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COMPETENCY - BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

Sector

TOURISM

Qualification Title

FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICES NCII

Unit of Competency

PROMOTE FOOD AND BEVERAGE PRODUCTS

Module Title

PROMOTING FOOD & BEVERAGE PRODUCTS

POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE OF DAVAO DEL SUR, INC.

Mac Arthur Highway, Brgy. Kiagot, Digos City

HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

Welcome

to

the

module

in

FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICES NCII

QUALIFICATION. This module contains training materials and activities for you to complete.

The unit of competency “PROMOTE FOOD & BEVERAGE PRODUCTS” contains knowledge, skills and attitude required for TRAINEES.

You are required to go through, a series of learning activities in order to complete each learning outcome of the module. In each learning outcome are Information Sheet, Self-Checks, Task Sheets and Job Sheets. Then follow these activities on your own. If you have questions, don’t hesitate to ask your facilitator for assistance.

The goal of this course is the development of practical skills in supervising work-based training. Tools in planning, monitoring and evaluation of work-based training shall be prepared during the workshop to support in the implementation of the training program.

This module is prepared

to help you achieve the required competency, in

“FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE NCII”.

This will be the source of information for you to acquire knowledge and skills in this particular competency independently and at your own pace, with minimum supervision or help from your facilitator.

Remember to:

Work through all the information and complete the activities in each section.

Read information sheets and complete the self-check. Answer keys are

included in this package to allow immediate feedback. Answering the self- check will help you acquire the knowledge content of this competency. Perform the task sheets and job sheets until you are confident that your output

conforms to the performance criteria checklist that follows the sheets. Submit outputs of the task sheets and job sheets to your facilitator for evaluation and recording in the Accomplishment Chart. Outputs shall serve as your portfolio during the institutional competency evaluation.

A certificate of achievement will be awarded to you after passing the evaluation. You must pass the institutional competency evaluation for this competency before moving to another competency.

FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICES NCII

320 Hours

Contents of this Competency – Based Learning Materials

No. Unit of Competency Module Title Code
No.
Unit of Competency
Module Title
Code
  • 1 Prepare the Dining Room/Restaurant Area for Service

Preparing the dining room/restaurant area for service

TRS512387

  • 2 Welcome guests and take food and beverage orders

Welcoming guests and take food and beverage orders

TRS512388

  • 3 Promote food and beverages products

Promoting food and beverages products

TRS512389

  • 4 Provide food and beverage services to guests

Providing food and beverage services to guests

TRS512390

  • 5 Provide room service

Providing room service

TRS512391

  • 6 Receive and handle guests concerns

Receiving and handle guests concerns

TRS512392

MODULE CONTENT

Qualification

:

FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICES NCII

Unit of Competency

:

PROMOTE FOOD AND BEVERAGE

 

PRODUCTS

Module Title

:

Promoting Food And Beverage Products

MODULE DESCRIPTOR:

This unit deals with the knowledge and skills required in providing advice to customers on food and beverage products in foodservice enterprises.

NOMINAL DURATION:

50 Hours

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

At the end of this module you MUST be able to:

LO1 Know the product

LO2 Undertake Suggestive Selling

LO3 Carry out upselling strategies

Learning Outcome # 1

Know the product

CONTENT:

  • 1. Menu familiarization

  • 2. Types of Menus

  • 3. Food pairing

  • 4. Beverage pairing

  • 5. Suggestive selling techniques and principles

  • 6. Upselling techniques

  • 7. Food allergens

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

  • 1. Names and pronunciations of dishes in the menu are mastered.

  • 2. Ingredients of dishes are memorized.

  • 3. Sauces and accompaniments are known by heart.

  • 4. Descriptions and of every item in the menu are studied.

CONDITIONS:

Student/ trainee must be provided with the following:

Food Information

Cooking method

Serving portions

Tastes and flavors

Ingredients including food allergens

Cooking time

Side dishes

METHODOLOGY

ASSESSMENT METHOD:

Modular (self-paced)

Interview (oral/ questionnaire)

Electronic learning

Observation

Industry Immersion

Demonstration of Practical Skills

Film viewing

Written examination

Demonstration

Discussion

Learning Experiences / Activities

Learning Outcome # 1

KNOW THE PRODUCT

Learning Activities

Special Instructions

Read: Information Sheet 3.1-1

This Learning Outcome deals with the development

Answer: Self Check 3.1-1

of the Institutional Competency Evaluation Tool which trainers use in evaluating their trainees after finishing a competency of the qualification.

Perform: Task Sheet 3.1-1

Go through the learning activities outlined for you on the left column to gain the necessary information or knowledge before doing the tasks to practice on performing the requirements of the evaluation tool.

The output of this LO is a complete Institutional Competency Evaluation Package for one

Competency of Food and Beverage Services NCII. Your output shall serve as one of your portfolio for your Institutional Competency Evaluation for

Promote food and beverage products.

Feel free to show your outputs to your trainer as you accomplish them for guidance and evaluation.

This Learning Outcome deals with the development of the Institutional Competency Evaluation Tool which trainers use in evaluating their trainees after finishing a competency of the qualification.

Go through the learning activities outlined for you on the left column to gain the necessary information or knowledge before doing the tasks to practice on performing the requirements of the evaluation tool.

After doing all the activities for this LO1: Know the product; you are ready to proceed to the next LO2:

Undertake suggestive selling.

   

Definition of Terms

Term

Explanation

Room Service

The service of food and beverage items in Guests rooms by designated room

service waiter. Also called In room dining

Menu

A range of food items offered for service usually written and including prices

Complimentary

Items served without charge

Amenities

Items supplied by the venue for the guests consumption such as pens,

notepads, matches etc

Supplies

Items supplied by the venue for the guests use while occupying the room for

example bathrobes, drinking glasses, cups and saucers

Mini Bar

Beverage and snack food items set up within a guest room for their use on a

pay as consumed basis

Compendium

Handbook or folder hard copy or electronic which contains information about

the venue including the Room service Menu

Concierge

Supervisor in charge of porters and responsible for a wide range of guest

services

Day use room

Room used between 9 & 5.for meetings

Guest Folio or Account

A record of all financial transactions between the Guest and the venue during

the guests stay

Guest Profile

A record of the guests personal details including food preferences and

allergies

Honour System

A system of relying on the Guest to record consumption of chargeable items

in their room including Mini Bar, to be added to their room account

Housekeeping

The department that is responsible for the cleanliness of a Guest room during

their stay

Porter

Responsible for luggage management ,Valet parking and Guest services such

as visitor information

Market segment

Categories of guest with similar traits needs and wants

Package

Room rate plus several services at one price. E.g. bed and breakfast with car

parking

Posting

The recording of financial transactions on the guests folio

Public Areas

Those areas in a Hotel or resort where the general public have access, such as

Bars & Restaurants

Passerby

A feature is primarily used to handle transactions for non-guests or

transactions a guest doesn't want on their room account

Suite

A room with separate living and sleeping areas

 

Term

Explanation

 

Suggestive selling

The selling of products or services by suggesting alternatives in a way that

creates desire highlighting special features, benefits and value

Point of sale

A cash register which records a financial transaction on a guest folio at the

 

time of consumption

 

SPATT

Special attention Guests

VIPs

Guests who are Very Important Persons.

Condiments

Items such as sauces, mustards and other seasonings or side dishes which are

 

served as an accompaniment to a dish

 

In House

Guests in occupancy

Hot Box

A small pre-heated insulated box that fits under a trolley or at the base of a

 

multi tray trolley to keep hot food hot.

 

Floor check

To check floor by floor for used items.

   

Information Sheet 3.1-1

  • 1. Research general information on food and beverage

products

Introduction

In order to obtain product information on food and beverage products it is essential to be proactive. You must make an effort and take action to find things out.

This section describes sources of this information and identifies the aspects of food and beverage products about which you should obtain information.

Need for product knowledge

It is vital for every hospitality employee to have an excellent knowledge of the products and services offered by their workplace.

Information Sheet 3.1-1 1. Research general information on food and beverage products Introduction In order to

In particular, you need this knowledge so you can take every opportunity to demonstrate professionalism, promote dishes, recommend beverages and generally assist customers.

Opportunities to promote products frequently arise during service sessions, and elsewhere in the general hospitality environment.

These opportunities mainly occur when taking orders, and present an excellent opportunity to show-off your skills, as well as to inform the customer of the various products or services offered by your place of work.

‘Product knowledge’ is at the heart of providing information on food and beverages.

What is product knowledge?

Knowledge about food, beverages, the services you offer and the facilities available is called 'product knowledge', and you can never have too much of it.

Product knowledge involves almost anything relating to the area and venue where you work.

Food waiters are expected to have detailed food knowledge, a good knowledge about the venue generally but less knowledge about beverages.

Beverage waiters are expected to have detailed knowledge about drinks, a good knowledge about the venue generally but less knowledge about food.

Those who are as both food and beverage waiters are expected to have a good knowledge about both.

Product knowledge is different to skills/competencies: for example, a food waiter may have knowledge about gueridon cookery but not have the skills to provide gueridon service.

Food staf

For food staff product knowledge should include information about:

Menu items (dishes offered on the menu - you should know what is available and what is not

Serve or portion sizes Prices

Cooking styles

Cooking times

Ingredients What is fresh and what is bought in, frozen, and or pre-prepared Suitability for those with certain dietary or cultural requirements Cutlery and crockery required for service of individual menu items.

Beverage staf – drink waiters and bar attendants

For beverage service staff product knowledge should include information about:

The drinks/mixed drinks available from the bar – including cocktails where applicable The brand names and types of spirits, liqueurs and fortified wines available The table and sparkling wines available – bottled and ‘bulk’ (‘house wine’) The soft drinks available – including juices, aerated waters and mocktails The beers available – draught and packaged The pre-mixed/ready-to-drink beverages available Prices

Knowledge about individual beverages – such as wine

knowledge, how various liqueurs may be served, the alcoholic strength of different liquors, whether products are domestic or imported Knowledge about matching menu items to menu items

Glassware for the service of all drinks.

Product knowledge is different to skills/competencies: for example, a food waiter may have knowledge about gueridon

Venue knowledge

All staff should have general information about the venue itself, such as:

Opening hours

Methods of payment accepted

Booking policies and procedures – including need for deposits and requirements in relation to booking confirmations

Complaint handling procedures

Facilities and services available elsewhere in the venue

Names of managers/owners

Legal issues – as they apply to issues such as the service of liquor and safe food handling.

What information sources are there?

Internal sources

Venue knowledge All staff should have general information about the venue itself, such as:  Opening

Within the property you can obtain product knowledge information from:

Menus, drink lists, wine lists and cocktail lists – many of these contain descriptions about beverages and dishes

Taste the products – subject to whatever workplace restrictions apply, one of the best ways to really learn about food and beverages is to ‘experience’ them – smell them, feel them, taste them!

Recipes – for information on individual dishes such as ingredients and cooking styles

Experienced staff – such as chefs, cooks, cellar staff, senior F&B service staff, purchasing officers, bottle shop sales assistants, managers and owners

Operational manuals – for details relating to the way things should be done in the room/property

Policies and procedures manuals – for background information about the venue

Venue knowledge All staff should have general information about the venue itself, such as:  Opening

Wrapping and packaging material – many items are delivered in packaging that contains information about the product

Doing a tour of the premises – to meet staff, find the locations of departments and facilities, and to generally learn about the property

Talking to customers – to benefit from their experience/s, what they have learned and their preferences.

External sources

Outside the venue you can obtain product knowledge information from:

Product suppliers – by asking direct questions to the sales office or sales representatives, or by asking them to send you product information sheets

The media – it must become standard practice for you to read, watch or listen to anything that relates to food and beverages: this should include reading, watching and listening to the general media as well as obtaining and reading trade magazines and journals

External sources Outside the venue you can obtain product knowledge information from:    

Books – see what your local library has, check out the newsagents, visit the local library

Internet – loads of information is available through targeted searches: see below for some examples

Trade shows, exhibitions and F&B festivals – keep an eye on the media and invitations sent to your employer. Make the time to go – many shows/exhibitions are free to industry personnel and they are a great way to establish industry networks and keep abreast of what is happening in the industry

Food and cooking demonstrations – you can always learn something from these events even where they are conducted by a company with a vested interested in promoting their range of products

Promotional activities – many suppliers run promotional events to advertise their products and you should attend these whenever possible. Trade magazines, local media and invitations sent direct to your workplace are the best sources of when and where these are conducted.

Food knowledge required

General background

Your product knowledge needs to reflect the needs of the place where you work.

This means the waiter in a fine dining restaurant will have knowledge about different things to a person serving food from a Bain Marie in a fast food outlet.

While it is good to develop a broad and detailed level of product knowledge, it is essential to first gain the product knowledge necessary for your nominated job.

With this in mind, food knowledge may relate to:

Appetisers

Appetisers are menu items offered for guests to eat prior to their main course.

They may include:

Hors d’oeuvres Canapés

Antipasto

Tapas

Finger foods

Sandwiches.

Appetisers Appetisers are menu items offered for guests to eat prior to their main course. They

You need to know what ingredients are used, what things taste and look like, what they cost, how long they will take to prepare and cooking styles.

Soups

A traditional course on many menus, soups provide low food cost items for many premises.

Soups may be classic or contemporary, may be served hot or cold and can reflect ethnic flavours from many countries.

Options include:

Clear soups

Broths

Purées

Cream soups

Appetisers Appetisers are menu items offered for guests to eat prior to their main course. They

Bisques. Meat, poultry, fish and seafood – entrées and main courses

Meat, poultry, fish and seafood are common raw materials for all courses (except desserts) including entrées and main courses.

As staple ingredients meat, poultry, fish and seafood can be the stand-alone ingredient for a dish (such as steak, fillets of fish, or lobster) or they can be ingredients in other menu items such as sauces and wet dishes.

Meat includes:

Beef Lamb Veal Goat Pork. Cuts and options vary between the meat items but can include:

Steaks

Chops and/or cutlets Mince

Joints for roasting.

Meat includes:  Beef  Lamb  Veal  Goat  Pork. Cuts and options vary
Meat includes:  Beef  Lamb  Veal  Goat  Pork. Cuts and options vary

You need to know the cuts being used, whether things are fresh or frozen, the type of product being used as well as what things taste and look like, what they cost, how long they will take to prepare and cooking styles.

You also need to know the answer to the question “Is it tender?” Poultry includes whole birds or cuts and includes:

Chicken

Turkey

Squab

Pheasant

Duck

Goose.

Meat includes:  Beef  Lamb  Veal  Goat  Pork. Cuts and options vary

You need to know the cuts being used, whether things are fresh or frozen, the type of product being used as well as what things taste and look like, what they cost, how long they will take to prepare and cooking styles.

Options include whole birds, legs, wings and breast.

Fish may be fresh, frozen or preserved and can be obtained from the sea of from freshwater.

Fish can include:

Flat fish and round fish Whole fish and fillets Whitefish

Oily fish.

Seafood includes:

Flat fish and round fish  Whole fish and fillets  Whitefish   Oily fish.

Shellfish (also known as ‘crustaceans’) – generic term for seafood from a fish with a shell (such as crayfish, crabs, lobster, prawn, shrimp)

Molluscs – octopus, cuttlefish, squid, clams, whelks, winkles, mussels, scallops, cockles, oysters.

You need to know the type of fish or seafood being used, whether things are fresh or frozen (a very common question in relation to fish and seafood) as well as what things taste and look like, what they cost, how long they will take to prepare and cooking styles.

Desserts

Desserts are served after the main course and also known as ‘sweets’.

In some properties a separate menu is used for desserts. They can be either hot or cold – many are served with sauces - and include:

Puddings

Pies, tarts and flans

Fritters – Banana fritters, or pineapple fritters

Custards and creams

Prepared fruit – fruit which has been peeled and cut ready for eating Charlottes – such as Apple Charlotte Bavarois and mousse Soufé Sabayon Meringues

Crepes and omelettes Sorbets

Ice cream

Bombes

Flat fish and round fish  Whole fish and fillets  Whitefish   Oily fish.

Parfaits.

Snacks

Snacks are light meals, commonly provided for people who are in a hurry or who are not especially hungry. One characteristic of a ‘snack’ is that it can often be easily taken away by the purchaser. Snacks can include:

Hot chips and potato wedges

Biscuits, crisps and crackers Hot dogs Pies, pasties and sausage rolls Croissants

Sandwiches and rolls Baguettes

Hamburgers Ploughman’s lunch – cheese, greens and pickled onion.

 Parfaits. Snacks Snacks are light meals, commonly provided for people who are in a hurry

Some snacks can also be meals – for example, a slice of pizza is a snack, but a whole pizza is a meal.

Cheese

Cheese can be made from cow, sheep or goat’s milk. Basic cheese options include:

Soft cheeses – Brie, Camembert and cottage Semi-soft cheeses – Edam and Gouda Hard cheeses – cheddar and Parmesan Blue vein cheese (such as Gorgonzola, Stilton and Roquefort) – coloured by an edible penicillin mould. Cheese can be used in sauces or served on its own on a cheese platter.

 Parfaits. Snacks Snacks are light meals, commonly provided for people who are in a hurry

Pasta

Pasta can be bought-in as ‘dried’ pasta and re-constituted on-site, or it may be made fresh on-the-premises.

Pasta comes in a wide variety of types (flat, tubular and shaped) and sizes and may be filled or plain.

Pasta is traditionally served with a variety of sauces but can also be used in soups and as a substitute for potato.

Examples of pasta include:

Gnocchi

Spaghetti

Fettuccini

Lasagne

Tagliatelli.

Noodles

Examples of pasta include:  Gnocchi  Spaghetti  Fettuccini  Lasagne  Tagliatelli. Noodles Noodles

Noodles are made from flour (wheat) and water, and/or eggs. In many ways they are similar to pasta.

Vegetables

Vegetables are traditionally used as an accompaniment to a main dish. Some vegetables can also be used in salads. ‘Root vegetables’ grow underground. Examples of vegetables include:

Potatoes – root vegetable Onions – root vegetable Carrot s– root vegetable Broccoli – green vegetable Sprouts – green vegetable Celery – green vegetable Peas – green vegetable Beans – green vegetable Spinach – green vegetable Cabbage – green vegetable

Examples of pasta include:  Gnocchi  Spaghetti  Fettuccini  Lasagne  Tagliatelli. Noodles Noodles

Tomatoes – technically a ‘fruit’ but commonly referred to as a vegetable.

Fruit

A growing focus on healthy eating has seen increased up-take of fruit in premises. Fruit is almost mandatory with breakfasts, and supplied free-of-charge by some properties to house (in-room) guests and/or at reception.

Fruit options include:

Pieces and platters of fresh fruit – pineapple, watermelon,

apples, bananas, rambutan, jackfruit, star fruit, mango Fresh fruit salad – available with or without cream,

yoghurt or ice cream Tinned fruit – such as pears, peaches and apricots

Dried fruit – such as dried apricots, figs, sultanas, raisins and currants.

Fruit options include:  Pieces and platters of fresh fruit – pineapple, watermelon,  apples, bananas,

Salads

Healthy eating has also seen the rise in the popularity of salads.

Salads may exist as a stand-alone menu item (such as a ‘Warm Chicken Salad’) or as an accompaniment to a main course dish – such as green salad or a mixed salad.

Salads may be classical or contemporary, varying in ethnic and cultural origins, served either cold, warm or hot, and may contain a variety of cooked and uncooked ingredients.

Dressings are applied to some salads. Salad vegetables include:

Lettuce – various types Tomato – including cherry tomatoes Radishes Celery

Salads Healthy eating has also seen the rise in the popularity of salads. Salads may exist

Onions and spring onions

Shredded cabbage – in coleslaw (salad made with shredded/grated cabbage, onions, carrots, seasoning and mayonnaise)

Mushrooms

Carrots

Beetroot Peppers – red, green and yellow.

Many ‘vegetables’ can be used as ‘salad vegetables’ and many ‘salad vegetables’ can also be used as ‘vegetables’.

Pre-packaged food items

Pre-packaged food items include:

Food items are items bought in from suppliers and sold behind the bar or in other retail areas – they include items such as chips and nuts

Portion control items – these are the single/individual serve units such as pats of butter and margarine, sachets of sugar and sugar substitute, foils of jams and sauces Any food item bought-in and served (or sold) ‘as is’ – such as cakes and cheesecakes. Some pre-packaged foods may:

Require some basic preparation – such as boiling or heating

Be further prepared prior to service by the addition of extra ingredients and/or sauces to enhance presentation and taste.

Specialist cuisine food items

Specialist cuisine food items commonly relate to cuisines of various cultures but can also include specific cuts of meats, poultry and game as well as specific types of fish and seafood.

In some cases, an item which is ‘standard’ in one establishment may be regarded as ‘specialist’ in another. For example ‘pork ribs’ might be on the menu all the time in one venue but be regarded as a specialist dish in another.

For example, eye fillet could be regarded as a specialist cuisine item if it is not normally used but required only for a certain dish. A steak which is cut in a butterfly cut may be ‘specialised’. The use of a chicken leg and thigh connected to each other may be ‘specialised’.

The way the item is ‘grown’ may also classify an item as ‘specialist – for example organic vegetables or grain-fed beef.

National dishes

It is vital you understand the traditional national dishes of the country in which you work. Many tourists visit your country and your workplace to experience the local cuisine and you must know:

The names of these dishes The ingredients in them

Any relevant history – (as applicable) how and when they were invented; who they were named after

The cooking processes used to produce them Their flavours and appearance Serve size and how they are served Cost.

Specialist cuisine food items Specialist cuisine food items commonly relate to cuisines of various cultures but

Signature dishes

Venues may – or may not – have one or more ‘Signature dishes’. These are dishes the venue (or the chef) is famous for. Many visitors will come to the venue just for this possibly world-renowned dish. Signature dishes may be a local/regional dish or from another culinary area.

Specialist cuisine food items Specialist cuisine food items commonly relate to cuisines of various cultures but

Venues will strive to always have the Signature dishes available, all the time the venue is open.

Other specialist foods

Other specialist foods may be ‘special’ in one venue but common in another. It is there lack of common usage in this case which make them special.

This means other food items that could be seen as ‘specialist’ in some properties could include:

Offal Aromatics, flavourings, spices, spice mixes and herbs

Garnishes Seeds and nuts Grains, rice and pulses

Fungi Preserves, condiments and accompaniments Fruits, vegetables, flowers and salad items – not commonly used/available Aquatic plants such as seaweeds Specialist cheeses and dairy products Sweeteners such as palm sugar, honey and glucose Fats and oils Local food items/ingredients.

Beverage knowledge required

General background

Your product knowledge needs to reflect the needs of the place where you work. It is important that you learn what drinks are available, and develop an understanding of similar or like products so that when a customer orders something you do not have, you can suggest a suitable alternative.

For example, if a customer orders a “Tanqueray and tonic water” you need to know Tanqueray is an imported gin and if you do not stock it you could recommend another imported gin you do stock (such as, for example, Gordon’s or Beefeater)

Other specialist foods Other specialist foods may be ‘special’ in one venue but common in another.

The type of general information about alcoholic beverages you may need to pass on to customers includes:

Which ones are suitable drinks for aperitifs

Which ones are suitable for drinking during and after a meal

Suggested basic wine and food combinations

What they taste like, look like, smell like and where they come from

What their alcoholic strength is

Whether they are domestic or imported beverages

Information specific to wines – details relating to wine makers, wine styles, wine

growing areas, grape varieties, wine characteristics and information relating to wine shows and the wine industry Size of serves, bottles, cans and glasses

The variety of ways in which different liquors can be served.

Wine

Wine is defined as the naturally produced beverage made from the fermented juice of grapes.

The making of white wine

White wine can be made from red or white grapes because grape juice is clear: wine picks up its colour from contact with the skins, so a white wine made from red grapes would spend virtually no time in contact with the red skins.

The process for making of both white and red table wine is very similar.

White table wine production

The basic procedure for producing white table wine is:

Grapes are harvested Grapes are crushed at the winery - to release free-run juice Pressing occurs – to remove all available juice

 Which ones are suitable for drinking during and after a meal  Suggested basic wine

Sulphur dioxide is added – to prevent yeasts that are naturally occurring on the grapes from starting an unwanted and unpredictable natural fermentation process

The juice (called ‘must’ at this stage) is chilled – and allowed to settle Must is filtered – through a centrifuge to remove large particles/matter not wanted in the final product A commercially prepared yeast is added to the must – to start a fermentation process that is predictable and stable Fermentation occurs under refrigeration – to control the heat generated during the fermentation process

 Which ones are suitable for drinking during and after a meal  Suggested basic wine

Fermentation is stopped when the wine has reached the required level of dryness or sweetness – or as the wine maker’s scientific and taste-testing observations indicate

Yeast protein, skins and other residue are allowed to settle out – and the wine is pumped out to undergo a 'fining' (filtering) process to remove the unwanted matter generated during the fermentation process

The wine is aged (sometimes in wood but often in large stainless steel tanks (the ‘tank farm’ at the wineries) – it is then bottled, may be bottle aged, and is then sold.

Making red wine

Red wine can only be made from red wine grapes.

The main difference between the production of red and white table wines is that in red wine production, the grape juice is allowed to spend time in contact with the grape skins to pick up colour (and tannins which play critical roles in the ageing of the wine).

The basics are:

 Fermentation is stopped when the wine has reached the required level of dryness or sweetness

Grapes are harvested

Grapes are crushed - and juice stays in contact with skins

Winemaker determines how long juice stays on the skins

Grapes pressed to extract all the juice and other juice may be added – many red table wines are ‘blends’ of different grape varieties

Fermentation occurs

Wine is fined, filtered and stored in wood

Wine is bottled, aged further in the bottle, and then is ready for sale.

Wine categories

 Fermentation is stopped when the wine has reached the required level of dryness or sweetness

In addition to ‘red’ or white’ table wine, wine can be further categorised as follows:

Varietal or generic Sparkling Fortified. Varietal wines

‘Varietal’ wines are wines made from one (or more) nominated grape varieties:

the name of this or these grape varieties appears on the label of the bottle.

Where a wine claims to be made from a certain grape variety, the wine must be made from a minimum percentage of that stated variety.

Where a wine claims to be made from grapes of a certain year, then a minimum percentage of the wine must be from that specified year.

‘Varietal’ wines are wines made from one (or more) nominated grape varieties: the name of this

Where a wine claims it comes from a nominated area, then a minimum percentage of the wine must come from the stated area.

Varietal white wines

White grape varieties include:

Chardonnay – a full-flavoured dry white wine

Chenin Blanc – a pleasant fruity 'drink now' wine with a refreshing acid finish

Riesling – a delicate wine with fruit character and a trace of sugar that varies hugely depending on the region in which it is grown

Sauvignon Blanc – a dry white wine with distinct varietal flavour (melon, pineapple, tropical fruit)

Semillon – a dry, crisp white wine

Traminer – a fresh and fruity wine with a spicy smell and taste. Common bottle size is 750 mls.

Varietal red wines

Red grape varieties include:

Cabernet Sauvignon – an aromatic red which may have berry, mint, capsicum or

blackcurrant highlights Malbec – a fruity, soft wine

Merlot – another fruity and aromatic red reminiscent of plums, pumpkins and fruitcake

Pinot Noir – a lighter style red, thin in taste and colour

Shiraz – this grape produces fine full-flavoured reds that vary greatly from region to region; often blended.

Common bottle sizes are 200 mls, 750 mls and 1 litre.

Generic wines

‘Generic’ is the term used to describe wines are made to a style, usually naming a European location as its origin, such as Hock, Moselle, Claret and Burgundy. There is no indication of grape variety/varieties used.

Generic white wines include:

Chablis - a very dry, flinty wine

Hock - a very dry white wine

Moselle - a popular and pleasantly semi-sweet wine, less sweet than Sauternes

Rhine Riesling - drier than Moselle: often described as fruity and has its fruitiness confused with sweetness

Sauternes - produced from fully ripe grapes; a very sweet wine White Burgundy - a fairly dry white with full flavour. Generic red wines include:

Generic white wines include:  Chablis - a very dry, flinty wine  Hock - a

Burgundy - a soft and fruity red wine

Claret - a dry red with more astringency than burgundy.

Blended wines

Blended wines, as the name suggests are made from two or more grape varieties.

This may be done by a wine maker to create a unique taste, to mask a deficiency in one grape (such as lack of colour, lack of flavour) or because of economic necessity (some grape varieties are cheaper than others).

A blended wine is not to be seen as inferior to a straight varietal wine – it is just different.

Premium wine by the glass

Some properties feature a system allowing bottles of premium quality wines to be sold by the glass.

These systems use nitrogen to dispense the wine thereby avoiding the oxidising problems involved when wine bottles are opened.

Where these systems are in use, any bottled wine can be hooked up to the system.

Sparkling wines

The word ‘Champagne’ is now legally reserved for sparkling wine produced from the Champagne region in France.

All other similar wines are called by the generic term ‘sparkling wine’.

Generic white wines include:  Chablis - a very dry, flinty wine  Hock - a

Sparkling wines may be made using one of four options, each producing vastly different quality products:

Naturally carbonated wine

The traditional way of producing sparkling wine is using the French method known as ‘méthode champenoise’, whereby bubbles naturally occur in the bottle as a result the fermentation process.

Many sparkling wines are made using this process and highly regarded around the world as outstanding of the champagne style even though they are not by strict definition ‘champagne’.

This method is also called ‘méthode traditionelle’, or ‘méthode classique’.

Carbonated or Injection method

This is the cheapest and quickest method and the one producing the lowest quality sparkling wine.

The base wine is placed in a closed tank and chilled. Carbon dioxide is pumped in under pressure and absorbed into wine: cola and lemonade are made in the same way.

This method produces wine with comparatively large bubbles which disappear quickly in the glass. The wine may be called 'Carbonated wine'.

Cuvee close, Charmat, Bulk or Tank method

The base wine is pumped into stainless steel tanks, where yeast and sugar is added to start a second fermentation (the first fermentation has happened to get the initial base wine).

It is this second fermentation which puts the bubbles in the.

The wine is allowed to settle, filtered and transferred to another tank – still under pressure – where it receives a dose of sweetener/liqueur for the desired level of sweetness.

Transfer method

This represents a compromise between the Charmat method and the best, most expensive and most time-consuming method – méthode champenoise.

The secondary fermentation takes place in the bottle in the méthode champenoise way, and wines are also aged for a short while in the bottle.

The wine is transferred under pressure from bottles (after the secondary fermentation) to tanks where it is allowed to settle and is filtered: a sweetener is added while the wine is still under pressure and then it is bottled for sale.

The label will state 'fermented in the bottle'.

Styles of Champagne

Non-vintage (N.V.)

This is the most common style and is made from base of two to three wines every year to enable consistency of product.

The end product cannot be legally identified as coming from a specified year, hence the term N.V.

Vintage

This is a rarer and more expensive wine made solely from wine of the one nominated year.

It is usually a better quality champagne.

Vintage champagne not made every year – it depends on grape quality and the season.

Rosé

The end product cannot be legally identified as coming from a specified year, hence the term

This style may be made from leaving the grape juice in contact with the red or black grapes for a period so the wine can pick up some colour from the skins (or some red wine may be added) to the white base wine prior to the second fermentation.

Crémant

'Crémant' means 'creaming'.

The wine is a gently sparkling wine, giving the impression of creaminess, preferred by many especially with desserts.

Blanc de blancs

This wine is made exclusively from white grapes.

Blanc de Noirs

This wine is made only from red grapes.

Degrees of sweetness or dryness

The end product cannot be legally identified as coming from a specified year, hence the term

Sugar levels vary between brands so a brut in one brand may well not be as dry as a brut in another.

The following is a general guide to sweetness/dryness:

Driest

Extra brut

Brut Extra dry Sec Demi-sec Sweetest Doux

Champagne will improve in bottle over a certain time, but if kept for too long there is an increased risk of the wine going “flat” as the carbon dioxide which gives the wine its sparkle eventually seeps out.

It should be chilled before serving, and served at 7.5°C using champagne flutes.

Champagne bottle sizes

Champagne comes in half bottles (375ml) and full bottles (750ml) – some are also available in 200 ml bottles - as well as a range of larger bottles each with their own name:

Magnum – equivalent to 2 bottles: common for parties.

Other sizes are usually only sold for ‘special occasions’:

Jeroboam – equivalent to 4 bottles

Rehoboam – equivalent to 6 bottles

Methuselah – equivalent to 8 bottles

Salmanazar – equivalent to 12 bottles

Balthazar – equivalent to 16 bottles

Nebuchadnezzar – equivalent to 20 bottles.

It should be chilled before serving, and served at 7.5°C using champagne flutes. Champagne bottle sizes

Famous brand names

Well-known brands of Champagne include:

Moet & Chandon Veuve Cliquot Mumm Piper-Heidsieck Tattinger Pommery Yellowglen

Dom Perignon

Krug

Bollinger.

Fortified wines

Fortified wines are base wines which are strengthened or 'fortified' by the addition of grape spirit or brandy.

The addition of the grape spirit stops fermentation, increases alcoholic strength, adds sweetness, imparts keeping qualities, and in the case of port provides the brandy character.

Fortifieds range between 17 – 22% alc/vol.

The standard industry size serve for a fortified wine is 60 mls. Fortified wines include:

Sherries

Served as an aperitif, sherries are available in:

Dry – which is often kept under refrigeration and served chilled Medium

Sweet

Cream.

You can tell the difference between a dry sherry and a sweet sherry that are on a drinks tray because the sweet sherry is usually darker in colour.

Vermouths

Vermouth is a white wine that has been infused with various herbs, spices, flowers, fruits (depending on the manufacturer).

It is available in red (rosso) which is sweet and often referred to as Italian, or white (bianco) which dry and is also referred to as French. It is used (or mixed) as a pre-dinner drink.

Ports

White port is produced in the same way as other port, with the same difference in production as the difference in production of red and white table wines – the time on skins is either far less, or non-existent.

The final product in white port is usually much sweeter than the red port, even where the labels read 'dry' or even 'extra dry'.

Ruby port is amongst the simplest and most inexpensive due to the fact that it is aged in bulk vats - not smaller barrels – and bottled young (after 2 - 3 years) after blending. It retains a deep ruby colour and a 'fiery' taste.

Fortified wines Fortified wines are base wines which are strengthened or 'fortified' by the addition of

Mulberry flavours are often traditionally associated with ruby wine.

Tawny port gets its name from the tawny colour that port gets from its wood ageing and or the use in tawny of a lighter base wine, or the blending of a red port with a white one.

Vintage port is a port that is simple to make being made blended wines from the one vintage, yet is the most expensive in part due to the fact that only the very best grapes are used.

Not every year will be a year when a 'vintage' can be declared.

Despite being a fortified wine, vintage port has a limited shelf life: after opening it should be consumed within 2 – 3 days.

Tawny port gets its name from the tawny colour that port gets from its wood ageing

Liqueur port is produced when after some time tawny ports become so concentrated (or liqueured) through evaporation through casks that their very nature has changed.

The evaporation reduces the liquid volume but concentrates the sugar, colour and flavour present and results in a port of liqueur-like character.

Alternatively, and more cheaply, a sweet white wine can be added to the tawny before bottling producing a vanilla or nutty flavour.

Muscats

The name can refer to either grapes, or to the wine they make.

Muscat is a red dessert wine with a rich raisin taste and smoky characteristic. The Liqueur Muscat is made in the same way as the natural liqueur port. World wine countries Many countries have established a reputation for wine. More than the following countries produce their own wine but the following may be regarded as notable wine-producing countries. Famous wines and/or wineries for each country are also listed.

Australia – Penfolds Grange Hermitage, Wolf Blass, Hardy’s, Rosemount, Seppelt’s, Lindeman’s, Jacob’s Creek, Yellowglen, De Bortoli, Yalumba, Tyrrell’s, Margaret River

France – Château Neuf de Pape, Ch. dYquem, Bourgogne Chardonnay, Château Mont-Redon, Côtes-du-Rhône Rouge, Laurent Perrier, Domaine, Ch. Latour, Ch. Lafite Rothschild

Italy – Cà del Bosco Franciacorta Annamaria Clementi, Villa Raiano Fiano di Avellino, Venica Ronco delle Cime, Pieropan Soave Classico La Rocca, Giacomo Conterno Barolo Monfortino, Gaja Barbaresco, Zenato Amarone della Valpolicella, Banfi Brunello di Montalcino Poggio all’Oro, Donnafugata Passito di Pantelleria Ben Ryè, Incisa della Rocchetta Sassicaia

Germany – Liebfraumilch, Moselblumchen, Zeller Schwarze, Eiswein, and sweet styles including Spatlese, Auslese, Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese

New Zealand – Giesen, Cloudy Bay, Jackson Estate, Wairau River, Seresin Estate, Esk Valley

Chile – Almaviva, Antiyal and Kuyen, Casa Lapostolle Clos Apalt, Concha y Toro Don Melchor Cabernet Sauvignon, Concha y Toro Terrunyo Cabernet Sauvignon, Concha y Toro Carmín de Peumo Carmenere, Errazuriz Don Maximiano 2006, Montes 2005 Purple Angel, Montes Alpha M 2010, ina San Pedro 1865 Limited Edition 2007 Syrah (Source: http://www.chilean-wine.com/best-chilean-wines)

South Africa – Vergelegen, Meerlust, Rust en Vrede, Kanonkop, Klein Constantia, Hamilton Russell Vineyards, Thelema Mountain Vineyards, Simonsig, Rustenberg, Cederberg. (Source:

http://goafrica.about.com/od/capetownatravelguide/tp/topcapewineries.htm)

Spain – Palacio del Conde Gran Reserva, Los Hermanos Manzanos Reserva Rioja, La Cantera Reserva Carinena, Conde Galiana Gran Reserva de la Familia, Altos de la Guardia Rioja Blanco, Ermita de San Lorenzo Gran Reserva (Source:

http://www.winepeople.com.au)

USA – 2005 Pine & Post Washington Chardonnay, 2006 Meridian Vineyards Santa Barbara County Chardonnay, 2006 The Brander Vineyard Santa Ynez Valley Sauvignon Blanc, 2006 Chateau Ste. Michelle Dry Riesling, 2005 SKN Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon, 2005 Michael Pozzan Sonoma County Cabernet Sauvignon, 2005 Blackstone California Zinfandel (Source:

http://www.foodandwine.com/articles/sixty-seven-best-american-wines)

Portugal – Casal Garcia ‘Vinho Verde’, Moscatels, rosés, Dours wine, ports.

 New Zealand – Giesen, Cloudy Bay, Jackson Estate, Wairau River, Seresin Estate, Esk Valley http://www.mapsofworld.com/world-top-ten/world-top-ten-wine-producer-countries.html " id="pdf-obj-35-48" src="pdf-obj-35-48.jpg">

See:

Spirits

The type of base ingredient used varies with the spirit produced – grape wine for brandy; sugar for rum; grain crops for whisky, gin and vodka.

There are six popular spirit types in most bars:

Whisky

Rum

Gin

Vodka

Brandy

Tequila

Whisky

Spirits The type of base ingredient used varies with the spirit produced – grape wine for

Whisky is distilled from grain (barley, rye, maize, cereal) made in either a Continuous or Pot still.

Whisky is produced in many styles with the four most popular being Scotch, Irish, Bourbon and Rye.

Scotch whisky

There are two distinct types – malt and grain.

Blended together they make a third Blended version – the common whiskies such as Haig, Johnnie Walker and J & B are blends.

The standard blend is 60% grain to 40% malt.

Spirits The type of base ingredient used varies with the spirit produced – grape wine for

Blending can involve up to thirty whiskies of different ages and from various distilleries making a standard blend.

Traditionally only the malt whisky from the Highlands was true whisky: malts are well liked by whisky connoisseurs who have personal preferences – a malt whisky is lighter in colour and smoother than other whisky.

Grain whisky

Scotland's grain whisky is made from maize with malted and sometimes un-malted barley. The product is light with no peat flavour.

There is little demand for it to drink straight and it is primarily used for blending.

De Luxe Scotch whisky

Is older and mellower with a blend age of seven to twelve years.

Malt whisky

Is made from malted barley.

Malting consists of spreading wetted barley on a warm floor, so the seeds begin to germinate – this converts starch into sugar (maltose).

To halt the process it is next dried at a hotter temperature using peat. The peat fumes give the unique flavour.

Common brands

Popular brands of scotch include:

Johnnie Walker – red label, blue label, black label, green label and gold label Ballantine’s The Famous Grouse Teacher’s Grants Dewar’s Black and White Vat 69 Chivas Regal Haig’s Dimple Glenfiddich Single Malt 12 years old.

Is made from malted barley. Malting consists of spreading wetted barley on a warm floor, so

Irish whiskey

Always spelt with an 'e' and is made basically the same as whisky with some variations.

The base cereals may not be wholly barley, drying is by coal fire not peat, and stills differ in design.

Examples of Irish whiskey include:

Jameson

Paddy’s

Tullamore Dew.

Is made from malted barley. Malting consists of spreading wetted barley on a warm floor, so

Bourbon and Rye Whiskies

Bourbon is made in the state of Kentucky in the USA. The neighbouring state of Tennessee produces a well-known whiskey, Jack Daniels, which is therefore not Bourbon.

Rye is made in USA and Canada.

Both are produced from grain (mainly maize) distilled in a Continuous still, and aged in charred oak barrels.

Bourbon is aged in cold warehouses, Rye in heated rooms: both are lighter than scotch.

Popular brands include:

Both are produced from grain (mainly maize) distilled in a Continuous still, and aged in charredhttp://www.bacardi.com/# . Proof  ‘Proof’ is another way of indicating the alcoholic strength of drinks. ‘Alcohol by volume’ as a percentage is the more common way. ‘Proof’ is double the alcohol by volume figure. For example, a product that is ’80 proof’ is 40% alc/vol Rum labelled “overproof” is more than 50% alc/vol Gin " id="pdf-obj-39-8" src="pdf-obj-39-8.jpg">

Wild Turkey Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey

Jack Daniels Tennessee Whiskey

Jim Beam Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey

Cougar Bourbon.

Canadian Club is a rye whisky bourbon.

Rum

Rum is distilled from molasses which is a by-product of cane sugar. Rum is distilled by Pot or Continuous still and often blended. It is aged in oak and caramel can be added for colour.

Jamaican rum

Known for highly-flavoured rums, but today light rums are distilled too with a trend for these.

Barbados and Trinidad rum

Both specialise in lighter, as well as colourless rums.

Popular brands

Popular brands of rum include:

Captain Morgan – spiced gold, dark, deluxe, white and gold Bacardi – white, black and gold. Check out http://www.bacardi.com/#. Proof

Both are produced from grain (mainly maize) distilled in a Continuous still, and aged in charredhttp://www.bacardi.com/# . Proof  ‘Proof’ is another way of indicating the alcoholic strength of drinks. ‘Alcohol by volume’ as a percentage is the more common way. ‘Proof’ is double the alcohol by volume figure. For example, a product that is ’80 proof’ is 40% alc/vol Rum labelled “overproof” is more than 50% alc/vol Gin " id="pdf-obj-39-61" src="pdf-obj-39-61.jpg">

‘Proof’ is another way of indicating the alcoholic strength of drinks. ‘Alcohol by volume’ as a percentage is the more common way.

‘Proof’ is double the alcohol by volume figure.

For example, a product that is ’80 proof’ is 40% alc/vol Rum labelled “overproof” is more than 50% alc/vol

Gin

Gin is produced by rectifying a pure spirit with berries and botanical herbs – juniper berries and coriander seeds are the main flavouring agents, along with calamus root, cardamom seeds, angelica, orange and lemon peels, almond and orris root.

London Dry Gin

May be clear (like Gilbey's London Dry and Gordon's), or straw coloured (like Booth's).

Gin is produced by rectifying a pure spirit with berries and botanical herbs – juniper berries

This is most commonly asked for type.

Sloe gin

With an emphasis on the sloe berries used in its production.

Vodka

Is distilled from a base of grain or molasses and is highly rectified meaning impurities have been removed.

No flavourings are added, indeed charcoal is used to filter it and produce a clean and smooth spirit.

Flavoured vodkas

Polish vodka is also excellent, some varieties being flavoured with fruit or herbs. Growing in popularity, flavoured vodkas can feature cherries, rowan berries, pears, cranberries, green apple, strawberries, raspberries, vanilla, oranges or lemons. Popular brands include:

Stolichnaya

Karloff

Finlandia

Wyborowa

Smirnoff

Skyy

Absolut.

Gin is produced by rectifying a pure spirit with berries and botanical herbs – juniper berries
Gin is produced by rectifying a pure spirit with berries and botanical herbs – juniper berries

Brandy

Is distilled from grapes and is produced in nearly every wine growing region: it may be consumed neat but is popular with a mixer, or in cocktails.

Popular brands include:

St Remy

Hennessy

Remy Martin

Chatelle Napoleon.

Cognac

Popular brands include:  St Remy  Hennessy  Remy Martin  Chatelle Napoleon. Cognac The

The most famous brandy is Cognac made in the Cognac region of France.

When drinking cognac, a nip is poured into a balloon glass of moderate size: the hand is cupped around the balloon and the cognac gently swirled, warming it and releasing its bouquet.

Popular brands are Courvoisier, Remy, Camus and Audry.

Tequila

Is a Mexican spirit ranging from clear to pale gold in colour. True Tequila is made in the areas surrounding the city of Tequila. Some bottles feature the classic worm in the bottle. Tequila is made from Maguey cactus plants. Popular brands include:

José Cuervo

El Toro

Coyote. Service of spirits

Popular brands include:  St Remy  Hennessy  Remy Martin  Chatelle Napoleon. Cognac The

With spirits, there are several options available to customers.

They may order a full nip (30 mls) with a mixer in a short or long glass, or they may order a half nip (15 mls) with a mixer in a short or long glass.

Sometimes customers order a double (60 ml) but many venues have banned these due to Responsible Service of Alcohol concerns.

Drinks may be ordered with ice, or without ice.

Industry practice where the customer does not specify nip size, glass size or ice requirements is to prepare a drink comprising:

A full nip Ice

Long glass.

Guests may also order the spirit 'neat' – which means without any mixer, and without ice – or they may order it 'on the rocks' which means neat with the addition of ice.

Common mixers with spirits

A full nip  Ice   Long glass. Guests may also order the spirit 'neat'

Common mixers (soft drink) used with spirits are as follows:

Gin – tonic water, lemon squash, bitter lemon, lemonade, orange juice: ‘Pink Gin’ is gin with the addition of a few drops of Angostura bitters that have been swirled around the glass

Brandy – dry ginger, cola, lemonade

Whisky - dry ginger, cola, soda water

Rum – cola

Vodka – lemon squash, orange juice, tonic water, tomato juice.

RTDs

‘RTD’ stands for ‘Ready To Drink’ and refers to the large and growing range of pre-mixed drinks that are available in bottles and cans.

They may be spirit or wine-based. Examples include:

Bacardi Breezers

Vodka Cruisers

Canadian Club and cola

Jack Daniels and cola

Cougar bourbon – with cola; cola zero.

Other spirits

Applejack

A full nip  Ice   Long glass. Guests may also order the spirit 'neat'

Brandy distilled from the fermented mash of cider apples in the New England region of the USA.

The best is Pot distilled with a minimum maturation of 2 years in oak casks. It may be bottled straight or combined with neutral spirits and sold as blended applejack.

Aquavit

Is the drink of Scandinavia and the word comes from 'aqua vitae', Latin for ‘water of life'. Grain or potato is distilled to produce a neutral spirit which is then redistilled with caraway and other flavourings such as citrus peel, cardamom or anise. Aquavit is served ice cold and as it is highly alcoholic it is usually served with food.

Calvados

A brandy made from a mash of cider apples produced in the defined areas of the provinces of Brittany, Normandy and Maine.

The fermented mash is double Pot distilled and then matured in oak casks for up to 25 years, picking up colour and flavour from the wood.

Eau de Vie (‘Water of life’)

These are true fruit brandies made by distilling the fermented mash of fruit.

They usually have a higher alcoholic content than most liqueurs and are dry to the taste and the majority are colourless because they are aged in glass.

Kirsch

Originally double Pot distilled cherry brandy from the Alsace region in France.

Kirschwasser

German or Swiss cherry brandy.

Ouzo

Aniseed flavoured spirit of Greece and Cyprus.

Quality ouzo made by double distillation of the basic spirit and then the addition of aniseed and other herbs before redistillation.

The better quality the ouzo the more milky it becomes with the addition of water.

Pernod

Origin is in Southern France. It was named after Monsieur Pernod who bought the recipe in 1897.

The original recipe contained absinthe, however this was banned on 14th August 1914 for making men mad and vicious.

Pernod has a similar taste to ouzo and goes milky with the addition of water.

Poire Williams

Eau-de-vie de poire is distilled from the pear known as Williams or Bartlett. It is sometimes marketed in a pear-shaped bottle with a ripe pear inside.

Slivovitz

Plum brandy from Yugoslavia and other Balkan countries. For more information go to http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/people/nieminen/spirits.html. Liqueurs

Liqueurs are spirits flavoured with fruits, herbs, roots and plants, sweetened and sometimes artificially coloured.

Liqueurs are proprietary or generic.

Proprietary brands are those produced by a single company such as Grand Marnier, Cointreau, Tia Maria, and Galliano.

Generics are types of liqueurs that can be made by any company. As an example, Seagram produce a range of generic liqueurs that includes Advocaat, Banana, Blue Curacao, Butterscotch, Crème de cacao, Crème de menthe, Melon, Mint chocolate, Triple Sec.

Many liqueurs trace their ancestry back to the monasteries where monks collected herbs and turned them into medicines: in fact, many do have digestive properties.

Liqueurs are made by soaking flavouring materials in a spirit – the number of flavourings is huge with Chartreuse having a hundred and thirty herbs, and DOM Benedictine at least thirty.

Liqueurs may be mixed, used in cocktails or served straight. May be lit (set on fire) and served ‘flaming’

Standard serve size for a liqueur is 30 mls. Here are popular examples:

Advocaat

A low strength liqueur, thick yellow and creamy from raw eggs and spirit.

Anisette

Sweetened version of Anis, a name that comes from the star anise plant.

Bailey's Irish Cream

Cream blended with whiskey, neutral spirits, coffee and chocolate.

Benedictine DOM

DOM stands for Deo Optimo Maximo – To God most good, most great. It is a famous and popular golden liqueur with a complex, herb flavour.

Chartreuse - Green or Yellow

Brandy distilled with numerous herbs: yellow is sweeter – but weaker.

Cointreau

Colourless liqueur of the Curacao family made by the Cointreau company. Clear in colour, orange-flavoured with a dry finish.

Crème de Bananes

Sweet, banana-flavoured liqueur which might be consumed neat or poured over ice cream.

Crème de Cacao

Sweet liqueur made from cocoa and vanilla beans.

Crème de Cassis

Sweet liqueur made from blackcurrants.

Crème de Menthe

Sweet, mint-flavoured liqueur, available in either a clear or green colour.

Drambuie

Cointreau Colourless liqueur of the Curacao family made by the Cointreau company. Clear in colour, orange-flavoured

Made from Scotch whisky, herbs and honey: sweet and golden.

Grand Marnier

Distilled oranges steeped in cognac.

Irish Mist Liqueur

Made from heather, honey and whiskey.

Kahlua

Mexican coffee-flavoured liqueur.

Curaçao

Distilled from peel of bitter oranges.

Normally colourless but may be orange or blue using food colouring agents to achieve this.

Jagermeister

A bitter tasting liqueur made from herbs, roots and spices. Recommended to be served from the freezer.

Kummel

Distilled grain spirit flavoured with caraway seeds.

Maraschino

Sweet liqueur made from cherries.

Midori

Green honey dew melon-flavoured liqueur.

Parfait d'Amour (‘perfect love’)

Sweet, highly scented, violet-coloured liqueur.

Peach Brandy

Peaches steeped in brandy.

Royal Mint Chocolate

Like a liquid after dinner mint.

Sambuca

Aniseed-flavoured colourless, red or dark blue (black) liqueur.

Often served with three coffee beans in the glass.

Strega

Means 'witch' in Italian: features many herbs and barks of trees.

Tia Maria

Distilled from sugar cane and flavoured with Blue Mountain coffee.

Van Der Hum

South African cape brandy with tangerine (naatje) and a touch of rum.

Websites for liqueurs

Check out the following for more information:

Beer

Beer is available in draught and packaged form. Draught beer is beer drawn through the tap from barrels or kegs.

Packaged beer is beer in large and small bottles and cans.

Beer Production

Beer is made by a process known as 'brewing'.

Sweet liqueur made from cherries. Midori Green honey dew melon-flavoured liqueur. Parfait d'Amour (‘perfect love’) Sweet,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liqueurs  http://www.tastings.com/spirits/liqueurs.htmlhttp://www.drinksmixer.com/desc29.html . Beer Beer is available in draught and packaged form. Draught beer is beer drawn through the tap from barrels or kegs. Packaged beer is beer in large and small bottles and cans. Beer Production Beer is made by a process known as 'brewing'. " id="pdf-obj-46-63" src="pdf-obj-46-63.jpg">

Precise times, temperatures and yeast type vary between breweries and brews. The major production steps are:

Barley is steeped in water and germinates It is dried by warm air and ground in the brew house It is then mixed with water to make a liquid called 'wort'

The wort is boiled up with hops and sugar The wort is then cooled and the yeast added to start the fermentation process The beer is then clarified, stored and matured Finally it is filtered, packaged and despatched for consumption.

Precise times, temperatures and yeast type vary between breweries and brews. The major production steps are:

Boutique beer

A boutique beer is a beer that is not mass produced.

It is usually made by a small operator such as a pub brewery (sometimes referred to as a micro-brewer).

Boutique beers may be domestic or international, with many boutique beers only being available in the premises where they were brewed, while others enjoy national exposure.

Commercially produced beer

Commercially produced beer may be seen as beer that comes from commercial brewers others than boutique breweries.

These beers may be available in different alcoholic contents which are classified generally as:

Standard strength – which is around the 4.9% alcohol/volume mark Mid-strength – around 3.3% alc/vol Light – about 2.2% alc/vol Low alcohol – 0.9%alc/vol. These beers may be domestic or international.

Citrus infused beers

A relatively recent addition to the beer market has been the introduction of citrus infused beers.

These beers may be infused with orange, lemon and or lime.

Imported beers

Most countries now offer beers from many countries – at least in packaged form. These beers are in addition to the local brews. Popular imported beers include:

Fosters – Australia

Lowenbrau – Germany

Beck’s – Germany

Fürstenburg – Germany

König Pilsener – Germany

Stella Artois – Belgium

Corona – Mexico

Bass – England

Budweiser – USA

Hollandia – Holland

Heineken – Holland

Miller – USA

Maes – Belgium

Chimay – Belgium

Duvel – Belgium

Asahi – Japan.

Asian beers

Most countries now offer beers from many countries – at least in packaged form. These beers

The following list names popular Asian beers and is taken from ‘The Asian Beer Guide’ at http://www.asianbeerguide.com/:

Beer Lao

Chang Beer

Kingfisher

Kirin Beer

San Miguel

Sapporo Beer

Singha Beer

Taiwan Beer

Tiger Beer

Tsingtao Beer.

More information is available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer_and_breweries_by_region http://www.beers-of-the-world.com/. Or do a search for the country you are seeking information about, such as ‘Vietnam+beer’.

Beer variations

Most beer is consumed ‘neat’ but some people prefer to add a little something to their beer, in order to get a different taste.

Beer variations include:

Shandy – Beer and lemonade

Beer with a dash – Beer with a dash of lemonade

Lager and lime – Beer with a dash of lime juice

Red eye beer – with tomato juice

Black and tan – Beer and stout

Half and half – Beer and stout

Portergaff – Stout and lemonade

Stout with a dash – Stout with a dash of lemonade

Wedge of lime in neck of a Corona.

More information is available at:  <a href=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer_and_breweries_by_region  http://www.beers-of-the-world.com/. Or do a search for the country you are seeking information about, such as ‘Vietnam+beer’. Beer variations Most beer is consumed ‘neat’ but some people prefer to add a little something to their beer, in order to get a different taste. Beer variations include:  Shandy – Beer and lemonade  Beer with a dash – Beer with a dash of lemonade  Lager and lime – Beer with a dash of lime juice  Red eye beer – with tomato juice  Black and tan – Beer and stout  Half and half – Beer and stout  Portergaff – Stout and lemonade  Stout with a dash – Stout with a dash of lemonade  Wedge of lime in neck of a Corona. There is a wide variation in sizes of beer glasses from 200 mls upwards. Non-alcoholic drinks Non-alcoholic drinks should be available in all liquor outlets to comply with general RSA principles. Non-alcoholic drinks may be hot or cold. Examples of non-alcoholic beverages include: Varieties of tea – black, semi-black, blended, green, scented Coffee – including all espresso-based coffees and the flavours that may be added  Milk shakes and flavoured milks  Smoothies   " id="pdf-obj-49-69" src="pdf-obj-49-69.jpg">

There is a wide variation in sizes of beer glasses from 200 mls upwards.

Non-alcoholic drinks

Non-alcoholic drinks should be available in all liquor outlets to comply with general RSA principles. Non-alcoholic drinks may be hot or cold. Examples of non-alcoholic beverages include:

Varieties of tea – black, semi-black, blended, green, scented Coffee – including all espresso-based coffees and the flavours that may be added Milk shakes and flavoured milks Smoothies

Hot/iced chocolate

Juices – bought-in and freshly squeezed juices

Cordials and syrups

Waters – still, sparkling, flavoured

Soft drinks – also known as aerated waters: either bulk ‘post mix’ products or products from bottles or cans

Non-alcoholic cocktails – known as ‘mocktails’

Health drinks – including energy drinks

Frappés

Children’s specialty drinks.

 Hot/iced chocolate  Juices – bought-in and freshly squeezed juices  Cordials and syrups 

2. Identify information required to fulfill responsibilities of job role

Introduction

The basis of doing any job properly is knowing what is required of you.

All jobs have unique activities (or ‘tasks’) attached to them and, in theory, if everyone does what they should then the mix of everyone’s efforts will result in the intended objectives and outcomes for the business and good service to customers.

This section looks at the roles requiring food and beverage knowledge and the tasks those roles are generally required to fulfil.

Job roles – what’s required?

Waiting staff and bar attendants are the primary hospitality roles involved with food and beverage service.

Service staff may include:

Head waiter – also known as Room Supervisor or Maître d’hôtel

Food waiters Beverage/drink waiters Food and beverage waiters Runners.

It is to be expected that the job requirements for your job will have been discussed at some length as part of the job interview.

General requirements

2. Identify information required to fulfill responsibilities of job role Introduction The basis of doing any

Head waiter

This role has the following responsibilities:

Organising staff for the room/dining session Creating a table/floor plan for individual sessions Conducting the staff briefing before each session Liaising with all service staff, guests and management Welcoming guests on arrival – known as ‘greeting and seating’

Overseeing activities during service to co-ordinate service duties, assist as required, deal with complaints, respond to issues as they arise

Monitoring service standards Conducting de-briefings at the end of service sessions

Making suggestions regarding changes to operational matters, recommendations for special events and advising in relation to optimising sales and service.

Food waiters

This role performs the following duties:

Setting up of the room

Greeting guests

Taking orders

Serving and clearing food

Preparing and presenting accounts

Receiving payment

Farewelling guests

Stripping the room at the end of service.

The level of cash handling varies between properties and some food waiters may also be required to reconcile takings at the end of the session.

Food waiters may be required to handle simple plated service, silver service, semi-silver service, or gueridon work.

‘Plated service’ refers to the service style where food is put on plates (‘plated’) in the kitchen and then carried to the table.

See the videos below for examples of the following:

‘Gueridon service’ - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2VrIrQyslik. Beverage or drink waiters

Beverage or drink waiters may have responsibilities for setting up the glassware for tables and assisting food waiters and or bar attendants in room preparation.

During service they have responsibility for:

Taking drink orders

Delivering drinks to the table

Serving drinks including wine

Making recommendations for beverages to accompany meals

Clearing glassware and empty bottles

Preparing and presenting the beverage account

Processing the drinks account

 Making suggestions regarding changes to operational matters, recommendations for special events and advising in relationhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8jVoMYMoVfs&feature=related ‘Gueridon service’ - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2VrIrQyslik . Beverage or drink waiters  Beverage or drink waiters may have responsibilities for setting up the glassware for tables and assisting food waiters and or bar attendants in room preparation. During service they have responsibility for:  Taking drink orders  Delivering drinks to the table  Serving drinks including wine  Making recommendations for beverages to accompany meals  Clearing glassware and empty bottles  Preparing and presenting the beverage account  Processing the drinks account " id="pdf-obj-52-124" src="pdf-obj-52-124.jpg">

Farewelling guests.

At the conclusion of service they may be required to work with food waiters to strip the room, or with bar attendants to clean the bar and/or prepare it for the next session.

Food and beverage waiters

The roles of the food waiter and the drink waiter may be combined into one in situations where:

The property is small – and cannot afford to hire a separate food and drink waiter

Management prefers the food and beverage service roles to be combined in to the one position – for example, management may feel that service flow for a table will be better if the one person provides the food service and the beverage service as opposed to having a separate person for each role.

 Farewelling guests. At the conclusion of service they may be required to work with food

The duties involved are a combination of the duties listed above for the ‘Food Waiter’ and the ‘Beverage/Drink Waiter’.

Runners

‘Runners’ provide a support role for the food waiter. Also known as busboys/girls. Their duties include:

‘Running’ dishes/meals from the kitchen to the waiter’s station – for the waiter to serve Taking used/unwanted items from the room to the kitchen for either cleaning or storing. They also provide other support functions such as:

Preparing butters and napkins prior to service

Fetching extra things for a table/waiter as required during service

Conveying messages between waiting staff and/or kitchen staff

Dealing with spills.

Bar attendants

This role:

Prepares the bar for service by putting away stock, preparing/polishing glasses, cutting fruit, and preparing drink garnishes, fruit juices and cocktail requirements (gomme syrup, sour mix)

Serves the beverages and mixes the drinks as ordered by the drinks waiter

Serves customer direct – where bar service is part of the dining experience

Accepts payment for drinks/wines served

This role:     Prepares the bar for service by putting away stock, preparing/polishing

May be responsible for running the beverage accounts, finalising individual beverage accounts for payment and reconciling the beverage takings

Orders stock to replenish supplies at the end of trading Cleans/tidies bar at end-of-trade.

Specialist bar attendants are ‘Cocktail bar attendants’ who specialise in the making of cocktails and generally also create new drinks and display a high level of ‘showmanship’ in the discharge of their drink mixing tasks.

Specific establishment requirements

Information indicating the requirements of the individual roles can be obtained from:

Formal documents

These include Position Descriptions, Job Descriptions, Job Specifications and Job Analysis sheets.

Where they exist they should:

Set out the main activities each position is responsible for – which should provide a fairly comprehensive list of the activities for each role

Name specific pieces of equipment that the person needs to be able to use – this may be a point of sale unit/register, or a hand-held ordering unit/system

Describe the nature of any relationship that exists between the position and other positions

Who the position reports to

Other staff the position may be responsible for

Date the document was created – and should be reviewed/up-dated.

Note: many Job Descriptions usually contain a statement at the bottom of the list of stated tasks along the lines of “Any other work as required by management”.

This is a catch-all statement that allows management to ask any staff member to undertake virtually any work that needs doing even though it may not be specifically spelled out in the main body of the document.

Verbal advice from others

Commonly a staff member will simply be told by experienced or senior staff about the work they are expected to do. This may occur as part of a formal Induction program or be part of learning on-the-job. The advice should:

Identify what needs to be done Indicate when it needs to be done – and by when it needs to be completed Describe any standards that apply to the work Include any special house techniques that are approved or used for the work Detail any legal compliance issues that need to be observed. In many cases additional advice is given where actual practice by individual staff demonstrates they cannot/do not meet enterprise requirements.

Formal on-the-job training

Where an establishment provides formal on-the-job training, one of the first training sessions usually covers the requirements for the job you have been employed to do.

Checklists

Some properties provide checklists for staff to follow to assist them in making sure that all tasks have been completed as required for their role.

These may be posters/lists on walls in back-of-house areas.

More information? Visit:

  • 3. Develop and maintain product knowledge in line with

job role and responsibilities

Introduction

The previous section looked at the roles requiring food and beverage knowledge and the tasks those roles are generally required to fulfil.

This section identifies how you can develop and maintain the required product knowledge for various roles and responsibilities.

Context

The hospitality industry in general and food and beverages in particular are a constantly changing landscape.

New products, tastes, trends are constantly emerging and some products lose popularity and fade away.

To stay up-to-date with what is happening you need to use a mix of informal and formal research techniques to keep pace with these changes especially as they relate to your workplace.

This section identifies how you can develop and maintain the required product knowledge for various roles

Research

Research is the only way to develop and maintain product knowledge. The key to effective research is you have to be proactive. You must want to find out the information and you must take action to do so.

It is not usually the case information will seek you out – you have to take the initiative and seek it out.

Informal research

Informal research is not structured or formal. It almost occurs ‘by the way’ as you do other things.

Informal research occurs when you use workplace observation, or ask another team member or supervisor/manager about the product and services offered by the establishment and by your competitors.

It also occurs when you obtain information from catalogues or promotional and information material provided by suppliers, and product manufacturers.

Other informal research options are reading F&B articles in the local newspaper, watching F&B shows on the television, and reading books with information on food and beverages.

You could become proactive and ask for verbal customer feedback on a particular product or service by (for example) engaging people in conversation as part of their eating/drinking experience.

You may also talk to the delivery driver who delivers your F&B products, or the sales representatives who call in at the workplace and notify the venue of new products and price rises, and who also take orders for F&B products.

Formal research

Formal research is more structured and planned than informal research.

Examples of formal research include instances when you seek out further product information by:

Enrolling in a recognised course at a school or training college Attending product launches and promotions conducted by growers, manufacturers and/or suppliers

Attending seminars or industry nights where certain aspects/products are the focus of the session – and where you can grow your network of industry contacts.

Examples of formal research include instances when you seek out further product information by:  

Included in this research is attending or participating in in-house training.

Customer feedback or workplace observation

Staff can learn a great deal about products and services by observing the workplace and obtaining customer feedback. This information can also be used to evaluate products, services and promotional incentives offered by the establishment. Observation in the workplace may include:

Being aware of new products and services offered on menus and drink lists

Being aware of product returns – that is being aware of which products are frequently returned, and finding out why

Familiarising yourself with promotional displays and printed materials – so you understand the information the venue is providing to customers

Speaking with other team members about the services and products they are familiar with – so you can benefit from their knowledge and experience

Observing customers' reactions to a particular product or service – do they appear to like the new drink or not? Do diners seem happy with the new food items on the new menu? How pleased/displeased are they with the new/higher prices?

Need for a particular focus

For any research, questioning or observation to be successful it must be done with one (or more) specific purposes in mind – you must have a definite idea of what you want to find out about.

It is also good to know ‘why’ you want to know this information. To obtain customer feedback the following have proved effective strategies to use:

Ask a customer for their comments after they have bought, eaten or consumed a product/drink

Seek written feedback by distributing ‘Customer Comment/Feedback’ cards and encouraging customers to compete and return them – these cards can be written to request feedback on any topic of interest/concern to you

Advise patrons (where applicable) of your online ‘Tell Us What You Think’ feedback facility – and encourage them to provide feedback using this option

Talk to customers – as part of their dining/drinking experience and ask them questions designed to elicit information about topics you want to find out about

Observe customer reactions to certain thing – are they happy or unhappy about a certain aspect of service? Do they appear to like or dislike a new dish?

What should I develop and maintain knowledge about?

Again, the best advice is to begin/focus on products and matters which relate to your workplace while (at the same time, but as a secondary focus) building general industry- wide knowledge.

It is therefore necessary to concentrate on:

Current market trends – identifying new products, determining what is gaining in popularity and learning what is losing popularity/flagging in sales

 Seek written feedback by distributing ‘Customer Comment/Feedback’ cards and encouraging customers to compete and return

Local area products – this means knowing what is produced/grown locally and keeping in touch with developments in F&B produced by local growers and/or businesses: many tourists to venues are eager to sample the ‘local product’ and you need to know what is local and what is not

Seasonal produce – learning, for example which products are in season, and when fruit and vegetables come in, and go out of, season

Enterprise menus and specials – talking to chefs and participating in tastings at work is essential so you can accurately pass on information to customers based on real-life, personal experience of the food/drinks

Enterprise trends – you should to keep up-to-date with changes in customer needs, customer profiles (age; where they come from) and customer preferences as well as management plans for the property

Current food and beverage festivals – so you know what you can attend, and so you can pass this information on to interested customers/tourists

Promotional activities – to identify the Special Events that the venue is organising: so you can promote it to patrons.

Sharing knowledge

It is important you share all new product knowledge with other staff as you become aware of it.

Knowledge is no use until it is used and one way to use it is to share it. Sharing your knowledge can be done in an informal fashion or a formal manner.

Informal sharing

Examples of sharing information informally include:

Talking to colleagues casually while at work or during work breaks

Telling people in a random manner about the information you found out

Replying to question by including the new information as part of the response.

Formal sharing

The following are ways you might formally share new F&B information you have discovered:

Passing on information at a staff meeting

Sharing what you know with other employees at daily briefing and de-briefing sessions

Developing a written handout containing the information – and distributing it to other workers.

Knowledge is no use until it is used and one way to use it is to

4. Identify features of specific food and beverages which have potential customer appeal

Introduction

Being able to identify features of specific foods and beverages which have potential appeal to customers is an extension of the concept of ‘product knowledge‘ as described in section 1.1.

This section identifies – and in some cases reinforces previously presented information – specific F&B features which should be learned.

Why is there a need to learn this?

You must be able to describe the special features of F&B items in order to:

Meet customer expectations – patrons expect you to know about this: they will rely on you to advise them, provide information and make recommendations/suggestions

Optimise sales – the more you know about what you have to sell, the more likely you will be to make increased sales. Knowledge is not only power but it also usually translated into revenue and profit

Enhance the customer experience – the more you can talk intelligently and professionally with customers, the more they will enjoy the experience and the higher the levels of satisfaction

4. Identify features of specific food and beverages which have potential customer appeal Introduction Being able

Increase the likelihood of extra business – the more you know and the better you can advise customers, the greater the likelihood of those customers returning for another meal/drink and the greater the chance they will tell their friends and family to come

Meet management expectations – management expects all customer-contact staff to be sales people and product knowledge is the key to being able to do this effectively

Demonstrate a focus on the customer and their dining experience – as opposed to focussing on (just) what the venue wants to sell/achieve.

Features to focus on Features should relate to:

The relationship between specific foods and beverages Knowledge of specific foods Knowledge of specific beverages Products sourced from the local area Enterprise menus, specials and trends.

4. Identify features of specific food and beverages which have potential customer appeal Introduction Being able

The relationship between specific foods and beverages

You should develop knowledge about the foods on your menu and the beverages which work well together with them.

You should be able to recommend at least one generic ‘food and beverage’ match/combination for every item on you menu.

Matches are commonly food and wine, or food and beer combinations. Some venues:

List possible matches on their menus

Have a poster behind the bar listing possible matches.

See section 2.1 for more information on this important topic.

Knowledge of specific foods

As a general statement you should learn about all the food items on your menus. These menus may differ:

The relationship between specific foods and beverages You should develop knowledge about the foods on your

Between meals – the lunch menu may be different to the dinner menu

On days of the week – the food offered on weekends may differ to the menu items offered on week days

Dependant on menu types – there is always a difference between menu items listed on table d’hôte, à la carte and function menus.

You should seek to find out about:

Characteristics of dishes – which can include capturing details about aspects such as:

Taste

Aroma Consistency (tactile/in-mouth) of the product Special growing/feeding of livestock Cut of meat/part of the animal used Cooking style Time to prepare – or is the item already cooked and ready to serve?

Service options – is the dish available just as main course, or can it also be served as an entrée? Is it available only for eat-in dining or can it be served as a take- away dish?

Price

Serve size – how big is the menu item? Origin of:

The ingredients in the dish – which are local, which are national and which are imported?

The name of the dish – if the dish has a special name, what was the origin of that name? For example, how did ‘Monkey Gland Steak’ get its name?

Opinions (from experts and customers) – in relation to their opinion of taste and value- for-money

Cultural and dietary aspects – identifying those for whom the dish would be acceptable/suitable and those for whom it would not be.

Knowledge of specific beverages

You must develop knowledge about beverages available for consumption on the premises, and those available for take-away consumption.

For all the beverages available in your workplace develop knowledge about:

The alcohol strength for all alcoholic beverages

The country of origin of products

Prices – for individual drinks and full bottles/units

 Serve size – how big is the menu item? Origin of:   The ingredients

Different (standard) serve sizes of drinks and packaged products Taste

Colour

Special characteristics – for example, the gold flakes in Goldwasser or the worm in certain tequilas

Vintages available – for the wines

Prizes/awards won by wines, spirits and beers

Uses for wines, spirits and liqueurs (as applicable) – such as:

Beverages which can be served ‘neat’

Mixed drinks – knowledge of the mixers which can be used with spirits Cocktails

Cooking or other food-related uses.

Products sourced from the local area

‘Local’ has two meanings in this context:

The immediate region – any place which is close by

The country in which you live – anywhere in the country can be referred to as ‘local’.

To help the local economy and promote local products you must identify:

Local wines, beers and other alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages Locally ‘processed’ items Raw materials/ingredients/food/products grown or raised locally – including famous/well-known and items as well as specifically national products not commonly found elsewhere. Information you should strive to learn includes:

Names of the products and their characteristics (flavour, appearance)

Names of growers/providers and their location – and how to get there

Quantities/packages available for sale to the public

Whether there are customs restrictions on tourists taking these products out of the country

Cost How they are/may be eaten or consumed Popularity of items with nationals/locals

To help the local economy and promote local products you must identify: Local wines, beers and

Basics of how items are grown or produced.

Enterprise menus, specials and trends

Menus

Your knowledge of items must include information about:

Serve size Taste – ‘hot’, ‘spicy’, ‘creamy’, ‘bitter’ Which items are ‘fresh’ and which are pre-prepared/frozen and reconstituted

Dishes which are cooked and ready-to-serve – and the cooking time or waiting time for other items

Items which may be served as main course and entrée Ingredients

‘Cooking or preparation style

Cultural and dietary acceptability.

Specials

Specials are items (or menus) only available for a limited time, to celebrate a certain event (a public holiday or religious event; a wedding or party) and/or as part of a package deal a visitor may have purchased.

Your knowledge of specials must embrace:

Items available as part of the special deal – food and beverages

When the special begins – and when it finished Cost

Who is eligible for the special – the special may be available to everyone or only to nominated categories of people (such as tour group members; those attending a wedding)

Specials Specials are items (or menus) only available for a limited time, to celebrate a certain

What makes the special, special – is it the special low price? Is it the great value-for- money? Is it the dishes or drinks which are featured?

Trends

It is useful to understand the local or venue-specific trends which apply to food and beverages as this knowledge can be used to:

Make recommendation about food and drinks

Engage customers in conversation

Demonstrate your professionalism in the industry and your job

Further determine emerging trends – trends by their very nature are constantly changing.

Specials Specials are items (or menus) only available for a limited time, to celebrate a certain

Task Sheet 3.1-1

It is a requirement of this Unit you complete Work Projects as advised by your Trainer. You must submit documentation, suitable evidence or other relevant proof of completion of the project to your Trainer by the agreed date.

  • 1.1 Identify a venue which provides internal dining (food and beverages) and prepare and present a detailed list which:

Identifies and gives a description of the menu items available on a standard lunch or dinner menu including price, cooking style, and ingredients

Identifies and gives a description of the beverage available on a standard drinks list.

  • 1.2. Identify a food or beverage position in a venue and:

List the food and/or beverage tasks for the position

Explain the strategies you would use to gain initial product and F&B knowledge, and the practices you could use to maintain relevant information as the role (or other workplace requirements) change.

  • 1.3. Identify one local food and one local beverage and for each item identify/describe:

The product – name, taste, appearance, other characteristics

Name of supplier or provider or grower or processor

Cost

How and why the items are special?

Performance Checklist Task Sheet 3.1-1

When obtaining product information on food and beverages:

Be proactive in finding relevant information

Do internal and external research to obtain facts, figures and product knowledge

Undertake formal and informal research activities

Learn about the different courses, dishes and ingredients used

Learn about cooking times, styles, specialist items, national dishes and signature dishes

Be able to name all the food and drinks served – and their ingredients

Learn about beers, wines, spirits, liqueurs and non-alcoholic drinks

Learn about service options for F&B items

Taste test items

Determine the specific F&B knowledge you need for your job role and learn that first

Read all internal documentation – menus, drink and wine lists, job descriptions, training materials

Share new knowledge with other staff

Spend time learning about special features which have the potential to interest and be attractive tourists/visitors.

   

Learning Outcome No. 2

Undertake Suggestive selling

CONTENTS:

Taking reservations Table set-up Napkin folding Skirting buffet/display tables Banquet set-ups

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

1.

Information about the food items are provided in clear explanations and descriptions.

  • 2. Items on specials or promos are offered to assist guests with food and beverage selections.

  • 3. Name of specific menu items are suggested to guests rather than just mentioning the general categories in the menu to help them make the choice and know what they want.

  • 4. Standard food and beverage pairings are recommended.

  • 5. Several choices are given to provide more options to guests

  • 6. Descriptive words are used while explaining the dishes to make it more tempting and appetizing.

  • 7. Suggestive selling is carried out discreetly so as not to be too pushy or too aggressive.

CONDITION:

The trainee / student must be provided with the following:

Specials or promos

Menu categories

Food and beverage pairings

House specials

Meat

Burgers and fries

Soup of the day

Vegetable

Steaks and salad

Dessert

Steak and mashed

Combo meals

Beverages

potato

Best sellers

Entrée

Dessert and coffee

Chef’s pick Seasonal items

Seafood

Seafood with white wine

METHODOLOGY:

Lecture Discussion Film viewing Demonstration

ASSESSMENT METHOD:

Oral examination Written examination Performance test

Learning Experiences / Activities Learning Outcome # 2

Undertake Suggestive Selling

Learning Activities

Special Instructions

 

This Learning Outcome deals with the development of the Institutional Competency Evaluation Tool which trainers use in evaluating their trainees after finishing a competency of the qualification.

Go through the learning activities outlined for you

on

the

left

column

to

gain

the

necessary

information or knowledge before doing the tasks to

practice on performing the requirements of the evaluation tool.

The

output

of

this LO

is

a

complete Institutional

Competency

Evaluation

Package

for

 

one

Competency of

Food

and

Beverage

Services

NCII.

Your

output

shall

serve

as

one

of

your

portfolio

for

your

Institutional

Competency

Evaluation for

Promote

food

and beverage

products.

 

Feel free to show your outputs to your trainer as you accomplish them for guidance and evaluation.

This Learning Outcome deals with the development of the Institutional Competency Evaluation Tool which trainers use in evaluating their trainees after finishing a competency of the qualification.

Go through the learning activities outlined for you on the left column to gain the necessary information or knowledge before doing the tasks to practice on performing the requirements of the evaluation tool.

After doing

all

the

activities

for

this

LO2:

undertake suggestive selling; you are ready to proceed to the next LO3; Carry out upselling

strategies.

 

Information Sheet 3.2-1

  • 1. Offer advice on suitable combinations of foods and beverage where appropriate

Introduction

Many customers will require help or advice when choosing beverages to accompany their selected dishes.

It is part of the standard service by any outlet for staff to help customers choose a beverage to suit both their preferences and match appropriately with what they are eating.

This section offers advice in this regard.

When could you offer this advice?

Advice about drinks to accompany food can be offered in response to enquiries, or offered as part of service provision without being asked.

Typical occasions providing an opportunity or need to advise customers in this regard include:

Serving a customer at the bar who is thinking about having a meal

Serving the customer at a table who has ordered, or is about to order, their food