royceang hi sinh mnh
m sau mt thi k vt ln trong kh khn. K c khi v tay BMW cac,
mc xe hng sang Anh quc vn khng nh mti phm cht qu phi, sang
trng vn c.
M tiu chc chn rng lch s Rolls-Royce khng di bng lch s nc
Anh. Nhng nhn hiu ny vang l biu tng ca s quyn qu cao
sang x s mt tri mc, m bt c ai trn th gii cng mun s hu. Hin
ti, Rolls-Royce ch c mt sn phm duy nht, Phantom (bng ma),c lp
rp ti nh my gn Goodwood, Anh.
Ch ngng vinh quang ca Rolls-Royce btu khi k s Henry Royce
v nh kinh doanh Charles Rolls gp nhau ti mt ba tra Manchester nm

1904. Sau, h tip tc gp nhau vi ln cho ti khi chic xe 10 m lc trnh


lng ti Paris Motor Show thng 11 nm. Tuy nhin, phi ti 1907, chic xe
mang tn Silver Ghost mi ra mt, chnh thci din cho tn tui RollsRoyce. Khiu thnh cng nh nhiu thng hiu ln khc, chic Silver
Ghost ca Rolls-Royce nhanh chng tr thnh mu xe bn chy nht v tip
theo n l Silver Shadow.
*Tri u ph chung nht Rolls Royce *ng cp Rolls-Royce 101EX
*Cuc chin gia hai 'nh qu tc' *Biu tng Rolls-Royce Trong 102 nm,
s xe Rolls-Royce rai ch khong 100.000 chic. Th nhng, gi tr ca
chng lun t ng dn theo thi gian. Nhng ngi am hiu cho bit 60%
trong s vn cn tn ti v ngc nhin hn khi rt nhiu chic tri qua c
hai ln th chin. Trong nhng nm 1920, nh sn xut ny btu ch to,
thit kng c my bay v hotng trong lnh vc ny cho ti ngy nay.
Nm 1931, Rolls-Royce thn tnhi th "khngi tri chung" Bentley v hai
nhn hiu cao qu ny st cnh bn nhau ti 1970.
N m 1971, do vng vo nhng rc ri xung quanh vic pht trinng
c v tr RB211 nn tnh hnh ti chnh ca Rolls-Royce xung dc mt cch
thm hi. Tr tru thay khi, chnh ph Anh li ch bo v b phn RR Aero
Division v quc hu ha ton b cng ty, trc khi giao n cho nh hng
quni Vickers nm 1980.
Sau 17 n m khng th vc Rolls-Royce dy, Vickers quytnh rao bn
nhn hiu ny cng Bentley. Ngay sau khi tn tui Rolls-Royce v Bentley
"ln sn", 3 ng ln cac gm BMW, Volkswagen v Mercedes btu
mt cucua nhm s hu bngc mn hng bo b m Vickersang c.

Sau nhi u ln thng thuyt, tha thun v c ci v, rt cuc mt tha


thun cngc cc bn chp nhn. Nm 1998, Volkswagen ginhc quyn
s hu Bentley v mt phn nh my Crewe cn BMW mua Rolls-Royce.
Mercedes tht bi hon ton. Khng chu haii th "ma ru qua mt th",
Mercedes quytnh xy dng li thng hiu Maybachi chi vi Bentley
v Rolls-Royce.
Th nhng, hai ng ln BMW v Volkswagen cn ci nhau vi nm sau
mi c thin thng nht. Nguyn nhn cc k phc tp khi m Volkswagen
d c Bentley nhng li s hu quyn s dng biu tng "Spirit of
Ecstasy" v thit k li tn nhit cc mu xe Rolls-Royce chon ngy
31/12/2002. Trong khi, BMW c th sn xut nhng li khngc thit k
li tn nhit v gn biu tngc trng ca Rolls-Royce. Mu thun lin
tip xy ra gia hai ng ln ny. Sau 4 nm, ti 1/1/2002, BMW mi c th
danh chnh ngn thun cho ra l chic Rolls-Royceng ngha lnu tin, cn
Volkswagen sn xut Bentley.
T khi mua Rolls-Royce v ti khi c th bn sn phm, BMW mt 4 nm
ri, l cha k ti vic thit k v sn xut mu mi Phantom. Lc,
BMW phi xy dng mt h thng phn phi gm 74i l v 500 nhn vin
lm vic trong nh myt ti Anh. Ngoi ra, ti tr s chnh, BMW thit k
v xy dng nhng dch v hon ho nht cho nhng v khch t khp ni trn
th gii tit xe.
Th trng ln nht ca Rolls-Royce l M khi m c ti 50% khch hng
xut pht ty. Tip theo l vng Trungng, v cui cng l chnh quc

vi doanh s ch khong 100 chic mi nm. Tuy nhin, nhng th trng mi


ni nh Trung Quc v Nht Bn spui kp Anh quc xt trn tiu chun s
lng xe Rolls-Royce.
Khch hng c a Rolls-Royce thng l nhng ng ch cng nghip giu
c, nhng gianh thng gia. Trong khi, gii lnho cc tpon ln
khng mya Rolls-Royce v ci v quo mo ca n. Ngoi ra, cc ngi
sao ca nhc, ngi sao th thao, minh tinh mn bc cng l nhng v khch
thng xuyn. tui trung bnh ca khch hng k t khi BMW s hu RollsRoyce l 50, tr hn 10 tui so vi trc kia. V theo mtiu tra, khch hng
ca RollsRoyce c t nht 30 triu USD trong ti khon, khng bao gm
btng sn. Mt bng chng lm khngnhng cp ca nhn hiu ny.
Nhng b mt trongi bn doanh Rolls-Royce
N m lng l, yn bnh trn that hn 16 ha, Goodwood, Anh, tng hnh
dinh Rolls-Royce tiu tn ca BMW hn 65 triu USD. Niy c khong
400.000 cy xanh sng cngng vt hoang d, tt c nc thic ti to
s dng v khng c mt ngn khi nh.
i bn doanh Rolls-Royce tri rng trn din tch 42 mu Anh (16,8 ha).
L do khin BMW, hng s hu hon ton Rolls-Royce t 2002, chn
Goodwood bi nh sn xut ny c nhng mi quan hc bit vi Lord
Charles March v niy c l hi tc ni ting (Festival of Speed). Khng
c g thun li BMW tip cn khch hng hn khi Festival of Speed quy t
tt c nhng g c th di chuyn bngng cn th hin mnh, ngoi tr tu
ha. Nhng tayua mt ni ting, nhng nh vch F1 tiy khoe ti nng
cn cc phi cng din thi trang bng my bay trn tri trong s chng kin

ca hn 100.000 khch tham quan.


Kh i cng nm 2001, BMW chi hn 65 triu USD lm nn mt dinh
c cho Rolls-Royce, xng tm vi gi tr thng hiu ny. S tin khng l
trn cha k ti chi ph muat bi h vn thu ca Lord March, ni din ra
L hi Festival of Speed. Khng ch c nhng thun li trn, nh my ca
Rolls-Royce cn rt gn cng Southampton,im trung chuyn hng ha ln,
chim ti 90% sn phm xut khui khp th gii ca Anh. V vy, vic nhp
khu thit b ph tng lp rp rt d dng v ngi ta vn thng gi xe ca
nh sn xut ny l "thnh qu ca ton cu ha".
Dinh c ca Rolls-Royce trng khong 400.000 cy xanh, bi rm v
nhiung vt hoang d. Tt cu pht trin mt cch t nhin v gn nh
khng c tingn cng nh kh thi t cc phn xng. Gc ca ta nh bc
bng thp khng g v nhng tm ca knh ln c mi ht. Pha trn chng l
mi knh rng 3,2 ha. Nc v nc thic ti to bo v mi trng.
Lnho Rolls-Royce tuyn b nh my s khng thi ra ngoi bt c git
nc bn hay cht khc no.
Pha bn nh my Goodwood l nh ng vn phng lm vic v khu lp rp
cao 15 m.y khng c nhngmng, khng c robot, khng c nhng thit
b gy tingn. Cc ngh nhn lm vic mt cch lng l vi tng b phn xe
nhp khu t khp ni trn th gii. Hin ti, Rolls-Royce sn xut duy nht
mu Phantom, nhng khng v th m cng vic ca h nhn h hn ni khc.
Bi d v Phantoma tc sang nhng cngon sn cu k vi 15
lpc thc hin hon ton tiy.

Cc ngh nhn chu trch nhim sn xut khong 56 b phn bng g khc
nhau vi mu sc, hnh dng ty thuc vo tng yu cu ca khch hng. G s
dng trn Phantom l loi Walnut nhp t California (M) hoc Elm ca Anh
c kch thc khong 10 mt vung v dy 0,6 mm. Walnut l g ca cy c
ch thngc dng ch to mtng h, cn Elm l g cyu c bn
cao v chng li tt nhng va chm mnh. Mi chic Phantomc to nn t
khong 400 b phn da nhp t Bavaria (c) hay t Argentina.
Cng s c ca nhng ngi lm vic ti Rolls-Roycec tr cng
xngng vi mu Phantom (Bng ma). Trnh lng 2003, tng s Phantom bn
ra nmu tint 300 chic v tng ln 790 vo ngm ngoi, doanh s ln
nht ca Rolls-Royce trong sut 15 nm qua. Miy, RollsRoyce cho
rai phin bn trc c s di ca Phantom v hy vng doanh s tng ln
khong 800 chic. Trong lch s, khng mt mu xe no bnc nhiu nh
Phantom khi m gi thp nht ca n vo khong 260.000 bng Anh (8
tng). Mt t l so snh l th l c 3 chic Phantom bn ra mi c mt
chic Maybach.
Tuy nhin, m t chi tit quan trng khc l cn c Goodwood ca RollsRoyce ch l ni sn xut cn "so huyt" thit k lic hng nyt ti ni
khc. Trong mt ngn hng c b mt nm th London, cc k s ngic
mit mi nghin cu, sng to cho ra nhng mu xe hon ho nht cn cc
nhn vin ngi Anh c ca Rolls-Roycem nhim vai tr qun l d n.
Chon nay, khng ai bit tr s thit k ca Rolls-Royce thc su.
Rolls-Royce Bng Ma Rolls-Royce Phantom.

Khi chi c Phantom (Bng Ma)c cng b vo thng ging va qua, bo


ch Anh ghi nhn n tng trng cho 'su hng viu kin' ca nn cng
nghip xe hi mt thi lng danh trn o quc sng m. 'Thnh lu cui
cng thc s ri vo tay ngic', bi v Phantom l mu xe RollsRoyceu tin xut xng k t khi hng ny b chuyn giao cho BMW.
T nay, tn gi qu tc - Rolls-Royce - s l mc hiu xet tin nht ca
BMW.
N u nhn nhn s vic mt cchim tnh hn, bng con mt ca
ngic th sao? Nh my c ca ngi Anh nm ngoi vn cn sn xut xe
Rolls-Royce "th thit". Nhng trong sut c nm ch bnc 40 chic. Vi
doanh s nh vy, lm sao c th nin chuyn pht trin quy m,u t cho
cc sng ch mi? V liu cn my ai tin rng, nh quy trnh lp rp bng tay,
Rolls-Royce tip tc l loi xe tt nht vng tin cy nht th gii? C th
thng cm vi ni bun ca ngi Anh. Bun v mc hiu Rolls-Royce huyn
thoi ri vo tay ncc vi ci gi bo bt - 40 triu bng. Bun v t
nay hu ht cc chi tit lp rp trong Rolls-Royceu in dng ch "Made in
Germany". Nhng quy lut ca kinh t th trng l nh vy.
Rolls-Royce Phantom l s kt hp hon ho gia phong cch thanh lch kiu
Anh ving c
c mnh m vnnh.
Th t kh m so snh mt b phim ni ting vi mt chic t. Tuy
nhin,n tng m chic Phantom gy ra cho giiam m xe hi khng khc
my so vi nhng g ngi hm min nh cm nhn t b phim vin tng

Chin tranh gia cc v sao - Bng mae da cao din George Lucas.
Tho t tin, bt k ai cng s cm thy hi sc vi chiu di gn 6 m v
cao 1,6 m ca Phantom. Li tn nhit ln cng biu tng ni ting Flying
Lady, hay cn gi l Spirit of Ecstacy vn cn. Nhn ton b, nhiu ngi
s cho rng chic xe hi nng n, vi phn mui trc di, thng sau s v
cc bnh xe ln. Phantom gi ln hnhnh mt con th d, sn sng chm ln
bt k lc no.
Vng chi trn cca hnh khng bng phng.
B khung bng hp kim nhm lm trng lng chic xe gim ti 20% so
vi bng thp. C th ni, ngoi nhng chic phi c chuyn ch khch hng
ln, kh tm thy mt cu trc bng hp kim nhm ln hn chic Phantom
ny.y chnh l dun ca cc k s thit k hng BMW. Thm ch, v xe
ny cn cng hn c so vi dng BMW serie 7. N c th chuc lc tc
ng lnn 40.500 Nm ti 1im, trong khi tiu chun thng thng l t
12.000n 15.000 Nm.
Kh ko ca xe v th mnh vo gh ngi bc da, bn s ng ngng khi
thy tm nhn m rng nh v tr ngi cao, rt tin li. N cho php ngi ngi
trong xe c th nhn vt np ca-p di pha trc, tng t nhang trn
mt chic xe th thaoa dng SUV (sport utility vehicle). V-lng sao 3 cnh
cng knh ln,ct hi thp. Nh vy, ngi li c th th lngi
cht trn nhng qungng di, t tay vo thnh ca v kh hut so theo mt
giaiiu bt chtn trongu. Tap-l nm thng vi v-lngc vin hp
kim sng long, l ra 3 mt ng hiu khin. Nu khngng vi cht liu
kim loi, bn c th yu cu thay th bng mt trong nhiu cht liu g qu

khc nhau. Kh xoay mtng h chnh gia, s l ra mt mn hnh tinh th


lng hin th cc thng tin ca h thngiu khinin t iDrive, bn quyn
ca BMW. H thng ny c cng chc nng nh dng xe serie 7 nhng li
ch bao gm cc chc nng t khi s dng nht. Cn li,iu ho khng kh,
my nghe nhc hayin thoi vn yu cu thao tc bng tay vi nhng cng tc
thit k dnh ring cho xe Rolls-Royce.
Logo ca hng Rolls-Royce.
Xoay cha kho v nh n vo nt khing, chic xe kh rng mnh.
Chn khi h ca knh xung, ta mi nghec ting n trm v c su
dong c V12 to ra. Khi chy tc thp, Phantom tng kho mt trong
2ng x, gimng k tingn. Tm nhn r rng, d nh hng s chinh phc
ngi li khi xe btu ln bnh.i vi mt chic xe nng ti 2,5 tn (khng
tnh hnh khch) th hp s tng ZF 6 cp hotng rt trn tru. Thao tc
chuyn sc thc hin rt m, khng gy git. Tuy nhin, tingn ca gi do
vng lc cn ca phn trc tng dn mt cch r rt, d mc c th chp
nhnc tc trung bnh.
D ung knh ca v-lng kh to, ti 41 cm, khng qu kh khn gi
chic Phantom chy nnh, ngay c khi ri khi xa l v r vo nhng
conng hp. l nh khong cch trc xe di cng vi s phn b hp l
trng lng trc v sau xe. V th, nhng khc cua, lc ly tm cng khng
h lm bn mt li.p su chn ga, chic xe btu rung lc hn do h thng
treo cng nh cc bnh xe khngc kim sot bng mt h thngiu khin
chng. Tim Leverton, k s ca BMW, gii thch: "Chng ti hon ton

sc thit k sao cho khung v thng xet s cn bng cao nht, nhng cng
nhn thy rngiu khng h gim bt cc lc tcng ln hnh khch. V
th, chng ti quytnh c n nh mt du hiu nhc nh ngi cm li v
tc".
Ni tht sang trng nhng khng qu cu k.
N u trc mt l mt con dc di, hy gt ntiu khin hp s (nm ngay
trn v-lng) sang mc thp (Low), chic xe s tng v s,ng thi
khing h thng phanh. C th hon ton tin tng rng cca phanh pha
trc (ng knh 374 mm, m kp vi 4 piston) v pha sau (ng knh 370
mm, m kp vi 2 piston), s gip chic xe bm dnh trn mtng trong
nhng trng hp khn cp. Khoang xe rng ri, cch m gn nh tuyti,
gip to ra mt phng ho nhc cho trung thc cao, bt k dn loa cht
lng hnguang pht nhng giai iu du dng khc t tu dnh chon
dy "Rasumovsky" ca Beethoven, hay cht ging khn cng ting bass trm,
mnh trong mt bn rock ca Bruce Springteen.
ng c V12 ch to ring cho chic Phantom bn trong nhng
chuyni di ngy, di cc iu kin khng thun li. Dung tch 6.749 cc sn
sinh ra cng sut tia 460 m lc, d sc y khi lng khng l ny laoi
vi tc tia 240 km/h v ch mt 5,9 giy kimng h nhch ti con s
100 km/h, tnh t thiim xut pht. Thng s k thut Rolls-Royce Phantom
Chi u di 5,834 m Chiu rng 1,990 m Chiu cao 1,632 m Trng lng
tnh 2.485 kg ng c V12, 48 van Dung tch (cc) 6.749 Cng sut cci
(m lc/vng/ pht) 460/4.350 M-men xon cci (Nm/vng/pht) 720
/3.500 Dnng Cu sau Hp s Tng 6 cp ZF 6HP32 Tc tia (km/h)

240 Thi gian tng tcn 100 km/h (giy) 5,9 Gi (euro) 387.200 Cuc
chin gia hai 'nh qu tc' C gi xp x 6 tng, Rolls-Royce Phantom
v Maybach 57S l haich th khngi tri
chung trong lnha xe "siu sang". Chngt ra nhng tiu chun khc bit
khng th c
chic xe khc. D tht bi trn thng trng, c hai vnc khng t ngi
mc.
Trong l ch s gn 100 nm ca mnh, Rolls-Royce khng phi lc no
cng ch to nhng chic xe sang trng thc s. Mt thi gian di, hng xe ny
ch sn xut nhng chic cct. Ti nm 1998, Rolls-Royce ri vo tay
BMW v t, nh sn xut th cng ny mi tr v truyn thng sn xut
nhng chic xe huyn thoi.
M t trong s l Phantom, mu xe rai nm 1925 v tm ngng sn
xut vo 1991 trc khi BMW nm quyn kim sot. Ngi ta vn thng v:
"Trn Phantom c g, Rolls-Royce c ci ". N l biu tng cho k
nngc bit ca mc xe nc Anh m khng nh sn xut v mu xe no c,
thm ch, khng th tim cn.i cng vi Phantom l thut ng m cc k s
RollsRoyce s dng t nm 1930: "waftability"c ghp t "waft - lt
nh" v "ability - kh nng". C tnh Phantom nm s thiu vng nhng m
thanh sing. n, ch c simm, qu phi v lng l. Phantom khng
lm ai ch v tingng c hay ting lp khi ni qua, nhng la n
vo tm mt, t ngi c th quayi mt cch dng dng.
Bnh th ng, tingng c khin nhiu ngi kh chu. Nhng nu tin

la chn Phantom, khng ai c th phn nn v tingn pht ra t xe ca bn.


Mt chic xe ch c thi ti tc no l "gh tay", nhng vi Phantom, ti
x thoi mi nhn ga m khng phi lo s. Di np ca-p dic trng
lng c 6,75 lt, V12, cng sut 453 m lc. Trn Phantom, mc cng sut
thp, khng gian cabin rng ln lng nh t. Cn nu cng sut cao hn, hnh
khch ch nghe thy vng vng tingng c, nhng phi tht tinh mi thy.
Tuy nhin, Phantom thi u mt vi th mng l gi tin ch nhn ca
n phi c nh h thngiu ho tng hayiu khin hnh trnh (h thng
rada c tc dng gi xe mt khong cch an ton vi cc xe pha trc). Tht
tr tru khi phi b tin mua thm thit b cho chic xe xp vo hngt nht
th gii.
Pha bn kia chi n tuyn, Mayback 57S l phin bn ngn trong h hng
Maybach nhng n vn thuc hng "khng l" so vi cc mu xe khc. Chiu
di tng th 5,7 m, 57S c hng gh sau ngi ngi chn mi t th.
Bn cnh l h thng my lnhp ru v mt cp champagneng trong
hcc bit. Bnh thng, Maybach 57 s hu nhng tnh nng tuyt ho,
nhng phin bn mi 57S (ch S ly t "Special") cn cho ti x nhiu hn
th. C gi cao hn 35.000 USD so vi 57, Maybach 57S c cng sut mnh
hn, h thng treo th thaonnh tng xng vi gi tin 370.000 USD
(gn 6 t VND).
C ng trang bng c V12 nhng 57S c cng sut ln ti 604 m lc,
cao hn Phantom 51 m lc. Sc mnha chic xe nng 3 tn tng tc t
0n 100 km/h trong thi gian di 5 giy.
Tuy nhin, khng gi ng Phantom, 57S c thit kp v sang trng mt

cch hini. N khng khin ngi nhn phi quay v nhng nm 30 ca th


k trcnh gi m mang nhng nt v phong cch rt Mercedes, hng s
hu Maybach. Pha trong ca-bin, 57S th hin theong tiu ch m thut cng
nghip vi cc thit b bng si carbon. V-lng mng nhng rn chc v tch
hp cc ntiu khin.
Khng c khi ni m lt nh trn 57S v nhng ngi cm li thc s
s bitciu. Qua tay li, cm gic v h thng treo 57S khng tht d
chu. Qua nhng khui ni mp m, 57S khng cc nhng cm gic m
Phantom mang li. Tm li, 57S ni bt nh chiu di, thit kn khch v
trang b nhng thc bit, cn v tnh nng, dng nh n cha lm tho mn
nhiu ngi. Thng s k thut RR Phantom v Maybach 57S
Ki u xe Maybach 57S RR Phantom Chiu di (mm) 5.728 5.830 Rng
(mm) 1.980 1.990 Cao (mm) 1.557 1.630 ng c V12 V12 Van/xi-lanh 3 4
Dung tch (lt) 5,98 6,75 Cng sut (m lc) 604 453 M-men xon (Nm)
1.000 720 Trng lng (kg) 2.660 2.485 Gi (USD) 370.000 340.000 Cc
triu ph chung nht Rolls Royce Vt qua 9i th, trong c nhng tn
tui sng s nh Bentley, Maybach, BMW hay
Mercedes, Rolls Royce x ngng l thng hiu dnh cho dn nh
giu.y l kt qu mt cuc thm d m ch nhng ai thu nhp trn 200.000
USD/nm v ti sn ti thiu 5 triu USD mic mi tham d.
Theo iu tra mi nht ca Vin nghin cu tng lp thng lu
M(Luxury Institute), Rolls Royce vt qua Maybachngu danh sch
nhng hng xe thng hng th gii. Ngay sau Rolls Royce l Bentley, mt

thng hiu khc cng ca Anh. Nhngi th cn li bao gm Aston Martin,


BMW, Ferrari, Lamborghini, Maserati, Maybach, Mercedes v Porsche.
Luxury Institute ti n hnh thu thp kin t hn 500 khch hng thuc gii
thng lu v thng hiu m h cho rng c uy tn v mun s hu nht. Cc
l phiuc gi ti nhng ngi c mc thu nhp hng nm trn 200.000
USD/nm v tng ti sn c gi tr 5 triu USD tr ln.
* ng cp Rolls Royce 101EX *Cuc chin gia hai nh qu tc Kt qu
ny chng t xu hng sm xe mi ca nhng ngi lm tin nhiu ca.a s
cho rng
khi b ra hn 100.000 USD cho mt chic xe, h s chn tin ch m chng
mang li hn l s
sang tr ng b ngoi. Gii thng lunh gi Rolls Royce cht
lngnh cao, sco v ring bit. Hng xe hng sang nc Anh to cho
ch nhn ca chng mt khng gian, mtng cp khc bit v thoi mi, trong
th gii ca cng ngh hini ha quyn vi gi tr truyn thng.
Ng c li vi Rolls Royce, sc mnh ca Maybach l th hina v x
hi cho ch nhn. T thit k, mu sc, trang thit b, Maybachi din cho
quyn lc chnh tr vc dng chuyn ch nhng nhn vt quan trng cp
quc gia. Nghin cu cng ch ra rng, ph n c xu hng chn xe hng sang
ngc li vin ng. Ngha l khi cc qu nga Rolls Royce th cc qu b
li kt Maybach.
K t quiu trac phn tch bng phng php nhn khu hc, kt hp
vi tng ti sn ca ngi tham gia c lp lun chnh xc nht. Ccnh gi
tp trung cao vo Rolls Royce bi rt nhiu ngi tng li, tngam m

scp v tin ch trn nhng sn phm ca nh sn xut ny. L do cui cng


khin nhng ngi tham gia bnh chn cho Rolls Royce l h khng h nghe
thy bt c li phn nn no t nhng ngi quen.
Ng i pht ngn ca Luxury Institute cho rng khng c phng php tip
th no tt hn cho cc nh sn xut bng mt thng k khch quan,c
lp,c tin hnh vi nhng ngi c kinh nghim, nn tng kin
thcnh ngha th no l sang trng. Trong bniu tra, khch hng c
th cho bit hng xe hng sang no m h thy mun s hu nht, da trn kh
nng gii quyt cc vn, dch v t vn v thi cu th.
Theo cc chuyn gia t i Luxury Institute, rt nhiu hng xe hng sang c
gng thu ht khch bng cch ni "vng" trong cc chng trnh qung co.
Tuy nhin, tt c nhngiu ch l "ph du"i vi th gii thng lu bi
nhng ngi thuc tng lp ny lun yu cu cc hng phi hin thc ha
nhng li ha ca mnh, tn trng v chm sc ti tng chi tit nh nht.
Rolls Royce l m t trong s t thng hiu hiuciu v thng
xuyn t chc cc hot ng mi khch hng cm thy h tngng nhau
trong con mt ca nh sn xut. Ngoi ra, hng xe lui Anh quc khng c
nhng li qung co thm xng v chin dch marketing rm r nn
chimc lng tin ca mi ngi.
3. Xe h i M a. Lch s biu tng xe Ford Nm 2003, Ford Motor k
nim 100 nm thnh lp nhng logo ca hng hin nay mi ch c
hn 30 nm tui. Trong lch s pht trin, Ford khng t ln thayi logo.
N m 1903, thng hiu Ford Motor Companyc dng trong cc giao

dch thng miu tin, nhng khi btu sn xut hng lot nhng chic xe
Model A, tr l ca Henry Ford c nhng ci tinc bit bin tn cng
ty tr thnh biu tng ca hng bng cch bao quanh n mtng vin ht
scco v cc k thi trang vo lc.
Logo ca Ford nm 1903.
Tr i qua nhng bc pht trin banu, Henry Ford nhn thy cn phi c
nhng thayi trong thit k logo sao chon gin,a nhn vn tng. Cng
rt tm linh, logo phi th hin bc tin vt bc ca Ford Motor trong
tng lai. Nm 1906, logo vi tn Ford vit nghing 45oc cchiu ch
F v ch D sao cho mm mi, bay bng, th hin s tinh t vc mun vn
cao, vn xa hn na ca Henry Fordc trnh lng vng k bn quyn ti
vn phng pht minh sng ch M nm 1909.
Bn c nh logocng k ti M, biu tng Ford hnh oval lnu
tinc gii thiu ti Anh vo nm 1907 do cci l Perry, Thornton v
Schreiber - ngia Fordt chn vo nc Anh - thit k vi mcch
qung co cho cc sn phm ca Ford nh l du chng nhn cho lng tin v
s tit kim .
Logo Ford 1912.
N m 1911, Forda ra logo hnh oval quytnh v s dng n thng
nht cc nh bun ti Anh. Tuy nhin trn cc sn phm v trong cc giao dch
thng mi, Ford vn dng logou tin chon nhng nm 1920.
N m 1912, ch trong mt thi gian ngn, Ford loi b ton b nhng
logo hnh oval v thay vo l logo cnh chim hnh tam gic trn cc sn
phm ca mnh. Logo nyc thit k th hin cho tc, s nh nhng, v

duyn dng v snnh. Logo c hai mu, vng v xanh en, trn mang
dng ch Universal Car. Henry Ford khng thch biu tng ny, v cng
ch trong mt thi gian ngn, ngi ta khng cn thy n trn cc sn phm ca
Ford.
Logo Ford 1928.
N m 1927, ngi ta thy mt logo hnh oval mang tn Ford xut hin trn
li tn nhit ca mu Model A mi vi nn mu xanh hong gia thm tng
t vi logo ngy nay ca Ford. Logo ny c s dng trong hu ht cc mu
xe chon cui nhng nm 1950.c s dng mt cch thng nht trong ton
b cc giao dch thng mi,n gia nhng nm 1970 tng v logo hnh
oval ny mic thit k li.
N m 1976, logo Ford hnh oval vi hai gam mu xanh v bcc s
dng nh l du hiu chng nhn thng hiu ca Ford Motor Company. N
d dng tr nn ph bin v thch nghi vi tt c cc nh my sn xut ca
Ford trn ton th gii.
Logo hin nay ca Ford.
Logo m i gm hai hnh elipng tm c t l trc di trn rng l 2,55
ph hp vi kch c ca ch Ford vi t l 2,4. Ton b logoc in ni
tng trng cho s mnh m v thnh vng. Hnh oval ngoi cng
cncnh bng mu bc nh kim, tng trng cho cng ngh vt bc ca
nhng sn phm mang thng hiu Ford. V d nhin chng ta khng th b
qua gam mu xanh xuyn sut 100 nm tn ti, pht trin, l mu tng
trng cho s thn thin, trng tn v lun quan tmn ngi tiu dng ca

Ford Motor Company.


b. Lch s xe Ford Thunderbird
Trong n a th k tn ti v pht trin, Thunderbirdc coi nh mt trong
nhng chic xe biu tng cho ngnh cng nghip t M. N cng l yu t
gip Ford Motor Company to dng v duy tr danh ting hngu ti nc
M.
Kho ng thi gian Th chin II din ra, khng h c mt s sng to no
cc cng ty t.n cui thp k 40, nhu cu v xe hi bng n v mt trong
nhng dng xeca chung nht chnh l nhng chic t th thao. Tr v
t chu u, nhng ngi lnh M mang theo cc mu xe th thao danh ting
ca Italy,c, Php v Anh. Cng lc, mnua t tr nn ph bin vi cc
trnguac xy mi, cc cucuac t chc khp ni.
C ng thm tcng ca mt nn kinh t pht trin mnh, khng c g ngc
nhin khi chic Thunderbird xut hin v lp tc gt hi thnh cng d dng ti
M. Chic xe lnu tinc trnh lng vo nm 1954 ti Trin lm t
Detroit. l mt chic roadster (xe hai ch mui trn) mang tin nghi hini,
s tin li cng nh sc mnh v kh nngiu khin d dng. Ch trong 10
ngyu tin, Ford bnc 3.500 xe trong khi mc tiu c nm ch l
10.000 xe.
Thunderbird th c s l cu tr li m Ford dnh cho chic roadster
Corvette ca Chevrolet. Nhng trong khi chic Corvette ch trung thnh vi
mt kiu dng duy nht th Thunderbird xut hin vi rt nhiu phin bn
khc nhau, t nhng chic coupe hardtop (hardtop l thut ng ch xe mui cng
khng c thanh chng gia) v xe 4 ca. D hiu v sao Thunderbird lic

yu thch. N kt hpc nhng phm cht ca mt chic xe th thao sang


trng vi nhngc im m ngi M rt chung. Ch c hai ch ngi nhng
chic xeu tin di ti hn 5 m, trong khi mu Thunderbird 2005 cng c
chiu di hn 4,7 m. Trong bt c giaion no, Thunderbird cng lunc
trang b nhng tin nghi hngu vng c mnh m nht, ngay c vo thi k
khng hong du la thp k 70.
C th chia 50 nm ca Thunderbird ra lm 4 giaion, 1955-1963, 19641975, 1976-1997,
1998-2004.
Ngay t nhng chic xeu tin, nh sn xut la chn lp cho n
mtng c V8. T 1958 n 1960, xe Thunderbird gnng c dung tch 5,8
lt, cng sut 300 m lc. Tuy vy, khch hng c th la chn chic xe
ving c ti 7 lt v sc mnh tngng 350 m lc. Nm 1961, lnu
tin Thunderbird c nhng ci tinng k v dng v bn ngoi, bi nhng
vy nhn pha trn hainui hnh trn,n pha vung, v nht l c thm mt
phin bn mui xp (convertible). T nm 1961n 1963, trang b tiu chun
cho xe Thunderbird lng c V8 dung tch 6,4 lt, cng sut 300-340 m lc.
Chic xe T-bird Turbo.
M u xe sn xut nm 1964c bitn vi bit danh Jet Bird. Khong
cch trcc ko di ti 2.870 mm, khin chic xe di ti 5.207 mm.im
ni bt ca chic xe l mui ngn hn, trong khi np ca-p v phn thng
sauc ko di, ton b phnui xec thit k li. Nm 1965, lnu tin
phanha tr thnh trang b tiu chun cho hai bnh trc.

M i nm,i ng k s thit k ca Fordu thc hin nhng cng vic


lm mi chic xe ca h, khi th ni tht, khi th vut li ccng nt bn
ngoi. Tuy nhin, mu xe nm 1967 mi thc s c nhiuim khc vi
nhngi trc. Khung gmc thit k hon ton mi, phn mt trc
xen gin hn,n pha giu bn di np ca-p, ch nh ln khi ngiiu
khin xe bm nt khing. V th, chon nm 1971, mi ci tin ch l vi
chi tit ti mt trc v sau xe.
Cho n nm 1972, Thunderbird mu cho s xut hin ca mt th h
nhng xe sang trng. Ch c duy nht phin bn hardtop 2 ca, chic xe gy
ch vi kiu dng mnh m v ni tht sang trng hn hn so vi quan nim
trcy v mt chic Thunderbird.ng c ca xe nng 2.085 kg ny c
dung tch 7 lt. Nm 1973, Thunderbirdc lpn pha kp mi bn.
Chi c xe nm 1976 c th coi l chic Thunderbird ln nht v sang trng
nht. Nhng dng nhiu khng mang li nhiu hiu qu v mt kinh t
nn phin bn ra sau, nh sn xut thu hp cc kch thc ca xe li, d
ton b tin nghi khng thayi, nh th gim c 450 kg trng lng. Thn
xe Thunderbird 1980c chuyn thnh dng unibody (gm cc tm thp gn
vi nhau), nh hn 360 kg so vi xe trc, v cng ngn hn 431 mm.
N m 1983 l mt trong nhng nm thnh cng ca Ford Thunderbird.
Thng 2 nm, chic coupe Thunderbird Turboc trnh lng v gy s ch
ti bt k niu n xut hin. Chic xe chc trang b mtng c
turbocharged 2,3 lt, hp s sn 5 cp. Tu thp k 80, phn thng sau xe
dnc thu gn li nhng kiu np ca-p vn di v pha trcy ngo

ngh vn l kiu cch m ngi Ma thch. Phin bn 1989 gy nn mt cn


st. Chic xe Super Coupe ny c trc c s di hn, b ngang cng rng hn,
h thng treoc lp pha sau, phanh a c 4 bnh ving c supercharged
V6.
B c sang thp k 90, lng tiu th xe Thunderbird chng dn li v
ngi ta btu x xm v vic Ford chun b thi sn xut chic roadster ny
sau 40 nm. Tin tc ny cngc khng nh vo nm 1998, khi Ford khng
cn trng by Thunderbird ti cc showroom. Gii chuyn mn cn khngnh
sang thin nin k mi, s c mt mu xe hon ton mi thay th.
Tuy nhin, phin b n ca nm 2002 mt ln na gip Thunderbird ginh
danh hiu Xe ca nm do tp ch Motor Trend trao. Thnh cng ny c th d
boc khi chic Thunderbird 2001 (xe concept) thu ht nhiu s quan
tm khic Ford gii thiu ti khp cc trin lm t ln trn th gii. Du
vy,nh gi ca cc nh chuyn mn khng phi bao gi cngng vi nhng
nhu cu ca khch hng. C s lng bn ra khng nh nhng Thunderbird
2002 khng tc mc tiu m hng sn xut ra. Ford hy vng phin bn
2005, tung ra vo na sau ca nm nay, s thc s l mt chic xe chc
mng sinh nht 50 tui ca Thunderbird.
c. Ford Focus nhn gii Xe ca nm ti Thi Lan
ng th 3 trong danh sch xe bn chy nht trong phn khc hng trung,
Ford Focusc bnh chn l Xe ca nm ch sau 5 thng ra mt Thi
Lan.y l gii thng th 61 m Focus nhn c k t khi khai sinh ti chu
u nm 1998.
Ford Focus m i, ra mt ti Thi Lan vo qu 4/2005, c bc pht

trin khn tng. Nh nhngn tngtc, t chc Grand Prix Group trao
cho Ford Focus gii thng Xe ca nm trn hai lnh vc Xe 1.8 tt nht v
Xe Sport hatchback tt nht. Gii thngcc trao vo 23/3, ngy khai
mc trin lm xe hi quc t Bangkok 2006.
Gim c qun l nhn hiu Focus Thi Lan, Ekanat Suwintawong, cho
bit: "V tr th 3 m Focustc chng t ngi tiu dng tin tng vo
cht lng cng nh dch v chm sc khch hng ca chng ti". Focus l
mu xe chu u c mc gi khong 787.000 baht (20.250 USD) cho dng
sedan s tng, trang bng c 1,8 lt Duratec, hp s tng Tiptronic,
mmc hp kim,uc MP3, qut my lnh cho hng gh sau.
*Focus thay th Ford Laser *Logo Ford Sau ln ra mt thnh cng cui
nm ngoi, Focus nhnc s quan tm khc bit ca khch
hng Thi Lan. T ng s hn 2.500 chic Focusc trao ti tay ngi
tiu dng. Hai gii thng dnh cho Focus l du chng nhn cho tnh nng,
cht lng, an ton cao v gi c phi chng ca n.
Hin ti, Ford Motor bn 3 mu Focus ti Thi Lan gm: Sedan 1,8 lt,
hatchback 1,8 v 2 lt.
Tt c cc muu c gi di 1 triu bt (25.700 USD) vc bn thng
qua hn 90i l.
Ngoi Thi Lan, t i Anh v Ireland, Focus l mc xe bn chy nht trong
nm 2005. Focus lp k lc vi 442.000 xe bn ra trn khp chu u, mt kt
qu kh vt qua trong phn khc xe hng C. Hin, tng s c 4 triu chic
Focus xut xng ti chu u v gn 5 triu chic trn ton th gii.

d. Ford Mondeo mi nngng hn


Tri n lm xe hi Paris s c s gp mt ca Ford Mondeo th h mi,
mang phong cch chu u r rt. Mondeo 2007 l thnh qu t khonu t
hn 715 triu euro m Ford dnh cho nghin cu, sn xut. Thit k da trn
ngn ng "Kinetic Design", Mondeo mi mnh m, hm h v "chin" hn.
Mondeo trnh lng ti Paris Motor Show 2006 thuc dng wagon, da trn
khung sn hai mu a dng ni ting ca Ford, S-Max v Galaxy. Nhngn
tngu tin m n mang li l khng gian rng hn, trang thit b hini v
mang phong cch thit k chu u r rt, nh chia s phn ln thit b vi SMax v Galaxy.
Mondeo m i "ngn" ca Ford khonu t 715 triu euro v hon thnh
ti nh my Genk, B. u nm 2007, n s chnh thc ra l t dy chuyn sn
xut S-Max v Galaxy vi cng ngh v cu trc hon ton tngng. Ngoi
ra, Mondeo 2007 cnc pht trin da trn ch tiu nh gi mi ca nh
sn xut ln th ba th gii, c tn PSI (Product Sustainability Index). PSI l
tp hp cc nguyn tc, yu cu sao cho nhng ci tin phi mang li tnh nng
bn vng, thn thin mi trng, c tnh x hi cao v kinh t. Haii dinu
tin ca PSI l S-Max v Galaxy.
Thi t k Mondeo da trn nguyn l "Kinetic Design" m Ford tng p
dng trn chic concept Iosis trnh lng ti trin lm Frankfurt 2005. Tt c
cc phin bn thn xe Mondeo mi gn nh hon tt nhng Ford chu u
chn dng wagon nh sn phm chin lc ti th trng ny. Mondeo 2007
s l muu tin th hin "Kinetic Design" mt cch chi tit ti cng chng

v ng vai tr nh liu thca Ford, nhm xcnh xem liu phong cch
thit k ny c sc chinh phc khch hng hay khng.
V tng th, ngn ng "Kinetic Design" th hin ccng ntng hc,
cu trc 3 vng khi nhn t pha trc, din tch b mt ln, gc cnhm,
vnhc hp kim vi cc chu to v trc Cen graphic. Np ca-p
Mondeoc chia lm 3 phn nh haing gn su v r, ko di t cmn
pha ti chn knh chn gi.
Cc ng gn ln chy dc t phnu xe tiim cao nht trn Mondeo
trong khi cc ca s i theo cu trc "Daylight opening", c m v thng
thong nh hu ht cc mu xea dng ngi. S khc bit ca Mondeo th
hin phnui nh cmn hu cng nghit pht quang LED d dn.
M tng k su, btu t bnh trc ti bnh sau gp phn lm b
vnhc hp kim thm ni bt, khin Mondeo vng chi, mnh m hn. Thm
ch, cc k s thit k ca Ford cn cam kt vi chi tit ny, Mondeo sc
bit bt mt trn ccng ph chu u.
N i tht Mondeo trang b thm nhiu thit b mi, thi trang v cht lng
cao cp hn. Ging nh Focus, doi theo phong cch chu u nn ca-bin
Mondeo tp trung ch yu cc mt phng v giao tuyn. Bng trung tm thp
hn ngi ngi gh ph cng c thiu khin d dng trong khi cn sang s
lic nng cao nhm thch nghi tt vi ngi li.
R t nhiu cng ngh s dng trn Mondeo mi ging S-Max v Galaxy
nh dn m thanh,u c CD, cm gicng lc, cm gic li. Ford trang b
cho Mondeong c Duratorq 2.0 TDCi chy du, 2.5 tng p turbin Duratec
chy xng cng bn 1.8 Duratorq TDCi. Tt c thn xe v chi tit k thut

gn nh hon tt v Modeo s sm ra mt ti cc showroom vo qu 2/2007.


"Mondeo mi dnh ring cho th trng chu u v sng vai tr quan trng
trong phn khc xe hng trung ca Ford tiy.png hn 4 triu khch
hngang quan tm ti Mondeo, chng ti s mang ti nhngiuc bit, sc
hp dn m ai cng mun c", Tng Gimc kim Gimciu hnh Ford
chu u, John Fleming ni.
e. Cuc hnh trnh cng Ford Mondeo V6
M u Mondeo V6 c kh nhiu nt mang phong cch th thao: v ngoi
gn, chc, dng xe rng ngang, trng tm thp v b lp bo. Salon xe tin
nghi, kht khao, gh li m st vi v-lng 4 chu vnh nh.c bit, cn s
c ch manual,ng gu ca dna tc.
L nu ngi vo xe, ti mt kh nhiu thi gian mi nmc v tr, cch
thao tc v lm ch cc tin nghi trn xe, chng nhiu v c thc giu gn
cnh gh hoc di c v-lng. Vic chnh gh li 8 hng cho ph hp vi
c ngi v t th kh phc tp, sau ti lu "thnh qu laong" ca
mnh vo b nh bng cch bm gi nt M v nhn s 1 (vn cn s 2 v 3
cho cc tay li ph). Chic xe chimc tnh cm ca ti bng "c ch" rt
chiu chung: khi ti m ca bn li n tng ko li gh dnng. Lc ti
tr li sau v-lng v sp ca, lic mnh m "nhc bng" ln va v t
th quen thuc.
V-l ng c th chnh 2 hng bng cch nh ly di c trc li, chnh
gc nghing, rt gn li hayy n xa ra cho va tm tay. Nm chnh 2 gng
ngoi cng cho php cit tng bn theo mun, gng trong xe phi chnh

vnh ch chng la ngy/m bng tay.


Dn my DVD t ng 10a cho hnhnh tuytp trn mn hnh v pht
m thanh hon ho trn h thng loa dn khp salon. Tuy vy, qu l hi tht
vng khi pht hin n khngc tch hp cc thng tin v tnh trng xe hay
cc chiu khin t b x l trung tm.iu ha t ng trn xe chnhn
gin v lm vic chnh xc, lm mt nhanh vu mi v tr. Trong cabin xe
cht hp vic myiu ha c th duy tr chnh xc nhitnh trc l rt
hu ch, loi iu ha "chy mt lo" lun lm ti kh chu bi chng ch
chuyn chng ta t trng thi qu nng sang qu lnh v ngc li. Tuy cc
ca knhinuc thit k chng kt tay, nhng ca s sau ca chic
V6c th khngng tin cy lm, ti b "cn" khau khi ch quan t
ngn tay vo. Cc gh trn xeu to t th ngi thoi mi, tin nghi, nhng
loi da bc cha thc s thong mt. Cc v tr (left - off - right) trn tay xinhan ca Mondeo c khong chuyn ngn v khng dt khot, ln t ttn no
ti cng b chuyn qu nc off sang pha ngc li.
Xoay nh cha kha v nc khing, tuy kh nhn thy du hiu my
n, nhng hy tin chc l n lm vic, khng h rung hocn. Ngay c khi
xeang n ga-ran-ti, ti vn chp c mt bcnh cng-t-mt kh r nt vi
tc chm (khngn).
N u quen chy xe s tay (nh ti) th vic s dng hp s tng s
lm bn cm thy chn tay tha thi. Nhng khi cng Mondeo lt vo
mtng phng nght, ti mi nhn thy khoi cm m n mang li: mt
chn co lnm cho mi, mt tay cm ly nc, ng ngi ra sau gc h tay
kia ln v-lng th gin, tin hay dng, tri hay phi, ch cn dng "na

ngi" l . Nu cha quen xe, tht kh m cm nhn trc tip s tng tc


ca n khi nhn chn ga, khng c ting r my hay s rung lc no, ch thy
kim ch vng tua nhanh chng xoay sang phi. Mondeo rn ln mt v m,
kh nhn ra cc thiim chuyn t l truynng ca hp s. Tuy vy, hi l
l lc ngt ga ti khng cm nhnc vicng c "nu" xe li nh trn cc
dng xe s tng khc. C l nhng ngi nngng, phong cch th thao kh
m hi lng vi cch tng tc chm v mt ca ch s tng, nhng
tim bo l h s tha mn khi dng ch manual ca chic V6 ny.
H p s bn tng Jatco ca xe cho php ngi li t vo s khi cn tng
tc nhanh hay dn s ghm xe lc dc. Khng cn gim ga, gt cn s sang
rnh bn phi v chch nh v pha trc (+) l ln s, bp v pha sau (-) l
v s, khng cn bp ly hayp cn. Ly hp tng v khong chy tay s
cc ngn gip ti dn t s 5 v 2 (hoc ngc li) trong chay 1 giy.
Tnh nng ny khin Mondeo tr nn cc k nngng, tay s gip ti thc
"ch nga" ny vt ln hay ghm cng cho n chi xungyn tng. Mn
hnh LCD trn cng-t-mt s bo cho ta v ch v t l truynng hin
hnh. C th niy lim vt tri ca Mondeo 2.5 vii thng hng, n
cng th hin th mnh truyn thng ca Ford trong thit k hp s.
H thng treoc lp kiu MacPherson bnh trc v thit kc lpa
lin kt bnh sau gip Mondeo cn bng tt vnnh. Xe cch m tt,
chym v m, hu nh khng nghe thy ting vng t pha gm ngay c trn
mtng gn. Nhng g ln ch gy ra trong salon nhng tingng trm v
gn.

H thng phanh ca Mondeo V6 l s phi hp chun xc v hiu qu


gia cc c cu h tr phanh gp (BA), chng b cng (ABS) v phn phi
lc phanhin t (EBD). C phanh gp ca ti tc trn 140 km/h khin
ngi bnng hong hn v ting rt chi tai, nhng trong salon rt bnh
thng. Xe nhanh chng dng sau vi giy, khng qu chi mi hay r ngang,
v-lng khng b "ght" lch v bn no. nhngng ln cao tc, vic r
chn phanh khin chic V6 "b va" tht m v mt. Cip chn bt ng v
nh ca ti ln bn phanh lm chic xe khng li lp tc, c nh lp lt
phanh! Nh vy l BA xut hin kp thi.
Chng ti ch y bng bng trn nhng ln dc, tt xa pha di l bin v
bi lm chm. H thng li hon ho ca xe khin ti hon ton t tin, c
cu gim chn v tr lc khng lm mt cm gic mtng ln v-lng. Xe
khng h b chao lc khi cua gp v ly li thng bng rt nhanh khinh li
tc cao.
Thng tin hin th trn mn LCD: xeang chy ch manual, mc s 2, xng
cni
c 33,7 km.
Trong hnh trnh, nt nu tay xi-nhan ln lt cung cp cho li xe cc
thng s: Tiu th nhin liu ch hin ti; xeic bao nhiu km na vi
lng xng cn trong bnh; nhit ngoi tri... Khi xe ti chy tc 20
km/h, mc tiu th nhin liu l 22 lt/100 km, cn 80 km/h vi gi ngc,
ch s ny l 13 lt/100 km. Nh vy, bnh xng 60 ltm bo cho xe chy
300 km lin tc.

Chng ti b t ng pht hinuim th v na ca Mondeo l thanh cn


bng nha ca n c kh nng t phc hi rt tt. Mt va chm khin cn sau
b lm nh chic m, th m ch sau vi pht, vt lm bin mt khng li
du tch.
Tnh n ngng lc Ford Mondeo 2.5 V6 (Th trongiu kin tiu chun,
do nh sn xut cung cp) Dnng Bnh trc Dung tch xi-lanh (cc) 2.495
T s nn 9,8 Cng sut cci (m lc/ vng/ pht) 170/6000 vng/pht
M-men xon cci (Nm/vng/pht) 220/4250 vng/pht T s truynng
S tay
5 cp Tng
5 cp I 3,42 3,80 II 2,14 2,13 III 1,45 1,37
IV 1,03 0,94
V 0,77 0,69 S li 3,46 2,97 Tc tia (km/h) 240 240 Thi gian tng
tcn 100 km/h (giy) 8,5 10,3 Tiu th nhin liu (lt/100 km) Trong thnh
ph 14,3 15,6 Xa l 7,3 7,9 Trung bnh 9,9 10,7 Dung tch bnh xng (lt) 58,5
Gi ca Ford Mondeo 2.0 thiu tnh cnh tranh Th Mondeo 2.0 trn dc.
Khng ging nhn anh Mondeo V6 ca mnh, phin bn 2.0 c ni ngoi
tht gin d, tin
nghi khim tn. Cc tnh nngng lc v kt cu khung, gm, v ca nu
mc bnh dn.
So snh ngay vi chic V6 (38.900 USD) th gi 32.500 USD ca Mondeo 2.0
l kht.
V ngoi ca chic Mondeo 2.0 phng phtng nt ca mu Daewoo

Leganza,c bit l pha trc, t nhng sc m ta ln ca li tn nhitn


"sng mi" chy trn mt ca-p.y ln tng bt li cho mu xe ny.
N i tht n ca Mondeo 2.0 khng hn g nhng mu xe c gi bn
25.000-29.000 USD trn th trng Vit Nam, thm ch so vi chic Toyota
Altis (25.500 USD) cn cht hp hn. Tin nghi trn mu 2.0 cng khng ni
tri: gh li chnh bng tay,iu ha khng tng, radiocassette... Ni chung,
t trong ra ngoi Mondeo 2.0 khng toc cm gic v s sang trng.
Ch vi thao tcng ca xe c thon ran ca khung v xe trn
hnh trnh, knh rung v ting sp ca khng "c". Qu nhin, khi vn hnh
2.0 thua xa ng anh V6 ca n v m v kh nng cch m, tingn t
mtng lt vo salon kh r, thm ch c trn xa l bng phng.
ng c I4 2,0 lt v hp s tng 4 cp ca xe khng gyn tng mnh
v tnh nngng lc. Mondeo 2.0 tng tc chm, khng mt nh phin bn
V6, khi dm chn ga st vn, ngi li d dngm cc nc chuyn s qua
nhngt "rng mnh" ca xe. Sau khit ti 100 km/h, ngi li khng nhn
thy cc phn x tc thi cang c khi nhn hoc bung chn ga.
Tuy v y, Mondeo 2.0 chym v phanh rt tt, h thng phn phi lc
phanhin t (EBD) v chng b cng (ABS) pht huy hiu qu r rt. tc
trn 120 km/h v tay li thng, chic xe khng li ch sau vi giy vi vt
phanh rt ngn v xe khng h r lch. C th phanh vi gc li khong 20
cng cho kt qu ngon mc nh vy,c bit l cm gic chic xe t ly li
thng bng rt r.
iu khin Mondeo 2.0 cng d chu nh vi chic 2.5, tr lc li lm
vic tt v gic cm gic v mtng. Vnh v-lng nh gniu

chnhc 2 hng (nghing v xa gn) cho php li xe chnc t th hp


l nht. H thng an ton thng ca xe cngc ch trng vi b khung hp
th xung lc, cn trc sau chu vap,ai an ton gii hn ti v 2 ti kh
pha trc (ch thua V6 ti kh bn hng v pha sau).
C l ccim mnh v an ton chng, thng v h thngiu khin
khin gi thnh ca chic xei ln kh cao, nhng vi tnh trng h tng giao
thng Vit Nam, chng t c dp pht huy tc dng. Mu xe ny s gp kh
khn khi phi cnh tranh vi cci th ch thua n mt cht v tnh nng k
thut nhng gi bn r hn nhiu nh Daewoo Leganza 2.0 (29.000 USD),
Toyota Altis 1.8 hay chnh "em rut" Ford Ghia 1.8 (25.400 USD). Nhng la
chn khc chng loi nh chic SUV Ford Escape XLS V6 3.0 mc d khng
c phanh ABS cng hp dn hn Mondeo 2.0 v cu hnhng lc mnh,p
v cht hni cht (34.280 USD). Cn mt i th khc dng l chic
hatchback Mazda Premacy thua cht t v cng sut (ng c 1,8 lt hp s
tng 4 cp) m gi bn ch khong 23.000 USD.
Cc ch sng lc cn bn ca Ford Mondeo 2.0 (Trongiu kin tiu
chun) ng c Xng Duratec HE DOHC 16 van Dung tch (cc) 1.999 Cng
sut (m lc/vng pht) 143/6.000 M-men xon (Nm) 185/4.500 Hp s
Tng 4 cp Dnng Cu trc Thi gian tng tc 0-100 km/h (giy) 9,8
Tc tia (km/h) 215 Tiu th nhin liu (lt/100 km) Trong thnh ph 11,6
ng trng 5,9 Trung bnh 8,0 Dung tch bnh xng (lt) 58,5 4. Xe hi
Nht a. Lch s thng hiu Toyota Ci tn Toyotac sai t Toyoda,
tn ngi sng lp hng t ln nht Nht Bn. Sau gn

7 thp k pht trin, Toyota mi mt ln duy nht thayi logo ca hng.


Xu t hin sm ti Vit Nam vi nhng chic Toyota Crown sang trng
dnh cho cc quan chc cao cp vo nhng nm 90 ca th k trc, hin nay,
sn phm ca Toyota tr nn ph bin, a dng v phong ph hn rt nhiu.
Gi c, cht lng v dch v l nhngu tin hngu m Toyota dnh cho
ngi tiu dng, chnh v th, s khng l ngc nhin khi trnng ph Vit
Nam, c 10 t th c chng 4 chic mang thng hiu Toyota.
Hi n l cng ty ln th hai trn th gii sau tpon t khng l General
Motors, M, v l cng tyngu th trng t Vit Nam, thnh cng ca
Toyota bt ngun t s kt hp gia ti nng kinh doanh thin bm v nhng
sc mu vn ho truyn thng ca ngi Nht Bn.
S rai v pht trin ca thng hiu Toyota gn lin vi dng h
Toyoda, thuc qun Aiichi, cch th Tokyo hn 300 km v phang nam.
Nm 1936, gianh Sakichi Toyoda c tng thnh lp cng ty chuyn sn
xut t khi h ginhc mt trong hai giy php sn xut t ca chnh ph
Nht Bn. Theo li khuyn ca chuyn gia ngi Nht hngu ti chi nhnh
ca General Motors Nht Bn lc l Shotaro Kamiya, Sakichi Toyoda t
chc mt cuc thi sng tc biu tng cho cng ty mi vi nhng tiu ch phi
d hiu, gi tc l mt cng ty trong nc v chang nhng m tit
Nht Bn. Trong s 27.000 mu biu tngc gi v, c mt biu tng
mang tn Toyota vi hnh trn bao quanh.
Ci tn Toyota pht m khng r nh Toyoda, nhng c v nh n thch
hp hni vi tm l qung co, hn na, ch Toyota () ch c 8 nt so

vi 10 nt ca Toyoda ( ), theo quan nim truyn thng ca ngi Nht,


con s 8 mang li s may mn v tng trng cho s ln mnh khng ngng,
trong khi s 10 l mt s trn chnh, khng cn ch cho s pht trin.
Thng hiu Toyota rai t v thng 4/1937, Toyota chnh thccng
k bn quyn thng mi.
Sau nh ng nm chin tranh th gii th hai tn khc,t nc Nht Bn
hoang tn v nt. May mn thay, nhng nh my ca Toyota ti tnh Aichi
khng b bom nghin nt.iu gip Toyota btu qu trnh hi phc bng
vic sn xut nhng chic t thng miu tin mang tn Model SA. Nm
1950, cng ty bn l Toyota Motor Sales Co.c thnh lp vn nm 1956
l h thng phn phi Toyopet. Chin lc kinh doanhngn mang li cho
Toyota nhng thnh cng vt bc v mt thng mi, bn cnh l s pht
trin vt bc v cng ngh sn xut t. Toyota khng c nhiu bng pht
minh sng ch nh General Motors hay Ford Motor Company, tuy nhin, cht
lng ca sn phm mang thng hiu Toyota lunc m bo mc cao
nht bi Toyota s hu nhng k s, chuyn gia hngu trong lnh vc cng
ngh t th gii.
Logo hi n nay ca Toyota bao gm 3 hnh eclipse lng vo nhau (tng
trng cho 3 tri tim) mang ngha: mt th hin s quan tmi vi khch
hng, mt tng trng cho cht lng sn phm v mt l nhng n lc pht
trin khoa hc cng ngh khng ngng. Tri qua thi gian 70 nm vi nhng
bini khng ngng, Toyota vnang bc trn conngnh mnh ca
chnh mnh, conng t s 8 mnh mn s 10 hon ho ca truyn thngt
nc mt tri mc.

B quyt thnh cng ca Toyota


Khi General Motors c t gim lng, tr cp v li c tc nhmi ph
vi tnh trng thua l th Toyota cng b s liu kinh doanh thnh cng ca
nm 2005. Cht lng tt, qun l cht ch v lun "bit mnh bit ngi" l
b quyt thnh cng ca hng xe Nht Bn.
Ngy 7/2, hng s n xut xe hi Nht Bn thng bo li nhun rng qu
4/2005 tng 34%t 3,3 t USD, doanh s trn ton cu mc 45 t USD tng
15% so vi cng k nm 2004. Trong khi , GM thng bo mc l 8,6 t
USD trong nm 2005ng thia ra k hoch ct gim 30.000 nhn cng
vng ca 12 nh my trong vng 3 nm, 2006-2008.
i tm b quyt thnh cng ca Toyota liu m gii lnho ngnh cng
nghip t Mang trn tr. Trn mc v m, nguyn nhnu tin khin
Toyota ngy cng thnh cng nm cht lng. liu m cci th M
khng c. Ngay vi ngi dn M, khing chic xe Toyota vo mt ngy
lnh gi khng khc nhiu so vi bnh thng, nhng vi xe chnh quc th
ngc li. S tin tng v cht lng ca thng hiu Toyota trong tm l
ngi tiu dng c thnh lng qua Camry khi n l mu xe bn chy nht
ti M trong khi bn hybrid thu ht s ch ca hu ht mi ngi ti trin
lm t Detroit.
Bn c nh, bin tp vin ca tp ch ni ting Automotive News, Ed
Lapham, cho rng thnh cng ca Toyota cn nm phng thc qun l cht
ch. H cung cp nhng sn phm cht lng cho ngi tiu dng, chng
khngnh hng ti mi trng, khngnh hng ti th gii. Bn cnh, h

cn xy dng mt cngngon kt trong cng ty, Lapham ni.


*GM c t gim nhn cng *Toyota khng mun l hng xe s 1 th gii
*Logo Toyota *Camry 2007 ngha nht NAIAS *V sao xe M tht bi trc
xe Nht Nguyn nhn th ba l cch thc xy dng chin lc kinh doanh v
nn tng dch v vng
ch c. Nh phn tch Rob Lache ti Deutsche Bankcon, trung bnh,
Toyota kimc nhiu hn 4.000 USD trn mt chic xe so vi General
Motors hay Ford.. Khi bn c th kim c nhiu tin hn ngha l bn c
th cung cp nhiu thit b v c th cng c gi tr thng hiu bng cch loi
cc sn phm khng ph hp, Lache nhn xt.
Bn c nh cht lng cao, gt hi thnh cng vi hybrid v pht trin vt
bc trong phn khc th thaoa dng SUV, Toyota cn tng th phn ca mnh
ti cc dng xe ti nh v xe du lch vn lnng sau GM, Ford ti th
trng M.
"Toyota lm c nhng vic m cci th M khng th nh xy dng
cc nh my cch xa h.iu ny cho php Toyota m rng tmnh hng ti
M ni ring v Bc M ni chung. l mt trong nhnguim ln nht
hin nay, George Magliano, nh phn tch thuc Global Insight ni. l
nguyn nhn th t.
S thnh cng gip Toyota thit lp mt gii hn mi trn th trng t
th gii.ngu ti th trng ln th 2 th gii Nht Bn,ang c nhng
chin lc quan trng ti Trung Quc v giy l v tr th 2 ti th trng xe
hi ln hnh tinh. Khng nhng th, chim lnh th phn ti chu u cng l
mt trong nhng tham vng ca Toyota bi Cu lca, thng hiu Toyota

vn b coi nh.
M tuim na ca Toyota l nh sn xut ny khng chunh hng t
chnh sch lng cao m cci th Mangauu tm cchi ph. Gii
phn tch cho rng cc hng xe M thu hp khong cch cht lng so vi
Toyota nhng khong cch v thng hiu vn ln. V vy, Toyota vn tip tc
s dng li th vn ln v ngy cng tin gn ti v tr s 1 th gii ca
GM v doanh s.
iu c th xy ra trong nm nay hoc 2007. Tt c ch cn l thi
gian. Toyota Corolla mi trnh lng ti Nht Bn Hm qua, 11/10,
Toyota chnh thc ra mt mu Corolla mi ti chnh quc.y l phin bn
thit k li lnu tin k t nm 2000 ca mu xe bn chy nht th gii v c
gi t 11.700
USDn 19.221 USD. Phi ti nm 2008, Corolla mi ra mt ti M.
V tng th, Corolla mi c vc dng thanh thot, hini. Li tn nhit
vi cc thanh s dc, hc ht gi rng v trang nh. Cmn pha vn sng
m khng "tr" nh th h c m gn gng, hi ha vi thit k tng th.
Ccng gn trn np ca-p mnh m hn trong khi cc ng cong di
phnui cp xung mt cch t nhin.
Corolla m i c 2 phin bn, bn sedan mang tn Corolla Axio cn mu
station wagon l Corolla Fielder. Toyota trang b cho mu xe mi ny hai
loing c 1,5 lt cng sut 110 m lc v 1,8 lt cng sut 136 m lc. Bn
1.5 lp hp s tay 5 cp trong khi bn 1.8 tch hp hp s v cp thng minh
Super CVT-i ca Toyota. Ngoi ra, Toyota cn nng cp Corolla nhng tnh

nng mi nh h thng tin an ton Pre-crash Safety s dng radar v cng


ngh h tr xe tng.
*10 mu xe bn chy nht th gii
Sau khi chi m v tr "xe bn chy nht th gii" vi trn 30 triu chic,
Toyota vn khng bt k vng vo mu xe rai t nm 1966 ny. Trong l
trnh lng, Yoshihiro Okumura, Tng Gim c ca hng phn tch Chiba-gin
Asset Management, cho rng Corolla vn l "con g trng vng cho
Toyota". "Hng xe ln th hai th gii s tip tc thnh cng vi nhng mu
xe kiu nh Corolla", Yoshihiro Okumura ni.
R rng, dng xe h ng nh l nhng "chin binh" qu cm nht, gip
Toyota ginh phn ln th phn t haii gia General Motors v Ford Motor
ti M trong nm nay. Tnh trn ton th gii, doanh s Corolla tip tc tng
8%,t 1,39 triu chic vo nm ngoi. Toyota hy vng bnc khong
12.000 chic mi thng ti Nht Bn, ni n c gi t 1,4 triu yn (11.700
USD) v 2,3 triu yn ( 19.221 USD).
N m 2005, Corolla chim 19% tng s xe bn ra ca Toyota v li th
"khngi tri chung" ca Civic v Nissan Tiida Latio. D kin, Toyota s
gii thiu Corolla trn ton th gii trong mt vi thng hoc vi nm na, ty
tng th trng. Theo cc chuyn gia, mu xe ny s l con bi chin lc
Toyota c tht con s 9,8 triu xe vo 2008 v chnh thc vt qua hng
knhch General Motors.
Corolla xu t hin ti Vit Nam lnu tin vo thng 8/1996 v lp tc
ginh v tr dnu phn khc xe sedan hng nh cao cp. Sau mt thp k, c
tng cng gn 12.000 chicc tiu th th trng trong nc. Corolla

Altisc gii thiu lnu vo nm 2001 vc ci tin vo nm 2004.


Tnh t nm 2001n ht thng 9/2006, Toyota Vit Nam bn tng s gn
8.000 chic Corolla Altis. Trung tun thng 7, Toyota Vit Nam tung ra bn
Corolla Altisi 2006, c thit k li, tch hp thm nhng tnh nng mi
v gi mi nim yt mc 34.000 USD.
Toyota trnh lng Corolla Altis mi
c tng thm mt s tnh nng nhiu khin m thanh tch hp trn vlng, gng chiu hu chnhin hay h thngn kim sot tng nhng
chic Corolla Altis ca Toyota Vit Nam va ra mt li c gi bn 34.000
USD, r hn 1.500 USD so vi phin bn trc.
Hm 10/7, Automotive News a tin tpon t Toyota Nht Bn tuyn
b s gi nguyn thit k hin ti ca xe Corollan nm 2008.iu c
ngha l chic xe hin nay, thuc th h th chn, sc sn xut nm th su
lin tc. Cha mt phin bn no ca mu xe ny trcy hin din qu 5
nm trn th trng. Rai cchy trn 40 nm ti Nht Bn, cho ti nay
Toyota ton cu bnc hn 30 triu xe Corolla, bin n tr thnh chic
sedan hng nh cao cp bn chy nht trong lch s ngnh cng nghip t th
gii.
N i ting v tnh tin cy,nnh v tit kim nhin liu, Corolla, ting
Nht c ngha l trng hoa, hin din hn 140 nc. Corolla Altis xut
hin ra mt Vit Nam lnu tin vo thng 8/1996 v lp tc ginh v tr
dnu phn khc xe sedan hng nh cao cp. Sau mt thp k, c tng cng
gn 12.000 chicc tiu th th trng trong nc. So vi chic Corolla

Altisc gii thiu lnu vo nm 2001 vc ci tin vo nm 2004 ,


mu xe mi tip tc gi vngc nhng tnh nng kim chng. Song song
vi vic gii thiu Altis mi, Toyota VN cna ra thm phin bn mi ca
xe Vios. Da trn phin bn xe Vios 1.5G trc, Vios
2006 cng c li tn nhit mi, bnh xe ln hn vi mmc 15 inch vn
hu th thao. Vios
2006c thit k th thao, bt mt v chi hn ch khng qu chuyn
dng nhi xe trc. Vios mi c gi bn 25.200 USD, gm 5 mu: Trng,
ghi bc, ghi vng,en v xanh nht.
ng c 4 xi-lanh thng hng dung tch 1,8 lt s dng cng nghiu
khin van np bin thin VVT-i vi chc nng 3 trong 1: Mnh m, tit kim
nhin liu v gim lng kh thi. Hai bnh trc s dng h thng treo
MacPherson vi thanh cn bng, pha sau l h thng treo dng thanh xon,
gip tng chc chn, m, bmng vm bo tnh chu lc cao cho
xe trong cciu kin khc nhau. Xe trang b cc h thng phng nga tai nn
cao cp nh chng b cng phanh (ABS), phn b lc phanhin t (EBD) v
tr lc phanh (BA). Ngoi ra, kh nng t v trong trng hp xy ra va
chm cnc tng cng bi khung xe cng lc GOA, thanh chu lc, ti
kh v cu trc gim chn thngu. Cmn trcc trang b bng
halogen phn xa chiu v h thng kim sot tng gip ngi li bom
tm nhn r khi bt ngi vo vng ti. Trong khi,n bo phanh cng ngh
LED gip chiu sng mnh v xa hn.
im nhn cho dng v bn ngoi ca Altis mi l li tn nhit kiu
mi, tay nm ca v thanh np thn xe m crm, tmp b ca bng kim loi.

Tt cu hp vi b vnhc 5 chu khe khon. Bngng h Optitron thit


k mi vi hai tng mu, trnc trang b mn hnh cung cp thng tin v
thi gian, nhit bn ngoi, mc tiu hao nhin liu trung bnh, tiu hao nhin
liu hin ti, vn tc trung bnh hay qungng xeic...
Pha trn cng c a bngiu khin trung tm lu CD 6a v MP3.
Mtim mi ca Altis i 2006 l h thng m thanh vi 6 loa c
thciu khin thng qua cc phm gn ngay trn v-lng xe. Tnh nng ny
van gin ha cc thao tc ca ngi li xe, va trnh lm h mt tp trung
khiang tham gia giao thng. Ngoi ra, Altis mi cnc trang b thm mt
s tin ch nh gng chiu hu chnhin, gpin hay h thngn kim sot
tng, rm che nng pha sau v h thng chng trm cng cha khaiu
khin t xa.... Altisi 2006 c 5 mu: Trng, ghi bc, ghi vng,en v xm
bc. Gi nim yt ca n l 34.000 USD.
C m nhnu tin l ch li ca Altis rng ri, ngiiu khin khng b
vng khuu tay khi nh tr li. S sn 5 cp nh ngay c ngi mi hc
li cng c th d dng lm quen. Trn nhngonng bng phng, khi nhn
phanh gp tc khong 60 km/h xe khng b chi mi v pha trc. Xe
chy khnnh, ngay c khi ling lch hoc vo cua tc cao. Khng c cm
gic xe b nghing sang bn mc d ngi pha sau khch vn hi cm thy
trng trnh. cch m ca v xe dng nh tt hn, gim tingn ca gi khi
chy vi tc cao so vi phin bn trc.
Lch s 40 nm thnh cng
Chi c Corollau tin ra mt nm 1966. l mt chic sedan 2

cacnh gi rt cao v tnh hiu qu. Mc d khngcim cao v


hnh thc nhng cc chuyn gia nhn xty l mt chic xe hu nh khng c
mt chi tit tha. Nhng nm sau Toyota ln lt cho ra mt cc phin bn
wagon, sedan 4 ca v coupe.
V i trc c s di hn, Corolla th h th nh (1970-1974)c ci
thinng k v mt tin nghi,ng c cng mnh m hn v c thm la chn
l hp s tng. Corolla nhanh chng tr thnh chic xe bn chy th hai th
gii. Nm 1971, xut hinng c 1.6 vi cng sut ln n 102 m lc, ch
yu nhm phc v th trng M. C tng cng 5 phin bn Corolla khc nhau
rai nm 1974-1976, bao gm xe sedan 2 ca, sedan 4 ca, hardtop 2 ca
(hardtop l loi xe khng c trc B), xe th thao SR5 v wagon 5 ca. Th h
th ba ny ghi du bng vic lnu tin Corollac gn b trung ha kh
thi, nh pngc nhng tiu chun mi trng kht khe nht. Cng
trong nm 1976, chic Corolla th 5 triuc xut xng.
Trn m t khung gm hon ton mi, Corollai th t, ra mt nm
1979,c thit k cu k hn v lm hi lng khch hng hn bt k th h
no trc. H thng gim xc bng nhp c thay bng h thng l xo
xon. Thn xec dp bng cc tm thp lin (monocoque), rng hn, cng
hn.ng c mi dung tch 1,8 lt c cng sut 75 m lc, vi hp s sn 4 v
5 cp.
Cu i cng Toyota cng chp nhn ng theo tro lu ca thp k 80 bng
vic cho ra mt chic sedan Corolla th h th nm dnng cu trc vo
nm 1983. Tuy nhin, cc phin bn SR5 coupe v wagon vn tip tc s dng
khung gm kiu dnng cu sau.

N m 1987 th h th su rai. N c cng trc c s nhng rng hn th


h th nm gn 3 cm. Lc ny, cc trang b la chn dnh cho khch
hngtn mc ngy nay tr thnh tiu chun trn hu ht cc loi xe
gianh nhiu ha, tay li tr lc, ti kh pha ngi li, hai gng chiu
hu bn ngoi v h thng m thanh stereo. .
R ng hn th h trc, Corollai th by ra mt nm 1991. Lc ny
khng cn xe coupe v wagon dnng 4 bnh na. Tt c cc phin bn s
dng h thng treoc lp ton phn. ng c mi dung tch 1,8 lt, DOHC,
16 van vi cng sut 115 m lc, trn hai phin bn sedan DX v LE. Xe lp
lp 14 inch, phanh tang trng c bnh trc v sau. H thng chng b cng
phanh ABSca ra cho ngi mua la chn. Cng trong nm ny, Corolla
nhnc nhiu gii thng ln.
Th h th tm, ra mt nm 1995 ti Nht v c mt ti th trng chu u
vo nm 1997, khng ch s dng loing c 1.8 DOHC 4 xi-lanh mnh hn
(cng sut l 120 m lc, gpi th h u tin), m cn tit kim nhin liu
ti 10% so vi th h trc. Lc ny, ngi ta ch cn sn xut Corolla dng
sedan. Mc trang b tngng trc v ABS vn cn l la chn. Vi
dng v thanh lch,n gin, ni thtc ci tin, Corollai th tm tip
tcc khch hnga chung, bt chp s cnh tranh t cci th Honda
Civic v Nissan Sentra.
N m 1997, ca s v khain, tay li tr lc, dn m thanh 4 loa tr
thnh tiu chun ca xe Corolla. N cngtim an ton cao trong cc th
nghim va chm t bn cnh. Ti thiim ny, ton b xe bn Muc

ch to ti hai nh my khu vc Bc M, mt California v mt Canada.


Cui nm 1997nh du mt ct mc quan trng khi Corolla tr thnh chic
xe bn chy nht lch s t, qua mt c VW Beetle.
N m 2000, lnu tin Toyotang dng cng ngh VVT-i trongng c
1.8, tng cng sut ln 125 m lc v lm gimng k hm lng kh thi.
Th h th chn tn ti t nm 2001n nay. Toyota tuyn b chic xec ci
tin nhmn gii tr. Corolla mi c trc c s di 2.601 mm, hn th h
trcn 127 mm, vi la chn l cc h thng an ton chng b phanh ABS
v phn b lc phanh EBD. Xe vn s dngng c 1.8 DOHC nay c cng
sut lnn 130 m lc v vnc sn xut di 3 phin bn nh vi nm
trc: Loi c bn CE, sang trng LE v th thao S.
Cng Toyota Camry 2.4G trn xa l
y l chic xe c salon rng, nhng tin nghi nm trong tm tay,iu
khin d dng. Nu mt gh li c th thayi cao th s hp hn vi vc
ngi ng thp nh. Khi xoay cha kha in thn xe ch hi rung mt cht,
my nu.
Tp-l c a Camry 2.4G khn gin, cc cn gt v nmiu khin nm
nhng v tr quen thuc. C mtim mi l b phm trn vnh li cho php ti
x truy cp cc thng tin trn mn hnh LCD v tc trung bnh, tiu hao
nhin liu, nhit. Cc tin nghi khc nh CD 6a t ng viu ha
nhitu hotng tt. Vi tr lc li, xe phnng nhy vi thao tciu
khin t v lng. Trn xa l, ti x c th thng thc nhng bn nhc vi
volume nh m khng b ting gi vng c lm phin. Tuy nhin,ng
xc ting vng t gm xe hi vang trong salon.

Camry 2.4G c ng c khe v hp s c kh 5 cp hotng trn tru.


Chic xe vt ln rt nhanh qua 2 ncu tin, tip tc phnng linh hot vi
chn ga s 3 vt tc trn 100 km/h trong khong trn 10 giy. Nu gi
xe chyu 70 km/h s 4,ng c t ra d lc ko v mau l cung cp gia tc
khi nhn ga. Vi s 5 v tc 120 km/h, xe chy m v trn my, nhng chn
ga khng cn nhy cm.
Camry 2.4G vo cua kh nnh,m v bmng, nhng gh li rng
cng lng ta khng m lm ti x thiu cm gic t tin v gn b vi chic
xe. Cn chuyn s ca chic 2.4G, ging nh trn cc serie c, c bc
chuyn di vi hi ct cn dt khot, nu khng s xut hin ting lc cc
kh chu. Kiu tay s ny ph hp vi nhng ti ximm nhng li lm
cnh li tr hi kh chu. Hn na, s b tr s li cui v s 1u ca
thang s 0 lm cho thao tc quay xe ch hp kh khn, ngi li phi lin tc
chuyn cn s trn qung di nht,ng thi dm chn cn kh lu.
H thng phanh ca model G2.4 hotng hon ho. Trnng th,
tc 100 km/h, chic xeng khng li trong khong 3 giy. Hai vt mi bnh
xe trn mtng ngn v trng kht, chng t h thng chng b cng ABS v
c cu phn b lc phanhin t EBD hotng hiu qu v phi hp tt vi
nhau. H thng h tr phanh gp BA pht huy tc dng r rt khi li xe t
ngtp phanh, tuy nhin vi thao tc r pan, xe gim tcu v mt.
K t thc hnh trnh, li xe c th xem trn mn hnh LCD cc thng s
nh: qungng vai, tc trung bnh, tiu hao nhin liu. Nu tc cc
thiim xe chy gn bng ch s trung bnh m my tnhoc, c ngha l

mc tiu th nhin liu gn vi tiu chun ca hng, khong 8 lt/100km.


Camry 2007 - sn phm mi nhn ca Toyota
Khng th tp v c tnh nhng Camry 2007 vn nhnc s quan tm
ca khch tham quan trin lm Detroit 2006. Tnh nng, cht lng v an
ton cao c th s l b quyt gip n ko di thnh cng trnt M. Trong 9
nm qua, 8 nm Camry l mu xe bn chy nht tiy.
Tnh n hin ti, hn 10 triu chic Camry ti tay khch hng k t nm
khai sinh 1983 v hu ht trong sc bn ti M. Camry 2007 c 5 phin
bn trong 4 bn CE, LE, SE, XLE s dngng c chy xng v 1 trang b
h thng hybrid.
V n khng phi l th mnh v thit k nn Camry 2007 xut hin vi
phong thi cc mch v kh gin d. Cc k s Toyota c gng nhn mnh v
lm ni bt b mt bng nhngng k ni trn np ca-p v phaui. Theo
gii snh xe, Camry 2007 c vc dng "nn" theo cng mt phong cch vi
Avalon trnh lng nm ngoi, pha thm cht t trit l L-Finess ca Lexus trn
cmn pha v li tn nhit. Thm ch, nu nhn nghing, ngi xem cn thy
nhngnh hng t BMW.
Ng c vi s nht nho pha ngoi tht, ni tht Camry 2007c chm
cht k lng v c bn sc ring. Hp cha rng v h thp hn so vi
thng l nn tin dng hn. Cc chi tit nh hc gi, sn cn s, bng thit b
vung vc nhng kh tinh t khin khng gian bn trong ca-bin hini v thn
thin. Bng trung tm rng, trang b mn hnh LCDc lp gi cho nhiu ngi
nh ti Lexus GS.
Gh ngi pha trc thit k theo cng ngh WIL (Whiplash Injury

Lessening) gip bo v phn u hnh khch trong cc tai nn. Gh da


simc trang b trn cc mu SE, XLE v bn hybrid. Cn CE, LE v
Hybrid lp b gh sau c th b gp theo t l 60/40. Trn tt c cc phin
bn, v-lng c thiu chnh ph hp vi kch c ca ti x.
H thng m thanh tiu chun trn Camry 2007 l dn CD 6a AM/FM
ni vi 6 loa v m ly k thut s 4 knh, cng sut 160W. Tt c ccu CD
ca cc phin bn Camryu chic nh dng MP3. H thng m thanh
cao cp ca hng JBL sc trang b trn cc phin bn cao nh XLE hay
Hybrid. JBL c dn CD 6a, 8 loa v m ly k thut s 8 knh, cng sut
440W. Nu thm h thng hin th, th Camry chc trang b dn CD 4a.
Tt c phin bn trang b dn JBL cngu cho php kt ni viin thoi
Bluetooth.
Camry 2007 c nhiu phin bn vi ccng c khc nhau khch hng la
chn nh I4, s
tay ti V6, s tng hay hybrid c mc tiu hao nhin liu 5,5 lt/100 km.
ng c 2AZ-FE, dung tch 2,4 lt I4c nng cp mt cch cn bn cho
Camry 2007. Cc k s Toyota thit k li b gp v x nhm gim lc ma st
trong v nng cao cng ca cc-te. Nh, cng sutng cc ci thin
v hiu sut nhin liuc nng ln,ng thi gim tingn v mc rung.
2AZ-FE c hnh trnh piston 96 mm, rng xi-lanh 88,5 mm cho dung tch
thc 2.362 cc, cng sut nng ln 158 m lc theonh gi ca SAE. T s
nn tng ln 9,8:1 v thch hp vi cu trc camc ci tin. Ving c
ny, khch hng c th chn hp s tay 5 cp hay hp s tng 5 cp.

N u mun c cng sut cao hn, ngi mua c th chnng c 2GR-FE,


3,5 lt V6, 24 van trang b trn LE, SE v XLE. 2GR-FE c "bc" cao hn
40% so vi mu Camry 2006 3,3 lt V6. 2GR-FE c hnh trnh 83 mm,
rng xi-lanh 94 mm, dung tch 3.459 cc, cng sut 268 m lc v t s nn
10,8:1. Cao cp hnng c I4, V6 trang b h thng thi gian van np bin
thin (Dual VVT-i) nhm tiu ha hotng ca trc cam v nng cao cng
sutng c.
Camry 2007 tch h p h thng chng b cng phanh ABS, h thng phn
b lc phanhin t v tr lc phanh. Nu mun, khch hng c th la chn
thm cc thit b nh h kim sot cn bng vi thit b cn kim sot
bmng, h thngin t kim sot cng sut my v p dng phanh trn cc
bnhc lp nhm kim sot vic mt bmng. Ti kh hai giaion l
thit b tiu chun trn tt c cc model Camry. Ti kh cnh trn pha trc
v pha sau, ti kh bo vu v ti kh bo vng chn ti x.
Camry 2007 s c mt trn th trng vou thng 3/2006 cn bn
hybrid d kin vo thng 6. Thng s k thut Camry 2007 ng c I4 V6
Chiu di (mm) 4.806 Trc c s (mm) 2.776 Rng (mm) 1.821 Cao (mm)
1.460 Dung tch (ml) 2.362 3.459
Cng sut (m lc) 158 268
M-men xon (Nm) 218 336 Gi (USD) 19.500 - 27.000
Prado im sng ca Toyota
Ngay khi ra m t cui nm ngoi, chic Prado mi, mt sn phm nm
trong kiu xe Land Cruiser ca hng sn xut t ln nht x Ph Tang,t

cci th cnh tranh nh X5 (BMW) v M-Class (Mercedes) vo th cnh


tranh quyt lit.
Land Cruiser c l i th ln khi xut hin t na th k nay v ngy cng
chng t l mt chic xe dnng 2 cu hng sang. Chic Prado kh hon ho
nh v ngoi bt mt v nhng ci tiny ngha v cc tin nghi ni tht
viu khin.
imng lu nht l chic xe mi c trng tm thp, trc bnh xe di
hn lm tng thm khng gian bn trong. V xe cng ci thin cc tiu chun
v tingn, s rung lc. Khng nh BMW X5 v Mercedes M-Class, Prado l
mt chic 4x4 (xe 2 cu chng)ch thc, c kh nng thchng vi hu ht
cca hnh khc nhau. Thm na, dng v rtn tng ca n c nhiuim
khc vi nhng chic xe c xut x t Nht Bn. Ving nt kh d dn,
Prado rt hp vi khung cnh khc nghit ti mt sa mc Kuwait hayrp
Xt, nhng nhng chi titc trau chut khin n cng khng h lc lng khi
nm ch trc ca mt trung tm thng mi sang trng.
Prado n i bt nh kiu dng pha trc hon ton mi. Cmn pha ln 2
bn ln vt v pha sau quyn r vc b sung bi mt li tn nhit vi
nhng thanh dng to, th. Cc ca s uc gn knh sm mu kno.
Xe Prado g nng c turbo diesel 3 lt, hp s tay hoc tng tu chn.
Ngoi ra cn c loi lpng c xng 4 lt vi h thng np nhin liuin t
VVT-i v hp s tng. Ni tht Prado khng chu thua km X5 hay M-Class
v cht liu s dng. Tt c cciu khinu rt d lm quen. Hng gh trc
rng ri v to cm gic thoi mi trn nhng hnh trnh di. Xe c th cha
cng lc ti 8 hnh khch. Nu cn, c th gp hng gh th ba vo st

vch,ng thi gp ta lng ca hng gh gia xung, to ra mt khong khng


ln cha.
Cc trang b trn xeu thuc hng cao cp.iu ho khng kh d dng
lm mt ton b khoang trong xe, cho php cit ph hp tng v tr ngi
pha trc. Chic Prado c mt h thng m thanh kh phc tp, va c th
btc sng radio, va c cac bng cng mtu CD 6a. H thng
radar Cruise control bom mt khong cch an ton vi cc xe pha trc
khi lu hnh trnng. Ngoi gng, ca knhiu khinin, tay li c tr
lc, b dng c sa chat ca sau cng l mt tiu chunng ch .
Prado c tay li ngh ch. ng c xng V6 vi h thng VVT-i. Mi xe
Pradou dnng 2 cu, c gn h thng chng b phanh (ABS - antilock
brake
system). iu khinin t trn xe c kh nng phn b lc phanh, tr
gip phanh khn cp cng nhiu chnh bmng. Nhng chic xe lp
hp s tng cn c thm nhng tin ch hu dng l h thng tr gip khi
leo dc cng nh khio.
ng c 3 lt turbo diesel ch c cng sut 130 m lc 3.600 vng/pht
nhng c m-men xon cci 343 Nm 2.000 vng/pht, ph hp vi mt
chic xea hnh. Tc tia 166 km/h khng phi l qu ln nhng b li,
Prado d dngt ti gii hn m khng gy ra tingnng k.iu khin
Prado trong thnh ph rt th v, nhng chnh trong nhng hnh trnh di v
trn cc tho nguyn n mi l vuang ngha. Ngi ngi trn xe ch hi cm
thy lc l khi vt qua nhng gc cua gp nht, tc cao. Np ca-p cng

nh thng sau khng qu di,m bo cho vic cn chnh xe tt hn trong


nhng khng gian hp. Prado c th bng qua cc con sui lm chm, chy
trn sa mc, vt qua nhng ngni v cc con dc vi s an ton cao. Ngay
c vi nhng li xe t khiiu khin xe 4x4 cng s thy nhngonng gp
ghnh khng cn l th thch kh khn.
H thng np nhin liuin t VVT-i ca Toyota ng c I4 16 van
VVT-i lp trn Toyota Camry 2,4 lt. H thng VVT-i l thit k phun xng
ca hng Toyota theo nguyn lin - thy lc. C cu
ny tiu ha gc phi kh ca trc cam np da trn ch lm vic cang
c phi hp vi
cc thng siu khin chng.
Hi u sut lm vic cang c ph thuc rt nhiu vo hotng cung cp
nhin liu. H thng in tiu khin van np bin thin VVT-i (variable
valve timing with intelligence)c thit k vi mcch nng cao m-men
xon cang c, ct gim tiu th nhin liu v kh thic hi. Cc b phn
ca h thng gm: B x l trung tm ECU 32 bit; bm vng dn du; b
iu khin phi kh (VVT) vi cc vanin; cc cm bin: VVT, v tr bm
ga, lu lng kh np, v tr trc khuu, nhit nc. Ngoi ra, VVT-i
thngc thit kng b vi c cu bm gain t ETCS-i,u phun
nhin liu 12 l (loi b s h tr bng kh) v b chiain bngin t cng
cc bugiu iridium.
Trong qu trnh ho tng, cc cm bin v tr trc khuu, v tr bm ga
v lu lng kh np cung cp cc d liu chnh v ECU tnh ton thng s
phi kh theo yu cu chng. Cm bin nhit nc lm mtng c cung

cp d liu hiu chnh, cn ccuo VVT v v tr trc khuu th cung cp


cc thng tin v tnh trng phi kh thc t. Trn c s cc yu t ch ng,
hiu chnh v thc t, ECU s tng hpc lnh phi kh tiu cho bungt.
Lnh ny c tnh ton trong vi phn nghn giy v quytnhng (m) cc
vanin ca h thng thy lc. p lc du s tcng thayi v tr biu
khin phi kh, m cc xu-pp npng mc cn thit vo thiim thch hp.
Nh vy, thay cho h thng cam kiu c vi m xupp khngi, VVTiiu chnh v cp hotng ca cc van np. m v thiim m bin
thin theo s phi hp cc thng s v lu lng kh np, v tr bm ga,
tc v nhit ng c.
Ngoi ra, cn m t cm bino nng oxy dt cm gp x cho bit t
l % nhin liu ct. Thng tin tyc gi v ECU v cngc phi
hp x l khi hiu chnh ch np tiu nhm tit kim xng v bo v mi
trng.
V tr bm gac ngi li quytnh 80% thng qua pan gn cm
bin gcp chn ga, 20% cn li chu s chi phi ca cc cm bin khc. H
thng bm gain t ETCS-i hot ng nh mt m-t cc nhyiu khin
bng xungin. Cm bin chn ga gm 2uoc lp, phn nh thao tc ca
li xen b x l trung tm thng qua 2 lung tn hiu cc tnh khc
nhau. d phng, nu 1 trong 2 chic b hng th bm ga vn c kh nng
m mc gia 25% v khng ti, nu c 2 chic gp s c xe vn c th chy
vi ch khng ti v xng sa cha.
Hin nay, VVT-ic p dng rng ri trn cc mu xe hng trung ca

Toyota,c bit vi thit


k ng c 4 xi-lanh c va v nh. b. Infiniti - conng thnh cng
15 nm k t khi Nissan khai sinh mc xe dnh ring cho th trng Bc M,
Infiniti gt hi
nhng thnh cngng k d lun phii mt vi kh khn. Nhn hiu Infiniti
cng biu
tng "conng v tn" ngy cng tr nn ph bin trn th gii.
8/12/1989, sau m t nm nghin cu v xy dng d n, tt c 51i l
ca Infiniti M v 12 i l Canadang lot m ca gii thiu mu
sedan Q45 v M30 coupe hng sang dnh ring cho th trng Bc M. Mt
nm sau, hai mu xe chnh thc ti tay khch hng.
Tr c 4 nm, cc quan chc ca Nissana ra chin lc thnh lp
mt thng hiu xe hng sang nhm ti ngi tiu dng M v Canada. Nm
1986, d nc thng qua v Nissana "vinn"u tin Q45 vo sn
xut. Ti nm 1987, ci tn Infiniti chnh thcc chn bng cch bini
t t infinity khng gii hn, th hin cho li cam kt Infiniti s lunp
ng nhu cu khng hnnh ca ngi tiu dng.
D a trn quanim, Nissan thu cng ty Lippincott Mercer thit k
biu tng Infiniti ln u nm 1989 v sa li nm 2000. C ngi cho rng,
haing k gp nhau ti tm ca ellipse tng trng cho conng chy
thng ti v cc. Nhng kin khc li hnh dung biu tng tii bn tay
chp vo nhau theo t th ca t v lm, th hin cho sc mnh, lng qu
cm v lng quyt tm lun hng v pha trc.
Th i ku, nhiu ngi hoi nghi v thnh cng ca Infiniti bi lc,

th trng Bc M c Lexus ca Toyota v Acura thuc Honda. Nu Infiniti


chen ngang, rt c th n s ko Lexus v Acura cng vp ng. Tuy nhin, c
Nissan, Honda v Toyotau quyt tm thc hin chin lc lt xc bi h
hiu r mtiu, ngi dn M v Canada lun coi sn phm ca 3 nh sn
xut ny ch thuc hng kinh t ch khng phi sang trng. V, sau 15 nm,
thc t chng minh sai lm ca nhng ngi ch trch: C 3 hngu thnh
cng vang di, cho d Infiniti gp phi s cnh tranh nhiu hn.
Theo dng s kin:
Khng d Infinitii ln t vng chin s nh th trng M bi ngay
ti thiim rai, hng xe thuc hng cha ch Oldsmobileangng bn b
vcng ca. Khiu, Infiniti ch sn xut hai mu xe, Q45 v dng xe th
thao G20. Sau l nhng chic nh J30 vi thn xe trn tra hay M30 hng
trung ngn cn cn v I30. L hn na l mu xe th thaoa dng hng trung
QX4, da trn bn Nissan Pathfinder v thc s l c huch mnh vo doanh
s bn ca Infiniti.
Thnh cng n vi Infiniti theo tng nm thng.ng mt nm sau khi ra
mt, Q45 lt vo danh sch xe tt nht do Road&Track bnh chn. Ti 1991,
hng nghin cu th trng ni ting J.D.Power chn Infiniti l mc xe lm hi
lng khch hng nht. Nm ngoi, G35 coupec cc bin tp vin ca
Autoweek bu l mu coupe th thao ca nm. Nm 2004, Infiniti bn ra
130.986 xe.
Nhng sn phm hin ti ca Infiniti bao gm: G35, G35x, G35 Coupe,
M35/M45, Q45 hng

sang hay dng th thaoa dng nh FX35, FX45 hay QX56 ( c mt


Vit Nam). c. Logo Mazda:i cnh khng mi Biu tng hin nay ca
Mazda rai chay 10 nm. Trong sut lch s pht trin khng h
sun s gn 90 nm qua, Mazda nhiu ln thayi li logo ph hp vi
tng giaion
khc nhau.
Mazda Motors c ngu n gc t Toyo Cork Kogyo Co., Ltd, mt cng ty
nh do Jujiro Matsuda thnh lp vo nm 1920, ti thnh ph Hiroshima, Nht
Bn. Lc Toyo Cork Kogyo ch yu ch to cc thit b my mc.n nm
1929, cng ty sn xutng c tu tin, v nm 1931, xut khu 30 chic
xe ch hng 3 bnh vo th trng Trung Quc.
N m 1934, Jujiro Matsudai tn cng ty thnh Mazda Motor. C ngi
cho rng t Mazda c ly t tn ca Matsuda, tng trng cho nim t ho
ca ngi sng lp ra n, tuy nhin, mt s ngi cho rng ch Mazdac
ly t tn ca v thn la "Ahura-Mazda", v l do Matsuda chn tn mt v
thn ch khng phi tn ca dng h l t tnh cch ca ng: khim nhng,
duy tm v lun khao kht lm cho cng ty tr nn ni ting.
Mazda s n xut nhng chic sedanu tin vo nm 1940, nhng phi
ngng li do chin tranh th gii ln th 2. Ngy 6/8/1945, qu bom nguyn t
do M nm xung ph hu ton b thnh ph Hiroshima, trong c nh my
ca Mazda Motors. Ci tn Mazda b xo s trong sut 15 nm sau.
Theo dng s kin:
N m 1959, Mazda tr li sau qu trnh ti thit, v vicu tin l biu

tng ca hngc thayi. Sau, Mazda bt tay vo sn xut hng lot


nhng dng xe nh Carol mc bit l chic sedan R360 v dng Mazda
Cosmos vi RX-8.
Tr c nhng thnh cngtc v mt thng mi, nm 1966, Mazda
hon thnh nh my sn xut xe du lch ti Hiroshima v btu xut khu sang
th trng M. Nm 1975, thng nht cc sn phm ca hng trn ton th
gii, Mazda thit k biu tng mi vi ch Mazda c th hin theo phong
cch m chng ta vn thy ngy nay.
15 n m sau, 1992, ngi ta thy xut hin biu tng mi ca Mazda gn
trn li tn nhit cc dng xe Mazda 323 v 626 - nhng chic xe vn cn
kh nhiu trnng ph Vit Nam.u tin biu tngc thit k l mt
hnh thoi nm trong mt hnh elip, nhng khi sang th trng Php, Mazda nhn
ra rng n qu ging vi logo ca Renault.
V v y, ngay sau Mazda thayi dng ca hnh thoi, bin n tr thnh
ngn la, v v tng th, logo vn l cchiu ca ch Mang bay vang
chy. Th hin choc vng vn ln tm cao mi ca ngi sng lp Jujiro
Matsuda. Hn na, n lin quann v thn la "AhuraMazda", ngun cm
hng Matsuda ly lm tn cho cng ty ca mnh.
N m 1997, tc l 5 nm sau, nh thit k hnhnh ni ting trn th gii,
Rei Yoshimarac thu thit k logo cho cc sn phm t mang thng
hiu Mazda trn ton cu. Logo l hnh nh cnh chim si di, tng trng cho
tc, s linh hot, sc mnh vnnh. Vic kt hp giai cnhang bay
ln v quo ca n (ng trn bao quanh) l thngip m Mazda mun
gi ti khch hng: Nh cnh chim khng mi, Mazda vnang bay vn

cao hn, xa hn trn conng chinh phc nhngnh cao m Matsuda hng
aoc.
d. Logo Lexus: 'Anh mii mi, tr nht lng'
Sinh ra t gianh Toyota, di s chm scc bit v tuyt mt bi
4.000 con ngi xut sc, vi ci tn tng trng cho tnh cch ng: sang
trng m tao nh, sau 20 nm, Lexus ginhc v tr ring ti sn chi ca
ngnh cng nghip t.
Ma xun 1989, tr c nhng b lo, nhng bc cha ch ti chiu cho
trin lm t Detroit, Lexus bc ra v xng danh. l thnh qu ca n
lc ko di t gia nm 1983. Ch tch Toyota khi, Eiji Toyoda triu tp
mt cuc hp cp cao v tuyt mt, bao gm cc nh qun l, k s v nhng
nh chin lct ra mt cu hi: Liu chng ta c th sn xut mt chic
xenh bi nhng mu tangc coi l tt nht?. Cu tr lica ra
v Eiji Toyoda quytnh thc thi d n mang tn F1. Ch F ly t
"flagship" (thut ng ch con tu chc trong mt hmi v cng l ch
sn phmngu ca mt hng), cn s 1 th hin yu cu cht lng cao
nht ca mt chic sedan hng sang. Cc k sc lnh tp trung pht trin
ton b thnh phn ca mt chic xe hi, t tay li, phanh,ng c, h thng
kim sot bmng, h thnginn sn mn v vt liu. Nm nhm
thit kc phin "nm vng" ti M, st cnh vi cc nhi l phn
phi y nghin cu v phong cch sng, quanim v thit k ca nhng v
khcha thch dng xe sang trng.
G n 4.000 ngic huyng sn xut nhng nguyn muu tin nm

1985.t tn cho mu sn phm mang k vng ln ca mnh, Toyota


quytnh ghp hai t Luxury v Elegance thnh ci tn Lexus. Ngoi ra,
Lexus cnc ghp t cc ch ciu ca cm t Luxury Export to US (dng
xe sang trng xut khu sang M). l l do v sao Lexus c tr s t ti th
trng xe hi ln nht th gii.
Theo dng s kin:
Trong nguyn t c v cng ngh qung b sn phm, ngi ta khng th
khng nhcn vai tr ca logo. Toyota dnh mt sn phm sang trng bc
nht thng nhin logo ca n cng khng phi tm thng. Cht lng sn
phm si v con s khng nu trong mt khch hng biu tng ca n
khng li chtn tng no. V th, cng ty thit k logo ni ting
Hunter/Korobkin, Inc.c thu v trong hng trm mu thit k, Toyota
quytnh ly biu tng hnh ch L lm biu tng chnh thc ca Lexus.
Tuy l b c hu th, nhng tt c nhng g thuc v Lexusu th hin cho
s hon ho. Gia lc ngi ta tng rng ngun cm hng cho mt biu
tng thc s ngha cn kit th logo ca Lexus xut hin. N tho mn tt
c nhng tiu ch thit k logo vc hnh thnh mt cch thun nht m
khng gn vi bt c mt truyn thuyt hay mt cu chuyn lch s no. Vn l
hnh elipse cho c cm hng t logo ca Toyota, biu tng Lexus l s
cchiu ca ch L mang phong cch hini.
cimu tin m logo Lexus s hu l s khc bit. Ngi ta khng
th ni v mnh khi b nhm ln vi ngi khc v d nhin, logo khng
thi din cho nhng g khng thuc v Lexus. Kch thc ca hnh elipse
bao ngoi logo c t l trc di/rng bng 1,4, ch Lc cchiu nghing

50 vi hai ntm nht gpi nhau, gi ln cm gic vng vng, chc


chn. Cc nh thit k to nghing cho ch L ch yu do nu vit thng s d
nhm vi biu tng ca LG v hn na, chng c mt s sang trng tao nh
no li khngn cha trong n nhng nt mm mi, tht tha.
cao ch L bng khong 75% trc rng, gia nt nm ngang v trc di
cng c gi tr tng t,iu to s cni, hi ho v t l chim khong
khng ca ch L so vi ton b hnh khi. T l 75% bp tnh khngi
xng ca logo, lm cho ngi quan st vn c cm gic v s cn bng v bn
vng, v yu t tnh nm trong yu tng.
cim th hai m mt chic logo cn c l n phi gi ln cm xc, v
biu tng ca Lexus c. Ton b logo hin ln vi nhngng cong
thanh thot, khng c bt c mt nt gc cnh ch yu no, nut n nh
nhngng gi lt nh trn thn xe. Nh nhng, m i, thn thin nhng
timn sc mnh l cm gic ca khng t ngi lnu tin nhn thy.
im th ba l tnhn gin. S cu k to nn nhng nt ginn c
gi tr hn nhiu so vi nhng nt phc tp ri rm. Khng b nhngng
ngang dc, mu sc lm lo mt, tt c logo l nhngng congng mu
thng nht. Ly cm hng t k t @ trong cng ngh thng tin, biu tng ca
Lexus bng tr nn gn gi vi ngi tiu dng hn bao gi ht. V chnh l
tnh thii. Khngi qu xa quanim ca cngng, nhng cng khng tm
thng ho, thc s logo ca Lexus l bc thnh cngu tin ca mt
thng hiu.
M t logo phi th hinc lch s ca cng ty, vc tin ca con ngi,

trit l sng, gi tr, phong cch ca nhng ngi thit k v s dng n. Phi
toc nim tin vi khch hng, cng nhn cng nh nhng nhu t. N l
sn phm nhngng ngoi nhng sn phm khc v mt ngha v gi tr.
Vi tt c nhng tiu chy, tri qua 20 nm rai, logo ca Lexus thnh cng
khi,ang v si din cho sn nhng sn phm cao cp ca chnh n.
Lexus D4-S - h thng np nhin liu tin tin
Cc chuyn gia v bin t p vin ca tp ch Canadiandriver chn D4-S
ca Lexus vo danh sch c gii thng Cng ngh ca nm. D4-S l cng
ngh phun nhin liu hini nht trang b trn hai mu Lexus IS 250 v IS
350i 2006.
D4-S k t hp hai phng php phun xngaim (Multi-port Injection MPI) v phun xng trc tip (Gasonline Direct Injection - GDI). Nh,ng
c ca Lexus c nhng ci thinng k trong tnh nng cng nh mc tiu hao
nhin liu.
Cng s dng cm bin phun xngin tiu khin bng my tnh nhng
MPI v GDI c v tr t kim phun v chc nng khc nhau. Phun
xngaimc s dng t 15n 20 nm trc trn hu ht ccng c
xng. Khng ging nh phun xngnim, cu trc ca h thng phun
xngaim gm mtu phun cho mi xi-lanh. Ccu phunc gn gn
cng np v vn hnh theo hai hnh thc. Th nht, tt c ccu phun
hotngng thi v hnh thc ny c gi l phun xngaimng nht.
Th hai l phun xngaim tun t, tc ccu phun hotng ty thuc vo
tng xi-lanh.
* ng c BMW mi *ng c Civic Hybrid Tuy cng phun nhin liu

vo c ht khi van np m nhng h thng tun t cuim l sinh


ra t kh thi v ph bin hn. Do, Lexusng dng cng ngh ny trn D4S nhm gim
nhit kh np v tng cng hiu sut th tch cang c.
Khc v i phun xngaim, phun xng trc tip phun nhin liu vo thng
xi-lanh. Miu phun trc tip c th cung cp nhin liu thng qua hai
cch:ng nht hoc phn tng.i vi kiu np trc tipng nht,u phun
phun nhin liu trong nau chu trnh np. Lc ny, nhin liu sc trn
vi khng kh t ngoi vo, hp khc nn li. Phng php npng nht
cung cp hn hp kh giu (nhiu nhin liu) v c cng sut cao hn.
Trong ph ng php phn tng,u phun phun nhin liu vo thiim cui
giaion nn. Nhin liu sc phun vo gn bu-gi v trn vi khng kh
nn sn thnh hn hp chy. Phng php ny to ra hn hp ngho (t nhin
liu), do vy tit kim nhin liu v gim kh thi.
Nh lai hai cu trc np liu MPI v GDI thnh mt h thng nht nn
D4-S l cng ngh phun trc tip phc hp, gipng c ca Lexus c nng
kh thi thp, hiu sut s dng nhin liu cao v cng sut ln.
Lexus ES350i 2007 - bnh mi ru c
D thi t k theo trit l L-Finesse nhng Lexus ES350 th h th nm vn
mangm phong cch Toyota. Da trn khung sn ca Camry, ES350 nhm
vo phn khc xe sang hng trung v li th chnh ca BMW serie 3,
Mercedes C-class v Audi A4. Gi xut xng 33.170 USD ti M.
Trong khi ng i ngic lun t nh th trng xe hiang hng ti

dng th thao sang trng th Lexus vn kinnh vi dng sedan bng vic
trnh lng th h ES th nm ti trin lm Chicago vo thng 2 nm nay. Mc
xe thuc Toyota chn cho mnh conng tip cn nhng khch hng yu s
tinh t, cht lngnh cao, dch v chm sc chuo. Theo thng k, gn 30%
s ngii Lexus ti M s chn ES v nh sn xut ny hy vng bnc
70.000 xe vo nm sau. khng phi l kt qu ti cho mt chic hng sang
c khung sn da trn mu xe bnh dn Toyota Camry.
C m li ES350, ngi ta c cm gic t tin v d chu nhng khng thc
s thn thin nh cc sn phmng hng khc. H thngiu khinc Lexus
tp trung pht trin nhiu nht nhng ti cc khc cua gp, ES350 khng to
cm gicn tng, chc chn do khung sn xoay v lp pht ting ku. Sau
khi tng tc ri phanh gp, ES350 phnng kh chm v khng cn nhiu k
nng cng c tha v trng thi tr gip liin t.
ES350 di chuy n mm mi vnnh d mt viim cha tht hon ho.
H thng treo MacPherson pha trc v pha sau dng nh qu mm khii
trna hnh. Khng gian trong ca-bin yn lng, tinh khit, chiu lng ngi tuy
khng hn lm hi lng nhng tay x kh tnh.
Lexus cng b ES350 2007 da trn ngn ng thit k L-Finesse nhng
trn thc t, n vn ging Toyota nhiu hn. V cu trc, ES350 mang tnh bo
th v khng c ntc bit. N s p hn nu khng lp bn pha hm h
nhang quc mt trong khi cc phn trn thn khngc x l cn
thn.cim d nhn thy nht l b vnh 17 inch qu nh di phn sau
trang nh v li cun. Khc vi ES th h th t, ES350 c logo gn trn li
tn nhit ch khng np ca-p.n pha rng, xch ch khng mm mi, uyn

chuyn.
Pha trong, ES350 v t qua nhng mnh t Toyota vi nhng thit bc
trng ca Lexus: Nha mm, cc tmp g trang trp, da ho hng trn vlng v cn s. Gh ngi thoi mi khii xa hng gi v hng gh sau rng
cho 4 ngi ln. H thng m thanh 14 loa Mark Levinson, dn CD 6a. Cabin ca ES350 2007 thong hn nh Lexus ko di trc c s thm 46 mm,
mc d chiu cao v rng khng thayi. Trng lng ES350 nng hni
trc ca n 50 kg, ch yu do cc thit b tng thm nh hp s, ti kh.
ES350 l nu tin s dngng c V6, dung tch 3,5 lt cng sut 272 m
lc, m-men xon cci 344 Nm, tng tc t 0 ln 100 km/h trong vng 6,8
giy. Theo Lexus, ES350 c mc tiu hao nhin liu 11 lt/100 km trong thnh
ph v 7,8 lt/100ng trng. S dng hp s t ng 6 cp c chc nng
chuyn sang s tay, ES350 truynng thng qua chng trnhiu khin, c
chc nng gi xe mc s thp khi ln hoc xung dc, thm ch c th "hc"
thuc thi quen ca ngi li.
trnh nhng g ti m tcm vo tng, ES350 trang b h thng
chng b cng, kim sot bmng, gi cn bng. Bn cnh l b thit
b VDIM mi nht c chc nng kim sot cn bng. VDIM phnng vi
cc tnh hung trnng mt cch tc thi ch khng don trc. Trong
trng hp tai nn xy ra, ti kh kp pha trc v ti kh kp bo v c chn
s kch hot trnh chn thng. Ngoi ra, ES350 cn trang b h thng
gng tng gim nh sng,iu ha vngc lp, khing bng nt bm.
Gi xut xng ca ES350 l 33.170 USD v n s lch th xng tm ca

BMW serie 3,
Mercedes C-class, Audi A4. Lexus LS430 - xe tin nghi bc nht nm
2003 Chic Lexus LS430 ca nm 2003 l k cnh tranh trc tip v tr
hngu ca cc xe BMW
Serie 7, Audi A8 hay Jaguar XJ. Khng c nhng s thayi ln so vi phin
bn trc nhng
trang b tiu chun ca xe gm mi th m khch hng quan tm.
Ng i Nht ni ting vi s chuo viu th hin r xe LS430.
Ngay c nhng hng gh pha sau cngc quan tm chuo. Hnh
khchc tn hng nhng tin nghing k nh ghiu chnhin, si gh,
hp lm lnh, gng trangim v dn m thanh. Ngoi ra, mi ch ngi cn
c thm chc nng massage, vi mt m-tin chu trch nhim lm rung ta
lng, to s thoi mi. Khng tht quan trng nhng n lm nhiu ngia
thch, d vi mt s khc,iu c v hi lng ph.
Pha tr c c mt mn hnh tinh th lng cmng (iu khin dn m
thanh DVD v h thng ch dn v tinh). Xe cho php lu gi 3 t th ca gh
li,ng b vi v-lng v gng. Tuy nhin, gh xe, nht l cc hng gh sau
qu mm nn d gy mi lng. LS430 cn c mt ca muiiu khinin, vn
t c trn nhng chic sedan sang trng (luxury sedan). H thng Cruise
control s dng tia laser duy tr mt khong cch theo mun vi cc xe chy
trc v camera gc quay rngt pha sau, lp km bong khi c s tip
xc qu gn vi cc phng tin khc. Nhn chung, ca-bin xe c mt v thn
thin, sng sa, cc chi titc thit k hp l. Dn CD 6a hiu Mark
Levinson l trang b tiu chun ca xe. 11 loa lp xung quanh xe cho m thanh

cc nt ngay c khi m thanhciu chnh mc tia, bao gm mt loa


siu trm lp gn khoang hnh l v mt b phn lc m k thut s DSP
(Digital Signal Processing).
Chi c xe dnng cu sau ny c h thng treo cnh tayn kp trc v
sau, hotng m i nhng chu lc cng rt khe. H thng kim sot
bmng TCS (Traction Control System) l mtiu bt tin. Bt c khi no
pht hin c s trt bnh, m ca bm ga tngng dn, v s mt mt
khong thi gian nhtnhng c hotng tr li. Tuy vy, h thng kim
sotnnh (Stability Control System) kt hp hi ha vi TCS duy tr trng
thi cn bng tuyt vi cho xe. Cca phanhng knh 315 mm (bnh trc)
v 310 mm (bnh sau) c v hi nh so vi bnh xe 18 inch nhng li rt hiu
qu. H thng chng b cng phanh ABS vi 4 b cm bin lun hotng tt.
LS430 l png c 4.3 mang m 3UZ-FE, hon ton bng hp kim. 8 xilanh lp hnh ch V vi trc cam kp DOHC (Double Overhead Camshaft),
32 van v kim sot bm gain t. Lexus tuyn b cng sut ca xe l 290
m lc ti 5.600 vng/pht v 434 Nm 3.400 vng/pht. Nh b cm
binin t cc v tr bm ga m xe lun tng hay gim tc mt cch m i,
khng git. Xe trang b hp s tng 6 cp, vi c cu truynng phnng
ty thuc vo ch m bn la chn. ch Power, v s s d dng v
chic xe lun trng thi sn sng tng tc. Cn nu chuyn sang Normal, my
s gn khi sang s thp. Ch Snow dnh ring khi phii li khi tri
tuyt.
LS430 n ng 1.810 kg. N khin cho xe khng cc kh nng tng tc

chp nhong nh cc xe th thao,ng thi tiu th nhiu nhin liu. Lexus cho
bit, LS430 mt 6,3 giyt ti tc 100 km/h t sau khi khing. Nhng
hu ht cc cuc th nghim cho thy nhanh nht, cng cn ti 8 giy
mitc tc ny. Xe c vn tc tia l 250 km/h. Theo bn thng s k
thuti km, mi 100 km ngn ht 12,2 lt xng nhng trn thc t, tnh trung
bnh cc chngng khc nhau, con s ny l 15,2 lt. Tc ly bnh xng
80 lt, bn cng ch chy tia hn 500 km.
Xt v hnh thc, lot xe LS ca Lexus cha bao gi gycn tng
mnh d t mi xe chy n pha sau l mt thit k hon thin. Ch s cn gi
ca chic xe di gn 5 m ny rtn tng, ch l 0,26 Cd. cng l mt trong
nhngiu khin tingn ca xe gimng k. Thn xe cng,c thit k sao
cho hp thu tia cc xung lc. an ton thng cnc ch trng hn na
vin cnh bo cng ca lp xe, 8 ti kh (tnh gm c ti kh bo vu
gi cho hng gh trc).n pha ca xe c th chiu lch sang phi hoc tri
15o, ty theo gc li, gip chiu sng hn khi r. Khng c g phi nghi ng,
LS430, phin bn 2003, c mi yu t cnh tranh ngi v ca mt nhn
hiu xe hi sang trng hngu chu u, k tip nhng thnh cng ca chic
LS400 u tin ra mt nm 1989.iu duy nht m Lexus LS430 thiu l mt
cht cm xci vi dng v b ngoi, mtim ring bit m ngi ta c th
nhn ra n ngay t nhng ci nhnu tin. B li, n c v s cc trang b tiu
chun m bn s phi tr thm tin nu la chn mt nhn hiu khc cng
hng.
Thng s k thut Lexus LS430 Chiu di (mm) 4.996 Chiu rng (mm)
1.828 Chiu cao (mm) 1.491 Trc c s (mm) 2.926 Trng lng khng ti

(kg) 1.810 ng c V8 vi VVT-I S van 32 Dung tch (cc) 4.293 cc Cng


sut cci (m lc/vng/ pht) 290/5.600 M-men xon cci
(Nm/vng/pht) 434/3.400 Hp s Tng 6 cp Tc tia (km/h) 250
Thi gian tng tcn 100 km/h (giy) 6,3 Lexus LS430 mi vt tri v
cng ngh Lexus va tung ra phin bn th 5 ca chic xe hng F Lexus
LS430, tng khin th phn dng
sedan cao c p tng ln nhanh chng ngay nhng th hu tin. Chic xe
mi ni bt vi nhng cng ngh tin tin nht, nhm tng thm tnh an ton,
nng cao hiu nng ca xe cng nh tin nghi dnh cho ngi li.
nng cao an ton thng, lnu tin Lexus trang b ti kh kp bo
v c chn, dnh cho hng gh trn. Mc an ton chng cngc ci thin
nh bn pha thng minh, t iu chnh gc chiu sng, to ra tm quan st
tt hn trn nhngonng ln khc. H thng kim sot hnh trnh
chng ACC (active cruise control) s dng tia laser to s tin cy cao trong
lc lu thng trnng. Khi pht hin xe vt qu khong cch cho php vi
cc phng tin pha trc, ACC s pht tn hiu cnh bo v tng gim
tc. Ngiiu khin LS430c h tr tia nh cc thit b pht hin
khong trngt 4 gc xe v cn trc, cn sau. Ngoi ra, cn c mt
camera quan st gn phaui xe. Camera ny, ni vi mn hnh t cp
trung tm, t kch hot khi ngi li chuyn sang s li, rt hu ch trong vic
tm ch u xe.
B ngoi LS430 cng c nhiu nt khc bit vi phin bn trc nh mt
mt n mi, v trn phac h thp hn, cmn sauc b tr li v c

2ng x. Ni tht vn gi nguyn nhng nt trang nh. 4 tnh nng, vn l la


chn phin bn trc, nay tr thnh cc chi tit tiu chun ca LS430. l
gh ngi pha sau c thiu khin bngin, ghi nhc nhiu t th khc
nhau; my massage gn tt c cc gh; dn m thanh bao gm 11 loa Mark
Levinson cho cht lng cc k trung thc v cui cng l knh chn nng
pha sauiu khin in. Cc tm che nng ny tng co li khi v s li
tng hiu qu quan st ln mc tia. H thng ch dn v tinh c thm nhiu
tnh nng hu ch nh hin th tn ph, xcnh khu vc ph cn vi ni xe
chy.
Lexus LS460 - 'mt mnh chng li Mafia'
Tri n lm Geneva 2006 s l niu tin chu u c mt LS 460L v
LS460 sau mn trnh din ti M. C hai s phii mt vi nhngi th
sng s nh S-class, serie 7 hay A8 v chc chn, cuc chin "nh cao ca
s sang trng" sp xy ra ti cu lca.
17 n m sau khi trnh lng dng LS (Long-wheelbase Sedan) hng "siu"
sangu tin, Lexus tip tc cho ra mt th h th t vi phin bn LS460 v
LS460L cng ti trin lm Detroit. Cho d gt hi thnh cng vang di nh
LS400 v LS430 trnt M, nhng trong mt gii snh xe, LS cha bao
gic so snh vi nhng chic xe ln, trc c s din t chu u nh
Mercedes S-class, BMW serie 7, Audi A8 hay Jaguar XJ8 trn phng din
kch thc, tn xut xut hin trnng v ni ting. Thm ch, d
thng xuyn nng cp cht lng, thay i thit k nhng LS vn chatn
"tm" ca cci th lca gi.
Ch t lng cao, tnh nng hon ho l gi tr khng th ph nhn ca cc

sn phm Lexus ni chung v LS ni ring. Nhng khi "chi" trong phn


khc "snhiu", LS cn phi c mt cht g khc bit trong thit k nh cc
sn phm ca Mercedes, BMW, Audi. Chng hn, th thao nngng nh
BMW serie 7, lch lm v bn lnh nh S-class. Ngha l cn phi c mt yu
t no LS khc bit hon ton so vi phn cn li ca th gii xe hi.
V th , Lexus quytnh cho ra l LS460 v LS460L da trn ngn ng
thit k L-Finess m hng dy cng nghin cu, sng to v qung b sut
thi gian qua. Khng th ni trc thi ca ngi tiu dng chu u nhng
r rng, LS460 c nhngng nt hon ton khc so vin anh LS400 v
LS430. Chi titu tin mang dun L-Finess l cmn pha v li tn nhit.
Dng hnh thang ngc vi 7 mang sc ngt, li tn nhit ca LS460 thanh
thot v sang trng hn LS430 rt nhiu. Cmn pha khng "b" ra m vut
cong theo nhngng k np ca-p v xui theo thn. Kiu thit kc trng
L-Finess khin b mt ngoi tht nh m rng v uyn chuyn hn.
Nhngng k chy dc theo thn ko s ch ti cmn hu c cu trc
kh l. Ly phn trn di hn lm nn,n hu hp dn xung di thng qua
nhngng cong mang hnh ch S. Phnui LS460 kt thc bng 2ng p
hnh thang vung,n su vo thn to cm gic khng gy nhim v sch hn
thng l.
Tp ch Automobilmagazine nhn xt: "Kh c th ni LS460 v LS460Lp
nhng c th coi
chngin trai".
LS460L di 5.151 mm, l n hn 122 mm so vi LS460. Chiu di c s

3.091 mm LS460L v 2.969 mm LS460 cho php Lexus thit lpng cp


tin nghi v sang trng mi trong phn khc sedan hng sang. Lexus trang b
cho LS460L nhiu chi "thng hng" nh gh ta nghing 45, ch
chn v thit b massage, mn hnh lm vic pha sau v 10 loa stereo Mark
Levinson. Khoang hnh khch khng nhng rng nh Maybach 62 m cn gi
nt sang trng v quyn r. Thm ch, Lexus trang b c cm bino nhit
cabin v nhit thn ngi h thngiu ha hotng hiu qu nht.
LS460 v LS460L s dngng c hon ton mi, 4,6 lt V8, cng sut
380 m lc, m-men xon 500 Nm. D dung tch thp hn nhng chng ngang
c so ving c 5,5 lt V8 ca Mercedes. Bn cnh cuc chin cng sut,
Lexus cn mun thch thc Mercedes khi quytnh lp hp s 8 cpu tin
cho LS460 v LS460L. Hin ti, S-class ca Mercedes lp hp s 7GTronic,
hp s nhiu cp nht hin nay. Lexus cho rng s kt hp giang c 4,6 lt
V8 v hp s 8 cp gip LS460 v LS460L c thi gian tng tc 0-100 km/h
di 5,5 giy, mc tiu hao nhin liu di 12 lt/100 km. Mu LS430 hin
ti, trang bng c 4,3 lt V8 ch c 278 m lc v 423 Nm m-men xon
nhng cnga n t 0 ln 100 km/h trong vng 5,9 giy.
Khng nh ng ch tn trang v ngoi, LS460 v LS460L cnc Lexus
chm sc c bn trong. H thng li tr lcin mi, h thng treo i cht
c tn VDIM (Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management)ng vai tr kim
sot ton b tng tcin t cho phanh, h thng li, kim sot cn bng v
h thng khung gm.
Nhng thng s chi tit hn sc Lexus cng b ti trin lm Geneva din
ra vou thng

sau.
Thng s k thut Lexus LS460i 2007 Kiu xe LS460L LS460 Chiu
di (mm) 5.151 5.029
Trc c s (mm) 3.091 2.969
Rng (mm) 1.875
Cao (mm) 1.476
Hp s Tng 8 cp ng c V8 Dung tch (ml) 4.600 Cng sut (m lc)
380
M-men xon 500
Tng tc 0-100 km/h (giy) <5,5 Cng ngh ti tn trn Lexus LS600hL
Mu hybrid hng sang cao cp ca Lexus s hu hng lot thit b vo loi
"c" nhn pha
cng ngh LED,ng c xngin V8 hay h thng tr gip tng.
Lexus v nc ngi M mnh danh l ng vua cng ngh nh nhng tnh
nng ni tht vo loi hon ho nht th gii. Cao cp nht trong cc sn phm
Lexus vn l dng sedan hng sang LS,i th nng k ca BMW serie 7 v
Mercedes S-class ti th trng ln nht th gii.
Th nhng, ch mi thng trc, LS460L b h b bi mt mu xe nu
xt v cng ngh v gi cung cp hn. l chic hybrid hng sangu
tin trn th gii, LS600h v phin bn trc c s di LS600hL.
Thit k LS600hL mn hon ton t LS460.
LS600hL khng c nhi u khc bit so vi LS460L v mt thit k.iu
ny th hin quanim LS600hL khng phi l mu xe hon ton mi ca

Lexus. Nn thun l phin bn nng cp. Khc bit duy nht phn ngoi
tht l Lexus lnu tin s dngnit pht quang lmn pha. Bn cnh,
nu LS460L s dng h dnng cu trc th LS600hL li dng dn 4 bnh
ton thi gian.
*Lexus LS460 t i ph vi chng ngi vt *m thanh trn Lexus
LS460 - cao cp hn na *H thng tng trn Lexus LS460 ng c trn
LS600hL thuc dng hybrid xngin. Lnu tin, Lexus s dng thut ng
full hybrid ng c hybrid c ln chong c V8 ca mnh. Dung
tchng c xng 5,0 lt v cng sut tng cng 438 m lc. Tiu hao nhin
liu trung bnh 8,2 lt/100 km, tng tc t 0 ln 100 km/h mt 5,5 giy.
LS600hL c nhi u chi "thng hng" nh gh ta nghing 45,
ch chn v thit b massage, mn hnh lm vic pha sau v 19 loa stereo
Mark Levinson, cng sut 450 W. B thit b gii tr c th chi bt c th
loi no, t CD ti DVD hay nhc nn vi b nh 8 GB, lu tr hn 2.000 bi
ht.
Khoang hnh khch khng nh ng rng nh Maybach 62 m cn gi nt
sang trng v quyn r. Thm ch, Lexus trang b c cm bino nhit cabin
v nhit thn ngi h thngiu ha hotng hiu qu nht. Lnu tin
Lexus tch hp cng ngh Advanced Pre-Collision System c th pht hin
ngii b trong phm vi di chuyn ca xe. Cng ngh ni bt trn LS600hL
l h thng t trnh chng ngi vt,nnh hng li, h tr tng, cng
ngh cnh bo li xe. Ngoi ra, LS600hL cn s hu h thng Pre-crash
Safety, c kh nng tnh ton xc sut va chm c th xy ra trong tnh hung
c th, da trn vn tc xe, hng quan st ca ngi li vcim ca

chng ngi vt pha trc. Nu cc yu t trn nm trong vng nguy him, n


s kch hot ci bong, bon phanh trn mn hnh a dng
Gi c a LS600hL ti M l 124.000 USD v ca LS600h l 80.550 USD.
Lexus hy vng tiu th 7.000 chic trong nm nay, bao gm khong 4.000 xe
bn ra Nht. Btu t thng sau, LS600h v LS600hL s ln tun hn 30
nc trn th gii.
Lexus LF-Sh: Chic xen t tng lai
M u sedan hybridu tin ca Lexus va trnh lng ti trin lm Tokyo
2005. LF-Sh l sn phm dnu cho dng xe LS th h th 3 ca Lexus
vc thit k hon ton bng nhng cng ngh ca tng lai.
G n 17 nm trc ti trin lm Detroit, LS l mt trong hai chic xe xut
hin trong l "xng danh" ca Lexus. Lc, rt t ngi c th hnh dung
chnh xc thnh cng vang di ca LS ni ring v Lexus ni chung ngy hm
nay. Trong hai thp k, Lexus tr thnh mt trong nhng mc xe hng sang bn
chy nht M v btu tr v chinh phc qu hng. Khng mun b hp
trong mint ca nhng chng cao bi, Toyota, cng ty m ca Lexus, cn
mun bin mc xe ny tr nn ni ting khp mi ni.
*Logo Lexus
B i vy, khi Toyota gii thiu chic concept LF-Sh ti Tokyo tun trc,
mt vi ngi nhanh chng ny ra ngh nguyn mu ny s sm tr thnh th
h LS th 3. LF-Sh l mu xe th 5 ly cm hng t trit l thit k LFinesse ca Lexus sau LF-X, LF-C, LF-A v LF-S. Theo Gimc vn
phng thit k ton cu Lexus, Wahei Hirai, ch Lc ly t cm t

Leading edge cn t Finesse ngha l s kho lo. Tht kh dch trn


vn ngha ca mt trit l ngh thut, nhng tinh thn ca L-Finesse nm
nhngng nt gc cnh khng th ln.
Theo dng s kin: Trin lm Tokyo 2005 (16/10/2005) Hnh dng li
tn nhit,ng k trn thn v vc dng vng l si ch xuyn sut 5 mu
xe m Lexus thi t k theo trit l L-Finesse. Li tn nhit, cc nh thit
k Lexus gi l ch k hnh mi tn, dinh hng ca L-Finesse tr nn
sc, gn v lnh lng. Khe h hp, cc mang nh nhng li dao xp chng
ln nhau mt cchc trng. Trong khi cch thit k thn xe khng tp trung
dn tri trn cc tm (panel) m nhn mnh vo nhngng k. Thm ch
ngay c ct A, B, C cngc thit k mm mi v ni bt thu ht s ch
ca mi ngi. Nu LF-S, chic concept ra mt ti Tokyo hai nm trcy,
tp hp nhngng cong sc nhn, uyn chuyn th LF-Sh li hin lnh hn.
Trong khi LS nguyn bn c cmn pha th, np ca-p chm th vn nhng
nt, Lexus bin thnh nhng g ni trau chut trn LF-Sh.
V tng th, LF-Sh rn chc, mnh m hn bn LS nguyn gc v di
hni cht so vi LS 430 hin ti, vi chiu di tng th 5.060 mm, trc c
s 2.969 mm. LF-Sh trang bng c hybrid V8, h dnng 4 bnh ton phn.
Sang trin lm ti, LF-Sh s s dngng c V8, dung tch 4,6 lt ca LS460.
Ngoi ra, LF-Sh cn mtng c hybrid tu chn 5,0 lt V8. Rt c th, LF-Sh
s lp hp s 8 cp m Toyota va ln kt sn xut vi nh cung cp Aisin,
bn cnh nhng thit b ti tn nh h thng quan st banm v cnh bo
lnng
Lexus LF-C: N hong Trin lm New York 2004

Hi m c chic xe no, khi xut hin ti mt trin lm, li ni bt hn ln


so vii th khc nh LF-C. Mt cch khng chnh thc, chic xe mu ca
hng Lexusc tha nhn nh l b cha ca cuc trng by t din ra
New York nm nay.
H u ht khch thm quan phi tht ln rngy l chic xep nht.
Trong vng 5 nm qua, mi ch c Alfa Brera, ti Trin lm Geneva 2002,
mi gycn tng tng t.y l thit k mu th ba m Lexus gii thiu
trong vng mt nm. Chic coupe th thaoin hnh cho mt hng thit k
mi ca hng, v n cng tit l mt sng nt phin bn k tip ca mu xe
th thao IS 300 hin nay.
"Thi t k l mt trong cc nhn t quan trng nht phn bit gia cc
mu xe v LF-C pht trin mu sedan th thao IS 300 ln ti mt tng cao mi
cha tng c cc mu xe Lexus trc y", Ph ch tch Lexus Group kim
Tng gimc Denny Clements pht biu. "LF-C concept car (xe mu)c
to ra nhm thu ht lp khch hng tr tui, giu c bng mt s ngc
nhin". S ngc nhin ln nht chnh l vic mui cng ca xe c thc giu
gn trong phn sau ca xe. Ch cn kh nhn vo ntiu khin, t mt chic
coupe, LF-C s bin thnh mt chic convertible (xe mui xp), t mt chic xe
gianh, bn s c mt chic xe th thaong ngha, hon ton ph thuc vo
tm trng.
LF-C l png c V8, gn pha trc cng hp s tng 6 cp l trang b
tiu chun. Ch di hn khngng k so vi IS 300 hin nay nhng LF-C li
thp hn ti 5 cm v rng hn khong 12 cm. V th, c 4 hnh khchu c

th ngi thoi mi trn xe. Do cn trc v sau ln, to dng khm, cc nh


thit k cho gi vo nhng nt khc dc theo thn xe to cm gic thanh
thot hn nh s phn chiu xen k sng, ti khc nhau. Mui xe thon dn v
pha sau, cng vi,ui xe ghch cao hn,y dng xe hi chc v pha trc
nh sn sng xut pht, cng to ra mt kt qu tng t.
N u nhn tng vi nhng g quan stc t bn ngoi LF-C bao
nhiu, bn cng s phi trm tr by nhiu khi chim ngng ni tht xe. Vlng xe r rng ly cm hng t nhng chic xeua Cng thc 1 khi c hnh
thang vo bi phn ngang pha trn. Nhngn tng nht chnh l ccng h
thng s k thut. Thay v mt bng thit k vi cc vng trn to nh khc
nhau, Lexus to ra 3ng h,c gn so le trc mt ngi li, 3 khong
cch khc nhau. Ccng h ny trong sut, vi cc ch s in ni trn. Th
mnh xung gh, mt s d chu khng ch nh t th ngi thoi mi, m cn
cm gicc bao trm bi nh sng, nh khng phiang ngi trong xe hi.
Vai an ton khng bt cho qua ngi kiu thng thng m c hai dy chy
dc qua vai,c ni bi mt dy tht ngang hng. V th c ngia rng
y lai an ton kiu "dy cng nga".
Lexus IS300 SportCross sang trng v tin li
Chi c universal tr gi 49.500 USD ny lpng c 6 xi-lanh 24 van,
dung tch 2.997 cc,t c m-men xon cci 288 Nm tc tua 3.800
vng/pht. Vi cng sut 211 m lc, n tng tc ti 100 km/h trong 8,2 giy
v ngng tia l 230 km/h.
Khi xe ch y trnng trng mc tiu th nhin liu vt 100 km l
9,3 lt, cn trong thnh ph ch s ny l 12,8 lt. Xec trang b cc h

thngin t tin tin nh: phanh ABS, h tr phanh gp BA, phn b lc


phanh EBD. Lc koc truyn ti trc bnh thng qua hp s t ng 5 cp,
thit kng lc ca xec bit thch hp vi nhng ngia tc.
So IS 300 v i cc phin bn c, li tn nhit v cn trc ca nc
m rng hn. Khng gian trong xec b tr gh pha trc c th gp gn
gip cho nhng ngi cao trn 2 m cng c th ngc. Salon xec lm
bng da cao cp rt thoi mi v mm mi, khng lm cho tht lng ca li xe
b g b, t th li hp l,im tau v chn cng rt thun tin.
Cc thanh ch nt ca trcc bc bng plastic cao cp, ni tht xe
mu tn thuc rt trang nh. Trong xe ciu ho nhit,u CD np 6a...
cng mt lot cc tin nghi hin i khc. Khoang hnh l ca IS 300 c th
m rng dung tch t 320 lt ln 617 lt nu h hng gh pha sau xung, chc
nng ny khin xe c th ch nhng dng c cng knh cho chuyni du lch
nh: vn trt, xep...
Thng s k thut ca Lexus IS300 SportCross Di x rng x cao (mm)
4.400 x 1.725 x 1.430 Trng lng xe (kg) 1.547 Tiu th nhin liu trung
bnh (lt/100 km) 11 ng c Xng DOHC 6 xi-lanh, 3,0 lt Hp s Tng 5
cp Cng sut cci (m lc) 215 M-men xon cci (Nm/vng/pht) 288
e. Honda Civic c gi mi
V i nhng thayi v trang thit b, bn Civic 1.8 s tay mi r hn 15
triung, cn Civic 1.8 s tngt thm 19,2 triung. C hai s c mt
ti cci l t Honda trn ton quc t ngy 15/5.
Civic 1.8AT phin b n 2007 (s tng) mi c ni tht gh bc da mu

ng, tay li cng bc da. Ngoi ra, tay nm cac m crm. Gi 534,2
triung bao gm c thu VAT,t hn 19,2 triu so vi bn c. Mi thit
b khcuc gi nguyn so vi khi ra mt ti Vit Nam vo thng 8/2006.
N u Civic 1.8AT 2007c nng cp ni tht v trang tr b ngoi th bn
1.8MT (s tay) mi s khng c dn m thanh nh trc. Nu mun, khch
hng c th la chn n nh mt thit b ty chn vi cc loi ca Alpinec
bn tii l t 15/5. Ngoi ra, gng trn Civic 1.8MT 2007 cng khng c
chc nng gpin. Vnhc hp kim thay bng vnh kim loi c npy.
Civic 1.8MT mi c gi 480 triung ( bao gm VAT), r hn bn c 15
triung.
C Civic 1.8 v Civic 2.0 s c thm mu mi l xm xanh.ng thi, nhng
ai thch mu tm
hay xanh dng khng cn c hi s hu v Honda Vit Nam ngng sn
xut.
Cng d p ny, nh sn xut Nht Bn gii thiu chng trnh bo hnh
mi 3 nm hoc 100.000 km ty theoiu kin non trc. Ch ny p
dng cho c xe Civic 1.8 2006cng k sau ngy 15/5.
f. Honda Accord - chic xeng tin cy nht thp k
Cc m u xe Nht Bn thng tr hon ton 10 v tru tin trong danh sch
100 chic xe cng tin cy nht m hng bo him t ca Anh l Warranty
Direct mia ra.ngu trong s l Honda Accord.
D a trn cc thng s thu thpc, Warranty Direct, mt cng ty bo
him t ca Anh, quytnh sp xp thnh mt danh sch danh sch v
nhng chic xeng tin cy nht theo s ln hng hc. Bn danh sch nyc

thng k t 55.000 xe m Warranty Direct k hpng bo him, gp


mty cc nhn hiu xe hi ni ting nht ca Nht Bn,c, Thyin,
Anh, M, Php v Hn Quc. Nm ngoi, hn 7,5 triu ngi Anh chi ra 25
t bng vo th trng xe c, cao hn gn 7 s tin chi cho vic mua xe xut
xng.
Khng h sai lch vi nhng g khch hng vn ngh, 10 chic xe c tin
cy cao nhtu xut pht t nhng nh sn xut Nht Bn. Trong s 20 chic
xec xp hng cao nht, ch c 4 chic khng c lin quann x s hoa
anho. Xp s mt l chic Accord. Ngoi ra, Honda cn chim hai v tr
khc trong top 10 vi Civic (6) v CR-V (8).
Khng ph i v c m ngi ta nhn xt rng Toyota c th tr thnh nh
sn xut t ln nht th gii trong tng lai. Theo bn danh sch ny, ngoi
Yaris (th 5) v RAV-4 (th 9), Toyota cn c 4 chic khc chim ch trong
s 21 chic xe xp hng cao nht l Lexus IS 200 (11), Landcruiser (14),
Carina E (19) v Lexus 400 (21). Xem xt ton b danh sch 100, Toyota
thc s lm gii chuyn mn n phc vi nhng mu xe xut hin lnu t
khong 30 nm trc nh Celica v Corolla.
Tuy vy, Corolla ch xp th 91. Ngay trn n l mt ci tn khin ngi ta
phi ngc nhin,
Mercedes S-class. Danh sch kt thc vi Porsche Boxster v tr 100.
V tr cao nht ca mt chic xe khng phi Nht Bn thuc v chic
Jaguar X-Type (Anh, 13). 4
chic khc trong 20 v tru tin l Volvo S/V40 (Thyin, 15), Mini (Anh,

16) v Saab 9-5


(Thyin, 20).
Chi c xe M c tin cy cao nht l Ford Ka (22). Tng t nh th,n
t Hn Quc l Hyundai Lantra (24), tc l Mercedes SLK (25), t Php
l Citron Xsara (26), t Czech l Skoda Octavia (29), t Ty Ban Nha l
Seat Toledo (35) v t Italy l Fiat Brava (38).
Danh sch 10 xe c tin cy nht:
1. Honda Accord
2. Subaru Forester 3. Mazda MX-5
4. Mitsubishi Carisma
5. Toyota Yaris
6. Honda Civic
7. Nissan Almera
8. Honda CR-V 9. Toyota RAV4
10. Nissan Micra
Hnhnhu tin ca Honda Accord 2008
Mu sedan hng trung hon ton mi th h th tm m Honda dnh tung ra
vo cui nm nay
bnh gi l qu ging Hyundai Sonata v Nissan Altima.
Ngy 11/5, trang web t n i ting th gii Autoblogng hnhnh Honda
Accord 2008ang chy th diiu kin nhit thi tit nng ti nh my ca
xe hng xe Nht Bn. Khng v c m tay snnh Chris Doane li mt cng
ngi "rnh" Accord biy l sn phm quan trng nht ca Honda. N c vc
dng vng nt khc rt nhiu Accord coupe m Honda gii thiu di

dng xe concept (xe trng by) ti trin lm Detroit 2007 din ra vo thng 1.
*Honda Civic t i M bn chm v 'n anh' Accord *Honda Accord
Coupe - khiu th h mi *Honda Accord - chic xeng tin cy nht thp
k D kin, Accord 2008 trang bng c I4 (4 xi-lanh thng hng) cng sut
180 m lc. Ngoi ra,
phin b n cao cp c th s dngng c V6, dung tch my 3,5 lt, cng
sut 270 m lc. Thng tin cha chnh thc cho bit Honda s btu sn xut
Accord vo thng 9 hoc thng 10 v sm c mt ti cci l.
Accord 2008 c thi t k qu ging vi mu xe Hn Quc Hyundai
Altima. Nhng khch hng ngi M th nhn xt "cht" chu chim qu
nhiu trong nhngng nt ca Accord th h th tm.
B tu t 1994, Accord thuc dng xe hng trung (theo cch phn loi
chu u) v li th ca Toyota Camry hay Mazda6. Trc, n b xp vo
hng xe hng nh. Trnh lng t 1976, n nay Accord bc sang th h th 8
(i 2008). K lc ca mu xe ny l gi v tr xe bn chy nht nc M
trong 15 nm lin tip, t 1982n 1997. Honda Accord cng l mu xeu
tinc sn xut ti M.