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DCH KINH I TON

Nhn T Nguyn Vn Th & Huyn Linh Yn L


DCH KINH YU CH

Li ni u

C nhiu b bn thy chng ti cho xut bn b Dch Kinh i Ton, khong 1500 trang, hi chng ti ti sao
trn th trng c nhiu b Kinh Dch, cn ra thm, v nh vy n c nhng c im g?
Ti thy l mt cu hi hu l, nn ti s trnh by cng qu v ti sao ti vit b Dch Kinh i Ton ny.
Ti bt u son tho b Dch Kinh ny vo khong nm 1966. Ti nh b ra 15 nm hon tt n, nhng
may thay sau hn 7 nm mit mi nghin cu, th hon thnh c. Khi y, ti i mua, hoc i mn tt c
nhng sch Dch bng Hn Vn, Anh vn, Php vn v Vit vn hin c lc by gi. c qua nhng tc phm ca
c T Thanh, Phan Bi Chu, Nguyn Mnh Bo, Ng Tt T, Nguyn Duy Tinh, v.v... ti thy li vn tht l kh
hiu.
V Hn Vn, ti may mn c b Tun B Ng n Dch Kinh i Ton, xut bn ngy 18 thng 3 nm Khang
Hi 54 tc 1715, do cc v khoa bng xa cho ti. Quyn ny mi qu u c li bnh ca Trnh T, Chu Hi, Khang
Hi v ch t ch khng phi l t tng ca ring ai.
V Anh vn, ti c nhng b nh ca James Legge, Wilhelm / Baynes, R. G. H Siu, v.v... Ti thy nhng b
trn khng c g c sc.
V La Ng, ti c c b ca P. Regis, Yiking, antiquissimus Sinarum liber.
V Php vn, ti c De Harlez, Le Yiking, texte primitif rtabli, trad. et commentaires.
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Philastre, P. L. F. Le Yiking ou Livre de Changements de la dynastie des Tscheou traduit pour la premire fois
du Chinois en Francais.
Ti cng c B Dch ca c Nguyn Hin L, xut bn gn y hi ngoi. Sch trnh by sng sa. Tic
rng c b i Thp Dc, v nh c ni, C hon thnh b sch ny trong vng c 2 nm, v ch son li b
Dch ca c Phan bi Chu m thi.
Tt c u khng c g lm ti phi say sa, bi phc. Gn y, c v s sch Dch bng Anh vn, nhng ton
thin v bi ton. Theo ti, Kinh Dch khng phi sch bi ton, v Phc Hi, Vn Vng, Chu Cng, Khng T,
Trnh T, Chu Hi khng h bi ton. Ti khng bi ton. Trong H T Thng ch bn qua v php bi Dch bng
c Thi, v trong Ng Hnh bn qua v lut Tng sinh, Tng khc, qu v no thch bi ton, a l nghin cu
thm, ch khng bit g v cch bi gieo tin theo D Hc, v Bc Dch chnh tng, hay cch bi Mai Hoa Dch s
ca Thiu Khang Tit. Nhiu ngi i vo Dch, cng l mun hc bi ton. H c bit u rng bi ton l mt
nng khiu do Tri ban. Mun bi hay, phi c gic quan th su, (qu v no thch nghin cu v bi ton, th xin
c phn Ng Hnh, ni quyn I, v ni quyn III H t Thng Chng 9).
Nay, bn Trung Quc cho in ra nhiu sch Dch, nh b Chu Dch i T in, dy 1546 trang, hay b Bch
Th Chu Dch, mt b Dch c khai qut ln t mt ngi m nh Hn, M Vng i, Trng Sa, thng
12, nm 1973. B ny vit trn la trng, v th gi l Bch Th, v c Trng Lp Vn nghin cu v dch
ra Bch thoi.
C ngi khuyn ti mua, nhng ti khng bao gi i vo con ng Sch un, Hnh qui, khng bao gi i
vo con ng qui d cu danh, nn ti khng mua.
Ti quen nhiu v khoa bng, v ng xin th gio cc C v Dch L. Nhng c no cng ni khng bit g
v Dch L, v khng hc Dch khi i thi, v cc C ngh vo t sch cc C thy ci g hay th c biu, ch
ng hi v Dch. C Ph Bng Nguyn H Hong (in Bn - Qung Nam), cho ti mt phn b Tun b Ng
n. C c Lng Trng Hi (Qu Sn - Qung Nam) cho ti b Kinh Dch ca Lai Tr c.
Nn, ti i vo Kinh Dch, qua o Nho, bng ng li ring t ca ti, nh ti s trnh by sau y.
Ti vo o Khng t nm 1956, qua sch v hin c, ch khng h nh cy vo ai. V ti hc ni Khng
Gio nhiu iu hay ho, mi l. c bit l bit c con ngi va c Thin Tm, va c Nhn Tm. Thin Tm
thi mun i cng chnh, quang minh, chnh i, thun ty, ch thin. Cn Nhn Tm thi y t t, nhn dc.
Thin Tm khn thay, li n c nn t ngi thy c. Thin Tm l Thin L, Nhn Tm l Nhn Dc,
nn xa mi ni Nhn dc thng, Thin L vong hay Nhn dc tn, tc Thin L hin, v.v... Thin Tm gip ta tr
thnh Thn thnh, Nhn tm gip ta tr thnh con ngi thc s. Thnh th ti mi dch c cu Kinh Th, m
xa nay cha ai dch cho ng ngha ca n. l:
Nhn tm duy nguy

o tm duy vi

Duy tinh duy nht

Don chp quyt trung

Dch:
Lng ca Tri siu vi, huyn o,
Lng con ngi in o, ng nghing.
Tinh rng chuyn nht ngy m,
Ra cng, ra sc gi nguyn lng Tri.
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Ti thy Khng Gio cho rng con ngi c 3 th o. Thin o dy con ngi lm thn minh, Nhn o
dy con ngi lm Hin nhn qun t, Vt o dy con ngi kim n sinh sng. S d c 3 th o, v con ngi
c 3 phn:
-Thn lm Thn. Sau ny, Thn cn c gi l o Tm, Thin Tm, hay ni theo Pht gia, l Chn Tm,
hay i Ng. Thn lin lc vi ngoi gii bng Tu gic (Intuition), bng Hu hay bng i tr.
-Hn lm ngi. Hn y tht tnh, lc dc, nn cn phi km hm, phi tu sa. Hn con ngi chnh l
Tiu Ng. N lin lc vi ngoi gii bng Tr (Intelligence) hay Tiu tr.
-Xc lm n, sinh sng. Xc lin lc vi ngoi gii bng ng quan (les cinq sens).
Hn v Xc trc sau s bin thin, tiu dit, v chng nm trong vng Sinh, Lo, Bnh, T. Ch c Thn l
bt bin, bt t, bt sinh, v Thn mnh v Thn Tri t l mt.
Ti thy c Khng, khuyn con l B Ng nn c Kinh Thi, nn ti cng mt c nho m ti quen
Nng, dch ton b Kinh Thi, xem trong n du iu g b mt. Sau khi dch xong Quc Phong, sang ti i
Nh, ti mi khm ph ra c mt chuyn m xa nay khng ai bit. l Chn o Ni Tm, hay o Thn
Linh m ta c th tm ra trong lng ta. Ngy nay, ngi ta gi l o Huyn ng (Mysticism), hay Phi
Thin, hay Thin Nhn tng d, Thin Nhn nht qun. Xa, Nghiu, Thun, Thnh Thang, Vn Vng, V
Vng v.v... i c vo o cao siu ny.
Chn o Ni Tm dy rng: Tri chng xa ngi, v Hin Thnh l nhng ngi sng phi kt vi Tri
ngay t khi cn trn gian ny. T khi bit c iu ny, ti mi tm xem trong hon v ny, c nhng ai bit
c ci o cao siu ny, v th ti tm c cc k th, b in ca mi o gio ln, nh trn Th Gii, v mi
tm ra c l Nht Qun, Th ng Qui ca cc o gio, nht l thy c rng Tam Gio, Nho, Thch, Lo
l ng nguyn. T , ti khng cn ng khung vo 1 o gio no c nh, v i vo khoa tn gio i
chiu, tm hiu v so snh mi o gio. Sau , ti li nhn thy rng Tri trong tm khm mnh, Chn, Thin,
M l trong mnh. Nn bin thin, tin ha, hay Hng Cu cng nm gn trong mnh. i tm ti ni xa vi, nghe
tuyn truyn, d d, nht nht u l m vng.
Ni th, c ngha l Kinh Dch tim n trong lng mnh, v Thi Cc l cht Dch, nm sn trong mnh,
v mi s bin thin, tin ha ca Kinh Dch cng u do ni ta. Xa nay thin h c g hay, c g tt, u do Thi
Cc trong ta xui nn. Trong ta c 2 phn: Thin bm (inn), v Th c (Acquis)
Cho nn, khi ti vit Kinh Dch, i t lng su con ngi l V Cc, Thi Cc, i dn ra H , Lc Th,
m Dng, T Tng, Ng Hnh, Tng, T, Ho, Qui, Vn Hu, Vn Tng, v cc hon cnh d hay m con
ngi c th gp. Th l i t Tnh lng ni tm ra ti n o ngoi cnh. Mun cho Kinh Dch tr nn cao siu,
trang trng ti dch Kinh Dch hon ton bng th, mong rng:
Li li ngc nh, chu phun,
Lu cho hu th mun vn di lu.
V
Li th ta rt y lng mun thu,
Cho ging trn,cho khoc o vn chng.
Ti mun:
R sng thi gian tm ngha l,
Khi lng Tri t ly tinh hoa...

Nh vy, hc Dch l bit cc lp lang bin ha, chuyn dch ca v tr v ca lng mnh; nhn s suy
ra c chiu hng tin, thoi, v s tr v c vi Bn Th duy nht, tim n ni y lng mnh.
Khi vit b Dch ny, ti khm ph ra c nhiu iu mi m:
1) Dch trnh by hc thuyt Thin a vn vt ng nht th, vi cc h lun ca n, nh Nht th tn vn
th, vn th qui nht th hay ng qui nhi th . Hin nay nhn loi cn tng rng mun loi c mun bn th
khc nhau. Tuy nhin, Khoa Hc gip ta thay i tm nhn, li ngh dn dn.
2) V ti nhn thy Thi Cc trong mi ngi chng ta. l Lng tm, l Thin Nhn trong ta. Lng tm
trong ta, thi mun i bt bin. Cn Nhn tm trong ta thi lun lun bin thin. Chng ta dn dn phi trt b
ci g Bin Thin i vo Bt Bin, tc l b Tiu Ng tr v i Ng.
3) Dch c Tin Thin & Hu Thin. Tin Thin l ci g Hon Thin, L tng. Hu Thin l ci g bt ton,
l thc ti, l nhng g ta trng thy, nhn thy trong cuc i chng ta. Phc Hi v ra 8 qu v 64 qu Tin Thin.
Vn vng v v vit ra 8, v 64 qu Hu Thin. H l Tin Thin, Lc th l Hu Thin. Dch c mc ch
khuyn ta i t Hu Thin tr v Tin Thin.
4) Phc Hi v 8 v 64 qu Tin Thin, cho thy rng Dch ch c m v Dng. M m phi i trc, Dng
phi i sau, mi trn o Tri. i c ht con ng y, l hon thnh c Thin Tnh ca mnh.
5) Nghin cu su xa hn, ti thy 64 qu Tin Thin chia lm 2 na r rt: Na phi l 32 qu m, t qu 1
m n qu 6 m: 1 m l Cu, 2 m l n, 3 m l B, 4 m l Quan, 5 m l Bc, 6 m l Khn.
Cn na tri, cng c 32 qu Dng, t qu 1 Dng, n qu 6 Dng : qu 1 Dng l Phc, 2 Dng l
Lm, 3 Dng l Thi, 4 Dng l i Trng, 5 Dng l Qui, 6 Dng l Kin.
Na m l na i u con ngi (50 nm u ca cuc i ), khi y con ngi phi dn thn vo cuc i,
phi ua tranh vi i, phi xy dng giang sn, t quc.
Na Dng l na i sau con ngi (50 nm sau ca con ngi), khi tc hoa dm, khi y con ngi phi
bit qung gnh lo, quay v lo tu tnh ni tm, mong sao c th tr thnh Thnh Hin, Tin, Pht.
Thiu Khang Tit cho rng: Con ngi phi i na chiu m trc, ct l i vo vt cht, khm ph v tm
hiu vt cht, v phi i na chiu Dng sau, tm hiu cn ct v tm hn mnh. C nh vy, cuc i mi
thc p .
C iu l l 32 qu m u nm v hng Ty, cn 32 qu Dng la nm v hng ng, y nh Dch
mun ni rng Vn minh vt cht phi nhng cho u M lnh o, cn Vn minh tinh thn phi nhng cho
Chu ch huy.
6).Vng Dch Tin Thin (8 v 64 qu) xp theo nh m trng, Dng tiu na bn phi (hnh con c en)
v Dng trng, m tiu na bn tri (hnh con c trng).
Cn Dch Hu Thin ca Vn vng th xp theo cch ln lo, o in. ni, trn i vn g cng c
xui, c ngc, cn nghin cu mi mt cho thu o, nh vy mi trnh c li lm, trnh c ri, gp c
may.
7) Ti sa mt li ca Dch. Dch xp T Tng nh sau: Thiu Dng, Thi m, Thiu m, Thi Dng.
Ti thy khng n. V con trai nh (Thiu Dng), ln ln khng thnh c con gi ln (Thi m), v con gi
nh (Thiu m ) khng th thnh con trai ln (Thi Dng) Nn ci m Dch gi l Thiu Dng, ti gi l Thiu
m, ci m Dch gi l Thiu m ti gi l Thiu Dng, v ta s c: Thiu m, Thi m, Thiu Dng, Thi
Dng; ng vi l m trng, Dng tiu v Dng trng, m tiu ca Tri t.

8) Ti tm ra c Dch bin thin v xoay quanh 1 Tm im. Tm im y chnh l Thi Cc, v c


tng trng bng con s nh 5, 10, 15. ni con ngi th Tm im y l Thin Tm, Chn Tm, Cc Thn, Thi
Cc, Lng tm con ngi, ngay gia u no con ngi, ni m ta gi l N Hon Cung, Huyn Quan Nht
Khiu hay Huyn Tn Chi Mn.
Tm im thi bt bin, Vn Tng bn ngoi thi bin thin. Con ngi phi tin t Vn Tng v vi Thi
Cc. Khi vo ti Thi Cc th Nho Gia gi l t o Trung Dung, Pht gia gi l t ti Kim Cng, Vin Gic,
Lo gia gi l luyn xong Kim n. Chu cn gi chung l Qui Nguyn, Phn Bn.
9) Ti cng ngy cng thy Dch dy ta phi lun lun tin ha. Tin ha chnh l bin Dch. V th Trnh T
mi ni: Ty thi bin Dch, d tng o.
M tin ha l g? L i t th thin ti tinh vi, t Phm phu ti S phu, Qun t, Hin Thnh. Chng ta nn
phn bit Tin Ha (volution) vi Thch ng ngoi cnh (adaptation) Trong Kinh Dch, ta thng thy nhc n
Qun t v Tiu nhn. Qun t c th l nhng ngi bit tin ha, Tiu nhn l nhng ngi ch bit thch ng
vi hon cnh.
o Lo cho rng Qun t l nhng ngi tun theo c nhng khun mu truyn thng; Hin nhn l
nhng ngi thot ra c vng cng ta ca cuc i; cn Tiu nhn l nhng ngi sng theo tht tnh, lc
dc, ch bit lo sng v hng th. H tin ln nc thang x hi bng sc mnh, bng mu m, bng bt cng v
bo lc, ch bit ngh n mnh m qun ngi.
10) Xa nay, cc nh bnh gii Kinh Dch, cha ai phn bit qu Kp khc qu n ci g? Ti nhn nh nh
sau: Qu n tng trng cho Vn Hu, qu Kp tng trng cho Mi hon cnh m vn hu v nhn qun gy
nn trong khi giao tip vi nhau. Thng Kinh & H Kinh vit li 64 qu, tc l a ra 64 hon cnh tng trng,
dy cho con ngi phng php s x cho kho lo, ty theo mi hon cnh mnh gp.
11) Ngoi ra, ti cn dng Tm im v 6 vng trn ng tm gii Dch: Tm im l Thi Cc, 6 vng
trn ng tm bn ngoi l 64 qu Dch,
mi Ho nm trn mt vng trn. Nay nu ta em xoay chuyn, vn ng cc vng trn ng tm ni trn, th
Tm im s ng yn mt ch, cn cc vng trn bn ngoi s xoay chuyn v chu nh lut thng ging,
bin thin. Ngoi ra chng cn chu nh lut ly tm v hng tm. Nu vy, mun vt trong v tr, tc l nhng g
c hnh tng, u s phi chu nhng nh lut bin thin, thng trm, ly tm (Force centrifuge), hng tm
vy(Force centripte) Ly tm l Tn, l hng ngoi (Extroversion); Hng tm l T, l hng ni (Introversion).
12) Sau cng, ti suy thm nu Dch l Bin, nu Dch l mt khoa Trit Hc, chuyn kho v Bn Th bt
bin v cc Hin Tng bin thin, th Dch phi c coi l mt Khoa hc ph qut, v mun kho Dch cho c
kt qu, khng nn g b mnh vo nhng li bnh gii ca Nho Gia, m cn phi:
* Kho cc o gio
* Cc Trit gia u, .
* Cc pht minh khoa hc.
* Cc Hc thuyt Trit Hc, Khoa Hc c kim na.
T th k 17, Leibniz nh ton hc c (1616 - 1716) cng dy cng nghin cu Dch, v li 64 qu Dch
theo cng thc ca khoa Nh nguyn ton php (Arithmetique binaire ou arithmetique dyadique)
Sang ti th k 19, tinh thn Kinh Dch thm nhp su xa vo Trit Hc, Khoa Hc u Chu, vi thuyt
tin ha ca Lamarck, Darwin, vi bin chng php (tc Dch L) ca Hgel, v Marx, vi thuyt tng i ca
Einstein cng nh nhng quan im mi m nht v tng quan gia nng lc v vt cht ca nhng nh Bc Hc
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u M, vi quan nim ca Werner Heisenberg: di mi hnh thi bin thin ca v tr ch c mt bn th duy


nht.
* Nm 1950, hai nh bc hc Francis Crick v James Watson tm ra c c cu DNA cho mun loi
mun vt.
* Nm 1963, ngi ta tm ra c mt m di truyn hc (Genetic code) Nm 1961, khi lm quyn Trung
Dung, ni trang 267, ti chng minh rng 64 m s (codons) trong khoa di truyn hon ton ging th t 64 qu
Dch Phc Hi. Nhng ti cha h cng b, nn cng nh khng. Nm 1974, ng Harley Bialy tuyn b c cu
DNA hon ton ging 64 qu Dch. Ngy nay, nhiu nh Bc Hc cng ng nh vy.
* ng Gunther Stent trong quyn The Coming of the Golden Age (1969), ng Martin Schonberger trong
quyn The I Ching and the Genetic Code (1979), ng Johnson F. Yan (Nghim Tn Hin) trong quyn DNA and
the I Ching (1991) v.v... ang trit khai thc cc vn trn.
* Chng ta cng ta cng nn bit rng, nm 1957 hai nh Bc Hc tr tui ngi Trung Hoa, Yng Zhn Ning
(Dng Chn Ninh),v Li Zhn Do (L Chnh o), tuyn b nh c Kinh Dch m pht minh v chng
nghim rng trong th gii in t, pha phi v pha tri khng c cng c tnh nh nhau. Cng trnh ny c
gii thng Nobel (1957) v vt l v lm chn ng gii khoa hc chng km g thuyt tng i ca Einstein.
Mong rng cc nh bc hc tng lai s cn c nhiu ngi i vo con ng ny.
Ti s in b sch ny thnh 3 Tp:
- Tp u, khong 500 trang, bn v Dch L, V Cc, Thi Cc, H , Lc Th, m Dng, T Tng,
Ng Hnh. Tp u bn v Thin o, v Ct Dch (qu v no mun kho cu, Hc Dch mun tm ra ci g
mi, nn c k quyn ny) T xa nay, cc Hc gi cha ai chu bn v cc vn trn cho tng tn, v i vo
Dch l i ngay vo qu, vo Ho, nh vy Dch s mt i phn Thi Cc, m ch bt u bng phn m Dng, y
nh l con rng mt u, ch bit c m Dng bin thin, m khng bit c Hng Cu l Thi Cc. Tp u dy
cch lm Thnh Hin, v cho ta nhiu kin thc, nu ta mun tin thm.
- Tp 2 l Thng Kinh (khong gn 400 trang) ni u c phn Dch Kinh gin lc, ging s ngi coi
sau ny khi vo cc qu s hiu d dng hn, sau l gii 30 qu Dch u tin.
- Tp 3 l H Kinh (khong trn 600 trang, gm H Kinh, H T, Thuyt Qui, T Qui, Tp Qui.) Hai
quyn sau bn v o qun t, o lm ngi v dy gii quyt mi hon cnh kh khn xy ra trong cuc i.
Trong khi son tho b Dch ny, ti dng n dy nhiu ni nh: i Hc Minh c, cho mt s sinh
vin Vn Khoa, Thng Thin v Cao i ti trng Nhn V, C Quan Ph thng gio l Cao i, v cha Pht
gio Vit Nam ti Hoa K.
Mi kha ging chng 4 nm. Hc vin c ngi 80, 90 tui, c ngi cha ti 30 tui.
B Dch ny, ti vit xong vo khong nm 1973. Hi nhiu c quan mun xut bn n nh Khai
Tr, Cao i, i Hc Minh c, nhng lc t nc cha bit ra sao, nn ti nh ch.
n k l Sinh Nht nm 1995, nh ti sau khi c t qu, thy n rt c ch cho th h sau, nn nh ti quyt
tm cho xut bn b ny. Mi u thu ngi nh my, nhng sau mun cho hon ho chu ton hn, hn na li
mun ph bin trong gii Sinh vin, vi c mong cc em s tm c ci g mi m pht minh, ng hu mang
li li ch cho quc gia, dn tc sau ny, nn nh ti t hc nh computer, t nh ly, v son phn P DNG
VO THI I, cc em thy Hc Dch l nn p dng vo i sng, vo mi s, mt cch bin ha, v
nhc nh cc em rng Dch c t thi Thng C, m cho ti ngy nay vn dng c trong Khoa Hc, th ng
nn bao gi b qun n, v hc n rt c li cho Tinh Thn ln Vt Cht.
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c bit 2 quyn sau ny, phn cui tt c cc qu, u c mc P DNG CHO THI I, n rt c li ch
cho chng ta hin nay, khi phi ng u vi bao ni kh khn trong cuc sng hin ti, m t xa ti nay t
sang u cha c v no lm ra, nn c gi lun cho l c Dch v hiu Dch qu kh. Ti ngh nh sau:
* Qu v no hiu Hn Vn, c t u qu.
* Qu v no c cc sch Dch, m khng hiu ngha ca n lm, th nn c phn Bnh ging, hoc
phn p dng vo Thi i trc.
* Cc em sinh vin, hoc cc v m trnh vn ha trung bnh, nn c phn p dng vo Thi i trc, v
phn ny nh ti son, dng nhng li vn rt thng dng, d hiu, cho chng ta vi la tui 18 tr ln, sc
hc c, vit, v ni c thng tho ting Vit l c th hiu c mt cch d dng.
Qu v ng ngi b Dch qu di, khng c th gi c, thc ra n c 64 qu = 64 on khc sau + 9 Chng
ca Tp I, v nhng on, nhng Chng ny khng lin lc g vi nhau, nn c sau, trc g cng c. Qu v
c n nh c bo, dn dn n s thm nhp. Hn na, vi phn p Dng vo Thi i, v nhng in tch trong
phn Bnh Ging, s lm qu v thch th, v lc li c phi chi n di hn..., l l do ti sao nh ti li say
m, tip tay vi ti, cho n ra i gia lc kh khn ny.
Nh ti sa sang li b Dch ca ti, cho n c chng chng hn, v lm phn p dng vo Thi i
cho mi qu, nn k tn chung lm Kinh Dch vi ti. Ti khng bao gi ng c v gi, nh ti i c
vi ti vo Thin o. l mt phn thng ln cho ti, khi gi yu, tn tt. Cn phn ch Hn, th nh ti
khuyn ti nn m nhim. Mi u ti khng chu, v thy qu sc ti. Nh ti phi khuyn khch mi, ti mi
chu. Nay th mi chuyn m p. Ti b Stroke t 7 nm nay, tay phi b bi khng c ng c, nhng nh
m c bng tay tri vn c.
Ti ngh b Dch ny rt c ch cho th h mai sau, v chc chn s c n trn thu xp cho u vo y.
Bc s Nhn t Nguyn vn Th
Nguyn ging s Trit Hc Trung Hoa (i hc Vn Khoa Saigon)
Nguyn gio s Trit Trung Hoa (i Hc Minh c Saigon)
v b Nguyn vn Th tc Huyn Linh, L th Yn
chuyt .
Westminster, th nm ngy 17 thng 10 nm 1996

Phn 1 DCH HC NHP MN


Chng 1. Dn Nhp
Hc Dch c th chia ra lm hai ng li:
1. Mt l hc gc Dch tc l chuyn kho v V Cc, Thi Cc, tm hiu v ngun gc ca v tr v con
ngi.
2. Hai l hc ngn Dch tc l kho st v l m Dng tiu trng ca tri t, tun tit thnh suy ca hon
v, tc l hc v cc Ho, Qui, hc v Tng, T, S.
Hc Dch theo li th nht s gip ta tm li c cn nguyn ca tm hn v bit ng tu luyn tin ti
Chn, Thin, M, Phn bn, Hon nguyn.

Hc Dch theo li th hai c th gip ta tin tri, tin on phn no vn hi, kh th ca lch s nhn loi,
cng nh nhng ng c bin ha trong hon v..
Chng ta nn nh Dch l do Tri truyn! Phc Hi, Vn Vng, Chu Cng, Khng T u l nhng ngi
c Thng mc khi, u c nhng khi c siu vit. Cc Ngi dy cng suy t, kho st, ghi ch, sng
tc mi lu truyn cho chng ta c gia ti Dch hc qu bu y. i vo khoa Dch hc, ta phi c gng t cho
c vi c nhn, tm cho ra ci r cuc i, gc gc v tr, nhng nh lut chi phi mi s bin thin ca t
tri, cng nh vin ch, cng l ca qun sinh, v nhn loi. Chng ta s dng nhng ha bn Dch lm nhng
bn ch ng, dn li cho tm thn ta bng qua cc lp lang bin o bn ngoi ca v tr i vo cn nguyn
bt bin, tm im hng cu ca trn hon. T ta s i ngc li, tm cho ra dn dn cc cn c, then cht
cng nh nhng nhp iu, tit tu ca mi bin thin.[1]
S kho cu ny s i hi chng ta nhiu cng phu, bt buc ta phi tim tm suy cu m ngy, nhng
cng rt ro l th. S hc hi ca chng ta s khng phi l mt s cp nht my mc, m l c mt cng trnh
sng to hi hp. S tm ti hc hi ny cng c th gip chng ta gn c, khi trong ci lng ha hi cng
To Ha,[2] gp g li cc Thnh Hin mun ni, mun tha.
Thc vy, nhn vo cc bn Dch ta s lnh hi c s kin v cng quan trng ny l To Ha hay Thi
Cc n o ngay trong lng su Vn Hu. To Ha v Vn Hu hp li thnh mt i th, y nh mt cy v i c
mun cnh l, hoa qu xum xu.[3]
Thi Cc, To Ha l cn ct; Vn Hu l nhng hin tng bin thin chuyn dch bn ngoi.
Suy ra: nu ta bit vt qua nhng lp lang, bin o ca hon cnh, xc thn v tm hn, ta s tm v c
vi To Ha, vi Thi Cc n o ni y lng ta.
Th tc l: t ngn suy ra gc, t bin thin suy ra hng cu, t cc tng lp bin thin bn ngoi suy ra tm
im bt bin bn trong. Nh vy hc Dch l bit cc lp lang bin ha, chuyn dch ca v tr v ca lng
mnh; nhn , s suy ra c chiu hng tin thoi v tr v c cng bn th duy nht, tim n ni y lng
mnh. Xa nay c bit bao ngi nh hc Dch m tr v c vi cn nguyn ca mnh, vi Tri, vi Thi
Cc.
Ngy b Dng chn nhn i nh Hn, tc gi b Chu Dch Tham ng Kh, mt b sch cn bn cho o
Thn Tin, ta sch nh sau:
o Thn Tin luyn n, tu o thc ht sc gin d: chng qua l kt hp vi Thi Cc (To Ha)
mthi[4]
ng gii thch:
Tham l tham d cng Thi Cc.
ng l ha ng cng Thi Cc.
Kh l kh hp vi Thi Cc. [5]
Thi Uyn, nho gia thi Tng cho rng: Ngi qun t hc Dch tin ti thn minh[6]
Tc gi quyn Thi Cc quyn bng huyt cho rng: Dch l mt phng php, mt con ng ln
lao,trng i gip ta tr v vi Tri, vi Thng .[7]
Vn o T gn y cng ch trng rng hc Dch ct l tm cho ra cn ct tinh hoa ca mnh, tm cho ra
nh mnh sang c ca mnh, tm cho ra nh phn bn hon nguyn, ch khng phi v chuyn bi ton, sm v.[8]
Ngi xa ch nhng ngi hc Dch mt cch thin cn, b cn bn, i tm chi mt, ngn ngnh nh sau:
Ch Nhu m Dch mn phn phn
8

Ch kin phin chi bt kin cn


Quan tng lao suy h th,
Ngon t dic th snh khng ngn,
Tu tri nht bn sinh song cn,
Thy tn thin nhi d vn tn.
Khit khn Bao Hi vi nhn
Du du kim c hng thy lun. [9]
Tm dch:
Ch Nho bn Dch ni lng bng,
Ngnh ngn tinh tng, gc chng thng
Xem Tng, tn cng suy qu H
Ngon T, ph sc snh li khng
C hay mt gc hai cnh ch
Mi thy nghn con, vn chu ng,
Ni gt Phc Hi ai t,
Ngn sau tri k, d vi trng.
C nhn xa tm ra c b quyt ca Ha Cng, to ra c H , Lc Th, Hng Phm, sng tc ra c
Dch Tng, Dch Qui, khng phi v thy Thn qui, Long m, m chnh v bit quan st hin tng t tri,
tim tm suy cu, i su vo y lng v tr, vo ti Thin a chi tm,Hong cc chi cc, ri t , c ci
nhn bao qut c ni gii ln ngoi gii.
Cho nn iu kin cn bn hc Dch cho c kt qu l:
- Kho st kinh vn.
- Quan st ni gii, ngoi gii.
- Tim tm suy cu. [10]
C nh vy mi tm ra c vi c nhn, tm ra c nh bin hng ca tri t cng nh ca bn thn, tm
ra c bn nguyn v tr tim n ngay trong lng mnh, tm ra l nht qun ngay trong ngi mnh. [11]
Khi con ngi tm ra c cn nguyn ca tm hn, s khng cn quan nim theo ng li qua phn
gin cch. Khi nhn thc c bn nguyn duy nht n tng di cc lp lang phin din ca v tr, tm hn s
khai thng c ngun mch nh sng, s thng tu, s trc gic, v s nhn thy r hng i ca tm thn. Dn d
nh s trung thnh theo ri nh Ho quang n c ch ng, nh s bn b trn hng i c ch vch, lt
thng mi gian lao, mi cm by, mi tr ngi gy nn bi t ma, vt dc; thc thn, kiu , tm hn cng ngy
cng thy cn tm bng sng, ho kh gia tng.
Dn d tm hn s nhn ra Chn Th tim n y lng khi mt cng tm ti, m mm nh xa. Lc y tm
hn s pht huy, phng pht c nh Thin Chn ra bn ngoi, soi sng cho th nhn bit ng li Qui nguyn,
Phn bn. [12]
Mun hc Dch cho c kt qu, cn phi tm cho ra l bin hng ngay trong lng mnh, tm ra c bn
nguyn ca v tr, c l nht qun ngay trong lng mnh.
Khi tm ra c cn nguyn, s thng tu, s nhn thc v s tm ra c Thin Chn. Nhn ra c Thin
Chn, l vo c tm im ca vng Dch. Lc y s bit c nhng nh lut chi phi s bin Dch, l do v
mc ch ca s bin Dch.
9

Chu T ni: Ci vi diu ca To Ha, ch c nhngngi i su vo nguyn l mi c th bitc[13]


Hong min Trai vit: Tr tri l phng tin vo o, m tr tri u c d; cn phi nhn thc c thc th
ca v tr; lc y u ui c s mi hin l ra; bng khng th ch l ging thuyt vn t, ngy mt lao sao, lm
cho bn th v vn, m cn nguyn cng chng bit l chi. [14]
ng vit thm: Lng nguyn vn, khng b xuyn xao, chia x mi c th thy c ci bao la ca o
th, c hc nhiu bit rng, mi r c ci t vi ca o th.
Trn phng din bn th, bn tnh, th vn vt in nhau, nhng trn phng din bin Dch th mi s, mi vt
u c mt v mt khc l. Cho nn tn tm s hm sc c L vn vt; bc hc s hiu r L vn vt [15]
Nu ta hc Dch vi mc ch l tm chn l, tm nguyn th, th chng nhng ta tm ra c bn ca cc
hin trit ng, m cn tm ra c bnh sinh chi ch ca cc hin trit u Chu.
Thc vy, Hraclite nghin cu s bin Dch chnh l tm cho ra o th (Logos), cho ra Chn l i ng
ph qut. [16]
Salomon Ibn Gebirol cng khuyn mi ngi hy vn ln cho ti bn th, thc hin nh mnh mnh v
c hnh phc, khoi lc tuyt vi. [17]
CH THCH
[1] Lhomme qui tudie le Livre des Changements connatra la raison dtre du bonheur et du malheur, de la
dcadence et de llvation, et la voie rationelle (Tao) selon laquelle il convient davancer ou de reculer, de
laquelle il rsulte le salut ou la perte.
-- Yi king, tome I, page 11, en note.
-- La voie rationnelle, page 67, note 2)
[2] Duy tch thnh hin hoi huyn bo chn. .- Chu Dch Tham ng Kh.
[3] Xem cc ha bn Dch ca Phc Hi.
[4] Chu Dch Tham ng Kh - trang 1.
[5] Ib. 1.
[6] Qun t hc Dch nhi ch thn d. .- Trng Bin Tng Nguyn Hc n, quyn III,
trang 678.
[7] Dch chi vi th gio nhn hi Thin chi i Kinh i php d. .- Trn th,
Thi cc quyn bng thuyt - trang 52.
[8] ... Li Thin tm nhn i c s long m ph xut H, thn qui ti Th xut Lc, s d chiu th thnh
nhn t o t dn phn bn qui cn d ch o nh. Tin Thnh nhn chi nhi hoch qui, d minh m
Dng vn hnh chi o. Hu Thnh xin chi nhi thnh Dch, d cng tnh mnh phn hon chi l. Thin kin
gi bt st, hoc cnh mc vi bc ph sm v chi thut, v ngoi nhi tht ni, x bn nhi trc mt, khuy c
nht oan d t ho, nhi bt kin o chi i ton. , ,
. , . ,
. , , , , ,
. -- Vn o t ging o tinh hoa lc, quyn I, trang 9.
[9] Dch Kinh i Ton, trang 35b.
[10] T vit: Ng thng chung nht bt thc, chung d bt tm d t. : , . -Lun Ng - V Linh Cng, XV cu 30.
10

[11] La conscience pntre dans le plan du Centre mtaphysique. -- M. Snard - Le Zodiaque - page 33.
[12] Lorsque lidentit humaine dcouvre lorigine de sa conscience, elle cesse de concevoir par catgorie et
dualisme.
Lorsquelle prend conscience de lUnit sous-jacente de lunivers, elle souvre la lumire de lintuition qui
la fconde; elle nat ainsi la lumire de lIntelligence claire et saisit la direction que doit suivre sa volont.
Puis par la fidlit constante au rayon entrevu, persistant dans cette mme direction malgr les piges et les
obstacles de lesprit des tnbres, matrialisme, sensorialit, rationalisme, orgueil, elle sent crotre en elle la
lumire et avec elle la force. Peu peu elle voit, reconnat, concoit la divinit quelle cherchait dabord
obscurment tandis quelle la portait en elle, et peut alors la manifester dans le monde sensible. La servante de
Dieu est devenue la Mre du Verbe, le lien et linterprte entre lInconscient et le Supraconscient, entre la
Terre et le Ciel, entre l Esprit et son Ple rceptif, la substance, et la Vierge ouvre ainsi lhomme la Voie du
retour LEssence. -- Snard,Le Zodiaque, pages 196, et 197.
[13] To Ha vi diu, duy thm l gi nng thc chi. , . --Trng bin Tng Nguyn
hc n, quyn 3, trang 673.
[14] Tr tri ni nhp o chi phng, nhi tr tri phi d s. Yu tu mc nhn thc th phng kin oan ch. Bt
nhin, tc ch th ging thuyt vn t, chung nht huyn hoa nhi chn th on, nguyn bt tng thc.
, . . , , ,
.- Trng bin Tng Nguyn hc n III, trang 693.
[15] Tn c tnh, s d tn tm nhi cc h o th chi i, o vn hc s d tr tri, nhi tn h o th chi t. T
tnh quan chi, vn vt ch th nht dng. T o quan chi, tc vt cc th nht dng, c n tn th tm nhi vn
vt chi l v bt hon c, duy k cc th nht dng, c tu cng l tr tri, nhi vn s, vn vt chi l phng thy
qun thng. , , . ,
. , , , , ,
. -- Trng bin Tng Nguyn hc n quyn III -- trang 692.
[16] Le vrai cest luniversel, la totalit des fragments du monde, lintelligence de luniversel, la mditation de
linvisible, la saisie totale de la totalit. (Kostas Alexos - Hraclite et la philosophie p. 64)
...Le Logos est la Raison une, universelle, unificatrice (Vernunft)
Hraclite et la philosophie - page 58-59.
[17] Si tu tlves jusqu la matire universelle et que tu tabrites sous son ombre, tu y verras tout ce quil y a de
merveilleux. Il faut donc que tu fasses pour cela les plus grands efforts, car cest l le but auquel lme
humaine est destine et l est la plus grande jouissance et la plus grande flicit. -- M. Snard, Le Zodiaque page 323.

Chng 2. i ch ca Kinh Dch


ti cng nh phm vi, mc ch ca Dch Kinh thc l bao la v i. Thc vy, Dch Kinh mun bao qut
c Vn Tng, Vn vt, V tr, qun thu tt c cc nh lut ca tri t, v th H T thng vit Dch d
thin a chun. S d Kinh Dch tr nn kh hiu, chnh l v ta mun hiu tng chi tit vn vt ca sch. Cho nn
mun c t nhiu nim n gin, nhng chnh xc v Dch, ta phi xt Dch mt cch tng qut, i cng v t
nhiu phm vi nh Trit hc, Lun l, v o gio.
11

TIT I. DCH KINH VI TRIT HC


A. DCH KINH VI KHOA SIU HNH HC
a/ Quan nim nht th vn th
V phng din trit hc, Dch kho st v tr, v c hai phng din Bin vi Hng.
Dch bn v Thi Cc tc l bn v Bn th hng cu, siu khng gian, thi gian.
Dch bn v Ho, Qui l bn v Vn vt, Vn Hu, bn v Hin tng (phnomnes), bn v cc hnh thc
bin ha trong tri t, bn v s di ng bin thin trong th gii.
Chu Hy vit: Thi Cc l o, thuc Hnh nhi thng.(tc l Thi Cc l Bn Th, l Tuyt i siu xut
hnh tng.)
m Dng l kh dng, thuc hnh nhi h (tc l thuc hu vi, hu tng) Cho nn, ng v phng din
bin thin, hin tng m xt, th ta thy ng tnh khng ng thi, m Dng khng ng du vt, nhng
nguyn l v m Dng, ng tnh u hm ng y bn trong [1] Tin Nho cho rng: Khi bn th cn tch
nhin cha hin dng, cha bin ha th gi l Tin Thin. [2]Khi pht l thnh hnh tng th gi
lHuThin.[3]
Theo lun c ny, th Thi Ccthuc Tin Thin. Vn Tng, hay m Dng, Ho, Qui thuc Hu
Thin. Tin Thin v hnh tng, Hu Thin hu hnh, hu tng [4]
1. Thi Cc (V Cc), hay L l Bn th mun vt, Tuyt i, siu thi gian, khng gian, tim tn
(Substance, Forme, Essence, Noumne, Ousia. Phng hu Lan dng ch Subsist.)
2. m Dng nh kh, Ho, Qui tng trng cho Vn Vt, Vn Tng thuc Hnh nhi h, l phn kh
dng, l Hin tng bin thin, l thuc khng gian, thi gian. (Accident, contigent, phnomne, existence,
matire. Phng hu Lan dng ch Exist) [5]
Ni cch khc, Dch cho rng di mi hnh thcbin thin ca v tr, cn c mt bn th bt bin. l
V Cc, hay Thi Cc. Vn Vt bin thin bn ngoi chng qua l nhng hnh thi bin thin ca bn th y. [6]
T mt bn th, vn vt cng ngy cng sinh ha, cng ngy cng phn tn, cng ngy cng tr nn phin
toi, phc tp, sinh ra mun ngn lu phi, mun ngn chi dip, tung ta ra cng khp t tri.
Tuy nhin mun mun ngn ngn hnh thc th tp bn ngoi y vn cng chung mt gc gc m thi. Cc
bn ca Dch, hoc vin , hoc honh cng u gi cho ta nim y. [7] m t quan nim Mt bn th
duy nht sinh Vn Tng, Vn Hu, Dch dng hai phng php:
1) T ng
2) Biu tng.
V t ng, Dch ch ni vn tt nh sau: Dch hu Thi Cc, th sinh Lng nghi, Lng nghi sinh T
Tng v.v.. (H t thng chng XI).
Khoa Luyn n c Ai Cp cng c quan nim tng t. Ai Cp xa cng ch trng: Thot k thy, c mt
nguyn cht bt dit lm cn bn cho vn vt. Nguyn cht y sinh ra hai cht gi l Dim (Soufre), v Cng
(Mercure) Dim, Cng sinh T Tng l a, Thy, Ha, Kh [8]
Dch ghi quan im trn bng biu tng sau:

12

Khoa chim tinh hc v Luyn n u Chu ghi quan im trn nh sau

C hai bn trn cng vn ch l: Thi Cc sinh Lng Nghi, Lng Nghi sinh T Tng...
T hn mt th k nay quan nim nht th vn th ca ng phng lan trn vo lnh vc Trit hc,
Khoa hc u Chu.
Thuyt tin ha ca Lamarck, Darwin cn c trn nguyn l nht th, vn th, bin minh rng Vn Hu
tin ti ngy ny nh s bin ha t mt sinh c, sinh vtu tin.[9]
Weissmann ch trng vn s tim n trong ci trng nguyn thy. [10]
Georges Lematre ch trng v tr xut sinh t mt hn khi nguyn thy m ng mnh danh l nguyn
tnguyn thy. [11]
Werner Heisenberg, mt nh Vt L hc tr danh ch trng trong quyn La Nature dans la
Physiquecontemporaine i khi nh sau:
V tr vn vt tuy c 92 nguyn t khc nhau, nhng rt cc ch c ba l:
Dng in t (positron)
m in t (lectron)
Trung ha t (neutron)
Nhng Dng in t, m in t, Trung ha t chung qui vn ch l mt Nguyn kh. Cho nn v tr tht
ra ch c mt Nguyn kh, Nguyn cht nhng c th trong nhiu trng thi khc nhau. [12]
b/ Quan nim vn vt tun hon chung nhi phc thy ca Dch Kinh
Nu Dch ch ch trng c mt chiu bin ha t Thi Cc n Vn Hu, t nht n vn, t gin n phin
thi, th chng c g l cao p, v ch mi l chiu sa a, ph tn, t vong ca tri t, cha ni ln c chiu
ha hp, on t, siu thng, sinh tn ca vn vt, cha ni ln c n lc ca Vn Hu lun lun mun vn ln
tr v vi Thi Cc.
Nhng thc ra, Dch khng quan nim bin ha mt chiu, v cho rng khi v tr bin ha, phn tn
n cc , s xoay chiu, i hng, bc dn ln nhng nc thang tinh thn cui cng li phc hi Nguyn
bn.
Ni cch khc, v tr bin thin khng phi l theo mt ng thng v cng tn, nhng theo hai chiu m
Dng, vt cht, tinh thn vng lai, phn phc cui cng li tr v Nguyn bn. Quan nim trng i ny u
c cc tin hin c Nho ln Lo cng nhn.
Vn o t vit: Mi u t trong thun hnh m sinh, cui cng li tr li v n tng ti Trung im,
Trung Hong Thi Cc, tm ra c bn lai din mc ca mnh. [13]

13

Lu nht Minh vit: trong quyn Tu chn bin nnhu bin tu chng nh sau: Dch ni: Nguyn thy
phn chung, th l bit l t sinh. Mnh T ni: Bc tr gi suy cu cn do, cn Thnh nhn tm cho ra
cng ch cuc i. Cho nn o c ca Thnh Hin c u c ui, c gc c ngn. Bit c u, hay c cui,
kho c gc, cng c ngn, mi c th thng sut tng u tuyt v, qun trit, i gic, i ng... Gi s cn
c iu mt m, th t hnh ng s m mm, bit khng ng, th lm s ngc ng khng thng. Hc gi phi
cng k l, ri mi c th em ra m thi hnh p dng. Bit n k cng, lm ti hon m, l hai phng din
cn yu, khng th no khng c c. M l y chng qua l o ca tri t, ca To ha. o ca To ha c
th, c dng, c u c ui, l mi trng cho m Dng p i, vn hnh i thay, tiu trng, bin ha bn
trong, nhng m cht then quan h nht, tm im ca tt c mi bin thin, vn l Chn Nguyn nht kh, vn l
Thi Cc h v, v hnh, v tng... Hiu c iu ny, lp tc s ln ti bc Thnh Hin, khng hiu ni iu
ny, s phi trm lun mun kip. Cng l tc l hiu bit thu o cn bn ny vy... [14]
Trng Ti vit: Thi H khng th khng c kh. Kh khng th khng t thnh vn vt. Vn vt khng th
khng tn tr thnh Thi H... S tun hon, xut nhp bt buc phi nh vy. [15]
Nguyn n Trng, tc gi tp To ha thng cho rng: Thi Cc l mt vy. Vn vt bt u t mt, v kt
thc mt. Trang T gi th l xut c, nhp c... [16]
Nhn vo honh ca Dch ta thy nim Thi Cc xut sinh vn vt c pht biu bng phng thc:
Thi Cc sinh Lng Nghi; Lng Nghi sinh T Tng; T Tng sinh Bt Qui; Bt Qui sinh Lc Thp T
Qui... Mun suy ra chiu phn hon ca vn vt ta ch cn c ngc t 64 qu tr v dn cho ti Thi Cc.
Nguyn n Trng vit: Dch ni nguyn thy phn chung. Th tc l ni rng t nhng Qui th v cng
phc tp quay tr v 64 qu, t 64 tr v 8; 8 tr v 4; 4 tr v 2, 2 tr v 1; th tc l thun Kin vy, th tc l
Chn Nh bn th vy. [17]
Nguyn n Trng cho rng vn vt tr v thun Kin tng cng cha c ng v nh vy vn cn nm
trong vng hnh Tng, Ho, Qui. Phi tr v Kin S, tc l phi tr v Thi Cc v hnh tng mi ng.
Minh o Thin vit:
Xem Kin t tha cha thnh hnh,
Mt nt thnh ri, vn vt sinh [18]
Nh vy, cuc bin Dch tun hon trong v tr thc l gin d. Ta c th theo di s din bin y t u n
ui c. Tt c ch l mt ngun sinh lc din bin dn d t Trung tm ra ti cc tng lp bn ngoi, ri li
chuyn ha xoay mnh bng qua cc tng lp bin thin t ngoi vo trong, cho ti trung tm nguyn thy, to
thnh mt vng sinh ha c gii hn, c tit tu, mch lc, c nguyn y, thy chung. Vng i tun hon ca v
tr chng qua cng nh tnh non nc, m Tn ngm vnh bng nhng li th p nh sau:
D cho sng cn mn,
Cn non, cn nc, hy cn th xa,
Non cao bit hay cha?
Nc i ra b, li ma v ngun.
Nc non hi ng cn lun,
Bo cho non ch c bun lm chi.
Nuc kia d hy cn i,
Ngn du xanh tt, non th c vui.
Nghn nm giao c kt i,
14

Non non, nc nc, cha ngui li th. (Tn )


Dch ghi ch nh lut tun hon phn phc, nhtbin vn, vn qui nht bng bn Dch Tin
Thin 8 qu, hay 64 qu.

Tu chn bt t phng c li rng: Trc xung sau ln nh mt vng. mun ni vng tun hon ca
tri t phi l m trc, Dng sau, ngha l mi u tinh thn phi nhp th, phi lng vo vt cht mi gip
cho tinh thn siu thng d dng c. [19]
Chim tinh hc u Chu m t quan nim trn bng nhng li l sau: Nguynng lc t phi ngu bin
t th tim phc n th hiu hin; t nht n vn, t v tng n hu hnh; t tinh thn n vt cht, t th
gii v sc tng n th gii hnh tng, t khinh thanh n trng trc. Trn on ng thoi ha ny, thn kh
cng ngy cng n o sau nhiu bc mn hin tng dy c cho n vt cht. [20] Khi n im thp nht ca
chu k, thn kh hay o li ln ngc li, bng qua nhiu lp lang hnh th cng ngy cng khinh thanh, tin dn
v cc gii v hnh, v tng, tr v trng thi duy nht bn nguyn. l ngha v tr ca vng Hong
o.[21]
c/ Hai p dng quan trng ca Dch l ni trn.
1.) Vn vt khc nhau v hnh tng, ging nhau v bn th. Nh ta thy v tr l do mt Nguyn th
pht sinh. cng mt ngun gc pht sinh t phi ging nhau v bn th. bin ha nhanh chm khc nhau, t
phi khc nhau v hnh thc, v a v, v cng vic, v ging ging, v thi gian, khng gian, v trng thi tm
thn.
Nho gia ni: Nht Th vn th
o gia ni: Nht Bn vn th [22]
Dng Hng ni: ng Bn ly mt[23]
Theo quan nim ny th con ngi v v tr u hp li thnh mt i th, u cng chung mt bn th, mt
Thi Cc, v v vy c nh hng mt thit vi nhau. Mt tri, mt trng, tinh t bin ng, cng lm cho i
sng con ngi bin ng, i thay. [24]
2) Lch s con ngi cng din bin theo hai chiu thun nghch cui cng li phc hi Nguyn th.
p dng Dch l tun hon vo lch s con ngi, ta thy rng, nu con ngi t Nguyn th pht sinh t s
phi bin thin tin ha qua nhiu giai on lch s thng trm, vng lai, phn phc cui cng c th phc hi
Nguyn bn.
15

S bin Dch trong tri t v ca nhn qun nh vy s c mt ngha v cng cao p, l bin ha pht
trin; pht trin ci thin, ci thin t ti Hon Thin, tr v Nguyn Thy Hon Thin.
Dch vit: Cn o bin ha cc chnh Tnh Mnh bo hp Thi ha. o Tri bin ha thc hin Thin
Tnh, Thin Mnh, rt ro l hp nht vi Thi Ha [25]
Tnh mnh Php quyt Minh ch cho rng: Vn Hu ri ra cng i n s hip ha, ng qui nht th.[26]
Lo T cng vit:
Mun loi sinh ha a oan,
Ri ra s phi lai hon Bn nguyn[27]
Hunh nh Kinh gii cho rng:
Nht bn phn tn ra thnh mun ngn th tp, th tp ri ra cng quay v mt gc. Nh vy c hnh ln thn
u c ph nguyn v con ngi s hp nht vi o th, Chn th. Du bin ha my ri cng tr v Trung
im, v Thi Nht, v Thn.[28]
Hegel cho rng v tr ch l s pht trin ca thc.
thc th hng cu, nhng nhn loi mun tin ti thc hng cu phi pht trin, phi bin thin, tc l
phi c mt lch trnh, lch s.[29]
Nh vy Dch khng quan nim v tr mt cch c nhn, c tnh, vn vt m qun i th, ton th,[30] cng
nh khng quan nim v tr mt cch ton th, i th m qun c nhn, c tnh.[31]
Tri li Dch bao qut c hai phng din ton th v chi tit, tnh v ng. Ton th l Thi Cc, chi tit l
VnVt, l Ho Qui:Tnh l nhng nc thang gi tr tinh thn v vt cht, ng l s tin trin bin ha qua cc
nc thang gi tr.
Ton th v chi tit, v tr, x hi c nhn h tng nh hng t ti Thi ha. [32]
B. DCH KINH VI KHOA LUN L HC
1. Dch Kinh vi khoa lun l hc hnh thc u Chu
Dch Kinh ch trng Vn Tng bin thin, v thng, v nh, li ch trng mi s u tng i, m
bin Dng, Dng bin m, cho nn d nhin Dch Kinh tri ngc vi khoa Lun L hc hnh thc u Chu.
Lun L hc hnh thc (Logique formelle) v ch Tnh nn ly nguyn l ng nht, nguyn l trit tam
(Principe didentit et Principe du tiers-exclus) lm cn bn.
Theo nhng nguyn l trn th A=A, B=B
A khng th va l A, va l B.
l mt li l lun khng m xa n thc ti, n thi gian, n sc bin ha ca vn vt.
Dch Kinh tri li ch trng: vi thi gian A bin thnh B, B bin thnh A, phn phc, tun hon v cng
tn. Nhn vo bn Phn cung qui tng th t u sch Chu Dch bn ngha, ta thy qu no bin ha
n na chng cng bin thnh qu i lp, mi ti chung cuc mi phc hi c nguyn bn. V d ta ly qu
Kin (Cn), ta thy n bin ha qua 8 giai on nh sau:

I
1/ Kin 2/ Cu 3/ n

II
4/ B 5/ Quan 6/ Bc

16

III
7/ Tn

IV
8/ i hu

Kin kh b tiu hao dn

Mt s bin thin in o ln Giai


xy ra:

on IV ta li thy Ni

phc hi bt Qui l Kin. Nh

1/ Ni qui I bin thnh ngoi u

vy Kin phc hi

qui II

nguyn th.

2/ II, ta thy ni Qui thun c


Khn
Nhn vo bn Phc Hi lc thp t qui phngv, ta cng thy: Kin bin ha dn thnh Khn, Khn li
bin ha dn thnh Kin.

Lun l hc hnh thc u Chu phn chia Vn Hu thnh nhng thc th i lp nhau, v ch trng
chng i thi khng th ha hip c.
Ngc li Dch Kinh ch trng mi s i lp u l tng i, nht thi, u c th ha gii, trong ci
xung khc, vn c nhng yu t hip ha.
Dch Kinh ch trng mi s trong v tr u sng ng, uyn chuyn, bin thin, lin tc. Nhng s cng
ci, l, bt ng, gin on l do tr no con ngi to ra. Mun ph din s bin thin uyn chuyn y, Dch
ch trng Qu bin ha, Ho bin ha, Dng bin ha, m bin ha, khng c g l c nh trn vng Dch c.
Ngay n th t ca 64 qu trong b Kinh Dch cng c xp theo nh lut Bin thin in o.

17

Ta thy qu no cng c qu i nhau hay l ngc nhau, tng i mt.


Dch Kinh ch trng m Dng, tri t, nam n tuy rng kh cht, tnh tnh, hnh th ngc nhau nhng
thc ra u gp phn vo trong mt i cuc, mt vin ch.
Dch vit: Tri t nghch nhau nhng cng chung mt vic, trai gi nghch nhau, nhng thng cm nhau
bng ch, vn vt nghch nhau nhng u gp phn cng lao vo i cuc. Bit ty thi s dng c hai lc lng
chng i mi l cao siu vy! (Thin a Khu nhi k s ng d. Nam n Khu nhi k ch thng d. Vn vt
Khu nhi k s loi d. Khu chi thi dng i h tai. Khu, Thon truyn)
Tm li, nu ta hiu Dch l, v c mt tm mt siu khng gian, thi gian, ng thi bao qut khng gian,
thi gian, ta s thy:
- L tng (Idal) l thc ti (Rel)
- Tim n (Potentiel) l th hin (Actuel)
- Tng khc (Contraires) l tng tha (Complmentaires).
Ni th, ngha l vi thi gian ta s thy l tngtr thnh thc ti, uc m tr thnh thc t, ci g tim n
s c hip ha... Mt li nhn, li ngh ch v khng c khng gian, thi gian, cng y nh con ngi khng c
xc thn, tui tc, mt dn nc khng c hon cnh, lch s, l mt s kin v ngha l, khng th hiu c.
2. t nhiu nh lut quan trng ca Dch
Nhng nh lut quan trng ca Dch l:
a) nh lut bin Dch tun hon, bin Dch c chu k, chung nhi phc thy, v cng v tn, vi nhng
nh lut ph thuc nh vng lai, t tn, phn phc.
b) nh lut m Dng tng thi, Dng bin m, m bin Dng. V c s bin chuyn Dch ni trn,
gn y c cc trit gia u Chu cp ti di hnh thc ny, hay hnh thc n. c t nhiu nh thin
vn hc, trit gia bt u ni n s bin Dch tun hon (loi de lternel retour) trong s c Nietzsche v Jean
Charles Pichon. nh lut m dng tng thi nhi sinh bin ha tr thnh bin chng php ca ch ngha
Karl Marx, v bin chng php ly s mu thun, chng i lm ng c y v sinh xut mi bin thin. nh
lut m bin Dng, Dng bin m c xc nh bng phng trnh ca Einstein:
E = MC2
(trong E l nng lng
M l khi lng vt cht
C2 l tc nh sng ln bnh phng)
18

TIT II. DCH KINH VI LUN L


V phng din lun l, Dch ch trng ci hay, ci d trong v tr u tng i, u pht sinh t Thi
Cc v u c th gip con ngi thc hin s mng ca mnh.
H t vit: Ct hung sinh i nghip l v vy.
Quan nim ca Dch ni trn cng y thc nh quan nim ca sch Ecclsiastique v sch ny cng ch
trng:
Hay d, sng cht, giu ngho, tt c u pht xut t Thng . [33]
Dch dy phi c m, tin DngNhn t tn thnh[34] tc l ngn m m ph dng, b iu xu, gi
iu tt, lm lnh lnh d, kh nhn dc, tn Thin l [35], v nht l phi bt chc Tri m hnh s. Dch vit:
Tri hot ng mnh m, nn ngi qun t cng phi gng gi khng ngng [36]
c Dch ta thy rt nhiu bi hc lun l. Xin an c t nhiu v d:
- Bc qun t tin trn ng nhn no c (Qun t tin c, tu nghip - Vn Ngn Truyn)
- Qun t knh cn, gi lng cho ngay chnh (Qun t knh d trc ni - Vn Ngn Truyn)
- Bc qun t khim cung, di thp nui cmnh (Khim khim qun t ti d t mc d - Qu
Khim)
- Ngi qun t, khng l ngha khng theo (Qun t d phi l pht l - Qu i trng)
- Ngi qun t s hi v tu tnh (Qun t d khng c tu tnh - Qu Chn)
- Ngi qun t quay v tu c (Qun t d phn thn tu c)
- Ngi qun t chn p iu xu, khuyn khch iu tt theo ng m ca Tri (Qun t d t c dng
thin, thun Thin hu Mnh - Qu i Hu)
- Ngi qun t mun gio ha dn mi mi, mun bao dung che ch nhn dn khp mi ni (Qun t d gio
t v cng, Dung bo dn v cng - Qu Lm)
- Ngi qun t ghi nh li trc, nt xa hm dng c mnh (Qun t d ch tin ngn vng
hnh, d sc k c - Qu i sc)
- Ngi qun t ni nng cn thn, n ung chng mc (Qun t d thn ngn ng, tit m thc - Qu Di)
- Ngi qun t tha li, x ti (Qun t d x qu hu ti - Qu Gii)
- Ngi qun t lun i trn ng nhn, no c v ra cng dy d ngui khc (Qun t d thng c hnh,
tp gio s - Qu Khm)
c cc li khuyn ca Dch, ta lin tng n cu ca Tng T trong Lun ng:
- Phu t chi o Trung th nhi d h
- o ca c Khng l Trung th m thi.
Trung l tn thin mnh,
Th l yu ngi nh mnh.
Dch cng khng dy g khc.
Tiu Tun gi Dch l mt quyn sch dy ngi sang sa nhng li lm. Thc l ch l vy.

TIT III. DCH VI O GIO


19

V phng din o gio Dch khng ch trng nhng hnh thc phng th bn ngoi, nhng dy con
ngi:
1. Phi bt chc Tri m hnh s [37]
2. Phi ty ra tm hn cho trong sch, v phi tin su v pha tm linh. [38]
3. Phi tm cho ra nguyn l bt Dch ca cuc i, thc hin c Thin Mnh, hp nht vi Thi ha, vi
Tri, vi o. [39]
4. Tm li, Dch dy ta phi bit chuyn ha ni tm tr nn Siu nhn, Thn nhn. [40]
o ca Dch i hi s minh trit, v c hiu bit u l Nguyn bn, th mi c th tr v Nguyn bn c.
Ngi xa gi th l minh thin, phc s[41]
Dch vch cho bit Thi Cc l cn bn ca vn vt, cng nh ca con ngi v cho bit s chia ly, phn
tn, a oan, phin tp ch lm cho ta xa ri o th; nh vy tc l mc nhin ch v cho con ngi bit bn
phn mnh l phi tm v cn bn, hp nht vi cn bn, bng cch tng hp mi qua phn, xa b mi phin tp,
sng n s, thanh thn. Nng theo Dch, Ng Chn Trc Ch c th:
T tng hi thi Huyn th tu,
Ng hnh ton x T kim minh,
Thot thai, nhp khu thn thng thnh,
V hn long thn tn tht kinh[42]
Cn bn ca vn vt, cng nh ca con ngi chng c u xa: cn bn y ngay gia lng bin thin,
cng nh gia lng con ngi.[43] Cho nn, nu con ngi mun kh hp vi Thin chn, vi Thi Cc, ch cn
hi quang phn chiu, i su vo chiu hng tm linh, nh thn, pht hu [44]
Tt c nhng nguyn tc y c cc o gia, n gia p dng vo cng cuc tu thn. i vi Thnh
Hin Trung Hoa th:
1. Tm ra o, ra L, ra Nht mi l vn trng i[45]
2. Cc hnh thc, cc hot ng, cc thnh tch bn ngoi ch l ty thuc.[46]
3. Thc hin c o l mi l quan h, mi l mc phiu ca cuc i. Th l c o, c Nht[47]
Tnh mnh Php Quyt minh ch cho rng: Tam gio cng u qui v Nht.[48]
Cc o gia lun lun ao c:
- Tr v c vi Nguyn bn, t c ti o th[49]
- Kt hp vi o vi Tri[50]
Phng hu Lan vit:
Chn nhn quay v ngun gc sinh ra mnh tc l Thi Nht; nh th l tr nn ng th vi tri t, vn vt.
[51] o gia cho rng: m dng c hp nht mi thnh c Dch, c Thi Cc.
m + Dng = Dch
m + Dng = Thi Cc[52]
Cng mt l tm hn hay thn kh c hp nht th o th hay Thi Cc mi sinh. l nguyn tc cn bn
ca khoa luyn n, cu trng sinh bt lo ca Trung hoa.
- Thn + tm = o (Thi Cc)
- Thn + kh = o (Thi Cc)
- Khm + Ly = n
- Duyn + Cng = n[53]
20

Hunh nh Ni Cnh c cu: Nht ch bt cu thng H V... v gii rng:


Nht tc l H V (V Cc, Thi Cc) Hc o cn phi chuyn nht, hp nht vi Thn Linh, nh vy c
th thnh Thn Tin vy.
Trang T ni: Ngi no bit Mt, mun vic u xong[54]

TIT IV. DCH VI NHNG NGUYN TC KH D EM LI MT CUC SNG L TNG


Dch vi nhng Ho, Qui, vi nhng li Thon, li Tng, ch c mc ch dy ta n cho hp o Tri
t, hp thi, hp cnh, hp vi th thi, nhn tnh.
Dch chng nhng dy ta nguyn l v cng ch ca cuc i l Thin mnh, thn thnh ha bn thn,
Dch li cn dy ta cch ty thi bin Dch theo o, bin Dch cui cng hp nht c vi o.[55]
Tm li, Dch cho ta nhng nguyn tc sng mt i sng L tng, ngoi th ha nhn, thun th, hp cnh,
hp thi, trong th phn thn, tu tnh[56]d o hp Chn, tng khng cn g p hn. Chng ta ch an c
t nhiu th d:
Dch c Ho, Qui y nh i sng con ngi c nhiu hon cnh khc nhau. Gp mi hon cnh, mi a
v, lm mi cng vic, u phi c mt thi khc nhau, mt li x s, thi hnh khc nhau cho xng thi, xng
v, xng s v.v...
Gp him nguy ng tht vng, u lo, hy vng d tm cch bng qua, y nh dng nc kt trong khe hp m
vn an nhin, tri chy. Suy rng ra, du Thin Chn, Thin Tnh ca ta cn kt gia nhng nhn dc, nhn tnh, ta
ng c mt tin tng, phi vng d phn u ri ra s thot vng (Khm)[57]
Mun theo o Tri, mun thc hin Thin Tnh, Thin Mnh, phi dng ht ngh lc, c gng tin ti khng
ngng, nh Tri chuyn vn khng h ngi ngh ( Kin)[58]
Khi Thin Tm, o Tm va pht hin, phi bit p , cht chiu, ng vi em dng, n ni n phi h
hao pht tn (Kin, S Ho)[59]
i ci g cng c duyn do, trc nh sau to, trc yu sau mnh, nh thot thy sng gi phi phng
ngay chuyn nc s ng. Suy ra, mnh c th ngn chn c try lc, lon ly, nu bit ngn chn, t khi chng
cn mm mng, trng nc (Khn, S Ho)[60] Sng gia bin thin, gi ging, sm chp ca cuc i, cn phi
tm ra nhng gi tr hng cu, m lm ni dng chn, dng bc (Hng)[61]
Sng i, phi c ch bm vu, da nng. Mt tri mt trng nng ta vo tri; cy ci, nng ta vo
t; ngi qun t phi nng ta, bm vu vo s cng chnh (Ly) [62]. L Dch l ht y thi vi, ht thnh thi
suy.
Tri t, qu thn v nhn loi u ght s cng thnh sung mn, v ph tr, chc phc cho s khim cung,
cho nn ngi qun t phi khim cung, mi lm nn i nghip.[63]Nu chng ta c Dch nh vy, Dch s tr
thnh pho sch y s khn ngoan, minh trit v o l su xa.
c Dch bit l Dch. Bit l Dch th khng cns bin thin, v c bin thin mi c th tin ha v t
o, hp nht vi o.[64] Phi chng l o chung ca Thnh Hin thin c. Ct Tin ng vit:
Thin h v nh o,
Th nhi ng qui.
Thnh nhn v lng tm,
Bch l nhi nht tr [65]
21

Tm dch:
o trong thin h h pha phi,
ng no khc nhau, ch chng hai,
Thnh Hin sau trc lng khng khc.
Lo lng trm dng, mi mt thi.
Ph Hu Qun vit:
Thin cn thm x, tnh cn tuyn,
Vn php ng qui, nhim t nhin,
Tnh bn ng nguyn, tm cc c,
Nhu tng h ch d Huyn, Thin [66]
Tm dch:
Thin cn, bn tnh gi chu tuyn,
Vn Hu quay v gc t nhin.
Tnh vn mt ngun, tm vn c,
Nhu gia no khc vi Huyn, Thin. [67]
tng kt li, ta thy rng Dch l mt cun sch qu bu:
1. Dch dy ta nguyn y, thy chung ca v tr v ca con ngi, cho ta thy ngun gc v nh mnh cao
sang ca mnh[68]
2. Dch gip ta i su vo lng vt cht, v tr v lng ngi tm ra cn bn, tinh hoa, cng nh nhng c
cu, nhng nh lut chi phi mi s bin thin tin ha[69]
3. Dch cho ta thy 2 chiu hai mt ca v tr, thy nh ng tnh, bin hng, v nghin cu nhng nh lut,
nhng then cht chi phi cuc bin thin ca v tr.
4. Dch cho ta thy vng tun hon ca v tr, v nh vy cho ta hi vng ln lao l trc sau cng c th tr
v phi hp vi Thng .
5. Dch mun gip ta c mt i sng l tng, ty thi, ty th, thch nghi vi hon cnh, bit nhng nguyn
tc tu thn, c th tinh ngha nhp thn tm ra cn bn, ngun gc ca mnh, sng mt i sng siu nhin,
phi hp vi Tri, vi o.
6. Nh vy l Dch mun cho ta pht trin, bin ha v mi mt, ton thn ta nh cy n mun iu, pht
sinh ra nhng m thanh tuyt diu, c nhanh chm, bng trm theo ng nhp iu, tit tu ca t tri. Ni
cch khc Dch mun ta c i sng hon ton v mi mt, minh trit, khinh phiu v hnh phc.
CH THCH
[1] Phng Hu Lan, Trung quc trit hc s, trang 901.
[2]Vn o t, Ging o tinh hoa lc, quyn 3, trang 39.
[3] Hnh ni o chi bin ha. o gia v chi Hu Thin. Hu Thin gi, hnh sc k tr, tch tng k chiu.
. . , . Ib. trang 39.
[4]Tin Thin biu l, Hu Thin biu s. .
Cf. Nguyn n Trng, To ha thng, trang 59.
[5] D hin ti trit hc trung chi thut ng ngn chi, tc s v hnh nhi thng gi siu thi khng nhi tim tn
(subsist) gi d. S v hnh nhi h gi, ti thi khng nhi tn ti (Exist) gi d. Siu thi khng gi, v hnh
22

tng kh kin, c s v Thi cc. , .


, . , , . Phng Hu Lan, Trung Quc Trit Hc S
- trang 896 v 903.
[6] Cn bn nguyn do trung. Cu k cn bn, tht do trung, hin h ngoi gi, bn h ni, chiu h dng gi, do
h bn d. . , , , , , . i ng Chn
Kinh, quyn h - trang 11b.
[7]i ng Chn Kinh, quyn trung - trang 5b.
[8] Abb Th. Moreux, LAlchimie moderne, p. 20.
[9] Lecomte du Noy, LAvenir de lEsprit, page 106. Cest le Leptothrix . Ib. 86.
[10]LAvenir de lEsprit - page 168.
[11] Pierre Rousseau, Histoire de la Science - page 769.
[12] Ib. 54.
[13]Vn o T Ging o Tinh Hoa Lc - trang 101.
[14] Dch vit: Nguyn thy phn chung, c tri t sinh chi thuyt.
Mnh T vit: Thy iu l gi, tr chi s. Chung iu l gi thnh chi s. Ci thnh hn i o, hu thy,
hu chung, hu bn, hu mt. Tri k thy, minh k chung, cu k bn, cng k mt, phng nng tng u
ch v, i trit i ng, hu vng, hu lai, thng nht s bt minh, tc nht s hu m; tri chi bt chn, tc
hnh chi bt thng. Hc gi tt tu cng k l, nhi hu kh d hnh k l. Tr tri lc hnh, khuy nht bt kh.
K l vi h l? Tc thin a To ha chi o d. To ha chi o, hu th, hu dng, hu thy, hu chung,
k gian m Dng it vn, tiu trng h canh, bin ha v oan, nhin k ti yu x, tng ti nht kh.
Nht kh tng bt ngoi h H V. Gi c khu nu t, phi sc, phi khng, phi hu, phi v... thun chi tc sinh
nhn, sinh vt, nghch chi tc thnh tin, thnh pht. Tnh mnh th k, sinh t th xut. Ng chi gi, lp
t thnh v, m chi gi vn kip trm lun. Cng l gi tc cng th l d. Tu Chn bin nn hu bin
tham chng, trang 27.
[15] Thi H bt nng v kh, kh bt nng bt t nhi vi vn vt. Vn vt bt nng bt tn nhi vi Thi H. Tun th
xut nhp, th giai bt c d nhi nhin d. , . .
. Chnh Mng Thi Ha Thin (Dch hc tho lun tp, trang 117)
[16] Thi cc tc nht d. Vn vt thy vu Nht nhi chung vu Nht. Tc Trang Chu xut c nhp c chi ngha.
. . . To ha thng, trang 52.
[17]To ha thng trang 55.
[18] Cn s gi, ch Cn Qui v hoch chi s, phi v Cn chi s Ho. Minh o thin vn; Quan Cn v hoch th
h hnh, nht hoch tithnh vn tng sinh. Nhin tc Cn s gi, khi phi Thi cc m dng v phn
chi tng h. Tn bt Nh n n thi ch trang 25b.
[19] Hu thng tin ging nh nht chu. . Tu chn bt t phng, trang 113.
[20] M. Snard, Le Zodiaque , trang 7.
[21] M. Snard, Le Zodiaque , trang 7.
[22] Nht bn nhi vn th, th tc vn th nhi qui nht bn. , . i ng thng
- trang 5a.
[23] Th vi ng bn ly mt, thin a chi kinh. , . (Dng Hng) Cf. Phng hu Lan,
Trung quc trit hc s - trang 581.
23

[24] Cyrille Wilzzkowski - LHomme et le Zodiaque pages 17-18.


[25] Dch, Cn Qui.
C vn c Nht, nh th tc tu tnh dng thn chi o, giai hp Thi ha h. ,
, . LoT - thuyt ng tr Kinh ch - trang 1.
[26] Ha hp qui tnh nht x, cng vit .
. Tnh mnh Php quyt Minh ch quyn 7 - trang 3.
[27] Ph vt vn vn. Cc qui k cn. , . Lo T, o c Kinh XVI.
[28]Hunh nh Kinh gii - trang 1.
[29] Jean Wahl - Trait de mtaphysique page 36.
[30] Lucien Goldmann - La communaut humaine et lUnivers chez Kant, page 28.
[31] Ib. page 30.
[32] Lucien Goldmann - La communaut humaine et lUnivers chez Kant, page 31
[33] Bien et mal, vie et mort, pauvret et richesse, tout vient du Seigneur (LEcclsiastique 11,14)
[34] Vn Ngn Cn nh vit: Nhn t tn k thnh. : .
[35] Vn Ngn Khn nh vit: Qun t knh d trc ni. : .
[36] Dch Cn Qui
[37] Dch Cn Qui
[38] Thnh nhn d th ty tm, thoi tng mt. , . Dch, H t thng XI
[39] Cn o bin ha, cc chnh Tnh Mnh, bo hp Thi Ha. , , . Dch Cn
Qui.
[40] Dch Kinh Lai Ch gii - Quyn I, trang 65.
[41] Cf. Chu Dch Xin Chn, ta.
[42] Ng Chn trc ch quyn 3 - trang 11.
[43] i ng chn kinh quyn thng - trang 4b
Sao Kiu quyn h ta - trang 1.
[44] Luyn tm chi o, bt ly phn quan nguyn quyt bn cn. , . Huyn tng
chnh ch - trang 2b.
[45]Huyn tng chnh ch- trang 2b.
[46] Nht L kh qun vn tng. Vn Tng bn h nht L. Tu o chi s ti minh k L, nhc n vn chp
Tng, tc kh o vin h. . . , , .
Vn o T ging o tinh hoa lc - trang 53.
[47] T Dng ng vit:
Khuyn qun cng th sinh thn x,

Phn bn hon nguyn th dc vng

Hu vn:

Cng th sinh thn th kh s,

Mc qui thin c cu tit tn.

Kim n yu quyt 1b.


[48] Tnh Mnh Php Quyt quyn 7 - trang 3.
[49] Phn bn qui chn . Huyn Tng chnh ch hu k, trg 1a
24

D o vi nht . Ib 1a
[50] D nhn hp Thin. Thin tm k hp, o lc dic ton. . , . Ib 1a
[51] Chn nhn phn k s sinh, v thy phn Thi Nht tc nng d thin a vn vt vi nht th gi d.
, . Phng hu Lan Trung Quc Trit hc s, trang
481.
[52] m dng hp bo nhi thnh Thi Cc. . i ng Chn Kinh - Quyn thng - trang
4.
[53] Pht minh v sinh chi tin bn lai din mc, trc c luyn k, hm dng cn nguyn, phi hp Khm Ly, nhi
thnh i dc. , , , . Thi Thng Hunh
nh ngoi cnh ngc kinh, thng quyn, trang 21 (Ch)
[54] Nht ch bt cu thng H V.
Nht gi, V chi xng d.

Hc o chuyn nht d Linh ng th, thn tin kh tr d.


Trang t vn Nhn nng tri Nht, vn s tt. .
Thng Thanh, Hunh nh ni cnh kinh, trang 13b.
[55] Dch bin Dch d, ty thi bin Dch d tng o d. . Chu Dch i Ton 4a
[56] Thnh nhn tc Dch... d gio nhn phn thn tu tnh. ... . Dch Kinh Lai Ch
gii - quyn 3 - trang 4
[57] Cf. The I Ching (Wilhelm Baynes) (Qu Khm) quyn III trang 174.
[58] Tng vit: Thin hnh kin, qun t d t cng bt tc : , (Kin Qui, Tng
vit)
[59] S cu, tim long vt dng. (Kin Qui, S Ho)
[60] S lc, l sng, kin bng ch. Tng vit: L sng kin bng; m thy ngng d, tun tr k o, ch kin
bng d. , , . : ; , , . (Khn, S Lc)
[61] Tng vit: Li phong hng, Qun t d lp bt Dch phng. : . (Hng, Tng
vit)
[62] Tng vit: Ly l d, nht nguyt l h thin, bch cc tho mc l h th, trng minh d l h chnh, ni ha
thnh thin h. : , , , , (Ly, Thon vit)
[63] Khim hanh qun t hu chung... Thin o khuy doanh nhi ch khim, a o bin doanh nhi lu khim, qu
thn hi doanh nhi phc khim. Khim tn nhi quang, ti nhi bt kh du, qun t chi chung d.
... . ... , ,
(Khim, Thon t)
[64] Dch, bin Dch d, ty thi bin Dch d tng o d . Chu Dch i Ton,
4a
Bin Dch nhi hu hp o. . Ib 4a
[65]Ty Sn qun tin hi chn k, trg 1a.
[66]Huyn tng chnh ch - trang 10a.
[67] Huyn l o Lo. Thin l o Pht.
25

ni c 3 o Nho Thch Lo cng u ch trng mi tm hn u cng c chung mt tnh Tri, ch cn


gi vn tnh Tri y, l hp nht c vi o. Hp nht vi o chnh l mc ch ca v tr, v vn hu ri
ra cng quay v gc v ngun y c.
[68] Expos des thories relatives la gense des mondes et leur transformation. Louis Chochod- Hue la
mystrieuse-p.183.
Cest en cherchant transfigurer le limit et le rendre digne de limmortalit... quun homme peut dcouvrir
le sens profond de la vie et chappe la strilit spirituelle - Lhomme et le Zodiaque, p.201.
[69] Pntration plus intime et plus profonde de lEssence des choses. Ib 202
- Approfondir sa connaissance du monde pour comprendre la loi intime qui le rgit. Ib. 202

Phn 2 DCH LUN THIN


M u
Dch l mt cun sch c Thnh Hin xa nay sng thng. Nho gia coi Kinh Dch nh mt Thnh kinh.
c Khng hc Dch rt cng phu. Ngi v gi hc Dch, c Dch, c n ba ln t l sch mi lm ra
cc thin truyn.[1]Th m Ngi cn ni trong Lun Ng: Nu Tri cho ta sng thm t nm na, cho ta hc
xong o Dch, th ta c th khng phm li ln na.[2]
Ngi vit Thp dc b sung cho Dch Kinh. Thp dc l: [3]
1. Thon thng truyn ct ngha Thon t Thng Kinh. [4]
2. Thon h truyn ct ngha Thon t H Kinh.
3. Tng thng truyn gii cc Tng trong Thng Kinh.
4. Tng h truyn gii cc Tng trong H Kinh. [5]
5. H T thng truyn
6. H T h truyn
7. Vn ngn truyn [6]
8. Thuyt qui truyn
9. T qui truyn
10. Tp qui truyn
Trnh Di vit Dch truyn. Chu Hy vit Dch kinh bn ngha, Dch hc Khi Mng. Thiu t nhn
c Chu Dch vit thnh b Hong Cc Kinh Th.
Kho th tch o Lo, ta thy o c Kinh, Xung H Chn Kinh, Nam Hoa Kinh c rt nhiu im lin
quan vi Dch. o gia, n gia ton p dng nh lut Dch tu c, luyn thn. [7] Ngy b Dng p dng
Dch l vit thnh b Tham ng Kh.
Nhn sang pha o Pht, ta thy Vng Cnh Mnh ly Thin Tng minh Dch, Thch Ngu ch ly Dch l
p dng vo khoa Thin hc. [8] Hin nay ta cn thy nhng b nh Dch Hc Thin gii ca Tr Hc Thin s
v.v...
Ging bnh v Dch xa nay c hn 700 tc gi.
V d:
+ Vng Bt ch gii Dch
26

+ Mnh H
+ Kinh Phng em cc qu phi hp vi Thp Can gi l Np Gip.
+ Tun Sng ly nh thng ging gii Dch.
+ Lai Tri c ly l thc tng tc l m Dng in o, vng lai gii Dch.
+ Tiu Tun ly l bng thng tc l m bin Dng, Dng bin m gii Dch. [9]
Ngoi ra cn c nhiu danh nhn, danh s dng Dch on nh v lai, trong s c: Trng Lng
(Hn), Nghim Qun Bnh (Hn), Ch Ct Lng (Tam Quc), L Thun Phong (ng), Vin Chnh Cng
(ng), Thiu Khang Tit (Tng), Lu C (Lu b n) (Minh) [10]
Dch c ba loi:
1. Lin Sn ly qu Cn lm cn bn.
2. Qui Tng ly qu Khn lm cn bn.
3. Chu Dch ly qu Cn lm cn bn.

27

[11]
Hin nay Lin Sn, Qui Tng tht lc [12], ch cn li Chu Dch.
Trnh Huyn cho rng: i nh H c Lin Sn, i nh n c Qui Tng, i nh Chu c Chu Dch.
Trnh Huyn gii thch ba nhan y nh sau:
- Gi l Lin Sn tng trng cho my t u cc ngn ni bc ln, min man khng ngng.
- Gi l Qui Tng v Vn Vt u tng n bn trong.
- Gi l Chu Dch v bin dch ph qut khng u khng c. [13]
Hi tc gi, ta thy rng du Dch Kinh c thay tn, i qu, nhng ngha v mc ch trc sau vn l
mt.
Dch ct bn v Vn Vt, Vn Tng lin tc bin thin, pht trin nh my n n lin tc bc ln t nhng
dy ni xa xm. Dch bn v s bin thin, m bin thin th thng xuyn din bin khp ni trong v tr. Nhng
sch Chnh ngha khng ng quan im vi Trnh Huyn v cho rng:
Sch Dch thi Thn Nng gi l Lin Sn.
Sch Dch thi Hong gi l Qui Tng.
Sch Dch thi Chu gi l Chu Dch. Nh vy Chu Dch l sch Dch i Chu, cng nh Chu L, Chu Th,
v.v..[14]
Hc Dch phi tn cng phu. C tn cng phu, mi tm ra c ci hay, ci p ca Dch. Di y ta s ln
lt kho st v ch Dch di nhiu tit mc:
1. Ch Dch theo T nguyn
2. Dch l bin Dch
3. Dch l bt Dch
4. Dch l gin d
5. Dch l nghch s
6. Dch l Tng

Chng 1. Ch Dch theo T Nguyn


Hc Dch trc tin cn phi hiu ch Dch. Hiu c ch Dch tc l hiu c phn no ngi vit
sch. B in Trnh th ni: Ch Dch do hai ch Nht Nguyt to nn. L trong thin h c th tm thu trong
mt Chn mt L. [15] Suy ra: Nht l mt tri, tng trng cho s bt bin, Hng Cu, vin mn. Nguyt l mt
28

trng, tng trng cho s bin thin, tm b, khuy khuyt. Nh vy, ch Dch gm trong thn c 2 ngun sinh lc
tng i, l tn ti ca m Dng, l bin hng ca v tr, s Hng Cu ca Bn Th do vng Dng i din,
v cc trng thi doanh h, tiu trng ca Vn Hu, do vng Nguyt tng trng.
Nh vy, Dch bao qut c bin hng, bao qut c hin tng ln bn th. Dch l Ton Nht.
Ch Dch m tch i s thnh ra Nht, Nguyt hai vng, m Dng chia r, nht d cch trng.
+
S qua phn ny s l u dy mi r, sinh ra mi hin tng trong tri t. Dng l Cn, m l Khn, nn
Dch cho rng: Cn Khn l ca ca Dch. [16]
Mi hay: Mt Dch qua phn, ha t tri,
t tri cm ng, s sinh si,
Sinh si, to tc, thnh mun vt,
Mun vt chung qui mt Dch thi.
Khi m Nguyn Th chia ly, phn tn, th mm u tranh, chng i t nhin s sinh ra. u tranh, chng
i y xt v mt phng din l mt ng c ht sc hu hiu sinh bin ha, v th Dch ni: Cng nhu
tng thi nhi sinh bin ha. [17]
Nhng nu ch thy s u tranh, chng i gia mDng, th mi thy c chiu bin ha a n chia
ly, cht chc, v, mi thy c c mt chiu hng ca v tr.
Ngoi chiu hng trn, V tr cng nh Dch cn c mt chiu hng th hai: l chiu m Dng tng
sinh, tng tha. m Dng vn c th tip tay nhau, c th tha hip, on t, lm nn i nghip. y l
chiu hng xy dng, ly tnh thng xa b hn th, c hn gn li nhng g v, on t li nhng g
chia ly, tn lc. Thnh Hin cho rng chiu hng ny mi l chnh yu. Cc o gia l lun mt cch rt su sc
nh sau:
Nu Bn Th v qua phn nn thnh m Dng, thnh Vn Hu, th ta cng c th phi hp Vn
Hu li thnh m Dng; phi hp m Dng li thnh Bn Th. M m Dng chng qua l Thn Kh,
Tm Thn trong ta.
Tu luyn cho Tm kt hp vi Thn, khin cho Thn Kh hp nht, khng cho ngoi vt khin dn, lm
tn lc ra bn ngoi; tu luyn Tm Thn tr thnh Siu Nhn, thnh Tin Thnh, l mc ch ca cng trnh
m o gia gi l luyn n.
i ng Chn kinh vit:
Nht Nguyt hp bo nhi thnh Thi Cc. [18]
Theo o gia, ch n chnh l ch Dch bin th, v c u Nht, m chn l Nguyt. [19]
Th mi hay:
Mt Dch qua phn to t tri.
m Dng cch tr, mi chia phi
Tm thn v th on vin li,
Thi Cc ri ra s rng ngi.
Mt ch Dch phn ra, th thy cch thc tri t Vn Vt pht sinh, thy cn bn ca Vn Hu; hp li th
thy cng ch mun loi, thy phng thc tu luyn tin ti Thn minh. Nh vy, chng phi l k diu sao?
Hc Dch qun thng thng h, vn bin phng nguyn, h chng phi l mt cng vic thch th lm
sao?[20]
29

CH THCH
[1] Khng t vn nhi hc Dch, c chi vi bin tam tuyt chi nhi vi chi truyn. ,
.
[2] Gia ng s nin, tt d hc Dch kh d v i qu h. , , . Lun Ng Thut
nhi tht, cu 16 - Bn dch on Trung Cn.
[3] Cf. Wilhelm Baynes, The I Ching Book II, p. 274 - 280.
[4] Thon truyn khc Thon t ca Vn Vng - Thon t bao gi cng ngay u qu. Thon truyn bao gi
cng c ch Thon vit.
[5] Tng cn chia lm i Tng (ct ngha hnh nh ton qu), Tiu Tng ct ngha hnh nh tng Ho. Nh
vy Qu no, Ho no cng c Tng truyn v bt u bng ch Tng vit.
[6] Vn ngn ch c trong 2 qu Kin v Khn v bt u bng ch Vn ngn vit.
[7] Cf. Nguyn n Trng - To ha thng - trang 56
T V Lng, Trung Quc trit hc s. nht chng h - trang 25.
[8] Cf. Nguyn n Trng, To ha thng - trang 56.
[9] Cf. Nguyn n Trng, To ha thng - trang 56
- L Chng Cng, Dch hc tho lun tp, trang 1,2,3.
- V nh thc tng xin c Dch Kinh lai ch gii - quyn I, cc trang 38 - 44.
[10] Cc li sm ng ca Gia Ct, L thun Phong, Vin Chnh Cng, Thiu khang Tit, Lu C hin cn ghi
trong tp Trung Quc nh thin nin chi d ngn.
[11] Hnh v phng theo Dch hc tho lun tp - trang 69.
[12] Th vin bn Nam Dng, ni c nhng B Lin Sn, Qui Tng trong Th Vin.
[13] Ng Khang Chu Dch i cng - trang 11.
[14] T V Lng Trung Quc Trit hc s - trang 31.
[15] B in Trnh th vit: Dch tng Nht tng Nguyt thin h chi l nht C, nht Ngu nhi tn h. :
, . Dch Kinh i Ton - Chu Dch thng kinh - trang 77.
[16] T vit: Cn Khn k Dch chi mn da. . H T h, VI
[17]Cng nhu tng thi nhi sinh bin ha. . H T thng II.
[18] Nht Nguyt hp bo nhi thnh Thi Cc. . i ng Chn Kinh quyn h trang 23.
[19] n t Nht u Nguyt cc, trung gian nht hoch h Nht Nguyt hp nht chi v d. K ni nht im vi
tinh kh hn hp, d tng nht lp kim n d. , .
, .
Tu chn bt t phng - trang 26.
[20] Thy Tm tp hc k ngn. (Dip Thy Tm Tin sinh thch.)
Trng bin Tng Nguyn hc n quyn 3, trang 593

Chng 2. Dch l bin thin


Nu ch dng l tr m suy lun, ch dng gic quan m nhn xt, th ta thy Vn Vt,
Vn Hu bin o, khn lng, khng mt pht giy no ngng ngh!
30

Sch Dch c mc phiu kho st mi hin tng bin thin ca hon v v suy ra cc
nh lut chi phi cc bin thin y, v th mt trong nhng ngha ca Dch l bin thin.
Vn Vt bin thin, lch s bin thin, tm t con ngi bin thin. S kin y khng
mt ai c th chi ci c. Khng t ng trn ging sng ni:
Chy tri nh th sut m ngy [1]
ngi mun ni Vn Vt nh ging sng tri chy m ngy, khng bao gi ngng ngh.
Sch Thy H Thin vit:
Nhn tin vn s kh nh thy
Thin a h d nht ph u [2]
Tm dch:
Vn s nhn tin tri ta nc,
t tri bo bt khc chi nhau
Pht gio ni: Vn php v thng. Vn php, v ch l nhng hin tng ca v tr, nn c sinh, c dit,
c tng, c gim, c thy, c chung. [3]
Hraclite, trit gia Hi Lp ch trng thuyt Vn Vt bin thin vit: Khng ai vo c cng mt ging
sng hai ln... S i t tn, vng lai![4]
Cc tao nhn mc khch cng thng hay ly cuc tang thng bin i lm ti ngm vnh.
n Nh Hu than th:
L c nung nu s i,
Bc tranh vn cu v ngi tang thng.
Nguyn Cng Tr vnh nhn sinh:
i nhn sinh l th y,
Nh bng n, nh my ni, nh gi thi, nh chim bao,
Ba mi nm hng th bit chng no,
Va tnh gic ni k cha chn,
Vt thi mc cng vn bin huyn,
Th v l thy doanh h.
Ci hnh hi chc thit cha?
M lo o khc su ra mi.
Tri t hi c hnh, c hoi,
chi chi m chc chn chi chi?...[5]
Nhn sang pha u chu, ta thy cc vn gia, trit gia c kim phn chia thnh 2 phi:
1. Phi ch trng Vn Vt bin thin c:
Platon

Homre

Hsiode

Hraclite

Hobbes

Leibniz

Hegel

Bergson

Whitehead v.v [6]


Phi ny thin v quan im bin Dch ca v tr.
2. Phi chng i ch trng bin thin, nh:
31

Parmnide

Dmocrite

Descartes

Spinoza

Bradley

Spir

Meyerson v.v. [7]


Phi ny thin v quan im Hng Cu ca v tr. Thay v i su vo chi tit v quan nim cho chnh xc
vn bin thin, chng ta ghi nhn:
1. Bn Th khng bin thin [8]
2. Ch c hnh thc, hin tng bin thin [9]
3. S bin thin, din tin t cc oan ny n cc oan khc. chu ni: m bin Dng, Dng bin m;
Dch cng tc bin. u chu ni: Nng thnh lnh, lnh thnh nng, cng thnh mm, mm thnh cng... Tc l
bin thin t chnh n phn. [10]
Quan nim bin thin c l c manh nha t hin tng bin dch tun hon ca v tr, nh thy triu,
nh ngy m, thc ng, h hp v.v.... [11]
C l v th m Dch Kinh ni: Cng Nhu tng thi, nhi sinh bin ha.
V Hraclite ni: bin dch do mu thun, do tng phn pht sinh. [12]
T 2 th k nay, nguyn l bin Dch, cng nh cc nh lut bin dch c khoa hc v trit hc u
Chu xc nhn.
A. V pha Thin Vn hc ngi ta nhn thy:
1. Cc v sao vn chuyn, bin i phng v lun lun theo nhng chu k nht nh.
2. V tr cng theo nh lut t tn.
Ngy nay v tr ang trong thi k bnh trng tn mn. iu ny c xc nhn nh phng php tn
quang, v nh nguyn l Doppler - Fizeau [13] cng l gi thuyt ca Georges Lematre c Hubble v
Eddington xc nhn. [14]
3. Cc v sao cng theo nh lut thnh suy, tiu tc. Cc v sao ngy nay c phn chia ra nhiu hng sao
non, sao gi, ty theo nhit v mu sc ca sao. Th l cc v sao cng c sinh, trng, lo, t. [15]
B. V pha Vt L hc Sadi - Carnot (1822 - 1888) tm ra nguyn l Dng tiu m trng, ngha l hot
lc ngy mt tiu, tim lc ngy mt tng. [16]
C. V pha a L, Lyell khm ph ra rng mt t lun lun bin chuyn. ng c bin chuyn l sc gi,
sc nc, sc thc, sc bin, sc sng, sc ni la, sc t. [17]
D. V pha Vn Vt hc:
Lamarck (1774 - 1829), Darwin (1809 - 1882), De Vries (1848 - 1935) ch trng Vn Vt bin ha t loi
ny sang loi khc. ng c pht sinh ra s bin ha ni trn l:
- S thch ng vi hon cnh [18] (Lamarck)
- S u tranh sinh tn, u thng, lit bi (Darwin)
- S di truyn cc c tnh tp thnh (Lamarck - Darwin)
- S su bin (Mutationnisme) (De Vries)
E. V pha Trit hc Hegel (1770 - 1831), Engels (1820 - 1895) v Karl Marx (1818 - 1883) lm sng
ng li thuyt bin dch m Hraclite ch trng t 500 nm trc k nguyn, m ng phng ch trng
t 2,600 nm trc k nguyn.

32

Hegel ch trng: Dng tn, m ti, tinh thn trng hn vt cht, tinh thn sinh ra vt cht, v s bin thin
l do mu thun ni ti pht sinh; mc ch l tinh thn ngy mt pht trin, ngy mt i ti ch thnh ton.
i vi Hegel, lch s l s pht trin ca tinh thn ph qut trong thi gian.[19]
Engels v Marx cng ch trng Vn Vt bin
thin, nhng c nhng quan im ngc vi Hegel. Hc thuyt bin dch ca Engels v Marx c gi l
Duy vt bin chng php v Duy vt s quan.
Duy vt bin chng php c th tm tt nh sau:
1. Vt cht t hu v hng cu [20]
2. Vn Vt bin thin.
3. Bin chng php l khoa hc kho st v cc nh lut chi phi s bin ng c ca ngoi gii, c ca t
tng con ngi. [21]
Ch bin chng bao hm 3 ngha:
a) S bin ng ni ti ca thc th.
b) Phng php kho st thc th trn bnh din bin thin.
c) Hnh ng cch mng thc y s bin ng trong x hi loi ngi bng cch knh thch nhng mu
thun ni ti. [22]
4. i vi bin chng php, khng c g l rt ro, l tuyt i, l thn thnh... tt c ch l mt qu trnh lin
tc ca bin thin tm b. [23]
5. S bin thin din bin nh 4 yu t:
a) ng lc ni ti
b) Cc s bin thin u nh hng ln nhau.
c) Bin thin nh mu thun ni ti
d) S nhy vt bt thn, lng c th ha thnh phm, vt ny c th sinh vt kia, khinh kh, dng kh c th
sinh ra nc; nc c th bin thnh , hay ha thnh hi; vt cht nh c th sinh ra tinh thn. [24]
6. p dng duy vt bin chng php vo quc gia x hi, ngi Mc Xt cho rng:
a) Lch s din tin khng phi v ngu nhin, cng khng phi v mt quyn nng xu tt no bn ngoi,
m v nhng nh lut bn trong. [25]
b) X hi din bin qua nhiu hnh thc (x hi c s, phong kin, tiu t sn, t bn...) [26]
c) Nhng iu kin vt cht kinh t, nhng phng tin sn xut, v giai cp u tranh l nhng yu t, nhng
ng c thc y s bin thin y. [27]
d) Cho nn h ch trng c th thc y s bin thin tin ha bng cch gy mu thun, bng cch lm
Cch mng. [28]
e) Mc ch ti hu l gii phng con ngi, khi mi s t tng l thuc, con ngi thng tr c thin
nhin. [29]
l i cng Duy vt s quan, tc l Duy Vt Bin Chng Php p dng vo lch s loi ngi.
Trn y ta tot lc hc thuyt ca Hegel v hc thuyt Marx Engels. So vi Kinh Dch ta thy c nhiu
im tng ng, tng d.
1. Tng ng v Dch cng nh Hegel, cng nh Marx, Engels ch trng Vn Tng bin thin; bin thin
v mu thun ni ti.

33

2. Tng d v Dch ch trng Thi Cc siu m Dng, siu tinh thn v vt cht, bao qut tinh thn v vt
cht, sinh ra tinh thn v vt cht, lm cn ct cho c tinh thn ln vt cht. Tri li Hegel th duy thn, Marx,
Hegels th duy vt.
3. Dch cho rng c Dng bt sinh, c m bt ha. Cn Hegel, cng nh Marx, Engels, ch trng hoc l
duy c Dng (Tinh thn) hoc l duy c m (vt cht) th ly u ra cp mu thun ni ti sinh ra bin ha
c.
4. Dch ch trng di nhng hnh thc bin thin cn c Bn Th bt bin, tri li Marx, Engels cho
rng ci g cng v thng, v nh c. [30]
5. Dch ch trng m Dng c khc nhng li c sinh, tc ch trng khng phi nguyn c s u
tranh, chng i mi sinh ra c bin thin, m cn c c s on kt, hp tc, xy dng na. l iu m
Marx, Engels t ni ti.
6. Dch p dng khoa hc Dch vo s ci thin ni tm, thn thnh ha con ngi, vo s thch ng vi hon
cnh cho kho lo c mt i sng l tng, Marx Engels p dng khoa hc Dch vo s canh ci ngoi cnh v
vt cht.
7. Dch bt chc ng li ca Tri, nn hiu sinh, ch ngha Cc Mc v v nhng thnh qu nhn tin bn
ngoi nn t ra hiu ng, hiu st.
8. Dch cho rng Vn Vt, Vn Tng bin thin pht huy, tn dng mi kh nng, ng hu cui cng nhn
ra c Bn Th bt bin, v tr v c vi Bn Th bt bin. Hegel cng c ci nhn cho ti chung cuc nh
Dch Kinh.
Tri li, Marx Engels khng c tm nhn xa nh vy v khng bit, hoc khng mun cp n nh lut
Thina tun hon chung nhi phc thy. tng kt li, ta thy rng ng trc hin tng Vn Vt, Vn Hu
bin thin, Dch kinh c tm cho ra:
1. Nhng nh lut chi phi s bin thin v d nh nh lut sinh, trng, lo, t v.v..
2. ng c thc y bin thin, tc l m Dng tng sinh, tng khc.
3. Chiu hng bin thin tc l hng ngoi, hng ni, hng h, hng thng; ly tm, hng tm v.v..
4. Mc ch ca cuc bin thin tc l pht huy c mi tim nng, tim lc ca mnh, tr v vi nguyn
bn, vi Tuyt i. Dch mun ngi hc Dch p dng nhng nh lut bin dch, nhng nhn nh v bin dch
vo bn thn c th thc hin c mt i sng l tng, c th gip mnh, gip ngi thn thnh ha bn
thn, ci thin hon cnh, cng tin ti mt tng lai v cng huy hong v tt p.
CH THCH
[1] Th gi nh t ph, bt x tr d. , . T Hn IX cu 16.
[2] Thy H Thin 3a.
[3] Vn php gi ni v tr chi hin tng, hu sinh dit, hu tng gim, hu thy chung. ,
, , . Wieger, Histoire des croyances religieuses et des opinions philosophiques en
Chine, page 548.
[4] On ne peut pas entrer deux fois dans le mme fleuve... Elle se disperse et se runit de nouveau (toute chose
mortelle), sapproche et sloigne (D.91) Kostas Axelos, Hraclite et la philosophie, page 51.
[5] Cf. m Xun Thiu, Trn Trng San, Vit vn c bn nh, trang 32.
[6] Cf. Jean Wahl - Trait de Mtaphysique- pages 33, 34, 35.
34

[7] Cf. Jean Wahl - Trait de Mtaphysique- pages 33, 34, 35.
[8] Lide est ternelle.....(Hegel)
J. Wahl - Trait de Mtaphysique 84.
... Il doit donc y avoir un monde intelligible, un monde des ides (Platon) Ib. 84.
... Le Rel est ce qui ne devient pas (Anaxagore) Ib. 33.
... La substance est limmuable (Parmmide) Ib.84.
[9] Tandis que Znon dnie au changement toute ralit, Platon se borne le cantonner dans le monde sensible.
Ib.84.
[10] Sans doute comme lHracliten lexpose dans le Phdon, le chaud devient le froid, le froid devient le chaud;
le dur, le mou et rciproquement.
Interprtation du devenir comme passage du contraire au contraire. Ib 38.
[11] Si nous nous rappelons la pense dHraclite nous serons amens dire que ce sont probablement les
changements cycliques qui ont donn lhomme lide du devenir, le flux et le reflux, la nuit et le jour, la
veille et le sommeil, laspiration et lexpiration. Jean Wahl - Trait de Mtaphysique, page 41.
[12] Cest la raison pour laquelle Hraclite a dit que le devenir est de nature antithtique, quil se fait par un jeu
dantithse. Ib 41.
[13] Le principe de Doppler - Fizeau est aujourdhui, en effet une des bases de lastrophysique, et permet, grce au
dcalage des raies de leur spectre, de mesurer la vitesse des toiles, et des nbuleuses les plus lointaines.
Pierre Rousseau - Histoire de la Science, page 556.
[14] ...Georges Lemaitre avait expos... la thorie dun univers en expansion. Eddington se frotta les yeux, lut avec
intrt, avec passion. Et il constata que Lemaitre avait prdit le phnomne, observ par Hubble et que la fuite
des nbuleuses trahissait une expansion de lunivers. Ib 769.
[15] Cc v sao c chia thnh 10 hng:
- Hng 0 = sc nng 30,000 o
- Hng B = sc nng 20,000 o
- Hng A = sc nng 10,000 o
- Hng F = sc nng 7,500 o
- Hng G = sc nng 5,600 o
- Hng K = sc nng 4,000 o
- Hng M = sc nng 3,000 o
- Hng N = nh hai hng K v M
- Hng S = thuc hng sao lnh
Sao cng tr cng trng
Sao c tui ng mu vng
Sao gi bin sang mu .
Cf. Camille Flammarion - Astronomie populaire, p.460 et ss;
Astronomie Larousse - page 338 et ss.
LAlchimie Moderne (Th. Moreux - p.79 et ss.)

35

... Ds les premires observations, les diffrences constates inclinaient lesprit concevoir une sorte
dvolution stellaire, une loi grandiose qui rglait non seulement leur apparition, mais les phases de leur vie
astrale, leur extinction et leur mort peut tre- LAlchimie moderne. page 79.
[16] Rappelons que le Principe de Carnot traduit la tendance de lnergie se dgrader ou se dissiper, ce qui
entraine une augmentation de lentropie cest dire de lextension spatiale de lnergie au cours de ses
transformations. Andr Lamouche, La destine humaine, page 49, note 16.
.... Cest cette marche sens unique, toujours dans le sens de dgradation irrversible, qui justifie le nom de
principe dvolution par lequel on dsigne souvent le second principe de Carnot. Ib. page 95.
[17] Si la palontologie nous enseigne que des continents ont disparu, que des terres ont merg, que des cours
deau se sont dplacs, que des montagnes se sont souleves et que dautres ont t rases, cest que depuis
lorigine du monde, le vent persiste transporter le sable des dserts, le torrent et le glacier limer le flanc de
la montagne, la rivire ronger ses rives, le fleuve encombrer de sable son delta, leau souterraine forer
des puits et des avens, la mer saper ses falaises, le volcan rejeter ses laves, et le sol lui-mme se soulever
ou saffaisser lentement... Pierre Rousseau, Histoire de la Science, page 652.
[18] LAdaptation aux circonstances et la fonction. Plante N(3 - page 139 (Andr de Cayeux, Qu est ce que
lvolutionnisme)
[19] - Hegel donnait la primaut lesprit sur la matire et trouvait en celui l lorigine de celle ci...
- En consquence, pour Hegel, 'LHistorie est le dveloppement de lesprit universel dans le temps.
Cf. Francois Dufay, M.E.P. En Chine lEtoile contre la croix - page 38-39.
[20] La matire est et sexplique par elle mme. (L'toile contre la Croix - page 38)
[21] Tout est mouvement, changement, apparition et disparition. Ib. 40.
[22] La dialectique est la science des lois gnerales du mouvement, tant du monde extrieur que de la pense
humaine (Engels in Ludwig Feuerbach.)
... De fait, le mot 'dialectique qualifie la fois changement interne de ltre, la mthode dinvestigation
(marxiste) qui tudie ltre sous le rapport du changement, et laction rvolutionnaire qui acclre le
changement (des socits humaines, palier suprieur du progrs universel) en activant les contradictions
internes (Ib. 38 notes)
[23] Pour la dialectique, il ny a rien de dfinitif, dabsolu, de sacr... rien nexiste pour elle que le processus
ininterrompu du devenir et du transitoire (Engels) (Ltoile contre la Croix, p. 40)
[24] Les quatres grandes lois de la dialectique:
a) Lautodynamisme
b) Les enchainements du processus, les changements sont interdpendants les uns des autres... Les
enchainements du processus ne sont autres que la loi du progrs universel.
c) Les choses changent parce quelles contiennent en elles mmes la contradiction.
d) Le saut qualitatif brusque (Les changements quantitatifs se convertissent en changements qualitatifs)
Ib. pages 40-44.
[25] Lhistoire nest pas le rsultat dun hasard aveugle. Elle nest non plus dirige par telle ou telle puissance
bonne ou mauvaise de lau- del, mais porte en elle sa loi, selon laquelle elle progresse.
Gustave A. Welter.
Lidologie sovitique contemporaine Tome I - page 146.
36

[26]Les socits humaines changent, voluent; cest un fait universellement admis par tout le monde.
Ltoile contre la Croix. page 45.
[27]Ce sont donc les luttes des classes qui expliquent lhistoire, mais cest lconomie qui dtermine les classes.
Ltoile contre la Croix, p. 47.
...Plus prcisment, cest le mode de production des biens matriels ncessaires la vie qui dtermine en
dernire analyse la marche de lhistoire humaine. Lidologie sovitique contemporaine Tome I page 146.
[28] Qui dit dialectique dit lutte, 'le dveloppement est la lutte des contraires, le moteur du progrs humain est donc
une lutte, la lutte des classes, le Parti communiste en est lAgent...
'Pour faire accoucher la socit socialiste, il faudra un accoucheur, do la ncessit de la rvolution.
[29] Acquisitions ultimes: libration totale de lhomme de toutes les contingences et de toutes les servitudes...
domination des forces de la nature par lhomme. Ib. 50.
[30] Il ny aurait donc plus de vrit absolue 'Si, il y a une vrit absolue, cest que tout est relatif.
- (Cachin, Science et Religion - page 24)
- (Ltoile contre la Croix - page 57)
...Pour la dialectique, il ny a rien de dfinitif, dabsolu, de sacr...
(Politzer - Principes lmentaires de philosophie - page 169 Ltoile contre la Croix - page 40)

Chng 3. Dch l bt bin


Dch bao qut c hai phn th dng, bin hng ca t tri. Nh trn ni: S bin thin ch din bin trn
bnh din hin tng, cn Bn Th vn thng hng.
Nu vy th trong bin thin, lun hm ng Bt Dch, bt bin, v th nn Dch cn c ngha Bt Dch. Nu
bin thin l tng i, th Bt Dch t phi l Tuyt i. C Tuyt i ri Tng i mi sinh, c Bt Dch ri
Bin thin mi hin, nh vy th Tuyt i, Bt Dch chnh l Bn Th ca tri t vy.
Nu Dch c ngha l Bt Dch, l Tuyt i, l Bn Th hng cu, l Cn nguyn ca v tr, th ta c th
dng ch Dch vit hoa ch Tuyt i, hay nguyn l ca v tr. Ta vit: Dch l Tuyt i th, Nguyn l v
tr, Bn Th hng cu
Dch bt bin, mun pht huy quyn nng mnh, li dng s bin dch. Vy mun tm Dch bt bin, phi t
lng Dch bin thin m suy ngc li.
Tin Hin, Lo cng Ch Nho, nhn c Dch l cn nguyn v tr, l Tuyt i:
Lit t vit: Dch v hnh lit[1] Dch khng c hnh tng bn b. ng cng cn dng ch Thi Dch ch
Bn nguyn v tr. [2]
T V Lng khi bin kho v V tr lun ca cc o gia vit: Cn nguyn sinh ra mi s bin ha
trong v tr, gi l Khng sinh, Khng ha, Nghi c, CcThn,Huyn tn, Thi Dch, V Vi.
Chung qui u l mt th vy.
Li suy ra n ci m Dch gi l Thi Cc, hay Chu t i Tng gi l V Cc ri Thi Cc, Lo t gi l
V Danh, hay Empdocle gi l To Apiron, tt c u l Mt vy. [3] Thin n t vit: Kim tam ti gi l Dch,
qun Vn Vt gi l o. C mt tnh thun nht gi l Chn nh... cho nn Thin n t sinh trong Dch, m cht
cng trong Dch...! [4]

37

V pha Nho gia ta thy Thi Tit Trai tin sinh (Thi Uyn) cho rng: Dch thi v t, v vi, tch nhin bt
ng, cn Thn th cm l lp tc thng sut l do trong thin h... Ni Dch tc l ni khi cha hin dng, ni
Thn tc l ni khi bt u hin dng, bi v Dch l cn bn ca Thn; Thn l ng dng ca Dch [5]
ng li vit: Dch c trc Lng Nghi nn khng hnh th. [6]Cho nn hc Dch i vi ng, l mt
phng php tin ti Thn minh. [7]Hiu Dch l Tuyt i, cn Vn Hu l tng trng, l biu dng, l hnh
tng ca Tuyt i, th mi hiu ti sao Dch va bt bin, va bin thin. Bt bin nu xt v phng din
tuyt i, bin thin nu xt v phng din tng i Vn Hu.
Ng Khang gii: Bt dch l tn ca Bn Th hngcu. [8]L Chng Cng gi Bt dch l o l tuyt
i vnh cu. [9]Nguyn n Trng cho rng: Bt dch l Bn th.[10] Vi nhng li gii thch y, ta c th tr
v Dch Kinh, v nhn nh r rng rng theo Dch Kinh, th tri t, Vn Vt l bng hnh, l nh tng ca Tuyt
i th v hnh, ca Dch. H T vit: Tri t hm ng Tuyt i; Cho nn h tri t phn trnh thnh lit, th
Tuyt i ngay trong.
Nu tri t b hy dit, th Tuyt i khng c biu dng, th tri t cng khng cn l do tn ti.
[11]H T li vit: Dch khng ngh, khng lm, tch nhin bt ng, h cm ng l bit ngay cn c ca thin h.
Nu khng tuyt i thn diu th lm sao c th nh vy c? [12]...Dch bao qut mi s bin ha ca tri t,
tc thnh mun vt m chng b st ci chi; thng t li ung ca ngy m. Cho nn Thn th v phng s, m
Dch th v hnh th. [13]Tt c nhng li l trn phi by tm t ca Thnh Hin t ngn xa: Trong ci bin,
c ci thng; trong tng i, c tuyt i. Nh vy hc Dch ct l bng qua bin thin tr v vi bt
bin, bt Dch.
Qu Hng c li Tng rng: Sm gi thnh qu Hng, qun t phi tm phng v bt bin m [14]
Cu ny no c khc g cu ng v s tr nhi sinh ktm ca Kinh Kim Cng?
H Vng bnh Tng truyn trn nh sau:
Tm c Hng Cu nn khng i thay. Dch o bin ha v thng, nhng trong bin o c tm ra
c ni bt bin, thi mi c th ni chuyn Dch c. [15]
Tm ra c Bn Th bt dch trong lng v tr, cng nh trong lng con ngi, l iu kin thit yu
cho cng cuc tu thn, thnh Thnh, thnh Tin, thnh Pht. Kinh Lng Nghim vit: Pht bo A Nan: T
mun kip ti nay chng sinh b lao lung in o, cc nghip chng sinh ra y dy nh tri c xoa. Cn nhng
ngi tu hnh chng thnh c V Thng B , li thnh ra bc Thanh Vn, Duyn Gic v cc th Ngoi
o, cc Tri v Ma vng, Ma quyn, u l v khng bit hai th cn bn, tu luyn cung xin, thc lon y nh
i nu ct thnh cm th c n ngn mun kip cng chng c.
Th no l hai th cn bn? Hi A Nan: mt lcn bn t sinh t mun kip, y nh nay ngi v chng
sinh ly tm vng tng (tm phan duyn) lm t tnh. [16]Hai l cn bnV thy Nit Bn nguyn thanh
tnhth ni ngi, chnh l thc tinh nguyn minh c th sinh ra vn duyn, vn s m b trn duyn lm
mt b. Cng v chng sinh lm mt ci cn nguyn sng lng y cho nn hng ngy tuy vn lun dng m
chng t bit c n, ri ln ln m ui vo cc th vui, ung ph c i.[17]
Th Lng Nghim cn vit: nh mt cn nguyn trng tn, vnh cu, nn b lun chuyn.[18]
Hraclite cng cho rng hc bin dch ct tm ra Logos (Thi Cc) bt bin. ng vit i khi nh sau:
Logos l Thin chn thng ti, m ngi i no bit vn mng l chi, mc du c hay cha c nghe
bn ti.[19] Tuy mi s bin thin u do Logos (Thi Cc), nhng h y thc nh nhng ngi vng di si ngc
mc du tri qua v thc hin nhiu bin thin hoc bng li ni, hoc bng vic lm...
38

Logos (Thi Cc) l ph qut m mi ngi li thch kin ring t. Thi Cc c lin lc thng xuyn vi
mi ngi m mi ngi li bt ha, bt hp vi Thi Cc. Ci m h gp thng ngy li tr nn xa l i vi h.
[20]
Nh vy, ta thy rng cc bc thng tr, thng nhn bt phn o gio, u i tm Hng Cu v Bt
bin.
Theo Kinh Dch, trong v tr ch c Thi Cc, c o l Tuyt i, l Hng Cu, Bt bin. Cho nn ngi
qun t hc Dch, lc no cng phi cng quyt tm cho ra o, ra Tuyt i gia mi bin thin, tng i, lc
no lng cng phi kh hp vi Thi Cc vi o.
Mun tng trng Bn Th Hng Cu hay Thi Cc lng trong lng Vn Vt bin thin, c nhn v ra
vng Dch, trong tm im tng trng cho Bt bin, Hng Cu, cn cc vng Ho Qui bn ngoi tng
trng cho Vn Hu bin thin. V nu ta coi vng Dch nh l mt bnh xe bin ha, th tm im bt bin, hay
Thi Cc chnh l ci bu, ci trc gia bnh xe.
Trc bnh xe, hay tm im bt bin chnh l Thin tm, l Chn tm sinh xut mi bin thin.
Lo t vit:
Bnh xe ba mi tai hoa,
Ci bu gia trng, n nh n quay[21]
Vn o T ging lun nh sau:
Nhn o, Thin o u l tc dng nhim mu ca mt kh Thi Cc. V s tc dng huyn diu y, s
tun hon vng phc lun chuyn y tt phi c trc. C nhn gi trc y l trung tm thin a, l cng cc ca
Thi Cc. [22]
Thin o c trung ng cc nn vn chuyn mun i m khng sai tht, cng nh trong bnh xe, cc vnh
xe v tai hoa xe vn chuyn khng ngng l nh trc xe. Nu ta gi vng c trung im, tn dng c Thi
Cc, th c th chuyn vn vi Vn Vt m vn c th gp phn c vi tri t trong cng trnh ha dc.
Cho nn ngi qun t tu Nhn o hp Thino. Hp Thin o tc l vo c trc ca
vng Dch, thot ra ngoi vng kim ch ca hin tng, h tr mun vt m khng t vng, dnh bn mun
vt, xoay chuyn vng bin dch, m chng chuyn dch vi bnh xe bin thin, lun lc.[23]
Hong ni: V tr trong tay, vn ha sinh trong mnh. Pht ni: Thu b khi vo trong si lng, em ni
Tu Di lng trong ht ci u phi l thut l. Bt qu cc ngi nm c trc ca php lun. i vi diu thay, trc
ca php lun (trc ca vng bin thin, hay trc ca Vn Hu), hi my ai bit? Chng r c trc m ch
bit ni php lun lun vn chuyn, th chng chy cng b vn chuyn theo php lun, lm sao thot vng sinh t
c. [24]
u sch Tnh Mnh Khu Ch c hnh Lo t cm vng Thi Cc, ni hc Dch ct l tm ra c Thi
Cc, c o tc l c Thi Cc. Th l cng l tr tri ni trong i hc vy. ni con ngi th ci trc, ci
bt bin, bt dch chnh l ct cch tinh hoa, chnh l lng nng, lng tri hng cu.
Nhn ra ct cch thn minh ca mnh, lt thng c s hn mang ca cc cm gic, phn bit c ci
thn diu bt bin trong mt th gii bin thin, t c ti Bn Th qua cc lp lang hin tng o ha, mi
l vn chnh yu. [25] Th tc l p dng c khoa Dch hc vo cuc i mnh:
C bin mi hay c cu trng,
Trung tm tnh lng, ngoi nhiu nhng.
Nhiu nhng, bin ha sinh lun lc,
39

Hc Dch ct tm Bt Dch phng.


Ngoi ngha bt Dch l Tuyt i bt bin, Hng Cu, cc nh bnh gii cn cho rng bt dch l nhng ngi
v bt dch, nhng nh lut bt dch.
Sch Cn tc gii bt dch l a v bt dch: Nh tri trn t di, vua quay mt v Nam, thn quay quay
mt v Bc, cha ngi, con phc. [26]
Nhng nhng s kin ni trn chng c g l bt bin, bt dch c; v d tri t trn l lng gia bu tri, th
va c tri trn, tri ngang, v tri di; qu B th tri trn, t di

m qu Thi th li t di, tri

trn . V H T cng vit: Thng h v thng, cng nhu tng dch (H T h, VIII)
Vn qun Nam din, thn Bc din, ch c gi tr vi mt thi i no Trung hoa, ch nh u chu
th no h c k chi l phng hng. Hn na n thi dn ch th u l vua? Ngay n nh vn ph t, ta
cng thy c nhng trng hp, v ch ngha, ngi ta cng c th o ln c c cng thng v.v...
Mun cho chnh xc hn, ta phi ni rng tuy th gii o in, bin ha nhng vn dc chi phi bng
nhng nh lut bt dch [27] nhng nh lut y c th xc nh c, v d nh:
- nh lut t tn,
- nh lut in o,
- nh lut thng trm,
- nh lut sinh, trng, thu, tng hay sinh, trng, lo, t.
- nh lut tun hon v.v...
Tng kt li, ch Dch l Bt Dch gi cho chng ta 2 nim:
1. Trong v tr c mt Bn Th tuyt i.
2. V tr c chi phi bng nhng nh lut bt dch.
CH THCH
[1]Xung H Chn Kinh - Chng I.
[2]Xung H Chn Kinh - Chng I.
[3] Th hp lun v tr nng ha d s sinh, s ha chi nguyn bin, v chi bt sinh bt ha, v chi Nghi c, v chi
Cc thn, Huyn tn, v chi Thi dch, v chi V vi, k tht nht vt d. Cnh suy chi Dch s v Thi Cc,
Tng Chu t s v V Cc nhi Thi Cc, Lo t s v V danh cp Hu vt hn thnh, tin thin a sinh, Hi
lp n Bi a Khc Nhi (Empdocle) s v To Apiron dic nht vt d. T V Lng, Trung quc Trit
Hc S. nht bin h, nht chng, trang 27.
[4] Kim tam ti nhi ngn v chi Dch. T Vn Vt nhi ngn v chi o. c bn nht tnh nhi ngn, v chi Chn
Nh...C Thin n t sinh h Dch trung, t h Dch trung. . .
... , . Thin n T, Dng sinh th - trang 2a.
[5] V t, v vi, tch nhin bt ng, Dch d. Cm nhi toi thng thin h chi c, Thn d. Th chng chi Dch,
ch v pht gi vi ngn d. Thn chi s pht gi vi ngn d, ci Dch gi Thn chi bn; Thn gi Dch chi
dng... , , , . , . , .
, ; . Trng bin Tng nguyn hc n quyn III, trang 678 (Thi tit Trai
tin sinh Uyn)
[6] C Dch ti Lng nghi chi tin, k Dch v th. , . Ib. 677.
40

[7] Qun t hc Dch nhi ch thn d. . Trng bin Tng Nguyn hc n III, trang 678.
[8] Bt dch gi thng th chi danh. Hu thng hu th. . . Chu Dch i cng trang 8.
[9] Nhi gi vnh cu tuyt i ch o l d, tu th Bt dch ch. , .
Dch Hc Tho Lun tp - trang 128.
[10] Bt dch k Bn Th h. . To Ha thng chng 3 trang 5.
[11] Cn Khn k Dch chi un da? Cn khn thnh lit nhi Dch hnh h k trung h. Cn Khn hy tc v d
kin Dch. Dch bt kh kin tc Cn Khn hoc c h tc h. ? .
. . H T thng chng XII. (Ch un y, Chu
dch c bn gii l bao sc, l che du, nh o mc bn ngoi. Wilhelm Baynes Dch Un l b n tng
khng ng) Cf. Chu dch bn ngha H T thng chng XII, trang 104, Wilhelm Baynes - The I Ching,
Book II page 347.
[12] Dch v t d, v vi d; tch nhin bt ng. Cm nhi toi thng thin h chi c, phi thin h chi ch thn, k
thc nng d th. , ; . , , .
H T thng chng X.
[13] Phm vi thin a chi ha nhi bt qu, khc thnh Vn Vt nhi bt di, thng h tr d chi o nhi tri. C thn
v phng nhi Dch v th. , , .
. Ib. chng III.
[14] Tng vit: Li phong Hng, qun t d lp bt Dch phng. : , . Dch Kinh
- Qu Hng, Tng truyn.
[15] Vng vit: c k s cu c bt dch d. n Dch chi o, bin Dch v thng. T k bin gi nhi nng tri
bt Dch chi phng, nhin hu kh d ngn Dch h. : . , .
, . Dch Kinh, Kim vn kho thng lun. (Triu tin, Thim chu, L
Bnh Hin) quyn h qu Hng.
[16] Pht co A Nan: Nht thit chng sinh tng v thy lai, Chng chng in o, nghip chng t nhin nh c
xoa t. Ch tu hnh nhn bt nng thnh v thng b , ni ch bit thnh thanh vn, duyn gic, cp thnh
ngoi o ch thin, ma vng cp ma quyn thuc, giai do bt tri nh chng cn bn, thc lon tu tp do nh
ch sa, dc thnh gia son, tng kinh trn kip chung bt nng c. Vn h nhi chng? A Nan, nht gi, v
thy sinh t cn bn, tc nh kim gi d ch chng sinh dng phan duyn tm vi t tnh gi. Th Lng
Nghim, Linh sn Pht hc nghin cu hi - trang 55-56.
[17] Nh gi, v thy b Nit bn Nguyn thanh tnh th, tc nh kim gi, thc tinh nguyn minh, nng sinh
ch duyn, duyn s di gi; do ch chng sinh di th bn minh, tuy chung nht hnh nhi bt t gic, ung
nhp ch th. Ib, trang 55 - 56.
[18] Tht nh nguyn thng, c th lun chuyn. Th Lng Nghim kinh Vit nam Pht t hi xut bn quyn
I, trang 55.
[19] Le Logos que voici, tant toujours vrai, les hommes nen acquirent pas la comprhension, ni avant de lavoir
entendu, ni une fois quils ont entendu. Kostas Axelos, Hraclite et la philosophie page 58.
[20] Car bien que tout devienne selon ce Logos - ci, ils sont pareils des inexpriments, mme sils ont fait
lexprience et des paroles et des oeuvres. Mais bien que le Logos soit universel, les gens du commun (la
foule) vivent comme sils avaient une pense particulire. Le Logos, avec qui pourtant ils ont le plus constant
41

rapport, avec lui ils sont en dsaccord, et ce que tous les jours ils rencontrent, cela leur parat tranger.
Kostax Axelos - Hraclite et la philosophie page 58.
[21] Tam thp phc cng nht cc. ng k v, hu xa chi dng. . , . Lo t
o c Kinh XI.
[22]Vn o t ging o tinh hoa lc - trang 36b.
[23] C qun t tu k nhn o, t hp Thin o, hp Thin o tc c k hon trung, siu h tng ngoi, vt
vt nhi bt vt vt, chuyn lun nhi bt chuyn lun d. , , ,
, , . Vn o T ging o TinhHoa Lc, trang 366.
[24] Hong ngn v tr ti h th, vn ha sinh h thn. Pht ngn thn thng minh mao khng, chuyn Tu
di gii trung, ph khi hu d thut, bt qu nng c php lun chi trc nh. Y hi vi h diu tai, Php lun
chi trc, Y thy nng thc; bt thc k trc, nhi ngn php lun thng chuyn, chung dic chuyn
lun trung nhi d; gii thot sinh t nng h tai. , . ,
, , . , , ; ,
, ; . Vn o t ging o Tinh Hoa Lc, trang 36b.
[25] Reconnatre cette parent divine, vaincre le chaos des sensations, discerner le divin et le permanent dans un
monde fluide, atteindre ltre travers le devenir, tel est le problme central. (Lhomme et le Zodiaque, page
258)
[26] C Cn tc ch gii thuyt d vi bt dch gi k v d. Thin ti thng, a ti h, qun Nam din,
thn Bc din, ph ta t phc, th k bt Dch d. . ,
, , , . Dch Hc Tho Lun tp - trang 127
[27] Nhin k pht trin bin ha, tnh bt th lon ng ch, qun tun hu nht nh ch qui o, tc nht nh
ch ng ch php tc. (Dch Hc Tho Lun tp trang 128)

Chng 4. Dch l gin d


Dch kinh cng nh v tr, nu xt v phng din Ho Qui, Vn Tng bin thin, th phc tp v cng
tn. Ngc li, nu xt v phng din V Cc Thi Cc, phng din Bn Th th thc l gin d.
V th Dch cn c ngha l gin d.
Cho nn Dch ch gin d nu ta nm c u mi Dch, then cht ca Dch, xem c b mt thc ca
Dch, khi cha bin ha. Mi hay:
Ch o ch tm trong bin ha,
L tri ng kim ch tn phin[1]
H T bn v s gin d ca Dch rt kho lo Tm Dch nh sau:
Cn Khn d bit d lm,
D nn d bit, gin cng d theo.
D hay, nn s d yu,
D theo, nn s cht chiu thi hnh.
C yu,trng cu mi sinh,
C lm, mi c cng trnh ln lao,
Hin nhn, c ct bn lu,
Hin nhn, s nghip c mu ln lao.
42

L tri gin d xit bao.


(Tm ni phin toi thy sao l tri)
(L tri gin d thy ri)
Ngi Tri cao c tc thi hin ra[2]
Phc Mnh Thin vit: Ch o bt phin, nhn t mui [3]
Dch:
Ch o chng tn phin,
Ch ti ngi u ti.
Lng Nhin T vit:
Cha hay thn tht, nghn iu ri,
t c tm in, vn s khng [4]
Tuy li l c khc nhau, nhng Tin Thnh, Tin Hin u quan nim rng: o Tri chng kh, o Dch
thc d. Kh l v mnh t lao mnh vo rc ri kh khn. D l v khi tm ra c Thi Cc, ra o, ra Bn Th
n khut sau Ho, Qui, sau Hin Tng, l bt c vi- ca c nhn ri.
Ti sao gi c rng Dch l gin d?
Dch gin d, v coi mun loi l nh tng, l biu dng ca Tuyt i, y thc nh Ho Qui l biu tng
ca Thi Cc.
Dch gin d, v ch trng Tuyt i, chng c xa ngi m ngay trong lng ngi, chng c xa Vn
Hu m ngay trong lng Vn Hu, nh Thi Cc nm ngay gia cc Ho Qui. Dch gin d, v ch trng
thin bin vn ha trong tri t u do s tng khc, tng tha ca m Dng sinh ra. M m Dng tc l
kh cht, tc l tinh thn, vt cht. Nhng s bin ha ca v tr c nh lut, c tit tu hn hoi, vng lai, phn
phc tun hon ri cui cng li tr v Nguyn Bn.
Nu mun loi u theo nh lut tun hon y, nu nhn qun u theo nh lut tun hon y, th mi mt
ngi cng phi theo nh lut y. Nh vy, hc Dch ct l tm cho ra cn ct siu nhin ca mnh, tm cho ra Thi
Cc, cho ra Tuyt i ngay trong i mnh, v mt i cng nh vn i, mt ngy cng nh vn c. Leibniz nh
ngha gin d l bt kh phn [5].
Nh vy th trong khp v tr ch c Tuyt i l bt kh phn, cng nh trong Dch ch c Thi Cc l bt
kh phn. Cho nn khi ni Dch l gin d, tc l c nhn ng dy ta phi tm cho c Tuyt i, c Thi
Cc di mi hnh thc bin thin, di mi lp lang Ho, Qui.
Ngi Hi Lp cho rng s gin d l n tn ca Chn L. i vi cc bc danh nhn nh Descartes,
Leibniz, Poincar hay Einstein, s gin d cng l hng o a ti Chn L. [6]
Ngy B Dng vit trong Tham ng Kh:
o yu huyn vi,
Thin c thm vin.
t gi duy gin duy d,
Nhi m gi d phin, d nan d [7]
Dch:
Tinh hoa o th huyn vi,
Thin c thm vin, kh suy, kh lng,
Bit ra gin d, d dng,
43

M thi kh, li cng kh thm.


Trng Honh C khi lun v kh Thi ha sinh Vn Vt cho rng: mi u th c vi d gin, nhng cng
v sau cng qung i kin c [8].
Cao Trung Hin bnh rng: Gi l c vi, d gin v lc u ch c mt kh lu hnh, lng l vn xoay. Gi l
qung i kin c tc l cp ti khi thnh t, sung mn, mi ngy mt i mi. [9] Mt kh y (Thi Ha)
va giao ng th ban u cha c hnh tch, nhng Vn Vt ha sinh m chng thy kh khn. l s d dng
cp qu Cn.
n khi mun vt hin l, bao la khong i, c hnh tch thy c, xem c, nhng mun vt vn th thi,
chng cm thy mt mi. l s d dng cp qu Khn . Cn sinh vt cch gin d, Khn thnh vt mt
cch gin d. [10]
Nguyn n Trng bnh v s gin d ca Dch l, cng nh ca tri t nh sau:
* Thin h vn ca, chung qui ch c ng vi M;
* Thin h Vn L, chung qui ch c Chnh vi T;
* Thin h Vn Th, chung qui c ng vi Tnh;
* Thin h Vn S, chung qui c Chn vi L;
* Thin h Vn Tng, chung qui c c vi Ci;
* Thin h Vn Cht, chung qui c Cng vi Mm.
Cho nn o ca Dch c g u, chng qua mt m, mt Dng thi vy.[11]Vy lnh hi Dch, nu mun
gin d ta s chn:
- Thi Cc gia mun nghn nh tng.
- Chn s Mt gia mun ngn s.
- Chn Tm im gia Ho Qui trn vng Dch. Cng v vy m Trang t ni: c Nht vn s tt; m
o gia gi l Th Trung, Bo Nht.
Th tc l ly Mt Tng qun thu v s Tng, ly Mt S qun thu v s S, ly Mt o qun thu
v s o, ly Mt Tm qun thu v s Tm. [12]
Nu mun gin d hn na: Ta s chn:
- V Tng
- V V
- V S, V Cht
- V Thanh, V X
Nh vy chng phi l gin d n tuyt mc sao? [13]
CH THCH
[1] Ch o bt k bin ha. Gin d nhi thin h chi l c. . .
[2] Cn d d tri, Khn d gin nng. D tc d tri, gin tc d tng. D tri tc hu thn, d tng tc hu cng. Hu
thn tc kh cu, hu cng tc kh i. Kh cu tc hin nhn chi c, kh i tc hin nhn chi nghip. D
gin nhi thin h chi l c thc. Thin h chi l c, nhi thnh v h k trung h. , .
, . , . , . , .
. , . Dch, H T thng chng I.
[3] Phc Mnh Thin trang 3a.
44

[4] Lng Nhin T vn: V minh Thn tht thin ban nhiu. t liu tm in vn s v. .
. Kim n i Thnh trang 5a.
[5] Jappelle simple ce qui na pas de parties
(Leibniz) Andr Lamouche, la Destine humaine page 67.
[6] Car ce nest pas seulement pour les Grecs que la simplicit aura t 'le sceau de la vrit. Aussi bien pour
Descartes et Leibniz que pour Poincar et Einstein la simplicit est un guide vers la vrit.
Andr Lamouche, La Destine humaine, p. 66.
[7]Tham ng Kh quyn thng trang 25a.
[8] K lai d c vi d gin, K cu d qung i kin c. , .
(Trng Honh C hc n) -- Tng Nguyn Hc n, sch 8 - quyn 17 trang 5a.
[9] C vi d gin v th kh lu hnh thy tc tim phu mc vn nhi d. Qung i kin c v nh hanh li chi thi,
tc ph hu nht tn... . , .
Ib. trang 5b.
[10] Th kh nht c, s v hnh tch, nhi Vn Vt ha sinh, bt kin k nan gi vi Cn chi d. Cp th vt l sinh,
hng tim tt t hu tch kh kin, dic bt gic k lao gi vi Khn chi gin. Cn d th thy vt, Khn d
th thnh vt. , , , . , ,
. , . Tng Nguyn Hc n, quyn 17 - trang 5b.
[11] Thin h chi vn h, bt ngoi nht hp nht tch. Thin h chi vn l, bt ngoi nht chnh nht ph.
Thin h chi vn th, bt ngoi nht ng nht tnh. Thin h chi vn s, bt ngoi nht c nht ngu.
Thin h chi Vn Tng bt ngoi nht phng nht vin. Thin h chi vn tnh bt ngoi nht tn nht
mu. Thin h chi vn cht bt ngoi nht cng nht nhu. S v i Dch chi o v tha, nht m nht
Dng tn chi h. , . , . ,
. , . , . , .
, . , . To Ha Thng- trang 56-57 .
[12] Thin a nhn vt, nht l nht o, nhi qui nht d. Nht gi h d? Nhn d, Thnh d, Nguyn thy d, V
Cc d, T Kh d, Kim Hoa d. , , . ? , , ,
, . Sao Kiu ng Chng (ta), trang 6.
[13] Ngc Th vit: Nht Tam Ng Tht Cu, o chi phn nhi hu S. Kim Mc Thy Ha Th, o chi bin
nhi hu Tng. ng Ty Nam Bc Trung, o chi lit nhi hu V. Thanh Bch Xch Hong Hc, o chi
tn nhi hu Cht, S qui V S, Tng phn V Tng, V ch V V, Cht hon V Cht... V S
o chi Nguyn d, V Tng, o chi Th d, V Vi o chi Chn d, V Cht o chi Diu d. :
, . , . , . ,
. , , , ... , ,
, . Linh Bo Tt Php, h quyn, trang 12.
... Le but reste toujours la communion positive et lidentification la limite dune me et dun Dieu.
Bastide, Le Problme de la Mystique, page 66.

Chng 5. Dch l nghch s


Dch gm 2 chiu thun, nghch. T V Cc, Thi Cc xung ti m Dng, sinh ha Vn Vt, l chiu
thun. l chiu t Thi Cc ra n 64 qu ca Phc Hi honh . o gia gi th l ging bn lu mt. [1] T
45

Vn Vt, tr ngc v Bn th, hay ni cch khc t 64 qu tr v T Tng, m Dng, Thi Cc gi l chiu
nghch. o gia gi th l t ngn tr v gc, l t mt phn bn[2]
Nh vy chiu thun s sinh nhn, sinh vt, chiu nghch s sinh Thnh, sinh Thn. [3]
V ra bn, ta thy hai chiu thun nghch nh sau:

Nhn vo Tin Thin Bt Qui ta thy hai chiu thun nghch nh sau;
a) Chiu thun:

(Chiu thun: t Thi Cc ti Vn Vt, t khinh thanh (Cn) ti trng trc (Khn)
b) Chiu nghch.

(Chiu nghch, t Vn Hu tr v Thi Cc, t trng trc (Khn) tr v khinh thanh (Cn), t khinh- thanh
tr v Thi Cc,)
Hong Cc Kinh Th gii:
T trn xung di gi l thun:
Bn t ( tri) th t Cn n oi Ly Chn, 1, 2, 3, 4 vy. Bn hu (phi) th Tn, Khm, Cn, Khn, 5, 6, 7, 8
vy.
Trn on theo gng cc lo t tin bi nh H Thng Cng, Ngy B Dng, Hn Chung Ly, L Nham
(L ng Tn) ra nm giai on tr v V Cc.
1. Tm cho ra Thi Cc tc Huyn Tn Chi Mn;
2. Luyn tinh ha kh, luyn kh ha thn.
3. Ng hnh nh v, ng kh triu nguyn.
4. m Dng phi hp Th khm in Ly.
46

5. Luyn thn hon h, phc qui V Cc [4]


Chu Nguyn Cng (Chu Hi Am) gii Dch theo chiu thun. Thi Cc ca ng cng c 5 tng t trn
xung di:
1. V Cc hay Thi Cc;
2. m Dng phi hp, m ng, Dng tnh.
3. Ng Hnh nh v, Ng Hnh u c tnh cht ring.
4. Cn o thnh nam, Khn o thnh n.
5. Vn Vt ha sinh [5]
Trong Tnh Mnh Khu Ch cng gii r hai chiu thun nghch v p dng vo con ngi nh sau:
a) Chiu thun:
Tnh > Tm > > Tnh > Vng [6]
Ngy nay ta gi th l hng ngoi.
b) Chiu nghch:
Vng > Tnh > > Tm > Tnh
Tr v Tnh tc l c Hon n [7]
Ngy nay ta gi th l hng ni.
Trong quyn Tng Ngn Ph Nghi c 14 bc ha xc nh 2 chiu nghch thun ca cuc i, cng nh ca
vng Dch.[8] Ta c th gii thch cc hnh v mt cch i khi nh sau:
a) Chiu thun: T hnh I n ht hnh VIII.
Con ngi vn t Thi Cc sinh nhng cng ngy cng lc lng vo trn hon, qun mt c bn tm bn tnh.
l chiu thun ca vng Dch Tin Thin Phc Hi, t Trung cung n qu Cu ri n qu Khn.
b) Chiu nghch: T hnh IX n ht hnh XIV.
Nhng m cc th Dng sinh; tuy lc lng trong trn cu, con ngi vn c th tm ra c Thin tm. Nh
, con ngi bit ci thin, hng ni dn v cui cng phc hi li c bn tm bn tnh, Thi Cc nguyn
thy. l chiu nghch ca vng Dch Tin Thin, t qu Phc n qu Cn, vo n trung cung Thi Cc [9]
Nhn sang pha Tri u, ta thy nhiu Trit gia cng cp n hai chiu thun nghch ca cuc tin ha.
Hegel m t i khi nh sau: Tinh thn thot k thy xut pht ph tn vo Vn Vt, ri qua nhiu thi k
vn minh, nhiu chng ng lch s vt v, li phc hi c Chn th [10]
Cc Trit gia Alexandrins v Thomistes cng ch trng mt vng tun hon t Thng xung, ri li dn
dn quay li. [11]
Denis Aropagite, mt Trit gia v mt nh Huyn Hc u chu th k th 5 sau Cng nguyn cng ch
trng v tr vn chuyn theo hai chiu: chiu sinh ha t Thng pht ra, v chiu phn bn qui nguyn, tr
v Thng [12]
Gn y Claude Tresmontant cng vit: C mt vn siu hnh vn thng m nh t tng u chu: l
s mt vng tun hon t Nht xa a xung Vn, ri t Vn li phn hon v Nht [13]
Hai chiu thun nghch ca v tr cng c cc Khoa Hc gia dn dn xc nh.
Chiu thun tc l chiu Dng tiu m trng c Carnot Clausius chng minh. Quan nim ny c
gi l nguyn l th 2 ca Nhit ng Hc, hay nguyn l Carnot Clausius. Nguyn l ny i khi nh sau:
1. Nng lc trong v tr c mt s lng nht nh.
2. Nng lc c th phn tch thnh hot lc, v tim lc.
47

3. Khi tc dng, hot lc s tiu hao, suy gim dn v khng th phc hi nguyn trng c.
4. Rt cuc hot lc tiu hao dn v c mt lc no s trit tiu.
5. Khi y tim lc s ln n mc ti a (entropie maxima) nhng v dng, v th gii s tn s trong im
lm, lnh lo.
Mi u cc Khoa Hc gia tng th gii ch chuyn ng theo mt chiu ni trn. Dn d, cc nh Sinh L
hc (biologistes) v cc nh Sng To my mc t ng (cybernticiens) nhn thy rng nguyn l Carnot Clausius ch p dng cho vt cht v tri, ch khng p dng cho sinh vt, nht l con ngi.
Trong con ngi, r rng l c 2 chiu bin chuyn: Tiu- (Catabolisme), Tc - (Anabolisme).
Tng kt li cc quan nim ca: Dch, o gia, Trit gia, Khoa Hc gia, ta thy v tr c hai chiu, hai
hng vn chuyn.
Theo chiu thun, tinh thn ngy mt suy, vt cht ngy mt thnh. Theo chiu nghch, vt cht ngy mt suy,
tinh thn ngy mt thnh.
Chiu thun c chi phi bi lut nhn duyn (loi de causalit) Chiu nghch c hng dn bi lut cu
cnh (loi de finalit)
Theo chiu thun, th nhn dc thng, thin l vong. Theo chiu nghch, th nhn dc vong, thin l thng.
Ta c kt li cc nhn xt trn bng bn sau:

Chiu nghch:
m tiu
Dng trng
Vt cht thoi
Tinh thn tin
Thin l thng
Nhn dc vong
nh lut cu cnh (T qu
Phc n qu Kin tr v
Trung cung Thi Cc)

Chiu thun:
m trng
Dng tiu
Vt cht tin
Tinh thn thoi
Nhn dc thng
Thin l vong
nh lut nhn duyn chi
phi (T Trung cung ra qu
Cn n qu Khn)

Lu Nht Minh bn v thun nghch i khi nh sau: i theo chiu thun ca To Ha tc l sinh ngi,
sinh vt, lm vng Sinh, Bnh, T, Lo lun hi khng dt; i theo chiu nghch ca To Ha s thnh Tin,
thnh Pht, bt sinh, bt dit, th cng tri t.
i theo chiu thun, trong th b tht tnh lc dc lm m mui, ngoi th b trm iu, nghn vic quy o
tm thn, ly gi l chn, ly t lm chnh, ly kh lm vui, c b li cun theo dc vng ca mnh mi mi, cho
n tiu hao ht tinh thn. [14]
Ngi i tr, i tu, i theo chiu nghch s thot vng kim ta ca cc nh lut To ha, s khng cn b
m Dng nung nu, khng cn b Vn Vt cun li, Vn Duyn bin dch... dng i tu o, ly Nhn o
chu ton Thin o...

48

Nghch y l tr v vi Tuyt i Th, y nh mt k b nh ra i tht xa xi, nay tr li nh. Tuy gi l


nghch hnh, nhng thc l i theo ng l Tri, l ci i thun trong ci nghch, nghch y bt qu l
ngc vi ng li th nhn thng thng. [15]
Sau khi trnh by xong hai chiu thun nghch, ta thy rng: chiu nghch l chiu quan trng, l chiu
gip ta tin ti Thn Minh, Qui Nguyn Phn bn. Dch trng chiu nghch, v dy ngi qun t i theo chiu
nghch, v th gi Dch l nghch s.
Lo t trng chiu nghch, v th mi ni: Phn gi o chi ng[16]Cc o gia ht sc trng chiu
nghch. Cc ngi ch trng cn phi bng qua Ho, Qui tr ngc v Thi Cc, bng qua hin tng tr v vi
Tuyt i. [17] Cc ngi ch trng mun loi ri ra cng tr v vi Thi Cc. [18]
Ng Chn Trc Ch c th:
Vn Vt vn vn cc phn cn,
Phn cn, phc Mnh, tc trng tn
Tri thng Phn Bn nhn nan hi,
Vng tc chiu hung vng vng vn.
Tm dch:
Vn Vt ri ra cng phn cn[19]
Phn cn, phc Mnh, s trng tn
Tri thng, Phn bn, ngi u r,
Nn mi chiu hung, sng mi mn.
Tin Hin cho rng hc ngha cc qu bit ng tr v nguyn s Thi Cc. [20]
Tn Bt Nh vit:
Tm tm th linh c,
Tc tc phn Cn S [21]
Tm dch:
m p linh n quyt mt lng,
Tr v Chn th, d hng mong.
V gii Cn s l ni xut pht ca qu Cn, tc l Chn khng, l o tm [22]
Lu Nht Minh c th:
Nguyn quan nht khiu thiu nhn tri,
Hong ht yu minh hm lng nghi
Thun kh qui lu phin no l.
Nghch lai tin th Thnh Hin ki [23]
Tm dch:
Huyn quan mt khiu t ngi tri,
Phng pht m mng lng nghi.
a y xui dng, vng kh no
Ngc chiu, Hin Thnh to cn ki.
Trn y :
1. Minh xc hai chiu thun nghch, cng ngha v mc ch ca hai chiu thun nghch.
2. cao chiu nghch v nhn chn chiu nghch l chiu sinh Tin, sinh Thnh, sinh Thn.
49

Tuy nhin con ngi sinh ra i khng phi lc


no cng theo c chiu nghch, m cng c lc phi theo chiu thun. Theo thin ti, mt cuc sng l
tng nht ca con ngi s gm c hai chiu thun nghch. Lc tui tr, theo chiu thun, chiu hng ngoi,
t tinh thn tin ra vt cht, ra ngoi cnh ra x hi mu sinh, ci to hon cnh, gp phn xy dng giang sn
t nc. Na i sau khi cng thnh danh toi, s i chiu nghch, t vt cht ngoi cnh, tin su v pha tm
linh, thn thnh ha bn thn, phi hp vi Thi Cc. Sch o Nguyn Tinh Vi Ca cho rng: Trc xung,
sau ln, hp t nhin. [24]
Nh vy l bit hi hng ng lc phi thi, theo ng l tun hon, vng lai, phn phc ca Dch Kinh v
ca tri t. Lc tr vo ni tm, lc i theo chiu nghch, th mi s u nghch o ht:
Ci g xa kia cho l quan trng, nay tr thnh tm thng; ci g xa cho l tm thng, nay tr nn
quan trng.
Con ngi thc t (le moi empirique) nhng bc cho con ngi l tng (le moi idal).
Ngay c n vn tn ngng cng chuyn hng o in. Thng ngoi ti tr thnh Thng ni
ti. Thng xa kia xa cch, nay tr thnh thn mt gn k. [25] Ngi ngoi tng ta b thc, cu h. Ngc
li ta bit chc mnh b h, cu thc.
i theo chiu thun, hng ngoi, hot ng bn ngoi l i theo i, i i. i theo chiu nghch, hng
ni, sng mt i sng tinh thn sc tch bn trong l i theo o, i o.
Chy theo i, i i m ng mnh i o l lm lln. T trn sp xung, gii xong mc ch cao siu
ca Dch l dy con ngi bit cho ngc dng i ln ti cn nguyn.
p dng vo con ngi, cho ngc dng i ln ti cn nguyn l i su vo chiu hng tm linh, thu thn
nh tr, sng mt i sng siu nhin, phi hp vi Tuyt i. Th tc l dng chn ni ch thin (i hc) ni
bt Dch (Dch, qu Hng), c k hon trung theo li Trang t tc l v c tm im ca vng Dch ni m s
bin thin ca v tr khng vo ti c.
Phi chng, th l Hu h Thin qun, yn ngh trong Thng theo li Trang T?
CH THCH
[1] Ging bn lu mt. . Vn o T ging o Tinh Hoa Lc, trang 39.
[2] T mt phn bn. . Ib 39.
[3] Nghch nhi thnh tin, tc thun kh sinh nhn sinh vt. , . o Nguyn Tinh Vi ca
quyn h, trang 9b.
[4] Trn on c Hoa sn tng d V Cc khan ch thch vi vin gi t v ng hnh k trung t h nhi thng:
- S nht vit: Nguyn tn chi mn.
- Th nh vit: Luyn tinh ha kh, luyn kh ha thn
- Th tam vit: Ng hnh nh v, vit ng kh triu nguyn
- Th t: m Dng phi hp vit: th Khm in Ly
- Ti thng vit: Luyn thn hon h, phc qui V Cc
C v chi V Cc .
. .
. . . . .
Dch Kinh Kim Vn Kho Thng Lun, quyn thng - trang 17.
50

[5] Chu Nguyn Cng th nhi chuyn Dch chi dic vi vin gi, t v ng hnh, k trung t thng nhi h.
- Ti thng vit: V Cc nhi Thi Cc.
- Th nh: m Dng phi hp vit: Dng ng m tnh.
- Th tam: Ng hnh nh v vit: Ng Hnh cc nht k tnh.
- Th t vit: Cn o thnh Nam, Khn o thnh N.
- Ti h vit: Vn Vt ha sinh. Canh danh chi vit Thi Cc , nhng bt mt V Cc chi ch.
, , . . .
. .
.
Dch Kinh Kim Vn Kho Thng Lun, quyn thng - trang 17.
[6] Thun: Tm sinh tnh, sinh tm, chuyn vi tnh, tnh sinh vi vng. C Linh Nhun thin s vit:
Ch nhn nht nim vng. Hin xut vn ban hnh. .
. -- Tnh Mnh Khu Ch, nguyn trang 13a.
[7] Nghch: Lim vng hi tnh, tnh phn vi , nhip an tm, tm qui tnh a. C B Dng Chn nhn vit:
Kim lai qui tnh s, Ni c xng Hon n. , , , .
, . (Ib. 13a)
[8] 14 bn ni trn trch trong TngNgnPhNghi ca Lu Nht Minh ( Quyn thng - t trang 1 n trang
5)
[9] Mi bn c km theo li gii thch ca Lu Nht Minh, nhng v qu di nn khng th thut li.
[10] Lesprit est sorti de lui mme pour se disperser dans la nature, et par les tapes laborieuses de la civilisation, il
revient lui mme, comme les Alexandrins et les Chrtiens concevaient un retour Dieu de ce qui avait ce
Dieu pour principe. R.P. Sertillanges, Le Christianisme et les Philosophies - page 213.
[11] Le cycle Alexandrin ou Thomiste procde de Dieu Dieu par une descente et par une monte progressive.
[12] Denis Aropagite, en effet continuant le mouvement noplatonicien nous montre le monde soumis un double
mouvement, lun de cration qui procde de Dieu, lautre de conversion qui revient Dieu. Mais le monde est
multiple, Dieu est lunit suprme, ds lors dans cette conversion, nous ne pouvons rien affirmer de Dieu, sa
connaissance sera ineffable, elle se fera travers un obscur brouillard et nous nen pourrons rien exprimer que
symboliquement. Roger Bastide, Les Problmes de la Vie Mystique, Collection Armand Colin, page 38-39.
[13] Il y a un geste mtaphysique qui na cess de hanter la pense occidentale: le schma cyclique de la chute hors
de lun dans le multiple et du retour lun.
Claude Tresmontant, La Mtaphysique du Christianisme et la naissance de la Philosophie Chrtienne.
Cf. La Table Ronde, Juin 62 - page 119.
[14] Thun To Ha tc sinh Nhn, sinh Vt, sinh Lo, Bnh, T, Lun Hi bt tc. Nghch To Ha tc thnh
Tin, thnh Pht, bt sinh bt dit, th ng thin a... , , , , , .
, , , .
... Ni nhi tht tnh lc dc m k chn, ngoi nhi Vn Duyn, Vn S lao k hnh, nhn Gi vi Chn, d T vi
Chnh, d Kh vi Lc, thun k s dc v s bt ch, tng bn lai Tinh, Kh, Thn tam bo tiu ha i tn...
, , , , , ,
. Lu Nht Minh, Tng Ngn Ph Nghi - trang 1b.
51

[15] i tr tu nhn nghch vn To Ha, bt vi To Ha s cu thc, bt vi m Dng s o dung, bt vi Vn


Vt s khin dn, bt vi Vn duyn s thin di... t Th Php nhi tu o Php, y Nhn o nhi ton Thin
o... , , , , ...
, ...
Nghch gi, nghch hi ph mu sinh thn chi s d, nh nhn ly gia vin xut nhi hu nghch hi gia chi
v. Tuy vn nghch hnh k tht th thun l nhi hnh, ni nghch trung chi i thun, nhn k d thng nhn
s hnh tng phn, c v th nghch... , .
, , , . Lu Nht Minh, Tng Ngn
Ph Nghi quyn thng, tr 1b.
[16] o c Kinh, chng XI.
[17] o vn hc s d tr tri nhi tn h o th chi t. . Trng bin Tng
nguyn hc n quyn III, trang 692.
[18] Nht gi v chi xng, Vn Vt chi s d thnh chung c vn qui Nht... Ng hnh tng thi phn qui Nht.
, ... . Hunh nh Ngoi Cnh trang 18.
[19] Phn cn : tr v gc.
[20] T quyt nguyn s, Thc duy Qui ngha. , . a L Chnh Tng quyn VII trang 4.
[21] Tm tm th linh dc. Tc tc phn Cn S. . . Tn Bt Nh N n Thi Ch,
trang 25a.
[22] Cn S tc th Chn Khng, tc th o Tm. Cn S gi ch Cn Qui v hoch chi s, phi v Cn chi S
Ho. , . , . Ib. trang 25b.
[23] Lu Nht Minh, Tng Ngn Ph Nghi, quyn h trang 7a.
[24] Hu thng, tin ging hp thin nhin. . o Nguyn Tinh Vi Ca, quyn thng - trang
45b.
[25] Dans lvolution de lme qui retourne de la Prakriti, au Purusha, il faut prendre lordre inverse de celui qui a
conduit la nature. Bhagavad Gita - page 113.

Chng 6. Dch l tng


Dch l Tng, v Dch ton dng k hiu, ton dng nh tng lm phng th dy i.
Hiu c nhng k hiu ca Dch, nhng hnh nh ca Dch, s bit c thm ca ngi vit Dch, s suy
ra c li l ca ngi vit Dch, s tm ra c nhiu nh lut ca Dch.
Cc nh bnh gii Dch xa nay c bn v Tng rt nhiu v rt t m, nhng thng vi i su vo chi
tit, nn qun mt i th, thng ch trng n nh tng m qun mt k hiu. Cho nn truc khi i vo phn
chi tit ca Tng, ta hy bn n phn i cng chnh yu ca Tng.

1. Nhng quan nim chnh yu v Tng Hc


Phn Chnh yu ca Tng chnh l cc bn Dch, cc k hiu Dch, khng hnh nh, khng li l.
Tuy khng hnh nh, khng li l, n vn rt l quan trng. Chng hn nh trng vo vng Dch Tin Thin
Bt Qui hay Lc Thp T Qui, ta thy n tng trng cho Bn Th v Hin Tng, cho Hng Cu v Bin thin,

52

cho 2 chiu tiu tc ca v tr, cho nh lut vng phn, tun hon ca To Ha, cho nguyn l: tinh thn sinh
vt cht, vt cht sinh tinh thn v.v...
KHI NIM
Bn Th (Nht th)
Vn Tng ,Vn Hu
Bn Th bt bin
Vn Tng bin thin
Chiu tiu, chiu vng
Chiu tc, chiu phn
Vng tun hon

K HIU
Thi Cc
Ho Qui
Tm im, hay Thi Cc gia vng Dch
Vng Dch 8 hay 64 qu bn ngoi
Na vng Dch pha phi
Na vng Dch pha tri
T Thi Cc, ra Cu n Khn, ri li t Phc n Cn,
n Thi Cc.

Nguyn l: Tinh thn sinh


vt cht, vt cht sinh tinh
thn

Cn

Khn

i vi Dch, v tr, Vn Vt, Vn Hu ch l nh tng, l bng hnh, l biu dng ca Tuyt i cng nh
Ho Qui l nh tng l bng hnh ca Thi Cc.
H T h truyn vit: Th c Dch gi, tng d. Tng d gi, tng d.
Ha cho nn Dch l Tng, m tng l hnh nh vy!
Mi Ho Qui chng qua l mt trng thi, mt qu trnh bin ha ca Bn Th duy Nht.
Dch ch trng dng hai k hiu n gin l:
m
Dng
ri chng ln nhau thnh 8 qu, 64 qu, s c th m t Vn Vt, V Tr.
Leibniz nhn thy ch trng ny chng c g l sai quy. [1] Leibniz dng Khoa Nh Nguyn Ton
Thut (Arithmtique binaire ou arithmtique dyadique) ca ng gii Dch, ng m li m Dng v 64 qu
Dch theo ton thut ca ng nh sau:
Dng
m

=1
=0

Cn

= 111111

Khn

= 000000

Cu

= 011111

Bc

= 000001

Ngy nay khoa hc mc nhin cng nhn v p dng phng php ca Dch, trong cc cng cuc truyn
tn hiu, truyn hnh nh t cc v tinh v mt t, bi v cc my in t ch dng c 2 k hiu l 0 v 1, xp
thnh 64 nhm, mi nhm c 6 s.
Phng php nh sau:
1. Chp nh.
2. Phn nh ra thnh 64 bin thi ca mu sm. Mi mt bin thi ca mu sm c i sang thnh 6 s v
d nh sau:
110110 110011 010001 v.v...
53

3. nh cc tn hiu trn v tri t.


4. Cc my in t di t i cc tn hiu trn li thnh cc bin thi mu sm.
5. Cui cng ta c cc nh v hnh th ca Mt trng hay ca hnh tinh nh Ha tinh. [2]
Nh vy ni rng Dch dng m Dng v 64 qu tng trng Vn Vt, khng c ngoa vy.
Tng ca Dch c th chia lm 2:
1. Vn l nhng nt vch lin, t nh ch tri, t, la, nc, v.v...
2. Nhng nh tng hu hnh c th, nh con g con nga, con rng, con nhn, v.v...
Vn l nhng k hiu tru tng nht, nhng li ph qut nht, hm sc nht, v n khng qua trung gian t
ng.
Cho nn, nu ch tm nghin cu cc Dch cc ha bn khng li ca Dch, ta c th khm ph ra nhu
nh lut v rt nhiu quan nim Chnh xc v v tr, v nhn sinh.
Chng hn, ta c th gii thch Thi Cc v T Tng:

Nh sau:
: Dng kh t lng t vn ln (Xun)
: Dng kh ti thi ton thnh, pht huy Vn Vt bin ha vn s (H)
: m kh thu lim Vn Vt (Thu)
: m kh hm tng Vn Vt (ng)
Bn Th l ni xut sinh ca Vn Vt v ni phn hon ca Vn Vt.

Nh vy k hiu Thi Cc vi T Tng din t mt cch hng hn l bin hng ca v tr, cng nh bn
ma Xun, H, Thu, ng ca tri t ca cuc i v ca nin canh.
Nhng k hiu v nhng cch sp xp ni trn cng cho ta thy: vn s, Vn Vt c th c kh cht ngc
nhau (

) c nhiu hng tri nhau (

), hoc lch s con ngi s qua hai chiu hng ngoi,

hng ni, t tinh thn tin dn ra vt cht, ri li t vt cht tin dn v tinh thn v.v... [3]

2. t nhiu chi tit v Tng Hc


Dch dng rt nhiu nh tng lm li kh din t t tng, lm phng tin gio ha.
T ngi, n vt, n dng c, n sng ni, my ma, sm chp, la nc, nht nht ci g cng c th tr
nn hnh nh, nn tng trng i vi Dch.
Nhng hnh nh y thc a oan, s xut hin ca chng nhiu khi rt l k b, khng bit ti duyn do no.
Nu ta khng t vn v u Dch li c nhng hnh nh y, nhng li l y, th hc Dch cng khng my kh
khn. Nhng nu ta tm hiu v u c nhng hnh nh ny, hnh nh n trong cc Ho Qui, th Kinh Dch tr nn
nhng bi thai nan gii.
54

V vn ny, c th chia cc nh bnh gii Dch thnh ba phi.


1. Phi th nht, trong c Hn Nho, cho rng cn phi hiu Tng, phi hiu duyn do pht sinh ra cc
nh tng dng trong Ho, Qui th mi c th hiu thu Dch c. [4]
Mun t mc phiu ny h dng nhiu phng cch, nh:
1. Da vo Thuyt qui.
2. Da vo cc qu H th.
3. Da vo cc qu Bng thng.
4. Da vo cc qu Thc v qu Tng.
5. Da vo hnh tng m ton qu gi nn.
6. Da vo c tnh ca mi qu.
7. Da vo cc qu Phi, Phc.
8. Da vo cc qu Bin.
9. Da vo phng php np gip ng hnh[5] v.v...
Thc l rt cng phu, rt phin toi, Trong nhng trang di y s bn qua v mt vi phng php k trn.
2. Phi th hai, gm nhng Hc gi nh Vng- Bt, ch trng khng cn phi lu tm n nh tng, m
ch cn hiu ngha l [6]
3. Phi th ba, gm nhng Trit gia nh Trnh t, nh Chu Hi, ch trng nh tng l nhng phng thc,
nhng th d dng din t t tng.
Tm c duyn do, cng hay, khng tm c cng chng quan h, khng hi sc no m lm cng chuyn
y b m kim, min sao mnh hiu c Dch l . [7]
Ring ti, ti cng thy cng cuc i tm duyn do ca cc nh tng nhiu khi ch lm cho c cht mnh
thm r lon. Hn na cng chng c g bo m rng chnh l ng li m cc tc gi Kinh Dch xa
theo.
Tuy nhin, ta cng nn bit s qua v cc phng php i tm duyn do ca cc nh tng dng trong mi
qu, mi Ho. Nhng phng php y i khi nh sau:
1. Da vo nhng hnh nh m Thuyt qui gn cho tm qu chnh.
Dng cc hnh nh trn, ta c th suy ra nh tng ca mi qu, cng nh s tng trng ca mi qu. i
Tng truyn trong Kinh Dch dng phng php ny. V d qu Tiu Sc trn c qu Tn l gi, di c qu
Cn l tri.
i Tng truyn vit: Phong hnh thin thng Tiu Sc..
Ta thy ngay rng gi bay trn tri cao th chng c sc nui dng, chng nh hng n Vn Vt c l
bao, v th gi l Tiu Sc (nui dng t)
V d: qu L

trn c Ly l la, di c Cn l ni. La chy trn ni, l nhng m chy rng lan

rt mau l, nn gi l L, y nh ngi l th khng c s c nht nh.


2. Nhn tnh cht ca qu, m suy ra hnh nh. V d:
- Qu Cn l qu thun Dng, bin ha, th ly con rng m tng trng.
- Qu Hm ni v s cm thng, cm xc, th dng cc phn mnh nh ngn chn ci, v, i, gy, m, cm,
mm m tng trng, v cc phn trong c th u c cm gic [8]
55

- Qu Trung phu ni v trung tn, th dng ln, c, nhn, g. Theo Lai tri-c th ln, c bit c gi ni,
nhn bit c thu v, g bit sng m gy, khng sai chch v th dng tng trng s trung tn [9]
- Qu Tim ni n chim Hng v n n c k, n bay c hng ng th t, hn na chim Hng khng ly hai
i chim c, nn hp vi li Thon t ca Vn Vng l gi v nh chng[10]
3. Da vo hnh dng qu m suy ra nh tng.
- Nh qu Bc c mt Dng trn, nm m di, th ni n nh, n ging, v nh c mi, ging c
mt na n nh hnh qu Bc.
- Qu nh, gi l nh v cc Ho c xp nh hnh ci nh

, Ho S Lc l chn nh, ba Ho

Dng gia l mnh nh, Ho Lc ng l tai nh, Ho Thng Cu l np nh.


4. Nhn c cu ton qu, nhn i th ca su Ho, ri ty v th m Dng m qui np ton qu v
mt trong tm qu chnh.
Th l nh sau:
Ho Dng trn l tng Cn, Tn.
Ho Dng di l tng Chn, oi.
Ho Dng gia l tng Khm
Ho m gia l tng Ly.
V d: ch

c Ho m gia, Ho Dng trn v di l tng Ly , v th trong qu c cp n

con ra (Ra l 1 trong nhng tng qu Ly trong Thuyt qui.)


Nh i Qu
Nh Di

tng Khm nn ni n ct.


tng Ly nn ni n ra v.v... [11]

5. Tm xem qu H th l qu g lp tng.
Qu H th l 2 qu sinh ra bi cc Ho th 2, 3, 4 hoc th 3, 4, 5 ca ton qu.
- V d qu B

c hai qu H th l qu Tn (3, 4, 5), v Cn (2, 3, 4) Tn l lnh m, Cn l nh

tr. Tn v Cn hp li cng thnh qu C

cng c ngha l nh n, nh tr. B l b tc ri, m li cn

thm th , nh n na th thc nguy him.


V d qu Tim

c hai qu H th l Khm (2, 3, 4) v Ly (3, 4, 5) Ni Ho Cu tam ni: Ph

dng bt dc (n b c cha nhng khng nui c) Ni ti n b cha v y Khm c 1 Ho dng gia


. Ho Cu ng ni: Ph tam tu bt dng (n b 3 nm khng cha) Ni khng cha y v Ly
trung h v.v...
6. Ly qu Thc (thc qui) hay qu Bng thng m th tng.
56

Lai Tri c th gi l Thc qui. Ngu th (Ngu Phin) th gi l Bng thng.


Bng thng hay thc qui l nhng qu hon ton i nghch nhau v phng din m Dng nh:
Kin

thc Khn

Hng

thc ch

V d: ch Lc t c cu: Trung hnh co cng tng. . Ngu th ch: Trung hnh l ni


v qu Chn ( bn qu Hng c qu Chn) Chn c ngha l i, l theo, nn ni Trung hnh co cng tng.
[12]
i sc Cu nh c cu: D thot phc. (xe trt bnh).
Ngu th gii: i sc

bng thng Ty

Bn qu Ty c Khn m Khn l xe, l bnh xe.


Bn i sc c qu Cn th l Khn tiu thnh Cn v th dng ch thot. [13]
Bc

Thng Cu c cu: Qun t c d. (Qun t c xe)

Ngu th gii: Bc

bng thng Qui

Bn qu Qui c Cn l qun t l c.
Bn qu Bc c Khn l xe. Cn vo Khn nn ni Qun t c xe [14]
Ngu th dng phng php ny gii Dch [15]
7. Dng qu Tng (Tng qui) m th Tng.
Lai Tri c gi l Tng qui [16]
Song Kim x gi l Phc qui [17]
Tng qui hay Phc qui l qu ln ngc tr li v d Cn ln li th thnh Chn .
V d: qu Tn

ln li thnh qu ch

Ho Lc ng ca qu Tn, tc l Ho Lc nh ca qu ch v th nn u c cu: Thp bng chi qui pht


khc vi. (mi cp ra cng khng ngn li c).
Qu Qui

ln li thnh qu Cu

Ho Cu t ca qu Qui tc l Ho Cu tam ca qu Cu cho nn

u ni: n v phu. (mng khng da) v.v... [18]


8. Bin Ho th Tng
Nh ni qu n

Ho Lc nh ni n tru m khng bit v sao. Ta bin Ho S thnh Dng ta s c

, qu di s l Ly ; Ly gia c Khn kh v th ni n tru [19]


9. Np Gip th Tng.
57

Theo phng php ny:


Cn Khn np Gip t
Cn oi np Bnh inh.
Khm Ly np Mu K
Chn Tn np Canh Tn
Cn Khn li np Nhm Qu.
Np Gip ct tng trng s qua li ca 2 vng Nht Nguyt, s thng trm ca m Dng. Dng php
Np Gip ta s hiu t nhiu cu trong Dch.
V d: Qu Thi
Qu Cch
Qu C

, Ho Lc ng c cu t c ch t v Khn np t. [20]

Ho Lc nh c ch K nht, v Ly np K.
Thon t c ch Tin Gip tam nht, Hu Gip tam nht. , .

Qu C Bng thng vi qu Ty

, nu ta cho bin Ho S ca qu C, ta thy qu Cn hin ra, m

Cn th np Gip v.v...
Duyt xt li cc phng php trn, ta thy c nhn xa tn rt nhiu cng phu, xoay x trm chiu gii
cc Tng Dch, du i khi ta khng hon ton ng v s hu l ca cch gii thch, nhng ta cng phi nhn
l ti tnh. [21]
CH THCH
[1] Nm 1713 ng Bch Tin (Bouvet) gi cho Leibniz mt b Chu dch v mt bn 64 qu Dch.
ng Bouvet gii thch rng: Theo ngi Trung hoa, th 64 qu l biu tng ca Vn Vt, Tri t.
Bouvet hi Leibniz xem li gii thch nay c thch ng hay khng.
Leibniz nhn c bit nghin cu Dch v cc qu.
[2] 110110110011010001111
000000000000001111111
111011001100100000100
Tel est laspect que prsentaient les premiers instantans de Mars et cela parce que Mariner IV ne pouvait
transmettre la Terre que des O et des 1. Mais des ordinateurs IBM ont aid les transformer en ces
remarquables photographies des cratres martiens que loeil humain navait encore jamais apercus.
Slection Dcembre 1965 page 101.
... Chaque srie de six O et l devint un lment dinformation visuel qui fut ensuite transform en une des 64
nuances de gris et lensemble de ces lments donna une image. Ib. 102.
[3] Dch v cho rng:
i xa bin vn thnh ch, bin kh thnh Dch, v qu cho nn Tng (Thng c bin vn vi t, bin
kh vi Dch, hoch Qui vi Tng... Dch v bt chng quyn thng trang 4b)
Dch v cho rng: Bt qui chnh l nhng nt gch, nhng vn thay ch: v d l ch Thin, l ch
a, l ch Phong, l ch Sn, l ch Thy, l ch Ha, l ch Li, l ch Trch. Ib. trang
5.
58

[4] Nhin lng Hn ch Nhu tt dc cu k s tng... . Chu t i Ton Vn, Lc


thp tht - trang 1 v 2.
[5] Th d Hn Nhu cu chi Thuyt Qui bt c, tc toi tng d sng vi H th, Bin qui, Ng hnh np Gip,
Phi phc chi php... , , , . Ib trang 1
v 2.
[6] Vng Bt d lai, trc dc suy k s dng, tc hu s lc nhi v c. ,
. Chu T i Ton Vn, Lc thp tht - trang 1 v 2.
[7] Trnh T dic vit: L v hnh d, c gi Tng d hin ngha. , . Ib. 1 v
2.
[8] Cf. Dch Kinh Lai Ch Gii quyn 1, trang 34.
[9] n ng tri phong, nhn tri thu, k tri n, tam vt giai hu tn, c Trung phu th chi. , ,
, , . Dch Kinh Lai Ch Gii - quyn 1, trang 34.
[10] Tim n qui ct. . Dch - Qu Tim. Cf. Dch Kinh Lai Tri c - quyn I, trang 34.
[11] Cf. Dch Kinh Lai Ch gii quyn 1, trang 45.
[12] Cf. Dch Hc Tho Lun tp. Chng Ngu Th Bng Thng Ngha C L - t trang 7 n trang 22.
Th d trn , trang 20.
[13]Dch Hc Tho Lun tp - trang 12.
[14] Ib. trang 10, 11.
[15] Xem Dch Hc Tho Lun tp. Chng: Ngu Th Bng Thng Ngha C L t trang 7 n, trang 22.
[16] Cf. Lai tri c - Dch Kinh Lai Ch Gii - quyn 1, trang 36 v cc trang 40 ,41, 42.
Cf. Dch Kinh Tn Chng - trang 4, 5, 6.
[17] Cf. Dch Kinh Tn Chng - trang 6.
[18] Cf. Dch Kinh Tn Chng - trang 6.
[19] Cf. Dch Hc Tho Lun tp - trang 60.
[20] Cf. Dch Hc Tho Lun tp.
[21] Trn y ch l lc kho v Tng Hc. Ti khng i su thm vo chi tit.

Phn 3 V CC LUN
Chng 1. Phi l
i vi i a s qun chng, V cc l mt danh t xa vi, thng khng gi ra cho h mt nim
no, y thc nh nh mt non thn quanh nm c my m che lp, khng cho cp mt th nhn dm hnh c.
[1]
Bn v V cc cng ht sc kh khn, v V cc mnh mng v hn, khng th no lng vo trong khun
kh nim, t ng, tng hnh.
Chng ta ch c th dng thn tr lnh hi V cc, ch khng th dng tm t suy cu V cc.
Tt c nhng nim, nhng danh t, nhng hnh dung c lin quan ti V cc ch l nhng phng tin eo
hp gip ta linh gic c V cc, ch khng phi l nhng nim, nhng hnh nh chnh xc v V cc.
C hiu nh vy, ngi vit v ngi c mi thot vng t tng ca nim, t ng.
Ch V cc xut hin t lu i trong nn vn hc v o gio Trung Quc.
59

Dch Kinh khng cp n V cc; ch cp n Thi cc . [2]


Trong th tch Nho gio, ch V cc pht tch t thin Thi cc thuyt ca Chu Lim Kh.[3]
Chu Lim Kh vit: V cc nhi Thi cc . Nh vy i vi Nho gio, chung qui, V cc, Thi
cc u cng l bn th ca v tr, c khc nhau chng l hai th: n, hin.
Ni chung, th Nho gia thng lun v Hu, t cp n V. t cp, nhng khng phi khng hay khng
bit. V li, V vn trng hn Hu, V thng p dng cho Tri, cho thn minh.
Trung Dung vit: Thng thin chi ti, v thanh v x, ch h. .
Dch Kinh vit: Thn v phng, nhi Dch v th. [4]
Tri li, ch V cc, ch V c dng trong o c Kinh ca Lo T [5] t th k th V trc Cng
Nguyn.
Cc o gia cng thng cp n H, H V, Khng. [6]
Du sao, H v, V cc cng l mt quan nim ht sc trng i i vi Chu. [7]
V cc, H v y chnh l Tuyt i bt kh th ngh, ch khng phi l h khng, hu o nh cc sch gio
khoa thng lm tng. [8]
Hiu vn V cc, H v, ta s vn c bc mn b mt, t bao lu nay, bao trm trn siu hnh hc
Chu, v trnh c nhng s hiu lm, nhng li gii thch ngy th, nng cn.
Trong thin kho lun sau y, tc gi s dn chng cc nh huyn hc ng Ty kim c xin minh rng
V cc hay H v l quan nim cao siu nht v Tuyt i th, v Thng . [9]
cho vn c sng t, v cho c gi d dng theo di, xin lp thnh mt biu nht lm ghi ch
nhng cung cch, quan nim, hnh dung v Thng qua cc trit hc o gio c kim [10] nh sau:
CC QUAN NIM V THNG
Mn phi
Quan nim v Thng
Danh hiu Thng
Quan nim ca cc Tuyt i th v ng, bt kh t ngh, V Cc, H V, H Khng, Hng Mng,
nh Huyn Hc
v thanh v x, v tr, v phng s Hn n (Nant, Chaos, Vide)
Quan nim ca cc Tuyt i th, Bn th, Cn nguyn, Trung, Nht, Thi Cc, o (Principe,
nh Huyn Hc v Cng ch ca v tr
Logos, L'Un, Tout)
cc Trit gia
Quan nim ca cc Tuyt i th, Bn th, Cn nguyn, Thng , Hong Thin, Ngc Hong,
o gio
Cng ch ca v tr
Thng , Thin, Tri, To Ha, Ch T
(Dieu, Crateur, Roi, etc...)
Quan nim ca cc Tuyt i th c nhn cch ha, To ha nh hanh
o gio v qun nhn hnh ha; Thng c nhn Tri gi oan nghit
chng
hnh, nhn dng
Nhn vo bn, ta thy, i vi cc bc thng trm thng nhn, Thng cng ngy cng tr nn v
hnh tng, v bin t, bt kh t ngh [11]; Ngc li i vi qun chng, Thng cng ngy cng tr nn hu
tnh, hu tng, hu hnh, c ta ngi, c hnh ng, cng yu thng, hn gin, ghen tung, th on nh con
ngi. l mt cng l c th em p dng vo bt k o gio no.
Tc gi s i vo ti vi mt thi ht sc khch quan, khng bin h cho mt tn gio no, m ch mun
cng c gi i tm chn l, trao li cho c gi nhng cha kha m cc kho tng t tng u.
Bn v V cc, v Thng , v Tuyt i bt kh tu ngh, tc gi s dng phng php i chiu. Tc gi
s so snh cc quan nim, t ng ca cc nh o gio. S so snh ny s lm sng t nhng quan nim huyn b
ca Chu.
Ti sao, li da vo cc nh Huyn hc (mystiques)?
60

V cc nh huyn hc, tc l cc v chn tu c o, l nhng ngi trc tip thng t c Thng .


Trong quyn Studies in Mystical Religion, bc s Rufus Jones nh ngha huyn hc nh sau: Huyn hc
l mt loi tn gio ch trng s trc gic c mi lin lc vi Thng ; n s nhn thc trc tip c s
hin din ca Thng . l tn gio ti giai on cao siu nht, mnh lit nht, sng ng nht. [12]
Thnh Thomas d'Aquin nh ngha huyn hc l s nhn thc c Thng mt cch sng ng do kinh
nghim bn thn. [13]
Bergson cng da vo cc nh huyn hc nhn nh l c Thng .
ng cho rng nu ta chp nhn cc kt lun ca cc nh khoa hc v khoa hc, th ta phi chp nhn cc kt
lun ca cc nh huyn hc v Thng . [14]
Ti sao li kho st quan nim ca cc v c o ca cc o gio?
Tha: v chn l cn phi ph qut, vt tm khng gian, thi gian; vt tm cc quc gia v o gio, v
chn l l gia ti chung ca nhn loi, chn l phi l ci g vnh cu, ph bin mi ni, mi i. [15]
Ti sao cn kho st cc trit gia?
Tha: v trit gia l ngi mi mit suy t, c cng tm hiu, dm c nhng t tng mi m, tm khun so
x hi.
Bergson nhn nh: Trit hc khng phi nguyn l s phc hi ca thn tr, s phi hp gia tm thn vi
cn nguyn sng to. Trit hc cn nghin cu s bin thin tng qut, s tng trng, din bin ca chn l v,
nh vy, trit hc chnh l s tng b ca khoa hc. [16] Nhng trong thin kho lun ny tc gi khng theo loi
trit hc ph thng khoa c. Nn trit hc b in mt truyn c ng ln Ty li ch trng n V hn Hu. [17]
Nhng t ng, nhng quan nim tng ng gia ng v Ty phi chng l n tn v l biu hiu cho chn
l hng cu ph qut ? [18]
Ti sao phi da vo cc sch thnh, cc kinh in o gio ?
Bi v chnh l tinh hoa nhn loi c ng nn li...
Trong cng trnh kho cu kinh Dch, ta bt chc tin nhn bn v V cc, Thi cc trc tin, v V cc
tc l cn nguyn v tr, l ch cht ca Dch Kinh.
C bit r cn nguyn gc gc, th chng ta mi suy lun c ra ngn ngnh.
Th tc l, chng ta xoay ngc vn nhn thc: Mun bit mnh, mun hiu v tr, trc tin phi bit
Tri, bit Thng .
Saint Martin vit: Ta ch c th hiu bit c chng ta trong Thng v s vinh quang ngi. [19]
C l, cng v th m Trung Dung vit: T chi nhn bt kh d bt tri Thin. [20]
Tm dch:
Bit ngi trc phi bit Tri,
Hiu Tri chng ni, hiu ngi lm sao ?
Chng ta kho cu v Thng , nhng khng theo li qun chng, thng nhn m theo ng cc v
thnh hin, cho nn s khng cu n hnh thc, sc tng, m ton cp ti Tuyt i siu vit, tru tng.
S kho cu ny khng phi l s kho cu sung m ct chuyn ha con ngi, minh tm, c o.
Thnh Thomas, trong mt lc xut thn, gp cha Kit ti Naples. Cha hi ngi mun c tng thng v
cng phu bin kho v Thnh th, ngi tr li: Cha, xin cho con c Cha. [21]
c g cng l nguyn c v ch hng ca chng ta trong cng trnh kho cu Dch Kinh.

61

CH THCH
[1] Cf. I Corinthiens 1, 14: L'homme psychique n'accueille pas ce qui est de l'Esprit de Dieu.
[2] Dch H t thng (Chng 11)
[3] Tng Nguyn hc n quyn 12 Lim Kh hc n (h) Thi cc thuyt trang 1, 2, 3.
...V cc nhi Thi cc .
...L bn v hnh, c v chi V cc. . (Ib. 1b)
...T V cc thuyt o vn vt thng, thin a chi chung thy d T vn s phn o V cc thng,
thnh nhn chi chung thy d. (Ib. 2a)
[4] Dch H t thng, chng IV.
[5] Thng c bt thc, Phc qui V cc. , . Lo T, o c Kinh chng 28.
Thin h vn vt sinh Hu, Hu sinh V. , . Lo T, o c Kinh chng
40.
[6] Xem cc b sch:Tnh Mnh khu ch,o th thp nh chng,Tnh Mnh Php Quyt minh ch v.v...
[7] Cf. Fong Yeou Lan, Prcis d'histoire de la Philosophie chinoise, pages 43-44.
[8] Cf. T in v danh t trit hc ca Trn Vn Hin Minh, ni ch H v: H v (nihil, nant), khng c g c,
hay c cng nh khng.
[9] G.G. Scholem, Les grands courants de la mystique juive, page 369.
[10] Nhc ty c thun tc gi vi quyn vi thin, nhc thanh bn, t nguyn gi vi tht vi thm. Gio chi d nh
bch xuyn. L chi ng gi nh nht thy. Thun tc chi gio, bt qu hnh nht phng, cng nguyn chi
gio ni kh n ng vn loi. Tr gi bt cuc nht phng, t gi bin hnh v ni. Th d hc nhn ti
h pht phn lp ch, do thin nhp thm, tt cu L chi cc tr. , ,
. . . , .
. . Sao Kiu ng Chng quyn I
trang 5.
[11] (The One is) alleged by mystics to be ineffable, incapable of being described in words etc...
Such phrases as inexpressible, unutterable, beyond all expression bespatter the writings of mystics all
over the world... W.T. Stace, Mysticism and philosophy, p. 79.
...The God seeing man... can always enter, naked and unencumbered with images, into the inmost part of his
spirit. There he finds revealed an Eternal Light...It(his spirit is undifferentiated and without distinction and
therefore it feels nothing but the unity (Jan Van Ruysbroeck, 1293 1381) Ib. page 94.
[12] Le Dr Rufus Jones, dans ses excellentes Studies in mystical Religion dfinit son sujet comme il
suit:J'emploierai le mot pour exprimer le type de religion qui met l'accent sur l'intuition immdiate de la
relation avec Dieu, sur la prise de conscience directe et intime de la Prsence divine. C'est la religion son
stade le plus aigu, le plus intense et le plus vivant. G.G. Scholem, Les grands courants de la mystique
juive, page 16.
[13] Thomas d'Aquin dfinit brivement la mystique: Cognitio Dei experimentalis, connaissance de Dieu par
exprience. G.G. Scholem, Les grands courants de la mystique juive, page 16.
[14] Des tmoignages des mystiques, ces guides spirituels de l'humanit, le philosophe (Bergson) dduit l'existence
de Dieu, car si nous acceptons les conceptions scientifiques des savants, nous devons de mme admettre les
opinions des mystiques sur la divinit. Henri Bergson.
62

Cf. F. Tomlin, Les grands philosophes de l'Occident, page 265.


[15] Quod semper, quod ubique, quod ab omnibus. Henri Gouhier, L'histoire et sa philosophie, trang 49.
[16] La philosophie n'est pas seulement le retour de l'esprit lui mme, la coincidence de la conscience humaine
avec le principe vivant d'o elle mane, prise de contact avec l'effort crateur. Elle est l'approfondissement du
devenir en gnral, l'volutionnisme du vrai, et par consquent la vrai prolongement de la science. -- Bergson,
L'volution cratice, page 339. -- Tomlin, Les grands philosophes de l'occident, page 263.
[17] Ainsi quand Aristote envisageait la mtaphysique comme la connaissance de l'tre en tant qu'tre, l'identifiait
l'ontologie, c'est dire qu'il prenait la partie pour le tout. Pour la mtaphysique orientale, l'tre pur n'est pas le
premier ni le plus universel des principes, car il est dj une dtermination; il faut donc aller au del de l'tre,
et c'est mme l ce qui importe le plus. Ren Gunon, La mtaphysique orientale, page 10.
[18] Ce sont seulement les formes extrieures dont elle est revtue pour les ncessits d'une exposition, pour en
exprimer ce qui est exprimable, ce sont ces formes qui peuvent tre soit orientales soit occidentales. Mais
sous leur diversit, c'est un fond identique qui se retrouve partout et toujour partout du moins o il y a de la
mtaphysique vraie, et cela pour la simple raison que la vrit est une. Ren Gunon, La mtaphysique
orientale, page 4.
[19] Nous ne pouvons nous lire que dans Dieu lui mme, et nous comprendre que dans sa propre splendeur.
Saint Martin, Ecce Homo page 18. Tableau naturel agenl
[20]Trung Dung Chng XX.
[21] Interrog par le Christ en une clbre vision de Naples sur le prix de ses peines et de son labeur concernant
l'Eucharistie, il rpondit: Vous mme Seigneur.
L. Jugnel, Pour connatre la pense de Saint Thomas d'Aquin, page 13.

Chng 2. i cng
Quan nim Thng nh mt thn minh c dng dp hnh dung, tnh cch th d; nhng quan nim Thng
nh mt Thc th siu khng gian, thi gian, siu gian, mi hnh thc sc tng, mi lin lc vi qun sinh v
tr, l mt iu rt kh. [1]
Kh, l v chng ta phi r b mi hot ng suy lun, tng tng thng thng, phi ty ra tm thn cho
sch ht bng hnh trn cu mi linh cm c Thng v hnh tng. [2]
Nu ta qun ht qun sinh, vn hu, qun ht nhng nh tng, nhng hin tng, khng gian, thi gian,
qun ht mi phn k, gin cch, th thc th v tr s duy nht bt kh phn. V l do , cc nh huyn hc gi
Tuyt i th siu xut qun sinh, v tr l
H v [3]
Hng Mng [4]
Hn n [5]
hay H khng [6]
H v, H khng, Hn n khng phi l h o, hay h khng, m chnh l Thng , l Tuyt i th bt
kh t ngh, v bin t.
V vy Lo T mi ni: Vn vt sinh t Hu, Hu sinh t V. [7]
Thng c khng xuyn xao, li tr v V cc. [8]
Trang T vit: Thi s c V, khng hin hu, khng tn tui.
63

Cc o gia tu luyn cho thn tr quay tr v H, tc l quay tr v Thng . [9]


Cc o gia gi th l:
Xut v vi [10]
Nhp h v gin [11]
Dng k v tng [12]
Th k v th [13]
Hp h v lun [14]
V cho rng th nhn trng sinh bt t l v chn vi mt v tng, lm tht tn mt v th. [15]
Xng o chn ngn vit: Vn vt bt u t khng, Thi cc chnh l Khng... Khng sinh ra Nht, Nht
sinh ra vn, vn tri Nht, Nht tr v Khng. Khng l thy t mun loi. Hc gi cn phi bit Chn Khng, ng
lm vi gi khng, cn phn bit Linh Khng vi ngoan khng v.v
Xng o Chn ngn cng gi H v l V vi [16] l n, l o, l bn th ca tri t mun vt.
n l bn th ca tri t vn vt.
n l o, o l bn th ca H v.
H v khng th t tn, nn thnh nhn tm gi l o.
H sinh Nht, Nht sinh vn, vn hon Nht, Nht hon H. [17]
Sch vit thm:
o gia gi l H,
Pht gia gi l Khng.
H khng nghe bit, nhn bit mi s... Cho nn, khi mt ngi suy ngh, ngi cng nh khng hay bit, m
H khng v lng v bin bit hay... V th Nho gia thn c, y Khng [18]
Tm li, i vi o gia, V cc, H v l Chn Nht, l ngun mch sinh vn vt, lng trong vn vt m
vn siu xut vn vt; gi l V v v gin cch; v v gin cch, nn linh minh v cng tn, khinh khot v cng
tn, co gin bin ha v cng tn. [19]
V pha Nho gia, Trng Honh C vit: Vt hu hnh, nn hu hoi, duy Thi h khng bin thin, chuyn
ng, nn mi l ch Thc... H l ch thin, H l thy t vn hu; Tri t u t H pht xut ra. [20]
Pht gio cng dng nhng danh t:
H v [21]
H khng [22]
Chn khng [23]
V [24] v.v...
ch Tuyt i th, bn th ca v tr.
Lc T Hu Nng vit: H khng hm tng ht sc tng vn vt, bao gm nht nguyt, tinh cu; sng ni
t ai, sui ngun, khe lch, cy ci bi rng, ngi lnh k d, ci hay ci d, thin ng, a ngc, tt c mi
trng dng, tt c mi ni Tu Di cng u trong H khng. Tnh ngi ta cng l khng. Tt c u nh vy.
[25]
Mi hay H khng chnh l Tuyt i vn hm cha vn hu t mun tha. [26]
Nu khng hiu cho ng n nhng t ng: V cc, H v, Hn n, Hng mng, th d nhin khng th
no hiu c cc trit hc ng, cc o gio ng. [27]

64

L lng thay cc nh huyn hc Do thi, Cng gio, hay cc i hin trit u Chu cng thng dng nhng
ch:
H v, Khng Tch, Hn n, Hng mng m t Thng .
Cc nh huyn hc Do thi thng gi Thng , gi Tuyt i th l H v, Khng tch. [28]
Hng y gio ch Nicolas de Cues (1401-1464), ch trng rng nu ly tm thn m nhn nh, th Thng
y nh l H khng, nhng H khng y chnh li l Tuyt i bt kh t ngh. [29]
Jacob Boehme, mt nh huyn hc th phn, vit: i vi to vt, Thng l Chn nht, nhng l H v:
Thng v nh, v thy, v tr, khng c ngoi mnh. Ngi l ch, nhng v tt, v c. Ngi l duy nht v
gin, v tr, thng sinh, thng tn. [30]
Eckhart (1260 - 1329) cng thng gi Thng l Chn nht, l H v hay Diu hu. [31]
Bc s Erwin Rousselle bnh v H v nh sau:
H v l Tuyt i khng hnh nh, gi cho chng ta H v ca Boehme, H khng ca V , s c ca
Brahman hay H khng ca o Lo. [32]
Bc s Erwin Rousselle bnh thm rng:
H v thc ra l cn bn ca con ngi, v ca v tr. [33]
i vi Hegel, Tuyt i th v H v vn l mt.
Ren Gunon cho rng:
V cc tng ng vi Brahma Trung ha tuyt i (Parabrahma), v Thi cc vi Ishwara hay vi Brahma
khng tuyt i (Apara Brahma) [34]
Kinh o ngha th (Upanishad) xung Tuyt i th l H v. [35]
cng l ch trng ca cc nh thng thin hc hin i. [36]
Tuyt i th y chnh l cn nguyn v tr. ng khc, ta c th gi Tuyt i l H khng, hn n, nn ta
ni c:
C sinh ra t khng; vn hu t H v sinh xut, Ch H v lc ny ngha l Thng . [37]
Cc nh huyn hc u ch trng rng Tuyt i th v bin t bao qut c cc tiu ln cc i, to khng
c g ngoi, nh khng c g trong, v gin cch (continu) v vy khng chp nhn rng Thng v H v ring
r, v nu H khng l ci g ngoi Tuyt i, th lp tc Tuyt i khng cn l Tuyt i na.
Tm li, theo quan nim cc nh huyn hc th:
Tuyt i l H v. [38]
Theo Quan nim thng thng th:
Tuyt i khc H v.
Cc trit thuyt, cc o gio khi nguyn t 2 quan nim y.
C hiu c ti sao cc nh huyn hc gi Tuyt i th bt kh t ngh l H v, th mi hiu ti sao cc
trit thuyt ti c t Ai Cp, n Ba T, n , Trung Hoa u ch trng Hu sinh t V ([39])
Kinh V vit:
Thi nguyn s ca thn minh, Hu sinh t V. [40]
Lo T vit:
Hu sinh V. [41]
Trang T vit: Chiu chiu sinh minh minh, Hu lun sinh v lun.
Ung ha Chn, tc gi sch n o mn m bnh rng:
65

Hu lun l Thi cc nhp vo vn hu, V lun l V cc khi cha c t tri. [42]


Trang T vit: Trng thy Hu, l qun t, theo ngi xa: trng thy V, l bn ca tri t. [43]
tng ny cng tng t nh mt cu trong o Ngha th. [44]
Quan im trn cng l quan im ca Hsiode mt thi s Hi Lp (th k VIII trc cng nguyn) [45]
Schelling cng ch trng H v l Thng cn n tng cha hin dng bng hnh thc v tr. [46]
Tm li cc nh huyn hc ng cng nh Ty u cng nhn rng:
H v l Thng cn n tng cha hin dng. [47]
Hu l Tuyt i th hin dng. [48]
CH THCH
[1] An ultimate reality or Absolute, or God outside of or beyond the space time world whatever the metaphors
outside of and beyond may mean. W.T. Stace, Mysticism and philosophy, page 2.
[2] According to Professor D.T. Suzuki, Sunyata, the Buddhist Void or emptiness, means: Absolute Emptiness
transcending all forms of mutual relationship... In Buddhist Emptiness there is no time, no space; no
becoming, no thingness. Pure experience is the mind seeing itself as reflected itself... This is possible only
when the mind is sunyata itself, that is when the mind is devoid of all its possible contents except itself. Ib.
109.
[3] Nguyn mn danh chi vit: Tin thin; Thch th danh vit: Uy m; Dch vit V cc; tng thuc H v...
Ng Liu tin tng, Kim tin chng lun, trang 6.
[4] Tin thin chn nht chi kh: hng mng v phn chi thy. Tu chn bin nn (Hu bin), trang 3.
[5] Nht chn v tc v chi Hn n. Xng o chn ngn, trang 9.
[6] H khng qut tam gii. Tn bt nh n n thi ch, trang 24.
[7] Vn vt sinh hu, Hu sinh V. Lo T o c Kinh, chng 2.
[8] Thng c bt thc, phc qui V cc. Lo T o c Kinh, chng 28.
[9] Luyn thn hon h.
[10] Xut V Vi. V Vi tc thn qui. Thi thng xch vn ng c kinh ch, trang 1.
[11] Nhp h v gin, bt t bt sinh, d Thin vi nht. Ib. lb.
[12] Dng k v tng, tng c thng tn. Ib. 2a.
[13] Th k v th, th c ton chn. Ib. 2a.
[14] Minh minh hnh hnh hp h v lun. Ib. lb.
[15] Th nhn s d bt nng trng cu gi, v tng k v tng, tn k v th.
[16] V vi nh t, thin chi th, o chi nguyn Xng o Chn ngn trang 15b.
[17] n gi thin a vn vt chi bn d. H d vi thin a vn vt chi bn. n gi, o d. o gi, H v chi
th d. H v bt kh lp danh. C thnh nhn d o danh chi. H sinh Nht, Nht sinh vn, vn hon Nht,
Nht hon H. Xng o Chn ngn quyn tam trang 19.
[18]Xng o Chn ngn quyn 5 trang 31.
[19] C chn nht vi sinh thin sinh a chi thy. Th vn hu nhi khng vn hu. V cc th d. Duy v, c v
cch hi; v cch hi, c cc linh cc minh.
Duy v, c v khu v ngi. V khu ngi c nng khut, nng thn. Nhn vt c k khut thn chi kh nhi vi
mnh. Vn vt giai ti tnh mnh giai ti chn nht chi trung. L t s tam ni y th thuyt thut.
66

[20] Phm hu hnh chi vt tc d hoi, duy Thi H v ng dao, c vi ch Thc. Thi vn: c th nh mao, mao
do hu lun, thng Thin chi ti, v thanh v x ch h.
...Ch thin gi H d, H gi thin a chi t, Thin a tng H trung lai. Tng Nguyn hc n Quyn 18 trang
8 (Honh C hc n)
[21] H v: The underlying reality, the principle of eternal relativity which is essence of mind, the unknowable
noumenon behind all phenomena, the entity void of ideas and phenomena, neither matter nor mind, but the
root of both. Trung Anh Pht hc t in, trang 277.
[22] Bn tnh do nh H khng. Php bo n kinh c duyn phm.
[23] T tnh chn khng. Php bo n kinh Bt nh phm.
[24] A t Thch vn V, hu vn Chn khng, tc th Bt nh tht tng chi bn th. Nhp Pht ch nam trang
120.
[25] Th gii H khng nng hm vn vt sc tng, nht nguyt tinh t, sn h i a, tuyn nguyn kh gin,
tho mc tng lm, c nhn thin nhn, c php thin php, thin ng a ngc, nht thit i hi. Tu di ch
sn tng ti Khng trung. Th nhn tnh khng, dic phc nh th. Php bo n kinh Bt nh phm
nh.
[26] Heb. 11,2 ca Kinh thnh Jrusalem.
[27] Les saints sont ceux dont le domaine est le vide (sunnata), l'absence de dessein (animitta), la libert (vimokha)
(Dhammapada lre dition F. Fausboell Copenhague 1955, page 92) Lilian Silburn, Instant et Cause p.
218.
[28] Rien ne peut changer sans venir en contact avec cette rgion de l'tre purement absolu que les mystiques
appellent Nant. -- Les Grands courants de la Mystique juive, page 233.
[29] Giuseppe Bufo Nicolas de Cues, p. 105.
[30] Jacob Boehme Mysterium Magnum (Aubier Editions Montaigne, tome 1 page 55.
[31] Le Dieu qu s'unit cette pointe de l'me, comme l'Un no platonicien, n'est ni ici, ni maintenant, ni ceci.
Illimit, indtermin, on peut l'appeler Non tre parce qu'il chappe par transcendance toute dtermination...
...Tout tre implique limitation. Faute d'un meilleur mot, on appellera donc Non tre le supra tre...
Matre Eckhart, Traits et Sermons (Aubier Edition Montaigne Paris) 16.
...Eckhart cn gi l Thng l
Dit: Thn
Dsert: Sa mc
Abme insondable: Vc thm
Fond insondable: y thm
Ralit imperscrutable: Thc th bt kh t ngh v.v Cf. Ib. Cc trang 13,14,15,16,17.
[32] Dr. Erwin Rousselle, Sellische Fhrung im lebenden Taoismus, Eranos Jahrbuch 1933 p. 151. M. Senard,
Le Zodiaque, page 480.
[33] De ce Vide, ce mme auteur dit, citant un philosophe chinois:
Le vritable Vide n'est pas vide, l'existence vraie est la non existence...
Il ne doit pas tre considr comme le nant, mais comme l'inexprimable Tout Autre Chose percu la fois
comme la prsence de quelque chose et comme l'absence de toutes choses...

67

En l'tat de calme absolu il est prouv comme le fond mme de notre tre et de l'univers. (Op. cit. page 189)
M. Senard, Le Zodiaque, page 480.
[34] Ren Gunon La grande triade page 26 (texte et note 5)
[35] Brahma is life (prana) Brahm is joy. Brahma is the void.
Chandogya Upanishad 4. 10;4
...Non existent (a sat) himself does one become, If he knows that Brahma is non existent. Taittiriya Upanishad 2
6.
[36] Thosophie et science p.39.
[37] Tanon Thosophie et Science p. 44.
[38] Claude Tresmontant P.E.D. p. 75.
[39] Cf. Claude Tresmontant P.E.D. page 75.
[40] Tresmontant P.E.D. page 76.
[41] Lo T o c Kinh chng 11.
[42] ...Chiu chiu sinh minh minh...
...Hu lun sinh v lun...
Hu lun th Thi cc nhp hu thin, V lun th V cc, thuc tin thin. Ung ha Chn. n o mn
m trang 49.
Trang T cn vit: Thi s hu V. Xem Nam hoa Kinh chng 12 on H. (Wieger trang 298)
[43] Hu gi, tch chi qun t, V gi thin a chi hu. Trang T Nam Hoa kinh chng XI on E.
Wieger Tchoang Tzeu trang 293.
[44]...Non existent (A Sat) himself does one become, he knows that Brahma is non existent. Taittiriya
Upanishad 2-6
[45] Clause Tresmonant. P.E.D. page 76.
[46] M.W. Schelling Les ges du monde (Aubier Edt. Montaigne) p. 36.
[47] G.G. Scholem Les grands courants de la la Mystique juive page 38.
[48] Nous ne serons pas surpris de trouver que la spculation a parcouru toute la gamme, depuis les tentatives de re
transformer l'En sof impersonnel dans le Dieu personnel de la Bible, jusqu' la doctrine tout fait hrtique
d'un vritable dualisme entre l'En Sof cach et le Dmiurge personnel de l'Ecriture Ib. page 25.

Chng 3. Tnh danh v hnh dung V Cc


A. TNH DANH V CC
V Cc ng v phng din l thuyt d nhin l tuyt i bt kh t ngh nn khng th no hnh dung m
t, bt k l bng t ng, bng s hay bng hnh tng.
Tuy nhin, cc nh huyn hc vn ra cng m t V Cc. [1]
Cc trit gia cn suy cu xem bn cht ca H v, ca V Cc l g, v h dng nhng ch: Tin thin nht
kh [2] , Nguyn kh [3] , H v nht kh m t bn th V Cc.
Ch kh hp thnh bi ch: V ( ) v ch Ha ( ).
V l v hnh, v tng.
Ha gi nn mt hot lc, mt nguyn ng lc, mt ngun sinh lc ca hon v.
68

D Lm Phn Thin tin sinh vit: V Cc thi v cng tn, v phng th, bao trm mun phng v tr,
vn c thi gian, ni non thay i, linh gic y chng bin thin; tri t c cng, linh gic y v tn... [4]
ng v phng din thi gian m bn v V Cc, ta c th ni rng, khi nguyn tinh bn th ca v tr cn
tch nhin bt ng, cha pht trin huyn nng cng lc cha tc to, vn chuyn, sinh ha th gi l:
Giai on V Cc [5]
Khi trong bn th bt u sinh xut manh nha cc huyn c sinh ha vn chuyn th gi l o, l giai
on Thi Cc. [6]
Khi cha c vn vt, v tr m ch mi c V Cc, Thi Cc, Tuyt i Th, th gi l Tin Thin.
Khi V Cc Thi Cc phng pht ra vn hu thi vn hu gi l Hu Thin. [7]
Hay ni r hn:
V Cc l Tin Thin.
Thi Cc l Trung gian, l khi thy.
Vn hu l Hu Thin.
Ta v thnh ba bn nh sau:

1. V Cc = Tin Thin

2. Thi Cc

3. Hu Thin = Vn Hu
(Lc y Thi Cc lng trong
Vn hu)

Ni V Cc hay Thi Cc vn ch l cp n Thng , n Tuyt i th. Cho nn trn l thuyt tng


chng c s phn ly, nhng trn thc t, hai phng din n hin vn ch l mt Thng duy nht. [8] V vy
69

cc t ng, cc tng hnh ch V Cc (Unique inconcevable avant toute manifestation), Thi Cc (Unique
concevable, Principe et Fin de l'univers), c khi khc nhau, nhng cng c khi ln ln.
V hiu V Cc l Thng , l Tuyt i bt kh t ngh, nn chng ta hiu ti sao cc nh Huyn hc gi
V Cc l: Ngun sinh vn vt, To Ha Chi Nguyn [9], Tin Thin Ch Nhn [10], Vn Tng Ch T. 1
Vn tng u t mt ngun gc, mt cn bn, mt ca ng pht sinh nn V Cc cng c gi l: Cn
, Cn Bn [11] Cn Nguyn [12] hay Bt Nh Php Mn.
i vi vng Dch, th d nhin V Cc phi l: Chn Trung [13], Hong Trung [14], Chnh V 5, l u dy
mi r Vn Tng (Tng Tr Mn), v cng l im Thi Ha, c th ha gii c mi tng khc, tng d
(Hunh b x, X li t) [15]
V Thng h linh bt mui, l vnh cu v cng, v hnh, v tng, l ngun mch pht sinh mi gi
tr, mi hnh phc, nn V Cc cn c gi bng nhng danh hiu nh: Vin Minh, n, Chu [16], Hi Di Ph,
H V Chi Cc, Cc Lc Quc v.v.. [17]

B. NHN CCH HA V CC
Bn v V Cc, v H v c hng ngi: C trit gia, o gia, qun chng. Cho nn phng th hnh
dung, m t Tuyt i, m t V Cc cng c nhiu loi, c th l tru tng, c th l c th, c th l v ng, c
th l hu ng. Qun chng thng a nhn cch ha V Cc d b quan nim, hnh dung:
Nho gia gi l Tri, l Thng .
o gia gi l Tri, l Ngc Hong.
Pht gio gi l Adibuddha (A Pht ), Vairocana (T l x gia), hay (T l gi na) [18], hay Chakravarti
(Monarque universel, Chuyn lun thnh vng) [19]
Kinh Guna Karanda Vuha vit: Khi cha c g, c Shambhu. l ng t hu, v v ng t hu c
trc ht nn gi l Adibuddha. Tng phi Nepal gi Adibuddha l V cng, thng minh v cng, t hu, v
thy, v chung, cn nguyn vn vt v.v... [20]
Adi Buddha cng c gi l Vajradhara, m Vajradhara l Bt t, cha t sinh xut mi huyn vi. [21]
Cho nn, nu ta tm gc cc danh t ra mt bn, m ch gi nguyn nh ngha, ta thy o gio no cng tin c
Tuyt i th t hu, v thy, v chung. [22]

C. TNG HNH V CC
Cc o gio Chu cng nh cc nh huyn hc u Chu tng trng V Cc hay tuyt i bng vng
trn trng rng . [23]
Tng hnh bng vng trn gi ra c nhiu nim.
1) Vng trn gi hnh nh mt ngun sinh bt dit tung ta ra mun phng.
2) Vng trn gi nim ton thin, ton bch, vin mn.
Hng y Gio Ch Nicolas de Ceus cng ch trng rng cc thnh hin xa c tng trng Thng
bng cc hnh, nh bng: ng thng v cng, bng tam gic u c ba gc vung v cnh di v tn, bng hnh
trn v tn, bng hnh cu v tn. [24]
Tanon vit: Vng trn l tng trng ca tuyt i v vng trn l chn nht cn nguyn cng ch mun
loi... gi nn mt hnh mun b mun pha nh nhau. Chu vi vng trn tung trng mt s hin din tru tng
v hnh, khng bao gi ai thu ni v khng c u ui, nhng thc ra vn xc nh. [25]
70

Dng vng trn trng tng trng V Cc, Tuyt i th, tin nhn ni ln c nhiu iu huyn diu:
1) Trc khi cha c t tri, ch duy c V Cc; cc ngi v:

2) Khi Tuyt i th hin dng, to thnh v tr, cc ngi lng V Cc Thi Cc trong gung my m
dng, phn phc, thng ging, vng lai. Cc ngi v:

3) Khi c vn hu, c ng hnh, V Cc vn y nguyn gia lng tri t; cc ngi v:

4) nh mng v tr cng nh nh mng nhn loi l phi tr v kt hp vi V Cc, Tuyt i, nn cc ngi


v trng thi gic ng, vin gic, kim n hay huyn chu, Thnh thai cng bng hnh trn . [26]
Thit tng khng g r rng v v hn. [27]
Eckhart m t trng thi Hon h y nh sau: Ti giai on th su, con ngi r b ht c tnh v
sng vnh cu trong Thin Cha; v t ti hon thin, con ngi qun ht cuc sng ph du phin din; con
ngi tr thnh phn nh Thng , tr thnh Thin t. l trnh v thng, ti thng tnh lng, hnh
phc v bin, trng cu... [28]

D. PHN LOI TNH DANH V CC


c nhng nhn thc r rng v V cc ta c th phn loi cc t ng tnh danh, hnh dung V Cc thnh
nhng mc sau:
1. V Cc: Tuyt i bt kh t ngh: H v, V thanh v x, v phng s v.v.
2. V Cc: Cn nguyn ca Vn vt: To ha chi nguyn, T khiu, Ton th, To ha tuyn qut
3. V Cc: Nht th bt kh phn: Hng mng, Hn n, Bt nh php mn
4. V Cc: Cng ch Vn vt: Qui cn khiu, Phc mnh quan.
5. V Cc: Trng sinh linh dc: n, Kim n
6. V Cc: t o, t ch ca Thnh nhn: Phc qui V Cc, Luyn thn hon h, V , V ng, V tt,
V c, V dc, V nim, V vi, V gin [29]
7. V Cc: Ch t qun sinh: Tin Thin Ch Nhn, Vn Tng Ch T.
8. T ng Tho mc dng t V Cc: Cn, .
71

9. T ng Kin trc dng t V Cc: Hong trung cung, Hi Di Ph, Hunh nh, Tng Tr Mn, Hunh
B X, Mu K Mn.
10. T ng Thi gian dng t V Cc: Tin Thin.
11. T ng Trit hc dng t V Cc: Sinh thn chi nguyn, Th kh chi s, Tnh mnh chi c, Vn ha chi
t, v.v...
12. T ng Nho gia dng t V Cc: V Cc, Hong Trung, Chnh v, v.v.
13. T ng o gia, n gia dng t V Cc: Tin thin nht kh, Hn nguyn chi tinh, n, Linh quang.
14. T ng Pht gio dng ch V Cc: Tnh th, Ty phng, Chu, Vin gic, A Pht , Uy m, X
li t, v.v..
15. Danh t s hc, phng php hnh hc dng ch V Cc: Nht [30], Vng trn rng , v.v...
Ta cng nn ghi nhn rng trn phng din l thuyt ta c th phn bit V Cc, Thi Cc, nhng trn
phng din thc hnh V Cc v Thi Cc thng cng c coi nh nhau, nn cc danh t cng thng dng
ln ln. Hiu V Cc tc l hiu Thi Cc.
CH THCH
[1] Xem ph lc 2.
[2] Tin thin nht kh ti hng mng, V tng v hnh bt lc khng. , .
Tng ngn ph nghi trang 7a
Tin thin nht kh t H v. Tin hc trang 51.
[3] n o hu nht c chuyn mn t kh... Tng v tng ha. Gii thch th: Nguyn kh, h v nht kh, tng
khan bt kin, m bt chc ch, h khng trung nhi lai ch... Hoi Nam T vn: kh ni hot lc, v tr chi
sinh mnh. . ... . : , ,
... , . n o mn m, trang 49, 50 .
[4] Gic d gi, v thanh x, bt bt vn gi d; v thanh x bt vn th V cc d. V cc tc v cng tn,
v phng th, khuch nhi lc v sung; Vnh chi nhi vn c tn; sn h hu canh, th gic bt ci, lng i
hu tn th gic m cng. , , . . , ,
. . , . . D Lm Phn Thin tin sinh
th, trang 2a.
[5] K danh tuy nhin xng chi vit Tinh, k l bn t v hnh, nhn tnh trung ng nhi ngn chi vit Nguyn tinh
h. ng k v ng chi tin. Hn nhin khng tch. Th chi nhi bt kin, thnh chi v thanh, dic phi tinh d,
dic phi vt d, v kh danh nhi danh, c danh chi vit Tin thin Dch vit, V cc chi thi. T thi tc thn
tch c tc, vn vt qui cn, th chnh v chi H cc tnh c. Kim tin chng lun, trang 6.
[6] Tin kh danh nhi hu k danh, c danh chi vit o. Dch vit Thi cc thi d. Nhn th c nht manh, vit
Nguyn Kh d. , . . . Ng Liu tin
tng ton tp - Kim tin chng lun, trang 6b
Avant la cration, disent les textes vdantins, il n'y avait rien que Brahman, l'tre pur, le non manifest,
l'indiffrenci, Maha Bindu le Point Suprme, l'nergie conscience Potentialit. Cf. Snard, Le Zodiaque,
page 10.
[7] Tin thin chi hc tm d. Hu thin chi hc tch d. . .

72

[8] Quand on pense l'etre suprme sous son aspect inactif (nishkriya) on le nomme Dieu absolu (Shaddha
Brahma) et quand on le reprsente sous son aspect actif crant, soutenant et dtruisant, on le nomme Shakti ou
diviniet personnelle. L'enseignement de Ramakrishna, p.475
...Les grandes lignes du droulement de l'ontologie telle que l'enseignment les doctrines de l'Inde se
retrouvent en d'autres enseignments dits sacrs, notamment dans la Gense biblique et dans la Caballe des
Hbreux.
Dans la Gense, de l'Unique (Dieu) naissent la Lumire et les Tnbres puis par divisions successives, tous
les mondes et tous les tres. Dans la Cabale, Dieu l'inconnu, le Nant, le Rien (pour notre intelligence) cre le
monde par l'intermdaire des dix sfiroths hirarchiss en trois triades qui correspondent aux divers
mondes. Toujours on retrouve l'Unique inconcevable l'esprit humain existant avant toute manifestation ou
diffrentation, devenant l'Unique concevable, le point d'o sortent progressivement les diffrentes formes
intangibles, puis tangibles de l'Univers. Senard, Le Zodiaque, pages 11,12.
[9] To ha chi nguyn. . TMKC Q. Hanh, trang 9
...T khiu Cf TMKC Hanh, trang 9.
[10] TMKC q. Hanh, trang 9 .
[11] Thi cc chi . Hn n chi cn . TMKC, trang 9.
[12] To ha tuyn qut . TMKC, trang 8.
[13] V cc gi chn trung d (TMKC quyn Hanh, trang 9b.
[14] V cc: Hong trung: Qui trung: Chnh v: n cc : : : : . TMKC Quyn Hanh,
trang 8 .
[15] Ib. trang 9
... Gi c khiu tuyt trung bin, v ni ngoi, thng h vin, ng Ty hp, Nam Bc tuyn, Hi th , tin
thnh tin. , , , , , . TMKC Quyn Hanh, trang 8.
Dch:
Khiu ny chng gia chng bn,
Trong ngoi chng c, di trn mt vnh
ng Ty cha c phn trnh
Bc Nam on t cha thnh i ni,
Hiu ra hnh phc my mi,
Thin tin u cng duyn tri xa nay.
...X li t, sc bt d khng khng bt d sc; sc tc th khng, khng tc th sc. Chu dch xin chn
trang 6 (bi Trung ).
[16] H v chi cc, To ha chi nguyn, Bt nh php mn, Thm thm php gii, Qui cn khiu, Phc mnh quan,
Trung Hong cung, Hi di ph, Tng tr mn, Cc lc quc, H khng tng, Ty Nam hng, Mu k mn,
Chn nht x, Hunh b x, Th nht n, Tnh th, Ty phng, Hong trung, Chnh v, gi c, Thn tht,
Chn th, Hunh nh chng chng d danh, nan d tt c. , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , . Tnh Mnh Khu Ch (TMKC) Quyn Hanh
trang 8.
[17] Xem ch thch trn.
73

[18] Adi buddha was called Isvara but he was also given such special name as Vairocana, Vajrapani, Vajradhara
and Vajrasattva. Cf. The god of Northern Buddhism page 2.
Cf. Trung Anh Pht hc t in ni ch A pht , trang 288.
[19] Cf. Ren Gunon, Le Roi du monde, page 18.
[20] In the Guna Kranda Vyuha it is written: When nothing else was, Sambhu was; that is the Self Existent
(Svayambhu): and as he was before all, he is also called Adi Buddha...
The Nepalese school supposed an Adi Buddha infinite, self existing, without beginning and without end, the
source and originator of all things... Alice Getty The Gods of northern Buddhism p.2
...Adi Buddha.. is associated.. with Vajradhara or Vajrasattva who are considered as identical, and spoken of
as omniscient, omnipotent, eternal, infinite, uncaused and causing all things. Cf. Trung Anh Pht hc t
in trang 288
Adi Buddha, The first Buddha, the primary Buddha, Buddha from the beginning, Buddha unoriginated,
existing by himelf... Adi Buddha resembles Brahma. Prof. Hyman Kublin, A Dictionary of Chinese
mythology, page 1 et ss.
[21] Vajradhara, the indestructible lord of all mysteries master of all secrets is an exoteric representation of Adi
Buddha. The Gods of Northern Buddhism, page 4.
[22] y l nh ngha v Thin Cha ca cng ng Vatican I: La sainte Eglise catholique Apostolique Romaine
croit et confesse qu'il y a un seul Dieu vrai vivant, Crateur et seigneur du Ciel et de la terre, tout puissant,
ternel, immense, incomprhensible, infini en intelligence, en volont et en toute perfection, qui tant une
substance spirituelle unique par nature, tout fait simple et immuable, doit tre dclar distinct du monde en
ralit et par son essence, bienheureux en lui mme et par lui mme et lev indiciblement au dessus de tout
ce qui est et peut se concevoir en dehors de lui. Cf. Claude Tresmontant, Les Ides matresses de la
mtaphysique chrtienne, page 27.
[23] Chu Lim Kh tng trng V cc bng vng trn. Xem: Tng nguyn hc n - Chu Lim Kh hc n (h)
Thi cc thuyt trang 1, 2, 3.
Cc o gia cng vy:
xem a) Kim n i thnh tp trang 1
b) Tnh mnh khu ch quyn hanh trang 9
Vng trn va l tng hnh V cc va l tng hnh Thi cc.
Xem: Chu Dch xin chn trang 6. Chng tin thin honh .
... C nhn cng chi d . Cng danh chi vit o, vit H v, vit Tin thin nht kh, vit V cc,
vit Thi cc. . , , , , . Ib. trang 16 (Kim
n ).
[24] Le trs pieux Saint Anselme compare la vrit maxima la rectitude infinie et que nous suivrons en recourant
nous aussi la figure de la rectitude qui correspond notre imagination, une ligne droite. D'autres auteurs
excellents ont compar la Trinit trs Sainte le triangle quilatral qui aurait trois angles droite... D'autres
s'efforcant de figurer l'unit infinie, ont appel Dieu cercle infini. D'autres enfin, considrant l'existence
absolument actuelle de Dieu, l'ont compar une sphre infinie. Cf. Giuseppe Bufo Nicolas de Cues page
100.

74

[25] Le cercle, symbole de l'Absolu. On symbolise l'Absolu par le cercle blanc sur fond noir. Le cercle lui mme,
dans son entier, est l'Unit divine dont tout procde, o tout retourne, non seulement parce qu'il a forme d'un
oeuf voquant ainsi l'ide de matrice mais parce que c'est la forme gomtrique la plus reprsentative de ce
qu'on pourrait appeler un gal infini dans toutes les directions . Sa circonfrence indique la prsence
abstraite jamais inconnaissable parce qu'elle n'a ni commencement, ni fin et est cependant dfinie. A
Tanon, Thosophie et Science, page 44.
[26] L'ontologie antique considre le Ple Nord comme le berceau de la vie. Dans le Roi du Monde (p.18) R.
Gunon dit que le Chakravarti ou celui qui fait tourner la roue, c'est dire celui qui est plac au centre de
toutes choses, en dirige le mouvement sans y participer lui mme, correspond au moteur immobile
d'Aristote... M. Senard, Le Zodiaque, page 21 .
[27] Trong quyn Chu Dch xin chn chng kim n ta thy c nhn dng mt hnh trn tng trng cho: V
cc, Thi cc, H v nht kh, Tnh mnh, n.
...Tu th gi c nhi d. Nhi v chi Nhn. Dch vit V cc. Thch v chi Chu, dic vit Vin Minh. o v
chi n, dic vit Linh quang, giai ch tin thin chn nht chi kh. Tnh mnh php quyt minh ch quyn
nht, trang 4 .
[28] Au sixime degr, l'homme est dpouill de lui mme et revtu de l'ternit de Dieu, parvenu la perfection
complte; il a oubli la vie temporelle avec tout ce qu'elle a de prissable; il a t entrain et transform en
une image divine; il est devenu un enfant de Dieu. Il n'y a pas d'autre degr, de degr suprieur; l est le repos
ternel, la batitude. Car le but dernier de l'homme intrieur, de l'homme nouveau est la vie ternelle.
Matre Eckhart Traits et Sermons, p.107.
[29] Cf. i ng Chn kinh quyn h, trang 23b.
Nht chn v tc v chi hn n. Xng o chn ngn quyn II, trang 9.
[30] Thng thanh Hunh nh ni cnh kinh.

Chng 4. Nhng hu qu ca quan nim V Cc


Thuyt V Cc nay a ra nhng hu qu ht sc quan trng:
1. Ngi Chu cp ti V Cc, ti H v tc l ti Thng v hnh tng bt kh t ngh, ti Tuyt
i th v gin, v hnh, v tng.
Ngi u Chu ngoi tr mt s trit gia li lc mt s hc gi uyn thm, phn ng khng hiu bit g v
V Cc, v H v, nn khng th no hiu c cc thnh hin ng , ngc li h cho ngi Chu khng
hiu bit g v Thng , v siu hnh l mt li lm ht sc ln lao ca cc hc gi chuyn nghip u Chu,
li lm m cc nh t tng li lc u Chu nh G.G. Jung, Ren Gunon nhn nh thy.
2. Ni ti V Cc, tc l ch nguyn ni ti Thng khi cha c van vt vn hu, tc l mi bn n tin
thin (avant la manifestation), cha bn n hu thin (aprs la manifestation) ([1])
3. Nhng vn trit hc v o gio c nu ra s l:
a) Nu V Cc l H v, v gin v phng v hnh tng, th lm sao to thnh v tr, vn vt, hu hnh
hu tng.
b) Sau khi to thnh vn hu th V Cc tng gim ra sao?
c) Vn hu lin quan th no n V Cc.
d) nh mnh vn hu v con ngi s ra sao?
75

e) Nh vy l s phi cp n nhng vn :
Cn nguyn ca v tr.
Bin ha ca v tr.
Cng ch ca v tr.
4. T V Cc ra ti vn hu c mt trung gian l Thi Cc.
Thi Cc tc l o, l Logos, l Ngi Hai theo danh t cc trit hc, cc o gio Ty phng.
Thi Cc c gi l Trung gian.
V Thi Cc l s hin dng ca V Cc.
V Thi Cc s pht sinh ra vn hu, s lng trong vn hu, nh vy vn hu li l s hin dng phn ha
ca Thi Cc.
Thi Cc, v lng trong vn hu, nn y nh t gii hn mnh vo trong khun kh v tr khng gian thi
gian; v li hin dng tc l chu mt gii hn no.
Thay v cp ngay ti nhng cung cch V Cc, Thi Cc sinh ha ra vn hu ta tip tc l lun trn bnh
din l thuyt:
a) Nu V Cc l v gin (continu), th du c v tr, hay khng c v tr, V Cc cng khng th no tng
gim c g.
V cc tt nhin v thy chung.
M khi c v tr vn vt ri, nhng hnh hi, sc tng cng khng ngn chn qua phn c V Cc.
Thnh th V hn, V Cc, va trong, va ngoi Hu hn
V hn y nh l mt trng dng, m hu hn nh l nhng ln sng nhp nh, trn mt. [2]
Cc khoa hc gia bt u nhn thc c thc th siu vi, v hn y. [3]
Cc nh huyn hc suy lun thm rng: nu V Cc l v gin, trng tn bt bin v l cn mun loi, th
d nhin c ti ri, hay cha c ti, V Cc y vn nguyn vn.
Nh vy trong ngi chng ta c mt nguyn th bt bin. Di lp lang hnh hi, tm tr ca ta c mt thc
th siu vi, vnh cu, v bin. Cc nh huyn hc gi l Bn lai din mc.
Li na v tr vn hu khng th l nhng hu th khc bit vi V Cc, vi Thng , vi bn th tuyt
i c, chng vy Tuyt i s tr thnh tng i; v bin, v gin s tr thnh hu hn, gin cch.
Cho nn vn hu ch c th l nhng hin tng ca Thng , v tr l hin thn ca Thng . [4]
S v bin t ca Thng c vua David ca tng trong thnh vnh 139 nh sau:
Thn tr Cha ai m trn khi
Lnh mt ngi bit ti ni u ?
Ln tri gp Cha trn cao.
Xung m gp Cha di su t dy.
Mn hng ng cnh bay khonh khc,
Ti ti min xa lc bin khi,
Ni y vn Cha a ti,
Bn tay hu Cha nm ngi ti lin.
D ti gi bng m hy n,
Ph vy ti ngy bin thnh m.
Cha trong u ti r nhn,
76

Ban m sng t nh in ban ngy... [5]


Thng cng phn: Ta khng trn ngp t tri sao? [6]
Sch Minh trit chp: Thn linh Thin cha cha y khng gian, v ng thng nht mun vt thu sut
mi s con ngi ni. [7]
Jacob Boehme cng ch trng vn hu chng qua ch l biu tng ca Thng , v Thng trn
ngp v tr. [8]
Cho nn V Cc, H v l Thng bt kh t ngh, l ngun gc mun vt. Vn tng, vn hu lun lu
trn ging bin thin chuyn vn khng phi l lung tung v chiu hng, m chnh l phc hi nguyn bn.
Dch Kinh vit: Nguyn thy phn chung [9] Nguyn thy s tr thnh cng ch l v vy.
Nu nguyn thy l V Cc l Tri, th cng ch cng li l Tri l V Cc. l vng tun hon v
bin, bin dch ca To ha v ca v tr.
Cc nh huyn hc t ng sang Ty u ng thanh ghi nhn con ngi phi tm ra cn tm hn mnh v
cn phi tu luyn tr v kt hp vi H v vi Thng v hnh tch.
Nim tin, cng nh lng nguyn c ca cc thnh hin o Lo l:
Phc qui V Cc [10]
Luyn thn hon H [11]
o c Kinh vit:
Mun loi sinh ha a oan,
Ri ra cng phi lai hon bn nguyn
Hon bn nguyn qui nguyn phc mnh
Phc mnh ri trng vnh v cng [12]
Sch T bch t gii c cu: ph Hn n, khiu nhp H v. [13]
Phanh phui Hn n, bng chng H v cng khng ngoi .
Chu Lim Kh vit: T V Cc m suy lun ti vn vt tc l suy lun ra u ui ca tri t. T vn
tng suy ngc V Cc, tc l u ui ca thnh nhn. [14]
Cc nh Huyn hc nh suy lun v V Cc v tr, v bin t nn gic ng.
Kinh Kim Cng vit: ng v s tr nhi sinh k tm. [15] (Tm ni khng da nng m sinh tm).
Tha l Bn th tuyt i, l Thng . Cu trn c th gii nm na l phi bit sng kt hp vi Tuyt
i th, mi c trng tn.
Lc t Hu Nng nh nghe cu ny m gic ng. (Xem Php bo n kinh T t Phm nht, Kinh Kim
Cng chng X.)
Cc nh huyn hc tm ra V Cc trong thm tm bng l lun sau: V Cc l v gin, m t tng ta th
gin on; nhng gin on phi da vo v gin mi c th pht sinh, v vy V Cc phi nm sn trong tm
khm ta. Ta c th thy V Cc v gin v sai bit y trong nhng khi ta khng c t tng g trong tm t, hay
trong nhng khi t tng ny ngng v t tng kia cha hin.
V Cc v gin v sai bit y chnh l Bn lai din mc, Chn nh bn tnh hay Bn nguyn t tnh ca cc
nh huyn hc Pht gio. [16]
Thn Hi tm ra Tuyt i trong thm tm nh nhn nh sau y: C t tng tc l nhp vng sinh dit,
hnh thc sc tng, nhng t tng ta sinh ra l do tuyt i th, m tuyt i th y lun im lm bt ng, d cho

77

ta c hot ng, c suy t n bao nhiu cng vy. Th tc l V nim l cn nguyn cho hu nim. [17] Tm ra
c V nim tc l tm ra c bn tm, bn tnh, tm ra c V Cc, c Tuyt i. [18]
Hnh Dng o nhn vit trong quyn Thng phm n php i khi nh sau: Cc quan nng ta u do
mt cn nguyn trong ngi sinh xut, cn nguyn y chnh l ngc chu v gi, tm c cn nguyn y l quay tr
c v H v. [19]
Ta c th v nh sau:

Cng phu tu luyn ca tin nhn, tuy c nhng danh t a oan khc bit nh: Ni quan (Lo), Phn chiu
(Lo), Tri ch (Nho), Quan tm (Thch). Nhng mc ch vn l vt khi ci tm tri gic tr v thin a chi
tm, v ni pht xut ra tinh thn vt cht, tm tr, hnh hi; tr v bn th v tr. [20] Cc nh huyn hc Hi
Gio cho rng thnh nhn phi bit ty tr ht mi trn cu, mi nim l, tm hn ch cn hm tng nguyn c
Thin cha bn trong. [21]
Eckhart cho rng nu ty tr nhn vi, nhn to, th thin chn hin ra sng quc, sng ngi. [22]
Thnh Jean de la Croix m t con ng thnh, thin tuyt ho a ti Thng ton bng ch H v, H
khng. Ngi vit: T khi ti trong Khng, ti khng cn thiu g ht. [23]
V hiu V Cc, H v l bn th cn nguyn v tr cc nh Huyn hc ch trng n cng trnh tr v
ngun gc.
Cc ngi gi th l: Phc thn hon H, Phc qui V Cc, Qui nguyn Phn Bn, v.v..
Hon H, Phn Bn suy ra l tm li c bn th chn thc ca mnh [24], sng i sng ca Ha cng.
[25] Tm li hiu V Cc tc l hiu cn nguyn v tr, v con ngi. Tm c cn nguyn v tr v con ngi,
s tm ra c con ng phn hon nguyn th. [26]
Tng kt li: V Sc Tng sinh ra Hnh Thc Sc Tng; Hnh Thc Sc Tng o ngc li s thnh th
Phn Hon Hi Phc, chung qui vn l phi r b ht mi s gi to hnh thc bn ngoi mi tm ra c Chn
Th. [27]
Cui thin kho lun ny, tng ch nn suy ngh t thm trm ca in tch Tng Vng c Huyn
Chu ca Nam hoa kinh. [28]
CH THCH
[1] L' Advaitiste dit: Tout n'est il pas Brahman quand le nom et la forme ont t enlevs? Vivekananda Les yogas
pratiques, page 219.
[2] Hin tng chi ng d bn th chi Pht, do chi thy d ba. ... Ci ba tc hu sinh dit thy chung, nhi thy tc
v thy v chung d. V tr chi hin tng hu sinh dit, hu thy chung, nhin k bn th tc bt sinh, bt
dit, bt tng, bt gim. Th bn th v chi Chn Nh, hin tng v chi vn php.
.... , . , ,
. , . Leon Wieger HCROPC, pages 546 - 548.

78

[3] La science la plus srieuse la physique, arrive la conclusion que le rel du savant n'est qu'une mince pellicule
qui recouvre la vraie ralit. Les vagues ne sont pas l'ocan, mais l'ocan existe.
Le professeur Wheeler, dans son ouvrage Topics of modern physics, montre que le vritable ocan, la ralit
essentielle, est compos de tourbillons extrmement petits et de dimensions diffrentes. Ces tourbillons sont
tous plus petits qu'une longueur d'onde fondamentale. L: 1, 6

(10 to negative 33 power) cm

... Ce monde des tourbillions qui constitue le vritable rel porte des noms divers suivant les savants qui l'ont
tudi. On peut l'appeler volont ocan de Dirac, milieu subquantique de Louis de Broglie, Bohn et
Vigier, espace topologique spcial de Wheeler Plante No 19, page 48.
[4] Corpus symbolicum. Cf. G.G. Scholem, Les grands courants de la mystique juive, page 40.
[5] Cf. Thnh Vnh ton tp (Mai Ln) trang 288.
O vais je loin de ton esprit,
O fuirai je loin de la face !
Si j'escalade les cieux, tu es l,
Qu'au schol je me couche, te voici ;
Je prends les ailes de l'aurore,
Je me loge au plue loin de la mer
Mme l, ta main me conduit,
Ta droite me saisit.
Je dirai: Que me couvre la tnbre
Que la lumire sur moi se fasse nuit
Mais la tnbre n'est point tnbre
Et la nuit comme le jour illumine
(Bible de Jrusalem p. 78)
[6] Est ce que le ciel et la terre, je ne les remplis pas ? Oracle de Yahv. Jrmie 23, 24.
[7] Cf. Gerard Gagnon Trit minh thnh kinh Minh trit I, 7
... L'esprit du Seigneur en effet remplit l'Univers, et lui, qui tient unies toutes choses, sait tout ce qui se dit.
Le livre de la Sagese 1, 7
La Bible de Jrusalem page 870.
[8] Jacob Boehme, Mysterium Magnum, pages 49-50
Jacob Boehme, Mysterium Magnum, 142.
[9] Nguyn thy yu chung. . Dch H t h chng IX.
[10] Phc qui V cc. . Lo t o c Kinh chng 28.
[11] Cf. Tnh mnh php quyt quyn 4 trang 3.
[12] Lo T o c Kinh chng 16.
[13] Cf. T bch t gii trang 86.
[14] T V cc thuyt o vn vt thng, thin a chi chung thy d. T vn s phn o V cc thng, thnh
nhn chi chung thy d. , . . Tng
Nguyn hc n quyn 12 Lim Kh hc n (h) Thi cc thuyt trang 2a.
[16] C tri vn php tn ti t tm trung, n kin Chn nh bn tnh. , .
Php Bo n kinh trang 15a.
79

[17] Jacques Gernet, Entretien du Matre de Dhyana Chen Houei du Ho Tso (668 - 760)
[18] Lorsqu'on voit l'absence de pense, on est matre de toutes choses, lorsqu'on voit l'absence de pense, on
embrasse toutes choses (Notes 17)
Jacques Gernet, Entretiens du matre de Dhyana Chen Houei du Ho Tso (668 - 760)
...Tin lp v nim vi th, v tng vi th, v tr vi bn.
Php bo n kinh Diu hnh phm 24b.
... ch cnh thng tm bt nhim vit v nim.
Ibid. 25a.
[19] C nhn vn: Hu nht bo chu b ti hnh sn. Th bt tri th nht bo chu tc ti lc cn mn trung; thi
thi phng i quang minh. Nhn a bt ng, s d h sinh lng t. Ng kim ch xut l u hin nhin minh
bch. Nhn thn tuy hu lc cn tng tng nht cn s pht. C yu duy th tam nguyn hn nht, t tng
hp ha, qui vu H v. : . ; .
. . . ,
, . Thng phm n php, trang 2b, 3a.
[20] Thnh thnh tng truyn bt ly phn chiu. Khng vn tri ch. Thch hiu quan tm, Lo vn ni quan. Giai
th php d. ... Phn gi: t tri gic chi tm phn h hnh thn v triu chi s, tc ng lc xch chi trung, phn
cu c thin a v sinh chi th... , . . , . . ... :
, , . Thi nht kim hoa tng ch, trang
5.
[21] L'indice du sage est d'tre vid (du souci) de ce monde et de l'autre... et de n'tre occup que de Dieu seul.
Cf. Louis Massignon, Essai sur les origines du Lexique technique de la mysstique musulmane p. 310.
[22] Matre Eckhart Trats et Sermon p.108.
[23] Ib. page 4.
[24] Reditio completa ad propriam essentiam (retour complet l'essence propre: tr v tinh hoa bn th) Cf.
Revue des Sciences philosophiques et thologiques tome XIIV Juillet 1960 page 409.
[25] (Cet tat final) c'est le retour notre origine...
... Jonayd explique ce mot de retour notre origine par l'accs la vie mme du Crateur.
Louis Massignon MM. page 307.
[26] Moi, Yahv qui suis le premier et serai avec les derniers (Isaie 41 4)
[27] Tout ce qu'il y a de plus lev, de meilleur dans la cration, recouvre et dcolore en nous l'image de Dieu.
Enlevez la rouille de l'argent, dit Salomon, et alors luit et brille le vase le plus pur, l'image de Dieu dans
l'me. Matre Eckhart Traits et Sermons page 108.
[28] Hong du h Xch thy chi bc... di k huyn chu... Ni s Tng Vng. Tng Vng c chi.
... ... . . ni: con ngi mun tm ra c Thng , c Tuyt
i th, phi bit siu xut ln trn mi tnh, hnh thc, sc tng...
Nam Hoa Kinh NDC Chng XII Thin a p. 601

Ph lc 1. 50 BI TH VNH V CC
TNG
o Tri rng ri mnh mng,
80

Thi nguyn v tng, hnh dung nh no.


Tch nhin chng thy tiu bao,
Hng mng h d n ro vy ngn
Cng bn, cng bit hi tm,
Cng nhiu li l cng tng mt m [1]
Tim tm ngm ngh suy t,
Ri ra mi thy duyn do gt u.
Hoa kia qu n v u ?
Nu khng gc gc lm sao sinh thnh ? [2]
I
t tri cha c, c H v [3]
Hn n [4], Hng mng [5] chng bn b
Vn vt nguyn lai u gc [6]
Mun i thn thnh y cn c [7]
i : H v, Hn n khng phi l h khng, v t chc, m chnh l thun nht, bt kh phn, l Tuyt
i th, ngun gc vn vt, mun tha trng tn, thn thnh mun i u do cn c y to thnh.
II
H v k thc chng h v [8]
Tri t mnh mng cha chng va [9]
Ch t mun loi ngun To ha [10]
Kim n, vin gic y cn do [11]
i : Tuyt i th l nguyn th cha pht hin thnh hnh tng, nn tuy v hnh tng, nhng no phi
l h v. Tuyt i th v hn, nn tri t hu hn khng cha ni; sinh xut mun loi, nn l ch t l
ngun gc mi vt mi loi.
Tuyt i th y cng l cng ch con ngi, l t o, t ch ca con ngi, v vy gi l Kim n
(Lo) hay vin gic cng khng l.
III
H v, v tng li v cng [12]
V kh thnh hnh, t chng thng [13]
V cc, Hong Trung, hay Gi c [14]
Mun nghn bin o phi u khng ? [15]
IV
Huyn quan v sc li v phng [16]
V hnh v tng kh tri tng [17]
M mng phng pht Chn nhn hin [18]
Tn gi Cc thn, hiu Th trng [19]
V
Huyn quan mi thc l lng sao!
Chng nhim phm thn, chng u [20]
Rong rui mun phng, tm chng thy [21]
81

Thy ri gn gi ti tm u [22]
VI
Huyn quan mt x pht mun ni,
Mun ni hp li vn khng ngoi,
Huyn khiu vn xoay thnh vn i,
Th vn hi nguyn mt khc thi [23]
VII
V cc kim n c khc g
Tinh ton vng vc ta quang huy
Ni y sc, khng, khng mc mi
Quang minh mun tha chng suy vi [24]
VIII
Sau mn hin tng, n H v [25],
Gc bin bin thin y bn b [26],
V cc, Bn lai chn din mc [27]
t tri chuyn ng y cn c. [28]
IX
Thi h, Chn ng khc chi nhau
Sinh thnh vn vt t tri thu.
Bao gm vn hu thng kim c
V tr tung honh, cha thm u [29]
X
Huyn tn, Cc Thn, Nht vi trung [30]
H v chi cc [31], Trung Hong cung [32]
Hunh nh [33], Chnh v [34], Hi Di ph [35]
T khiu h linh, t chng cng [36]
XI
Nht khiu H v thin a trung.
Trin min b mt bt thng phong.
Hong ht yu minh v sc tng
Chn nhn hin ti bo chu trung
Dch:
Mt khiu H v gia t tri
Trin min b mt t bao i
Yu minh phng pht khng hnh tng,
Trong ngc Chn nhn hin sng ngi.
i : Ngi xa tng trng V cc bng mt vng trn trng rng , v l v hnh tng, v sc tng,
nhng thc ra y chnh l ch t cn khn, l Tuyt i th, l Tri n, huyn diu v cng cc.
XII
o bn H v sinh Thi cc,
82

Thi cc bin nhi tin hu nht.


Nht phn vi nh, nh sinh tam,
T tng ng hnh tng th xut [37]
Dch:
V cc c ri, Thi cc sinh,
Cc bin nht ri, nh mi manh,
Tam ti, t tng dn d hin
Ng hnh, vn vt th phn trnh
i : Cc hin trit xa c suy din li s to thnh vn vt. Thc ra y khng phi l s to thnh, m l
s bin ha, chia phi ca mt nguyn th. Nguyn th sinh vt m vn bt bin; vn vt l nhng trng thi
bin thin, nhng tc dng ca mt nguyn th. Trng bn ngoi th vn th. Vo ti trung tm, khu hu th
li nht qun. l thuyt nht th vn th.
XIII
H v bit c mi l thng [38]
V cc tm ra, phc chng cng [39]
Du ht ngao du v Hn n [40]
Ngc dng tri t nhp Trung cung [41]
XIV
Lo ng v dc, [42] Khng v ngn [43]
Tim tm vng tng bo linh cn [44]
Pht c ngc chu vin gic chiu [45]
Tam gio suy ra cng mt ngun [46]
XV
V ngn, v nim vi v vi
Th rt cuc vn ng qui [47]
Nhn vi Linh n hay chnh gic [48]
Chn tm, Trung, Nht, h phn k [49]
i : Tam gic thnh hin u mun vn ln sng trong v cng Tuyt i th, m Tuyt i th l v
cng tn, nn bt k, mt hin tng no d l nim, d l li l, d l ng tc, tuy pht t tuyt i th
ra, nhng khng phi l Tuyt i th. V vy, mun t ti tuyt i th phi siu xut trn nim (v nim
Thch), t ng (v ngn Nho) v ng tc tm thng (v vi Lo) Phng chm hnh ng c khc, nhng
mc ch vn l mt, v th gi tam gio ng qui. Ln ti tuyt i th l ti Ton thin, ti Nhn (Nho)
l luyn thnh Linh n (Lo) l c chnh ng, chnh gic (Pht) l vo c chn tm (Thch), vo
ti trung im ca t tri (Nho), tm li c Nht th ca vn vt (Lo).
XVI
Hn nguyn nht khiu th Tin thin [50]
Ni din h v l t nhin
Nhc hng v sinh tin kin c.
Minh tri tt th i la tin.
Dch:
83

Hn nguyn nht khiu y Tin thin,


Ni din h v l t nhin.
T lc cha sinh tm mi thy,
Hiu ra u cng i la tin.
i : V cc hay Hn nguyn nht kh c t trc t tri, vn vt v thn ta. Cho nn mun tm thy V
cc, phi vt khi xc thn hnh thc, sc tng, khng gian, thi gian. Hiu vy Trang t mi ni:
Thin a d ng tnh sinh... nhi vn vt d ng vi nht
XVII
V cc huyn quan y Php thn [51]
Chng phi xc thn nhim dc trn [52]
Hu hnh rt cuc thnh h hoi [53]
Bn th h khng vnh bt trm [54]
i : Cc nh huyn hc u tin rng trong thm tm mnh c Tri. Tri l Php thn hay Kim Cng
Thn bt hy hoi [55] cn nhn tm chng qua l xc thn c sinh c dit. Trong trit hc Hi Lp, tm hn
l Psyche, thn hn l Nous. Quan nim ny d nhin l khc vi quan nim qun chng cho rng Tri
ngi xa cch mun trng.
XVIII
V cc H khng y thc Tri [56]
Lng trong vn vt chng pha phi [57]
Lng vng dc tnh Tri hin hin [58]
Thng l Hong trung, th chnh ngi [59]
XIX
V cc H v to thnh thn [60]
Hp nht H v y thnh nhn [61]
V vi, v dc hon v ng [62]
Linh n hon tt, hin kim thn [63]
XX
Thin h, a thng an t khiu
Nht ty, nguyt ng t tin thin
Huyn quan chi hu, Cc thn tin
Chnh trung hu c khng bt khng.
TMPQ Quyn 1 trang 1a
Dch:
T khiu linh lung gia t tri
Nht nguyt hai vng t hu soi
Cc thn, Huyn khiu theo sau trc
Khng tch Trung hong rc r ngi. [64]
XXI
Cn khn hp thnh linh t khiu,
Bao la thin a, Khng bt khng
84

Yu yu minh minh vin quang hin,


Gi c chnh v thn qui trung
TMPQ Quyn I trang 1a
Dch:
T khiu kt nn bi t tri,
Bao la thin a khp i ni
Mt m huyn o linh quang ta,
Mt im Trung hong gi vng ngi.
XXII
Huyn tn diu h bt kh ngn,
T nhp vi trn i bao thin.
Nhn nhc nng tri th diu khiu,
Vn nin bt hoi nht kim tin.
TMPQ Quyn 1 trang 1a
Dch:
Huyn tn lm sao t xng li,
Nh chui lng bi, ln trm tri. [65]
Diu khiu y ai m bit c,
Thn tin huyn ha, th mun i.[66]
XXIII
Hm dng bn nguyn ti phng thn
Song lm th h mch bn tng
Thy lim minh tm, th T khiu
Th cc ha hp khu lin hon
TMPQ Quyn I trang 1
Dch:
Lng son mi mit dng nguyn cn,
Bn tng tm ti ti thm tm,
Khp kn ng quan gn T khiu,
Chn tay xp chp nh nguyn thn.
XXIV
Hn n sinh tin hn n vin
C trung tiu tc bt dung truyn,
Phch khai khiu ni, khiu trung khiu,
p ph thin trung, thin ngoi thin
TMKC Hanh trang 14a
Hn n cha sinh vn vn tuyn,
Mt m tiu tc ni sao nn,
Vng ngoi vt ht, vo trung im
Mi hay tri thm vn k bn [67]
85

XXV
o minh ti l nht oan ngh,
Hong ht v tng phn b th
Trung gian ch t Gi ta nhi
Tin th th nhn chn chng t
TMKC Li trang 5a
Dch:
Phng pht nguyn s l mi manh,
M mng y cha phn trnh,
trong hin r chn ch t
Mm mng t tri vi chng sinh [68]
XXVI
i tai ch o
V thng ch tn
Khai thin lp cc
Phu lc thn chn
Thin a chi t
Vn vt chi cn
Hn n Thi V
Yu yu minh minh
Nguyn thy n sinh
Hp hp khai thng
Thn xung lc mn...
Liu Dng din vn p thin trang 7a
Dch:
i o cao vi o ch tn,
M tri lp cc chuyn cn khn.
Sinh thn sinh thnh sinh mun vt,
Hn n Thi v qun vn mn.
XXVII
Bt sinh bt dit.
V x v thanh,
Linh minh bt mui,
Cng c trng tn.
Thng trit thin thanh,
H chc a ninh.
(Liu Dng in vn p thin trang 7b)
Dch:
Bt dit, bt sinh v x thanh,
Mun i trng cu li linh minh
86

Tri xanh mun dm bao trm khp,


t rng ngn phng to thi bnh.
XXVIII
Trung lp Hong cc
Nguyn thy ch tn,
Tam Hong ph t,
Chiu nhip vn linh
Ch t ng kh,
Hn hp bch thn,
Tnh mnh chi ,
Hp tch chi hnh,
Vn thn tr v
Ma vng bo nghinh.
Liu Dng in vn p thin trang 7b
Dch:
Gia vng tri t v Trung Hong,
Nguyn thy cao vi bc ch tn
Hn hp bch thn sinh tnh mnh,
Hi trong tri t c chi hn ?
XXIX
Bn lai chn tnh hiu kim an,
T i vi l luyn tc on,
Ng chi gi, lp t thnh v,
M chi gi, vn kip trm lun
Ng chn trc ch quyn I trang 2
Dch:
Bn lai chn tnh hiu kim an,
Mn l t i luyn thnh ton
Ai bit, tc thi thng thnh v.
K m vn kip s trm lun[69]
XXX
Tin thin bn tnh hiu kim an,
Bt qui l trung luyn tc on
C th m tm ngoi c,
Thn sng vng tng thng vn oan.
Tng ngn ph nghi quyn h trang 7
Dch:
Thin thin bn tnh y kim an,
Mn l thn xc luyn thnh ton.
Nhn th u m tm ngoi dc
87

Ung vo nhng mng ci my ngn[70]


XXXI
Tin thin nht kh ti hng mng,
V tng v hnh bt lc khng.
Nhn c sinh s chn din mc,
Phng tri ng hu Ch Nhn Cng.
TNPN Quyn h trang 7a
Dch:
Tin thin mt kh ti Hng Mng.
Tuy chng bng hnh, chng phi khng
Bit c bn lai chn din mc,
Mi hay ta c Ch nhn ng[71]
XXXII
V sinh thn x hu thy tri,
Tnh tnh tiu tiu hn n th,
T tng ng hnh giai v o,
Hn nhin nht kh mt hng th,
TNPN Quyn H trang 7
Dch:
Thn mnh ai r lc cha sinh ?
Hn n hn nhin vn lng thinh,
T tng nh hnh cha pht l,
m dng diu hp cha phn trnh[72]
XXXIII
Cc thn tng th lp thin cn,
Thng thnh cng danh Huyn tn mn
im ph th nhn sinh t huyt.
Chn tin th nh cn khn.
TMKC Hanh trang 10b
Dch:
Cc thn do lp thin cn,
Thng thnh gng ku Huyn tn mn.
Ch v th nhn sinh t huyt,
Chn tin ni y nh cn khn
i : V cc l Tuyt i th, nhng chnh l cn ca t tri, v th gi l Thin Cn, hay l Huyn tn
mn, cn nguyn sinh xut m dng vn hu. Vo trong V cc s trng sinh, tch ri V cc s yu t.
Cho nn cc v chn nhn u gm thu vn vt tr v V cc.
XXXIV
Huyn tn chi mn chn nht khai
Trung gian nht khiu hn linh di.
88

V quan, v ta, v nhn th,


Nht nguyt ng ty t vng lai.
TMKC Hanh trang 11a
Dch:
Huyn tn chi mn m sut ngy,
Trung gian mt khiu ln Linh i,
Chng then, chng kha khng ai gii,
Nht nguyt ty ng vn vng lai.
i : Huyn tn tc l V cc, Thi cc nm ti gia vng Dch, tc l gia lng mun vt, v th c nht
nguyt xoay chuyn chung quanh, nh khm ly bin ha, vn xoay quanh vng Thi cc. Ca tri y no c
kha then, no c ngn ro ai ! Ca tri y v li ln ngay trong Linh i, m Linh i l chnh tm hn ta !
XXXV
Tam gio nht nguyn gi c vin,
Sinh ti v vi tng tin.
Ng c th Trung chn diu l,
Thy tri i o t cn nguyn
TMKC Hanh trang 11
Tam gio H v v mt vng,
Sinh ti v vi, vn tng tng,
C hiu Trung hong chn diu l
Ri ra ngun o s khai thng
i : C ba o Nho, Thch, Lo u tng trng V cc bng mt vng trn rng (xem thm Tnh mnh
Php quyt quyn 7, trang 26, 3a, 3b) Kinh Dch tng trng V cc, Thi cc bng vng trn, hay bng
tm im gia vng Dch, v gi l Trung Hong, hay Trung. ni V cc hay Tri gia lng tri t
mun vt v lng con ngi. Hiu c ngha su xa y, mi tm ra c ngun gc ca o.
XXXVI
T vn chn nhn h x lai,
Tng tin nguyn ch ti Linh i.
Tch nin vn v thm gi t
Kim nht tng phng o nhn khai
TMKC Quyn Hanh trang 11a
Dch:
Chn nhn m hi ti t u ?
Tm khm tim ng sn y su,
Tha trc Linh i vn v ph,
Ngy nay gp g ht xa nhau.
i : Tri tng n ngay trong lng su con ngi. Khng bit, th tm hn nh c my m dy c che lp
[73], m bit ra th nh m thm con mt tm linh, nn nhn nhn ra c. [74]
XXXVII
Nht khiu H khng Huyn tn mn,
89

iu nh tit hu yu ng n,
Tin nhn nh ni v tha dc,
Tp khong tiu thnh bch luyn kim.
TMKC Hanh trang 11b
Dch:
Mt khiu H khng, Huyn tn mn
Nm thng cht chiu gi vn trn
Trong nh tin gia khng thuc khc,
Vng la tp khong s tinh ton
i : Ngi xa tng trng H khng bng mt vng trn v Thi cc l m Dng hp nht. [75]

Lng V cc vo trong Thi cc ta c hnh trn, v vng trn trong gi l H khng khiu, vng ngoi l
Huyn tn mn v bao qut m dng. Tin gia tu luyn l mong gt b cn b vt cht, thu thi thun ty
tinh thn [76]
XXXVIII
Yu yu minh minh khai chng diu,
Hong hong ht ht bo chu khiu.
Lim chi, tim tng nht lp trung
Phng chi, di mn lc hp biu.
TMKC Hanh trang 11a
Dch:
Yu yu minh minh chng diu khai
Phng pht H v vn mt Tri.
Tim tng nm gn trong trn cu
Phng pht, bao trm khp chn ni.
i : V cc l ngun mch pht sinh ra mun iu huyn diu. V cc v hnh tng nn kh hnh dung
v i vi phm phu th mt m, tm ti. Nhng thc ra tuy mung lung phiu diu m vn hin hin. V cc
lng trong vn vt, nn ngay trong lng bi ct cng c V cc, c tuyt i, mc du V cc vn trn lan
bao qut khp v tr.
XXXIX
C c v sinh v tn tng,
Nhn nhn bn th bn H khng
Mc o C m danh Cc lc,
Khng Nhan lc dic ti k trung.
TMKC Hanh trang 11a
Dch:
Ngun sinh v tn ta i ni.
V cc, H khng, bn th ngi
90

Ch ni C m ku Cc lc,
Khng, Nhan vui cng ch trong thi.
i : Cc bc minh trit ng Ty trng vo u cng thy Tri, thy Thng , thy tuyt i th ?
Thnh Angela de Foligno vit: Mt hn ti m ra v ti thy Thin Cha khp ni, bao trm v tr, vn
vt. Trong mi vt, ti ch thy quyn nng ca Thin Cha v ti khng sao t nn li v trong khi bng
hong b ng, hn ti ku ln ting: Th gii ny y trn Thin Cha [77]
XL
la mn khi, diu nan cng,
Pht Pht tng truyn ch th trung.
Bt thc Ty lai chn tht ngha,
Khng xuyn thit t tu Ty ng.
TMKC Hanh trang 11a
Dch:
La rng m l v cng,
Pht Pht tng truyn mt ch Trung.
o ng, chn thuyn bng chng hiu
Nh mang giy st, rui Ty ng.
i : Pht gio gi V cc l la Mn ( la Ni Mn), Tng tr mn, bt nh Php mn, X li t, Mu
ni, Cc lc vin, Tnh th, Bt ng o trng, Vin gic hi, B ngn chn t, Tam ma a, Bt nh ngn,
Ba la mt a v.v.. Hiu c V cc, Trung o qua cc o ng , mi hiu c chn thuyn, c tinh
hoa Pht gio. [78]
XLI
H v vng rng y huyn quan [79]
Chng c u ui rt diu mang, [80]
Chng c, chng khng, khng bin i, [81]
Khng trn v li cng khng vung [82]
i : Thc ra V cc hay Tuyt i th l bt kh t ngh, nhng tin nhn cng c hnh dung bng
vng trn, ch ngha ton th, ton bch, ton thin. Dng vng trn tng trng V cc hay Huyn quan, ta
suy ra c tm im v s sinh thnh v tr theo nh lut ba ng (mouvement ondulatoire), suy ra hnh
th cc thin th tinh cu, suy ra khng gian cng trn, v thi gian cng c vng lai, l suy ra c l tun
hon vng lai phn phc ca v tr.
XLII
Huyn quan no c thiu hay tha [83]
Chng gim, chng tng, ta hu v,
Khng dit, khng sinh, khng vng phc,
Dng thi rong rui, du thi thu.
i : V cc hay Tuyt i th l bn th bt bin
XLIII
Huyn quan, huyn o chng qu hng [84]
T xa vn c vn din trng [85]
91

n o su xa lng vn vt [86]
Sinh ha ngn mun y mi rng [87]
i : V cc, v thanh, v x, trn ngp khp ni, v th v s c, v nh v [88], nhng li chnh l
ngun gc sinh vn vt.
XLIV
H v nht khiu hiu huyn quan,
Chnh ti nhn thn thin a gian,
Bt vn t thin phn thng h,
Cu tam lc ng lit tun hon,
i bao php gii hn v tch,
T nhp trn ai bt kin nhan.
Gi c danh vi t khiu huyt,
Th chn nht lp chnh trung huyn
TMKC Hanh trang 11
dch:
H v mt khiu gi huyn quan,
Gia lng tri t vi nhn gian,
8 vn 4 nghn phn thng h, [89]
9, 3, 5, 6 lit tun hon. [90]
Ln trm php gii khng lu vt
Nh nhp trn ai chng thy nhan.
Ci gi l chn t khiu,
Trng sinh linh bo vn hm tng
XLV
Xa nay tri t vi qun sinh,
u nng V cc mi sinh thnh [91]
Huyn quan nu r chn linh khiu [92]
Din mc bn lai thy r rnh [93]
i : Vn vt u do V cc sinh thnh. Nho gio gi V cc l Tri, Lo gio gi V cc l o, Pht
gio gi V cc l Chn nh, hay Bn lai din mc. Lm sao nhn loi hiu c rng mnh ch l ph
tng (piphnomne) ca Thng ?
XLVI
Chn tm ho ho diu V cc.
V hn thn tin tng th xut,
Th nhn am trc tiu hnh hi,
Nht kha huyn chu m bt thc
Phng o ng lc trang 295
V cc chn tm chng bn b
Mun vn thn thnh pht sinh ra,
Th nhn m mn hnh hi tm,
92

Chn th ngc chu li b l.


XLVII
Chn nht chi o h s tm,
Mc nhc tin sao Mu K mn.
Mu K mn trung hu chn thy
Chn thy tin th Hong nha cn
TMKC Hanh trang 11a
o Tri chn nht h u xa,
Cnh ca Hong trung c m ra.
Chn thy, Hong nha u ,
Lng tri lng t cng lng ta [94]
i : Tm o Tri (chn nht qui o) phi tm ni gia lng To Ha, gia lng bin Dch ca hon v
v lng ngi.
Kim n, Hong nha, Chn dng, Chn thy u ti .
XLVIII
T hiu Cc thn thng th o,
Thy nng l tnh dc tu chn,
Minh minh thuyt hng Trung hong l,
Tch lch thanh trung t c thn
TMKC Hanh trang 11b
Cc thn khut no my ai hay !
Tnh l tu chn nh kh by,
Ta c ch by Trung chnh l
m m sm chp thy thn ngay
i : Cc thn tc o. Trit gia u chu gi l Logos. Mun tu chn, tu tnh phi nhn nhn ra c l
To ha ngay trong lng mnh. C nh vy, mi hiu c tinh hoa ca Dch cng nh ca cc o gio.
Thnh Paolo (Cng gio) cng vit: Anh em hy ngi khen Thin Cha v mang Thin Cha trong th xc
anh em (I. Cor. 6, 20) Anh em l n th Cha Thnh thn. (I Cor. 6,19)
XLIX
y ai Hong cc hiu chn vn [95]
Hi qui tm o thot m tn [96]
Thng t cu tiu cng vn t [97]
y thc bo chu tng thnh thn [98]
L
V cc H v thu hiu ri,
Tam ti hi ng, ht pha phi,
Thung dung trung o, tun thin l,
Cch vt tr tri cng th thi [99]
CH THCH
93

[1] Tham ng Kh kho d.


[2] Tham ng Kh kho d, trang 24
B ch: C nhiu bi th sau y khng theo ng lut th c in. Tc gi dng li th din t tnh ch
khng cu n khun so. Nhiu thi s i ng cng c khi lm nhng th t tuyt khng theo lut qui
nh.
Cf. Lam Giang Kho Lun lut th cc trang 26, 27, 28, 29 30
[3] Tin hc trang 151
[4] Tn bt Nh n n thi ch trang 24
[5] Tu chn bin Nn Hu bin tham chng
[6] H gi thin a chi t kh. Thin a tng H trung lai (Trng honh C) Tng nguyn hc n quyn 10 trang
8
[7] Thnh thnh, thnh Pht, thnh tin chi gia hng. Tu chn bin nn hu bin trang 16a
[8] H khng thin a th
Hunh nh Kinh ch trang 1
[9] Tnh mnh khu ch quyn Hanh
[10] Ib. trang 9
[11] Ib. trang 9
[12] Minh minh v hnh mc khuy k trm. Ng Nhu s v v thanh v x; Thch tri s v Vy m vng
Tnh mnh Khu ch quyn Hanh trang 9
Thi H v tng, Thi cc v danh.
m Ph Kinh ch
[13] Tnh mnh khu ch quyn Nguyn trang 2
[14] Tnh mnh khu ch trang 8
[15] D vi V, ch linh, ch thn, v thng v d. Tnh mnh Khu ch quyn Nguyn trang 10b
[16] Tu chn bin nn hu bin trang 15b
[17] Ib. 15b
[18] Ib. 16a
[19] Ib. 16a
[20] Tu chn bin nn hu bin trang 15b
[21] Ib. Tin bin trang 6a
[22] Ib. Tin bin trang 6a
[23] Thi nht kim hoa tng ch trang 11
[24] Cf. Chu Dch Xin Chn trang 16
[25] Cf. Chu Dch Xin Chn trang 5 v 6
[26] Cf. Chu Dch Xin Chn trang 15
[27] Cf. Chu Dch Xin Chn trang 5b
[28] Ib. trang 2b
[29] Tu chnh lc trang 1a
[30] Tnh mnh khu ch quyn Hanh trang 9, 9a, 9b, 10
[31] Tnh mnh khu ch quyn Hanh trang 9a
94

[32] Ib. 10a


[33] Ib. 8b
[34] Ib. trang 8b
[35] Ib. 9a
[36] Ib. 9a
[37] Bi Ca ca L o Thun V Nht.
Cf. Tnh mnh khu ch Hanh trang 11
[38] Tnh mnh khu ch quyn Hanh trang 11b
[39] Tnh mnh khu ch quyn Hanh trang 11b
[40] Tnh mnh khu ch quyn Hanh trang 10b
[41] Tnh mnh khu ch quyn Hanh trang 5a
[42] Lo T o c kinh chng I
[43] Lun Ng Dng Ha XVIII cu 18
[44] Thin a linh cn
[45] Tnh mnh khu ch quyn Hanh trang 9a
[46] Tnh mnh khu ch quyn Hanh trang 11
[47] Thin h ng qui nhi th (H t h)
[48] (Nhu v chi Nhn, dic vit V cc. Thch vi chi chu dic vit vin minh. o vi chi n, dic vit linh
quang) (Tnh mnh Khu Ch Hanh trang 9a)
[49] Nht nhi phi Trung tc phi thnh nhn chi s v
Ib. 1a
[50] Nhin s v tin thin kh gi, vi tin thin nhi hu, v hnh chi kh nng sinh hu hnh chi thin th thin a
chi tin thin d. Tc th nng sinh hu hnh chi ng gi sinh ng chi tin thin d.
Tin thin chnh l trc lun trang 18b
[51] Ib. Q. 7 trang 5b
[52] TMPQ Q. 7 trang 5b
[53] TMPQ Q. VII trang 5b
[54] Ib. trang 5b
[55] ... Parfaite univocit de la dit et cette partie incre de l'me Matre Eckhart Traits et Sermons page 14
[56] Hin i o gia tu luyn bo in trang 81
[57] Th vt nhi bt ly
Trung Dung
[58] Thi nht kim hoa tng ch trang 15a
[59] Hong trung thng l, Chnh v c th Dch Kinh. Vn Ngn Ho Lc Ng qu Khn
[60] Trng tam Phong vn:
Chn tm ho ho v cng cc, v hn thn tin tng l xut
TMKC Hanh 5a
[61] TMKC (Tnh Mnh Khu Ch) Hanh 5a
[62] Tu chnh lc trang 3b
[63] TMPQ(Tnh Mnh Php Quyt) Quyn 16 trang 1a
95

[64] Cf. Lilian Silburn Instant et cause p. 44; 45


Le retour l'intemporel originaire est sensible dans l'hymne II, 1, 4 5 de l'Atharva Vda: Agni, le feu terrestre et
solaire le premier n de l'agencement recoit de ce fait le nom de dhasyu celui qui cherche sa place, la fondement
stable (dhama), et cette place est la matrice (yoni): j'ai entour tous les mondes pour voir la trame tendue de
l'agencement; c'est l o les dieux, quand ils ont atteint l'immortalit se sont mis en marche vers leur matrice
commune (yoni)
[65] L'tre qui est dans son essence la lumire et vie de tout, qui est conscient du monde, c'est Brahma.
(Tagore) Cf. J. Murphy Origines et Histoire des religions page 311
[66] Il nous appartient... de raliser la Personne qui est au coeur de tout au moyen de la conscience mancipe de
notre propre personnalit
(Tagere) Cf. J. Murphy Originnes et Histoire des religions page 311
[67] Selon les Kabbalistes, il y a dix attributs fondamentaux de Dieu, qui sont aussi les dix tages travers lesquels
va et vient la vie divine...
Le Dieu cach, En sof, se manifeste lui mme aux Kabbalistes sous dix aspects diffrents qui comprennent une
varit infinie d'ombres et de degrs...
D'abord un monde premier le plus profondment cach, qui demeure imperceptible et inintelligible tout sauf
Dieu, le monde de l'En sof; et secondement un monde plac au dessous du premier qui rend possible de connatre
Dieu et dont la Bible dit: ouvret les portes, afin que je puisse entrer.
G.G. Scholem. M. J. 224 225
[68] J. Murphy O.H.R. page 302
[69] ... Mon Atman, est l'Atman universel, Un et indivis. La consquence immdiate de cette conviction
largie fut ncessairement une vive conscience de l'levation au dessus de toutes conditions purement
phnomnales, de la communaut de vie, et de privilge avec Dieu, et une inbranlable conviction d'tre dlivr de
la transmigration et de toutes ses chanes...
Cf. J. Murphy OHR. page 288
[70]... La semence de Dieu est en nous... La graine du poirier crot et devient poirier, la graine du noyer crot et
devient noyer; c'est la semence de Dieu qui monte vers Dieu... Mais Origne, un grand docteur nous dit: Comme
c'est Dieu lui mme qui a sem en nous cette semence, qui l'a imprime en nous et nous l'a rendue connaturelle, on
peut bien la couvrir et la cacher, mais jamais la dtruire totalement ni l'teindre; elle continue sans arrt de brler et
de briller, de luire et de resplendir, et sans cess elle tend s'lever vers Dieu Matre Eckhart Traits et Sermons
page 10b
[71] Le Dieu qui s'unit cette pointe de l'me, comme l'Un no platonicien, n'est ni ici, ni maintenant, ni ceci.
Illimit, indtermin, on peut l'appeler non tre parce qu'il chappe par transcendance toute dtermination et c'est
en ce sens qu'on parlera d'unc identit de nant entre ce Dieu et l'me intelligente!
Matre Eckhart Traits et Sermons page 16
[72] Trang t Nam Hoa Kinh Chng II
[73] TMKC Hanh trang 5a
[74] Dieu est sans voile et sans contrainte dans l'me pure de l'homme noble. Matre Eckhart Trait et Sermons
page 109.
[75] Cf. Thi cc quyn bng thuyt trang 83.
96

[76] Cc nh huyn hc Hi gio gi th l tm ra bn tnh thin chn (La pure essence divine) tch tuyt i ra
khi tng i (extraire l'Absolu du contingent)
Cf. Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane ca Louis Massignon trang 77 v 306.
[77] Les yeux de mon me furent ouverts et je vis la plnitude de Dieu en laquelle tait inclu le monde entier, ce
monde ci et celui qui est au del des mers, l'abme et l'ocan et tout ce qui existe. En toutes ces choses, je ne voyais
rien que la puissance divine et cela d'une manire que je ne puis dcrire, si bien que dans l'excs de son
merveillement, mon me s'crie d'un voix forte: ce monde est plein de Dieu!
Angela du Foligno cit par E. Underhill, Mysticism p. 252 Senard Le Zodiaque page 436
[78] Cf. TMKC Hanh trang 11a. Quyn Nguyn trang 7b 8a
Hanh 8b. Thng phm n pht tit th trang 2.
[79] TM. Php quyt quyn 7 trang 3
[80] Ib. 6a
[81] Ib. trang 6a
[82] Ib. trang 6b
[83] V d v khim
[84] TMPQ Quyn 7 trang 6
[85] Ib
[86] Ib
[87] Ib
[88] Matre Eckhart Traits et Sermons Introduction page 16
[89] Ngi xa cho rng t cch tri 84,000 dm
[90] l nhng con s trong H , Lc Th.
[91] TMPQ Quyn 7 trang 6b
[92] Ib.
[93] Tin th nhn thc ph mu v sinh ng thn chi tin, bn lai din mc h. Ib.
Bn lai din mc th Chn Nh
X Li quang trung nhn thc c.
Vn kip m u kim thy ng,
Phng tri t tnh th Vn Th.
TMPQ Quyn 16 trang 7b
[94]Tu chnh lc trang 3b
[95] Liu Dng in vn p thin nht thin, trang 7b
[96] Liu Dng in vn p thin trang 7b
[97] Ib. 7b
[98] Bo chi b chi, vn thnh hm khm. -- Ib. 7b
B tiu hn h ng thin quan
Thi nht Kim hoa Khuyn th ca, trang 15
[99] Sao Kiu ng chng quyn thng, trang 50 51.

Ph lc 2. T NHIU T NG HNH DUNG HAY DIN T V CC THEO TAM GIO [1]


97

By ch:
Sinh t bt tng quan chi a
Qu thn th bt ph chi c
Su ch:
H t h l chi thin
Bt thc bt tri chi a
H linh bt mui chi thn
Sc khng bt nh chi vt
Khm ly giao cu chi hng
Thin bin vn ha chi t
An thn lp mnh chi gia
Trng thai ch tc chi hng
Tin thin chn nht chi kh [2]
Bn ch:
Thin a linh cn

Hi Di chi vc (Linh bo tt php h 13b)

Bt ng o trng

Nguyn thy t kh

Huyn tn chi mn

Ch thin chi a

Bt nh php mn

H hp chi cn

Hc bch tng ph

Thm thm php gii

Tin thin a sinh

To ha tuyn qut

Hong trung thng l

V tr ch t

H v chi cc

K t nh kh

Vn tng ch t

Ngng kt chi s

Thi cc chi

Hn n chi cn

To ha chi nguyn

Tin thin ch nhn

o ngha chi mn

Thn minh chi x

Hot bt bt a

Linh minh nht khiu

Ba la mt a

la ni mn

Nguyn thy t kh (Nhp dc knh trang 1)

Cao thng H v (Linh bo tt php h 13b)

Ba ch:
X li t

Huyn thai nh

Php vng thnh

Nh lai tng

Mu k mn

Ch k s

Ty nam hng

Chn nht khiu

Tng tr mn

a bo thp

Chng diu mn

Yn nguyt l

Qui cn khiu

Chn kim nh

Th nht n

Bt nh ngn

Nh chu

Thng th ph.
98

Tin thin kh (Nhp dc knh 1)

Tch dit hi

T nhin th

Xoang t l

Cc lc quc

Xch long tinh

Chn nht x

Thin huyn n

T kh huyt

T ti x

Bng lai o

To ha l

Hoa quang tng

V tn tng

Phc mnh quan

Sinh st x

Hi di ph

Vin gic hi

H khng tng

Trung nht cung

Hai ch:
V cc

Tm nguyn

Qui trung

Khng trung

Linh sn

Hoa tr

B bnh

n i

Bc Hi

Ty phng

Bng h

Linh ph

Hunh b

T kh [3]

Linh i

Tnh th

Huyn quan [4]

Tnh Hi

Vin minh

Chn th

Xch thy

Ng chi

Hunh nh

n cuc

Huyn minh

Gi c

Chn duyn

Hong trung

Trung Hong

Kim hoa

Huyn s

Chn trung

Hng mng

Anh nhi

Linh quang

Hn n

Kh huyt

Chn cng

Th linh

Chnh v

Mt ch:
Nhn Thnh Nht [5]
n
Chu
Tng hnh:
Vng trn rng
CC T NG M CH THNG BT KH T NGH
THEO HUYN HC U CHU [6]
PHP VN
Absolu (Tuyt i)
Parabrahm Thng bt kh t ngh
Cela (Gi c)
99

Non tre (H v)
Ralit sans seconde (Diu hu)
Vide (H)
Cause sans cause (To ha chi nguyn)
Asat (khng, V)
Espace cosmique (bt dng o trng, H khng thn, T khiu, t ti x)
Tout un (Chn Nht)
Grand tout (Tng tr mn)
Mulprakriti = Chn th (Prmatire)
Ule (Chn nht khiu)
Grand Chaos (Hng mng, Hn n)
Espace (V tn tng)
Grand Abme (Tch dit hi)
Grandes Eaux (T L tnh hi)
Substance prcosmique: tin thin nht kh
Substance de la matire (vn tng ch t)
Ether (Thi H)
Unit substantielle (chn nht x)
La racine de toutes les racines (Thi cc chi )
La grande ralit (Chng diu chi mn)
L'Unit indiffrencie (Hng mng v phn)
En Sof (Thng bt kh t ngh)
Deus absconditus (Dieu cach) [7](Tin thin ch nhn)
Nant (Tch dit, H khng) [8]
Vide (Khng) (2)
Rien (Khng, H) [9]
ANH VN
The Ultimate Oneness [10] (Chn nht)
The Ultimate unity (1) (Chn nht x)
Undying reality [11](Thng, Hng)
The Void [12] (Khng, H)
The Nothingness (3) (H v)
The One (3) (Nht)
The Infinite (3)
The undifferentiated Unity (3) (Hng mng Hn n
The Universal or Cosmic Self [13]
The Ultimate Being (4) (i ng)
The Universal Self or the world, the Absolute, or God [14](i ng, Tuyt i th)
The Underlying or essential consciousness (5) (Chn tm)
The pure, absolute, abstract Self (5) (Bt thn chi thn)
100

The Oneness of the Godhead [15]


A Wayless abyss (1) (H v chi cc)
Darkness, Emptiness, Nothingness, Silence, Nakedness, Nudity, a dazzling abscurity [16] (Hn n, Hng
mng, Khng tch, Tch dit)
CH THCH
[1] Xem Tnh mnh khu ch:
Quyn Nguyn trang 7,8
Quyn Hanh trang 8,9,10
[2] Cf. Tu chn bin nn hu bin tham chng trang 3
[3] Xem Sao Kiu ng chng quyn thng, trang 6
[4] TMPQ quyn 7 trang 2b
[5] Xem Sao Kiu ng chng quyn thng trang 6
[6] Cf. A. Tanon, Thosophie et Science chng V, trang 40 n 44
[7] Cf. G.G. Scholem, Les grands courants de la mystique juive, trang 24, 25
[8] Ib. trang 17 v 369
[9] Die zarte Gottheit ist das Nichts und bernichts. Wer Nichts in allem sicht, Mensch glaube, dieser sieht's.
(La tendre divinit est le Rien et le Sur Rien. Celui qui en toutes choses choses voit le Rien, celui l, crois moi,
Homme, voit vraiment. F.V. Schelling Les ges du monde p. 53
[10] W.T. Stace, Mysticism and philosophy, p.76
[11] Ib. 82
[12] Ib. 86
[13] Ib. 90
[14] Ib. 93
[15] Ib. 96
[16] Ib. 100
Sch tham kho
- Cc tn sch vit tt trong thin kho-lun
- P.E.D. Comment se pose aujourd'hui le problme de l'Existence de Dieu (Claude Tresmontant)
- HCROPC Histoire des Croyances religieuses et des opinions philosophiques en Chine (Leon Wieger)
- TMPQ Tnh mnh php quyt minh ch
- TMKC Tnh mnh khu ch
- OHR Origine et Histoire des religions
- M.J. Les grands courants de la mystique juive
- TNPN Tng ngn ph nghi
- NDK Nhp dc knh
- LBTP Linh bo tt php
- MM Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mysticque musulmane.
ANH VN
101

- Mysticism and philosophy W.T. Stace


- The Thirteen Upanishads
- The Gods of Northern Buddhism Alice Getty
PHP VN
- Prcis d'histoire de la philosophie Chinoise Fong-Yeou-Lan
- Les grands courants de la mystique juive G.G. Scholem.
- Les Grands philosophes de l'Occident F. Tomlin
- L'histoire et sa philosophie Henri Gouhier
- Le roi du monde Ren Gunon
- La mtaphysique Orientale Ren Gunon
- La Grande triade Ren Gunon
- Tableau naturel Saint Martin
- Pour connatre la pense de Saint Thomas d'Aquin L. Jugnet.
- Le Bible de Jrusalem
- Nicolas de Cues Giuseppe Bufo
- Mysterium Magnum Jacob Boehme
- Traits et Sermons Matre Eckhart
- Le Zodiaque M. Senard
- Pour connatre la pense de Hegel Angle Marietti
- Hegel (PUF)
- Thosophie et Science A. Tanon
- Comment se pose aujourd'hui le problme de l'existence de Dieu Claude Tresmontant
- Les Pres du Systme taoiste Leon Wieger
- Les ges du monde F.W. Schelling
- L'enseignment de Ramakrishna
- Instant et Cause Lilian Silburn.
- Les ides matresses de la mtaphysique Chrtienne Claude Tresmontant
- Les Yogas pratiques Vivekananda
- Histoire des croyances religieuses et des opinions philosophiques en Chine Leon Wieger.
- Revue Plante
- Entretien du Matre de Dhyana Chen-Houei du Ho-Tso' (668-760) Jacques Gernet
- Oeuvres spirituelles (traduction du RP Grgoire de Saint Joseph) Saint Jean de la Croix
- Origines et histoire des religions J. Murphy
- Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane Louis Massignon
HN VN
- Dch kinh c bn
- Chu Dch xin chn
- Tng Nguyn hc n
102

- Trung Dung
- o c Kinh
- Tnh mnh khu ch
- Tnh mnh Php quyt minh ch
- Nhp Pht ch nam
- Php bo n kinh
- Tng ngn ph nghi
- D lm phn Thin tin sinh th
- i ng chn kinh
- Ng Liu tin tng
- T bch t gii
- Phng o ng lc
- Thng phm n php
- Tham ng Kh kho d
- Tin hc
- Tn bt Nh n n thi ch
- m ph kinh ch
- Tu chn bin nn
- Thi nht kim hoa tng ch
- Tu chnh lc
- Sao Kiu ng chng
- L t-s tam ni y th thuyt thut
- Thng thanh Hunh nh ni cnh kinh
- Tin thin chnh l trc lun
VIT VN
- T in v danh t trit hc Trn Vn Hin Minh
- Thnh vnh ton tp Mai Lm & on Vn Thng
- Trit Minh thnh kinh Grard Gagnon
- Kinh Kim cng
- Kho lun lut th Lam Giang

Phn 4 THI CC LUN


Chng 1. i cng
Sau khi bn gii V Cc ta c th cp n Thi Cc mt cch d dng hn.
Mun hc Dch phi hiu Thi Cc v Thi Cc chnh l gc Dch, l tm Dch. Hc Dch m khng hiu
Thi Cc, cng y nh ng bn ngoi hng ro, ngm vo ta lu i, lm sao bit c trn chu, bo vt bn
trong!
Thi Cc chng nhng l cn nguyn Kinh Dch, m cn l cn nguyn v tr, Vn Hu.
103

Dch Kinh vit v v tr khi nguyn bng nhng li l ht sc vn tt nh sau:


Dch hu Thi Cc, th sinh Lng nghi: Lng nghi sinh T tng: T tng sinh Bt qui v.v...
Ni nm na l: Thi Cc sinh tinh thn, vt cht, v tr, vn vt [1]

A. THI CC VI TNG NHO


Tng Nho bn ci rt nhiu v Thi Cc. Di y xin tm tt s lc kin ca t nhiu Trit gia nh:
Chu Lim Kh (1017 - 1073)
Thiu Khang Tit (1011 - 1077)
Trnh Di (Y Xuyn) (1033 - 1107)
Chu Hi (1130 - 1200)
Lc Tng Sn (1139 - 1192)
Chu Lim Kh (1017 - 1073) l v Tng Nho c cng lm sng ng li quan nim Thi Cc ca Dch Kinh.
Lim Kh tin rng: trong v tr c mt L rt huyn diu, uyn thm, bt trc, bin ha v phng, tuy v hnh,
v trng, v x, v thanh, nhng chnh l cn bn ca vn vt: l Thi Cc [2]
Thi Cc hay L l khu nu, l trc ct vn vt, Vn Hu. Chu Lim Kh gi: Thi Cc l V Cc ; ng
rng Thi Cc v hnh th, l mt hot lc, mt huyn nng vt tm tri gic ca ng quan [3]
Chu Lim Kh vit thin Thi Cc thuyt lun v Thi Cc v s khi nguyn ca Vn Hu. Thin ny
bt u bng mt cu bt h: V Cc nhi Thi Cc.
Thiu khang Tit (1011 - 1077) gi cn nguyn v tr l Nht. Nht y chnh l Thi Cc. [4]i vi Thiu
t, Thi Cc cng l o, l Hong Cc, l Tm. Tt c nhng danh t u l nhn to, ch nh Nguyn Th
v tr[5]
ng cn cho rng Thi Cc chng u xa, Thi Cc ngay trong tm hn con ngi, l Tm con ngi.
ng vit: Tm l Thi Cc, o l Thi Cc [6]Thi Cc khi cha sinh vn vt th gi l Tin Thin. Khi Thi Cc
bt u hot ng, phn ha to dng qun sinh th gi l Hu Thin[7]
Thiu khang Tit cn lp ra Tin Thin , ly cc con s v li s sinh ha ca v tr. ng dng s 1
tng trng cho Thi Cc. Tin Thin ca Thiu T tu trung cng ging nh Thi Cc bn ca Chu Lim
Kh, tuy mt bn thi dng s, mt bn thi dng tng, m t Thi Cc v cng cuc sinh ha qun sinh Vn
Hu.[8]
i vi Trnh Di (1033 - 1107) th Thi cc, hay o, hay L, hay Kh Chn Nguyn cng l mt.[9]
Chu Hi (1130 - 1200) m lun rt nhiu v Thi Cc. i khi, Chu Hi gi Thi Cc l L c trc tri t,
sinh ra tri t vn vt, v hng lng trong tri t vn vt. [10] Chu Hi cho rng V Cc hay Thi Cc vn ch
l mt thc th v thanh, v x, lm khu hu cho tri t, mun loi.[11]
Gi l Thi Cc, v l tuyt i, khng bn b, v cng, khng th c thm g hn c na. Lng trong vn
vt lm cng ch cho vn vt. Vn vt khng c Thi Cc, tc l khng c gc gc ch t, khng th no tn
ti c. [12] Vn vt l phn nh ca Thi Cc, u c Thi Cc lng bn trong. Thi Cc lng trong vn vt
nh nh trng lng y nc: mun vn ao h, mun ngn hnh nh, cng khng lm cho trng suy suyn, pha
phi. [13] V Cc hay Thi Cc l o, l L, thuc hnh nhithng, siu xut khng gian, thi gian.
m Dng kh cht c tnh, c trng, l Kh thuc hnh nhi h tc l l thuc khng gian, thi gian [14]
Theo Chu t, ta c th nhn v tr trn 2 hnh din:
104

Nu nhn v tr trn bnh din hnh tng, phin din, ta s thy ty ni, ty thi ng tnh lun phin, m
Dng dch v, bin ha a oan.
Nhng nu nhn v tr trn bnh din t vi, trn bnh din Bn Th Thi Cc, ta s thy vng lng im lm, mc
du l vn l hm ng trong.[15]
Thi Cc khng phng s, khng hnh th, khng a v[16] Tuy nhin Thi Cc chnh l khunthing mun
loi mun vt.
Chu Hi vit: Thi Cc l L ca tri t, mun vt [17] Phng hu Lan cho rng ch L y i chiu vi t
ng Trit hc Hi lp tc l Hnh thc (Form)[18]. i vi Lc Tng Sn, th Thi Cc, Trung
hay L cng nh nhau [19] Nhng ng cho rng nguyn quan nim Thi Cc , khng cn g phi thm
quan nim V Cc na. [20] i vi ng V Cc l mt quan nim c vay mn ca Lo gio, khng h
thy c ni Tin Nho. ng cho rng ch V Cc khng phi l li l ca Chu t [21]ng tranh lun rt nhiu vi
Chu Hi v quan im ny. [22]
ng bin lun vi Chu Hi nh sau: Tn huynh ngy trc gi th cho Thoa sn c ni rng: Khng ni V
Cc th Thi Cc ng mt vt, khng lm ci gc cho vn ha. Khng ni Thi Cc, th V Cc chm ni
khng tch, khng th lm ci gc cho vn ha...
i truyn trong Kinh Dch ni rng: Dch c Thi Cc. Thnh nhn ni hu, nay li ni V l ti sao? Lc
Thnh nhn son i truyn khng ni n V Cc, hn Thi Cc tng ng mt vt m chng lm ci
gc cho vn ha ru?... Hai ch V Cc xut chng Tri k hng ca Lo t, ch sch ca Thnh nhn ta cha
tng ni n. Chng u sch Lo T ni rng: khng danh l mi u ca tri t, c danh l m ca vn vt,
chnh l theo ci y.[23]
Tm li i vi Nho gia, Thi Cc l:
Nguyn l ca v tr [24]
Cn bn qun sinh [25]
Huyn c bin ha [26]
V thanh x, v thy chung v.v.. [27]

B. THI CC V HUYN
Thi Cc trong Kinh Dch cng tng ng vi Huyn trong Thi Huyn ca Dng Hng [28]
Dng Hng ch trng: Huyn v thy v chung [29]Huyn l Bn Th v tr [30]Huyn sinh xut v tr,
cai qun vn tng, Vn Hu [31]
Huyn sinh xut Nht Nguyt tinh cu, t thi tun tit [32]Huyn l ch cht nhn lun. Thun theo
Huyn, l qun t, nghch vi Huyn l tiu nhn [33] Tt c nhng ch trng trn u tng ng vi
ch trng ca Tng Nho v Thi Cc, v Thin l.

C. THI CC I VI PHT GIA


Nu ta chuyn sang t ng Pht gio, Thi Cc s tr thnh Chn Nh bn tnh.
Qui Nguyn Trc Ch vit: Chn Nh bn tnh l Bn Th chn thc, l Bn Lai Din Mc sn c t khi cha
m cha sinh ra mnh, Thin tng gi l Chnh Php Nhn Tng. Lin tng gi l Bn tnh Di . Khng t
gi l Thin l. Lo t gi l Cc Thn. Dch gi l: Thi Cc. Tn tuy khc nhau, nhng k thc cng ch l mt
Chn Nh bn tnh [34] Thi Cc hay Chn Nh bn tnh y chnh l Bn tnh con ngi. Bn tnh y du ni
105

ngi thnh hay ngi phm cng khng h tng gim. Suy rng ra, vn vt, Vn Hu cng u hm tng Thi
Cc [35]
Pht gia cn gi l Php. Kinh Kim Cng vit: Php y bnh ng, khng c cao thp. Php l bn tnh.
Bn tnh cng v nh kim cng, kin c vng bn khng th h hoi c. [36]
Tng thin s cha ng Lm ch trng i khi nh sau: Thi Cc l Ch l, l Th, l Chn, l cn
nguyn v tr y thc nh, theo t ng Pht gio, Khng l cn nguyn v tr [37]

D. THI CC VI O GIA
i vi o gia, Thi Cc cng vn l cn bn ca v tr. i ng Chn Kinh vit: Cn bn do laiThi Cc
tm[38] Mun tm gc gc phi tm ni Thi Cc. Trong Thi Cc Quyn Bng Thuyt, ta thy c bi Thi
Cc Lng Vin ca. i nh sau:
Ta nay vn c mt vng
Trng en ha hp, m mng, tch liu
Tuy l hai ng, hai chiu;
Nhng m k thc cht chiu mt vnh [39]
To thi v tn, mng mnh,
Nh thi nh su, ph phanh nh no.
Thy chung chng r tiu hao,
Chng phn t hu, thp cao gt u
Cu tr, Bt qui trc sau,
Dc ngang to tc, c mu ai hay.
C kim trc mt phi by,
t tri rnh r, hin ngay trc ta [40]
Thun, Nghiu, Chu, Khng mt nh
Gia on Hin Thnh, c ta ch tr,
St cm thnh tht vn vi,
Nhc tri du dt, tha thu vui vy.
Khng rng: Thi Cc l y
Hai chiu, hai mt phi by m Dng
Ct hung, phn nh ng hong
Ri ra i nghip c ng pht sinh.
Hnh thi khoc lt Ng Hnh,
Thn thi hin l mi manh Ng Thng [41]
Trm chiu sau trc vung trn,
Lm cho Mnh t mi mn cht chiu
Du rng vt v n iu,
Lng Tri c gi, chng siu, chng ri
Ho Nhin, Thi Cc chng hai,
Mnh mng, cao i chng phai, chng mn.
t tri bao qut sm hm
106

Hi, Hong u cng nh n dt du [42]


Bi ca trn cho thy Thi Cc va l cc tiu, va l cc i; v thy v chung; bao qut m Dng, tri t,
khng gian, thi gian; bin ha v cng; sng soi cho cc bc Thnh Hin mun tha. Thi Cc cn c th gi l
Ho Nhin, theo t ng Mnh t.
Xng o Chn Ngn c mt on bnh v Thi Cc i khi nh sau:
1. Kh m phn bit c V Cc v Thi Cc [43]
2. Thi Cc linh minh bin ha [44]
3. Thi Cc ln th trm tri t, m nh th lt trong ht ci t vi [45]
4. Thi Cc sinh vn vt, nhng khng v sinh vn vt m b phn ha [46]
5. Thi Cc sinh vn vt, vn vt li quay tr v Thi Cc, l l Nht bin Vn, Vn qui Nht ca Dch.
[47]
6. Trung Dung vit: Ng i, thin h mc nng ti. Xng o Chn Ngn bnh: l Thi Cc bao trm
tri t.[48]
7. Trung Dung vit: Ng tiu thin h mc nng ph. Xng o Chn ngn bnh: l Thi Cc lng trong
vn vt[49]
8. Sch vit thm: Hp tri t li vn l mt Thi Cc. Chia ra thnh vn tng, vn loi th mi loi mi
tng u c mt Thi Cc; m Thi Cc vn khng h c b chia phi[50]
9. Tm ra Thi Cc trong lng con ngi, tc l tm ra c Kim n [51]
10. Thi Cc l V Cc, l Kim n [52], l Thn [53], l Khng [54], l Nht Chn, Nht Nguyn, danh
hiu tuy khc nhau nhng chung qui vn l mt thc th.
Sch Liu Dng in Vn p ch trng: Thi Cc tim n trong lng con ngi. l Thin tm, l
Vin Gic, l Kim n, ty theo t ng mi o gio [55]Thi Cc va l thi hu (Instant), sinh ra thi gian, va
l chng t (germe), sinh ra mi c cu trong hon v [56]
ng Hoa Qun gi Thi Cc l Hunh nh, l Chng Diu Chi Mn, Huyn Tn Chi Mn, o Ngha
Chi Mn, Bt Nh Php Mn, l H V, l Chn Khng, l Trung Thn v.v..V hnh dung Hunh nh Thi Cc
bng mt hnh v nh sau:

1- Thi Cc, 2- o ngha chi mn, 3- Chn Khng,


4- Bt nh php mn, 5- Trung Thn, 6- Chng diu chi mn,
7- H V, 8- Nguyn tn chi mn, 9- Hunh nh. [57]
Nhng li ca ng Hoa Qun bn v Hunh nh tc l nhng li bn v Thi Cc.

107

ng Hoa Qun vit: Hunh nh sinh xut t Tin Thin, tng n Hu Thin. Vn khng hnh tng,
khng danh t, nn tm hnh dung bng vng trn , tm gi l Hunh nh [58]
V l sinh c man mc, nn gi l Hunh nh, v bin ha khng lng nn gi l Thn. Hunh nh l th,
Thn l dng, hai ng l mt. Nho gi l o c Chi Mn, Thch gi l Bt Nh Php Mn, Lo gi l Chng
Diu Chi Mn, hay Huyn Tn Chi Mn! V khng hnh tng, nn ngi xa ly Thn cc cnh m hnh dung
Thn Hunh nh mi ngi nhn Thn ca cnh, m suy ra Thn Khng cnh ca Hunh nh. [59]
Sch Tnh Mnh Khu Ch cho ta thy tm quan trng ca Thi Cc, khi v hnh Lo t, trong tay c cm
mt bn Thi Cc (TMKC Nguyn-trang 1b)

i vi o gia, Thi Cc chnh l Huyn Quan Khiu. Khiu

ny chng c u ui; chng bin i; khng phi c, m cng chng phi khng; khng trn, khng vung;
chng thiu, chng tha; chng tng, chng gim; chng i, chng li; chng sinh, chng dit; khng trong, khng
ngoi; khng mu, khng sc; khng ting, khng hi; nh c, nh khng; nh cn, nh mt, dng thi vn hnh,
thu thi tng n; vo ra bt trc, chng ai bit c qu hng [60] T xa ti nay, c lp trng tn gia t tri,
lm trung tm im cho Vn Hu, lm cn bn cho cuc sinh ha. Tri, t, ngi, vt tt c u phi da nng
nh cy sinh thnh [61]
Quan nim v Tuyt i Th khng u ui, khng hnh dung, lng mt, lm ta lin tng n quan nim
Ha cng khng tai mt, tay chn ca Platon v ca Empdocle. [62]
Sau khi kho st quan nim Thi Cc ca tin nhn tm ra t hm ng bn trong, ta c th tng kt li
v on nh nh sau:
1. Thi Cc v hnh tng, h linh bt mui, v thy v chung [63]
2. Thi Cc l Bn Th ca v tr v cng l Bn Th ca Vn Hu v ca con ngi [64]
3. Thi Cc sinh xut Vn Hu, nhng sau trc vn nguyn tuyn, chng c hao ht, chia phi [65]
4. Thi Cc lng trong vn vt lm ch cht mi bin ha v lm cng ch mun loi [66]
5. Thi Cc va l cc i, va l cc tiu. Cc i nn bao trm v tr mun phng, cc tiu nn lng
trong vi trn, trong gii t. D nhn bao qut c v tr cng ch c mt Thi Cc, nhng nu nhn tn phn tng
vt, ta li thy mi vt u gm c Thi Cc [67]. Thi Cc tuy sinh xut Vn Hu, sau trc vn l duy nht
bt kh phn. [68]
6. Thi Cc chnh l Trung, l o, l Tri, l Chn Tm, l Bn Th ca v tr. Thi Cc chnh l Thng
[69].Thi Cc l Nht [70], l Tuyt i [71]
Robert Lasserre tot yu quan nim Thi Cc nh sau: Thi Cc cu to nn v tr, Vn Hu.
T Vn hn, Ngn h n Nht Nguyt, tinh thn, qun sinh, vn vt, tt c u c mt Bn Th duy nht nh
nhau, y l Thi Cc, nhng hnh tng cng dng bn ngoi khc nhau [72]
Khi Thi Cc phn m Dng, ng tnh, tc l khi Thi Cc hin dng, ta mi bit c hnh tung
Thi Cc.
Cn khi Thi Cc cha c phn m Dng, ng tnh, th hon ton v thanh, v x, v trm triu. Lc y
ch c th trc gic c Thi Cc m thi.[73]
CH THCH
[1]Le premier crivain de la tendance nouvelle...fut Tcheou Tounn I (1017 - 1073)(Chu n Di) matre Tcheou,
qui tablit que le systme des Anciens manquait de tte: il fallait quelque chose, par del le binme ciel terre,
par del la roue du yinn yang et des cinq lments. Il adopta pour tre ce quelque chose le Tai ki de Lao tzeu
et de Tchenn Toan (Trn on)... Tout son mrite consiste avoir mis l'Unit en tte du dualisme. Cf.
HCROPC - page 658.
108

[2] Trch trong Tng Nho Bu Cm - trang 49.


[3] La norme s'appelle aussi T'ai ki (Thi Cc), le grand axe, parce qu'elle meut tout dans l'univers. Matre Tcheou
lui a encore ajout l'pithte de O Ki (V Cc), pour exprimer sa nature incorporelle. Cest limpalpable
moteur qui ne tombe pas sous les sens. Cf. Lon Wieger - Textes Philosophiques Tome I - page 180.
[4] Thiu t s v Nht, tc Thi Cc d...
- giai tng trung khi. Vn tng sinh tm...
- Hu vit: Tm vi Thi Cc; hu vit: o vi Thi Cc. T V
LngTrung Quc Trit Hc S, tam thin thng, trang 14 - 15.
[5] L'tre premier duquel est issu tout ce qui est, c'est la Principe, c'est le Ple Auguste, c'est l'Apoge. Noms
d'emprunt, car l'tre primordial est indfinissable, innomable, ineffable. HCROPC - page 65.
[6] giai tng trung khi, vn tng sinh tm...
- Hu vit Tm vi Thi Cc.
- Hu vit: o vi Thi Cc.
T V Lng, Trung Quc Trit Hc S, tam thin thng - trang 14 -15
... Le ciel n'a jamais parl,
- Il ne loge pas dans lazur.
- Il nest pas haut, il nest pas loin,
- Lhomme limagine dans son coeur.
Cf. Lon Wieger - HCROPC page 602.
[7] H v Tin Thin. Tch nhin bt ng, o o, minh minh, Thi Cc v phn chi thi d. H v Hu Thin, cm
nhi toi thng, hong hong, ht ht, Thi Cc d phn chi thi d. . , , ,
. . , . TMKC - Li - trang 2b.
[8] Chu t chi Thi Cc , Thiu t chi Tin Thin tnh vn truyn t phng ngoi, hu v ng xut Trn
on...Thiu T d Thi Cc sinh v tr Vn Hu, lc d Chu t ng. ,
, ... , . T V Lng, TQTHS, tam
thin thng, trang 14.
[9] Ch o, Y Xuyn dng c ci ngha nh hai ch Thi Cc Dch Kinh, iu m Y xuyn s mnh danh
cho n l L sau ny...
- Chn nguyn tc l L, cn s co dui, ti lui tc l Kh.
Cf. Tng Nho Bu Cm, trang 88, 99
[10] Thi Cc ch th nht c L t. Nhc v Thi Cc, tin bt phin liu thin a. .
, . Stanislas le Gall, Le Philosophe Tchou Hi, p. 97.
[11] ...Thi Cc phi th bit vi nht vt. Tc m Dng, nhi ti m Dng; tc Ng Hnh nhi ti Ng hnh; tc
Vn vt nhi ti Vn vt. . , , . Ib.
99.
[12] Th vn Cc chi vi ngn. Cu cnh ch cc, bt kh hu gia chi v, d trng th l chi danh ngha tc c thin
h v d gia th chi xng d c thng ti vt chi trung, vi vt chi ch. Vt v chi, tc v d vi cn ch, nhi
bt nng d hu lp. . , ,
,. . Stanislas le Gall, S. J. Tchou Hi, Sa
Doctrine, Son Influence - page 116.
[13] Lon Wieger, Textes Philosophiques, Tome I - p. 180
- Cf. T V Lng, Trung Quc Trit Hc S, trang 59.
[14] Phng Hu Lan, Trung Quc Trit Hc S, trang 896.
[15] Thi Cc hnh nhi thng chi o d. m Dng hnh nhi h chi kh d. Th d t k tr gi nhi quan chi, tc
ng tnh bt ng thi, m Dng bt ng v, nhi Thi Cc v bt ti yn. T k vi gi nhi quan chi, tc
xung mc v trm, nhi ng tnh m Dng chi l, d tt c k trung h. T k tr gi nhi quan chi, tc ti
c th s vt trung quan chi. T k vi gi nhi quan chi, tc tu Thi Cc chi Bn Th quan chi d. Thi Cc
v hnh tng, nhi k trung vn l tt c. . . ,
, . , ,
. , . , .
, . (Thi Cc thuyt ch) Phng Hu Lan, Trung Quc Trit Hc S - trang 900.
[16] Thi Cc v phng s, v hnh th, v a v kh n phng (Ng lc) .
Phng Hu Lan, Trung Quc Trit Hc S - trang 901.
[17] Thi Cc ch th thin a vn vt chi l. . Ib. trang 905.
[18] L tc nh Hi Lp Trit hc trung s thuyt chi hnh thc (Form) . Ib. 903
[19]Tng Nguyn Hc n Quyn 12 trang 5.
[20] Tng Sn d V Cc phi Chu t ng. . T V Lng TQTHS, tam thin thng,
trang 72.
[21] Tng Sn d V Cc phi Chu t ng. T V Lng TQTHS, tam thin thng, trang 72.
109

[22] Gia Chu hc v Lc hc, tuy c rt nhiu im d ng, song ch c cuc tranh lun v hai ch V Cc l
kch lit nht... Cf. Bu Cm, Tng Nho, trang 175.
[23] Cf. Bu Cm, Tng Nho, trang 174 - 175.
[24] Thiu t d Thi Cc sinh v tr Vn Hu. . T V Lng TQTHS, tam thin
thng - trang 14.
[25] Phm vng chi cn d. . Ib. trang 6.
[26] Vit V Cc, nhi Thi Cc, To ha lu hnh chi th, v thi hu tc. , , ,
. Ib. trang 9.
[27] Ib. trang 6.
[28] T V Lng, TQTHS, nh thin thng trang 28.
[29] Ib. trang 28.
[30] Ib. trang 28.
[31] Ib. trang 28.
[32] Ib. trang 28.
[33] Ib. trang 28.
[34] Chn Nh bn tnh gi, ph mu v sinh tin, nht chn v vng chi th v chi bn lai din mc. Thin tng tc
vit: Chnh php Nhn Tng, Lin tng tc vit: Bn tnh Di . Khng t tc vit: Thin l. Lo t tc vit:
Cc thn. Dch o tc vit:Thi Cc. Danh tuy hu d, k thc ng nht Chn Nh Bn Th d.
, , . . . .
. . . Qui Nguyn Trc Ch II - trang 369.
[35] Tm Kinh vn: Bt tng bt gim. Th tnh ti Thnh bt tng, ti phm bt gim, c vit: bt tng, bt gim
d. Khi bt kin Nhu vn: Nht thit hm linh cc c nht Thi Cc, dic th l d. : .
, , . : , , . Qui
NguynTrc Ch II trang 373.
[36]Qui Nguyn Trc Ch Quyn II - trang 371 - 372.
[37]Qui Nguyn Trc Ch Quyn H ( thiu Lng phin dch) trang 604.
[38] Cn bn do lai Thi Cc tm. . i ng Chn Kinh, Quyn thng - trang 5.
[39]Thi Cc Quyn Bng Thuyt, trang 84.
[40] Ib. trang 84.
[41] Ib. trang 84.
[42] Ib. trang 33.
[43] Xng o Chn Ngn II - trang 8a.
[44] Thi Cc kh d bin ha. Nht bin nhi vi Vn, Vn c nht Thi Cc; Vn ha nhi vi Nht, Nht nhng nht
Thi Cc d. . , ; . . Ib. trang 8a.
[45] Thi Cc d, i tc bao thin a, tiu tc nhp gii t. , . Ib. 8a.
[46] Ib. trang 8b.
[47] Ib. trang 8a.
[48] Trung Dung vit: Ng i, thin h mc nng ti. Thi Cc bao h thin a chi ngoi d. : ,
. . Ib. trang 8b.
[49] Ib. trang 8b.
[50] Ib. trang 8b.
[51] Ib. trang 8a.
[52] Ib. trang 9a.
[53] Ib. trang 9a.
[54] Ib. trang 9b.
[55]Liu Dng in Vn p Thin I, trang 2b.
[56] Ib. trang 2b.
[57] Trch trong Hunh nh Kinh gii (Th Vn Sn Ng Nguyn t Lu Nht Minh) trang 3.
[58] Hunh nh xut Tin Thin, tng Hu Thin, bn v hnh tng, dic v danh t cng nhi chi gi c
nhi d. Cng nhi danh chi Hunh nh th d. , , , ,
. . Hunh nh Kinh gii trang 3.
[59] Nhn k hn nhin sinh c, c danh Hunh nh. Nhn k bin ha bt trc, c v chi Thn. Hunh nh th
d, Thn k dng d. Nht vt nhi nh danh. Nhu tu chi vi o Ngha Chi Mn, Thch tu chi vi Bt Nh Php
Mn; o tu chi vi Chng Diu Chi Mn, hu vi Huyn Tn Chi Mn. Nhn k v hnh v tng, c o T
d ch cnh chi thn hnh dung k Hunh nh chi thn s nhn ch cnh chi thn, truy cu k Hunh nh
v cnh chi thn nh. , . , . . .
. . . . .
, . Hunh nh Kinh Gii - trang 3.
110

[60] Phng vi chnh Huyn Quan. Nhn k v th v v. Bt bin bt canh, phi v phi hu, phi vin, phi phng,
v d v khim, bt gim bt tng, v lai v kh, bt dit bt sinh, v ni v ngoi. Bt hong bt xch, v
tng v nghinh, bt bch bt thanh, v thanh v x, t hu t v, nhc vong nhc tn. Dng chi tc hnh,
quyn chi tc tng; xut nhp v thi, mc tri k hng. . . , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
, , . , ; , . TMPQ, Quyn 7 - trang 5,6.
[61] TMPQ, Quyn 7 - trang 6.
[62] L'architecte arrondit et polit toute la surface extrieure de la sphre du monde et cela pour plusieurs raisons. Il
n'avait en effet besoin ni d'yeux, puisqu'il ne restait rien de visible en dehors de lui, ni d'oreille puisqu'il n'y
avait non plus rien entendre. Il n'y avait pas non plus d'air environnant qui exiget une respiration. Il n'avait
pas non plus besoin d'organes soit pour recevoir en lui la nourriture, soit pour la rejeter aprs en avoir absorb
le suc. Car rien ne sortait et rien n'y entrait de nulle patt puisqu'il n'y a rien en dehors de lui. Quant aux mains,
qui ne lui serviraient ni pour saisir, ni pour repousser quoi que ce soit, il jugea qu'il tait inutile de lui en
ajouter, pas plus que des pieds ou tout autre organe de locomotion (Time p.p. 464,465)
...(On trouve la mme description du Dieu sans yeux, ni oreilles, ni mains, ni pieds dans Empdocle)
Anthologie de la Posie Grecque, Trad: Brasillach, Stock 1950
La Voie Rationnelle de la Mdecine Chinoise, pages 236 237, Texte et note 1.
[63] Thi Cc Lng Vin Ca. Thi Cc Quyn Bng Thuyt, trang 84.
[64] T ng, T V Lng, TQTHS, tam thin thng, trang 59.
[65] V tr gian vn vt mc bt tng Thi Cc sinh h. . Ib. 59.
[66] C vit: Thi Cc ch th nht c L t. Hu vit: Thi Cc phi th bit vi nht vt; tc m Dng nhi ti m
Dng; tc ng hnh nhi ti ng hnh; tc vn vt nhi ti vn vt; Ch th nht c l nhi d. Nhn k cc ch,
C danh vit: Thi Cc, nhin tc Thi Cc tc L, L tc Thi Cc kh tri. .
. , , . .
, .
...Thi Cc tt duy nht, tt tuyt i, v chi vit L. Thi Cc d l ng th nhi d danh, th v tr chi s
yn. C vit: V hu thin a chi tin tt cnh ch th l, hu th l tin hu th thin a, nhc v th l,
tin dic v thin a, v nhn, v vt.. . , .
, , , . (Chu Hi Am)
TQTHS, trang 58.
[67]Xng o Chn Ngn, trang 8b.
[68] T V Lng TQTHS - Thin III thng - trang 59
Xng o Chn Ngn - Ib. 8b.
[69]Dch Kinh i Ton, Chu Hi thuyt - trang 14.
[70] Thin III Thng trang 15.
[71] Thi Cc tt duy nht, tt Tuyt i. . (Chu hi Am), Cf. T V Lng, TQTHS, Thin III
thng trang 58.
[72] Ce qui produit et compose l'univers est Taikyoku (Indou: Cunya, Chinois T'ai Ki: l'univers, ther non diffrenci ou la nature intime).
Commentaire: Depuis les lointaines nbuleuses jusqu' notre plante, en passant par le soleil et les astres de
tous les autres systmes dont l'univers est compos, absolument tout, les tres et les choses, l'eau, le feu, l'air,
la terre... est compos dans sa nature intime d'une seule et mme substance qui se manifeste sous diffrents
aspects. Robert Lasserre, Etranges Pouvoirs - page 29.
[73] Taikyoku se polarise: un ple se charge d'activit Yo, l'autre d'activit In
Commentaire: Cette polarisation nous permet de saisir les manifestations de Taikyoku par ses activits
positives ou ngatives. Taikyoku lui mme avant sa polarisation ne peut se saisir que par intuition: Ce n'est
pas l'obscurit, c'est ce qui la produit; aucun mot ne peut la traduire. Robert Lasserre, Etranges Pouvoirs page 29.

Chng 2. Tnh danh Thi Cc


Trong tit ny ta s c tm cho ra nhng t ng c th dng ch danh Thi Cc.
Chng ta s p dng my phng php sau y:
1.Nghin cu cc bn Dch Kinh
2. Nghin cu th tch Nho, Thch, Lo.
3. p dng nh lut ton hc, nu A = B
B=C
111

th A = C
V d: Thi Cc = Thin a chi tm
Thin a chi tm = o tm
Thi Cc = o tm
4. Suy ra nhng danh hiu chnh yu ca Thi Cc, khi hiu r quan nim ca ngi xa v Thi Cc. Ha
bn Hunh nh trong Hunh nh Kinh gii ca Lu nht Minh cho ta bit nhng danh hiu sau y tng
ng vi Thi Cc:
Hunh nh, Trung Thn, H V, Chn Khng Bt Nh Php Mn, Chng Diu Chi Mn, Huyn Tn Mn,
o Ngha Chi Mn [1]
Tng Ngn Ph Nghi cho rng Huyn Tn Mn tc l Huyn Quan Khiu[2]
Theo Hunh nh Kinh gii ta thy Thi Cc l Huyn Tn Mn. Nh vy:
Thi Cc = Huyn Tn Mn = Huyn Quan Khiu (Nguyn Quan Khiu) [3]
V c theo nh lut ton hc, nu A = B
B=C
th A = C
Ta s bit thm rng Thi Cc cng l:
Sinh T H, Sinh St Tht, Thin Nhn Gii, Hnh c Mn, Hu V Khiu, Thn Kh Huyt, H Thc a,
Thp T L...v nhng danh hiu trn u l bit danh ca Huyn Quan Khiu [4]
Da vo ti liu trong quyn Thng thin b th ta bit Thi Cc hay Huyn Tn cn c nhng tn sau y:
- Thi Cc Chi

- Trung Hong Cung

- Tin Thin Chi Bnh

- an Nguyn Ph

- H V Chi H

- Chu Sa nh

- To Ha Chi Nguyn

- Long H Huyt

- Hn n Chi Cn

- Hunh B X

- Thi H Chi Cc

- Dung L

- Qui Cn Khiu

- Th Ph

- Phc Mnh Quan

- Thn Thy

- Mu K mn

- Hoa Tr

- Canh Tn Tht

- t

- Gip t H

- Thn Tht

- Ty Nam Hng

- Linh i

- Chn Nht X
- Ging Cung [5] v.v...
Thi Cc thng c tng trng bng vng trn. Ngoi ra, c nhn cn dng vng trn tng trng:
V Cc,[6] Kim n,[7] Thn,[8] Chu Sa nh, Php Thn,[9] Th M Chu,[10] Hng Mng, [11] Thnh Thai
[12]
Ta kt lun: Thi Cc cng l:V Cc, Kim n Thn, Php Thn, v.v.. Thi Cc chnh l ni m Dng
tng hp, Hc Bch tng ph, nn cng chnh l: Thin a Chi Tm, [13]Thin a Chi Tm l o Tm, vy:
Thi Cc = o Tm[14]
Kho st cc hnh: Huyn Tn Chi Mn, Nguyn Quan Nht Khiu trong Tng Ngn Ph Nghi[15] ta thy
rng Thi Cc cn c th gi l:
112

m Dng Chi Mn, T i Bt Trc Chi X, ng Tnh Chi Quan, Thn Kh Chi Huyt, Khm Ly Chi
Tinh, Hu V Tng Nhp X.
Thi Cc chnh l: o, [16]Trung, [17]Nht,[18]L, [19]Tm,[20] Tnh,[21] Thin o, [22]Thin L,
[23]Thi Nht, [24]Thi Ha theo t ng Trng honh C, [25] T Khiu theo t ng ca cc o gia. [26]
Sau khi tm ra c cc tnh danh Thi Cc, ta c th tm hiu duyn do ca t nhiu danh hiu ca Thi
Cc.
I. Thi Cc s d gi l Thi Cc v Thi Cc l Tuyt nh.
II. Thi Cc tm im cc vng Dch nn cng c gi l: Trung, Hong Trung, Ng, Ng Thp, Mu K
Mn.
III. Thi Cc l Nht, v Nht c th sinh Vn. Thi Cc ng gia trc m Dng, nn cng c gi l
Thp T Nhai: +
IV. Thi Cc c gi l Huyn Quan Nht Khiu v ngi xa cho rng Vn Hu xut pht t Nht im
linhquang gia lng V Cc [27]

V. Thi Cc c gi l Huyn Tn Chi Mn v l gia hai ca m Dng [28]

VI. Thi Cc l tm im sinh tri t, nhn vt nn cng gi l Thin a Chi Tm:

[29]
VII. Thi Cc l Bn Th ca v tr, l cn nguyn v tr nn cng c gi l Tnh, l L, l Cn Nguyn.
VIII. Thi Cc v phi hp c m Dng, nn c gi l: Hunh B X
IX. Thi Cc to dng qun sinh, v l cng ch Vn Hu nn l: Thy, Chung.
X. Thi Cc l mi gii gia V Cc v Vn Hu.
Ta tm hnh dung bng hnh v sau:

Ta thy rng Thi Cc ng thi:


Va l V Cc, va l Vn Hu
Khng phi V Cc, cng khng phi Vn Hu.
Bao hm c V Cc, ln Vn Hu
113

Nu ta gi V Cc l V, Vn Hu l Hu, ta c th ni Thi Cc:


Va l V, va l Hu
Chng phi Hu chng phi V
Bao hm c V ln Hu
Va bin thin, va bt bin
XI. T Thi Cc, c 2 no ng:
Mt ng i ra Vn Hu tc l i ra hu hnh, hu tng, i ra cht chc, mn mi, bin thin;
Mt ng i vo v hnh, v tng, V Cc, trng sinh, v vy Thi Cc cn c gi l Sinh Mn, T
H, Sinh St X.
XII. i ra thi gian trun, i vo thi sng khoi v th cng gi l Hnh Thc Mn
XIII. Thi Cc khi cha c tri t, th l Hng Mng v phn, m Dng tng hp, Hc Bch tng ph,
lc chung cuc v tr th li l ni Tam Hoa qui nh, Ng Kh triu nguyn, m Dng hp ha on t.
XIV. Thi Cc v trng cu bt hoi nn c gi l Kim n, Kim Cng Thn v.v...
XV. Thi Cc sinh xut mun Thn, vn Thnh nn chnh l l c To ha, Chu Sa nh, Dung L v.v...
XVI. Thi Cc trung tm im vng Dch, v tr v con ngi nn c gi l Chn Tm.
XVII. Thi Cc l bin gii gia tri ngi, vo c lng Thi Cc tc l vo c lng Tri, bn ngoi
tm im, bn ngoi Thi Cc tc l phm tc, v th Thi Cc c gi l Thin Nhn Gii
XVIII. gia Vn Hu v V Cc, nn cng c gi l: H Thc a, Hu V X v.v..
Tm li ta c th tm ra c nguyn do, c v ca mi danh hiu Thi Cc.
Thi Cc c cc v chn tu o Pht snh vi Chnh Php Nhn Tng, Bn Lai Din Mc, Chn Nh
Bn Th, Php Thn vn vn. T , chng ta bt sang o Pht, chng ta thy Thi Cc cn c rt nhiu danh
hiu tng ng.[30]
Suy ra, th Thi Cc c mun vn danh hiu [31] nhng chung qui vn ch l Bn Th ca v tr, l Duy nht,
l Tuyt i.
CH THCH
[1] Cf. Hunh nh Kinh gii trang 3b.
[2] Nguyn Quan tc Nguyn Tn chi bit danh. Nhn k m Dng ti th c v Nguyn Tn Mn, nhn k
nguyn diu bt trc c v Nguyn Quan Khiu, k thc giai th Nht Khiu nh. .
. , . Tng Ngn PhNghi, Quyn h trang 2a.
[3] Huyn quan gi ch huyn ch diu chi c quan d, tc nhn thn trung Thi Cc th d.
, . Tnh MnhPhp Quyt, quyn 7 - trang 2.
[4] Nguyn quan gi ch nguyn ch diu chi quan khu. Hu danh Sinh T H, Sinh St Tht, Thin Nhn Gii,
Hnh c Mn, Hu V Khiu, Thn Kh Huyt, H Thc a, Thp T L, v.v... .
, , , , , , , . Tng NgnPh Nghi, quyn
h - trang 2a.
[5]Thng Thin B Th, quyn IV - trang 9b.
[6] Cf. Tng Ngn Ph Nghi, quyn thng - trang 5 (hnh Thi Khng H V hay V Cc).
[7] Ib. Hnh Kim n, quyn h - trang 1.
114

[8] Ib. Quyn h - trang 1b (hnh Chu sa nh).


[9] Ib. trang 6b.
[10] Ib. trang 4a.
[11] Ib. trang 4a.
[12] Ib. trang 5b.
[13] Cf. Tng Ngn Ph Nghi, quyn h - trang 1a.
[14] o tm tc Thin a chi tm . Ib. quyn h - trang 1b.
[15] Xem hnh Huyn Tn Chi Mn. Nguyn Quan Nht Khiu trong Tng Ngn Ph Nghi, quyn h - trang
2a.
[16] Hu vit: o vi Thi Cc. . T V Lng TQTHS, tam thin thng trang 15.
[17] Vit Nht vit: Trung tc Thi Cc d. . Tng Nguyn Hc n, quyn 12 - trang 3.
[18] Vit Nht vit: Trung tc Thi Cc d. Tng Nguyn Hc n, quyn 12 trang 3.
[19] Thi Cc ch th nht c L t. . Stanislas le Gall - Le Philosophe Tchou - Hi page 97.
[20] Tm vi Thi Cc . T V Lng, TQTHS, tam thin thng - trang 15.
[21] Vit Nht vit Trung tc Thi Cc. Tng Nguyn Hc n, quyn 12 - trang 3.
[22]Trung Dung Hoc Vn, trang 22 (Xem ch thch trn)
[23]Qui Nguyn Trc Ch, quyn Trung trang 380.
[24]Chu Dch i Ton - trang 34.
[25] Chnh Mng khai th tc vit Thi Ha s v o. . T V Lng, TQTHS,
tam thin thng - trang 18.
[26] Chnh trung th t khiu . TMPQMC - trang 20.
[27] Cf. Xng o Chn Ngn, quyn 2 - trang 8a.
[28] Cf. Tng Ngn Ph Nghi, quyn thng - trang 2a.
[29] Cf. bn Thin a Chi Tm trong Tng Ngn Ph Nghi, quyn thng - trang 6a.
[30] Cf. Xem bn cc danh t tng ng vi Chn Nh trong tp Tinh Hoa Pht gio ca tc gi.
[31] Et appelez - le comme vous voudrez, car pour ceux qui savent. Il est le possesseur de tous les noms. Cf.
Balla'u'llah, Les sept valles - page 6.

Chng 3. Tng hnh Thi Cc


C nhn tng hnh Thi Cc bng nhiu th cch:
1. Thi Cc khi cha sinh ra tri t vn vt, c th ni c l v m, v dng, v th nn tng hnh bng
vng trn rng:

[1]
2. Thi Cc cng cn c hnh dung bng hnh:

115

Chm gia l Huyn Quan s sinh ra vn vt.


3. Thi Cc cn c hnh dung bng hnh rt ph thng sau y:

Hnh ny tng trng Thi Cc hm m Dng nh kh, v s lun lu, bin dch v cng tn ca Vn Hu
tim n t trong lng Thi Cc.
4. C nhn cn tng hnh Thi Cc bng hnh tng sau:

hnh ny lm ta hiu thm v Huyn quan khiu, v ta thy m Dng nh kh m p mt khiu trng
gia [2]
5. Thi Cc cn c th tng trng bng con s 5 vit theo li tng hnh nh sau:

Li tng hnh ny thy ni cc ha bn H , Lc th v.v...


6. C khi hnh Thi Cc c trnh by ng thi vi cc s H . l H Thi Cc :

bn ny cho ta thy r v tr gm c 2 phn:


a. Th:

5 + 10 = Thi Cc

b. Dng:

m +Dng
2 + 4 + 6 + 8: 20
1 + 3 + 7 + 9: 20 [3]

CH THCH
116

[1] Dch vit: nht m nht Dng chi v o. Nht m nht Dng, o chi dng d. Nhc o chi th, tc v
m v Dng, nhi vi m Dng chi cn. C vit Thi Cc v hu m Dng, m Dng gi ti lng nghi
tng phn chi thi h. Ph Thi Cc tc v m Dng, tc th nht vt th h vt d. Vit Thn d... Thi
Cc nht Thn d. . . , , .
, . , . ....
.. Xng o Chn Ngn, quyn 2 - trang 8b.
[2] Xem Thi Cc Quyn Bng Thuyt - Hnh Thi Cc trang 19.
[3]Thi Cc Quyn Bng - trang 85.

Chng 4. Thi Cc v cc bn Dch Kinh


Hiu Thi Cc l Duy nht bt kh phn, bao qut c m, ln Dng, c tri ln t, l tm im v tr vn
vt, ta mi hiu c cch ngi xa dng tng, s hnh dung Thi Cc.
1. Thi Cc tuy bao qut m Dng nhng vn hn nhin duy nht bt kh phn nn cc ngi v.

2. Thi Cc bao qut m Dng nn cng cn gi l Dch [1] l n [2]


V Dch gm Nht, Nguyt; v n c Nht u
Nguyt cc, c hai ch u ng bao qut m, Dng.
3. Thi Cc l Chn Tm v tr, nn c nhn thng v Thi Cc gia Bt Qui.

4. Kho st Phc Hi hoch qui th t honh , ta thy Thi Cc nh l mt gc cy, m Dng nh hai
thn cy cng mt gc, cc Ho Qui nh l cnh l.

5. Thi Cc bao qut m Dng, nn Lc th ta thy Thi Cc Trung Cung c tng trng bng s 5:
V 5 = 2 (m) + 3 (Dng).
117

V li s 5 cn vit c nh sau:

Vit nh vy ng rng Thi Cc Nht Kh bao qut T tng, Ng hnh.


6. Thi Cc bao qut c Sinh ln Thnh. Sinh l khi thy ca v tr, Thnh l chung cuc ca Vn Hu, v
th H ta thy Thi Cc c tng trng bng s
5 = Sinh s.
v

10 = Thnh s.

7. Thi Cc cn bao qut c mi bin ha ca v tr nn hai s 5 v 10 (5 x 10 = 50) cn gi c l s i


Din trong : 1 l Thi Cc, 49 tng trng cho Vn Hu bin thin.
8. t Thi Cc vo gia vng Dch ng vn vt sinh xut t Thi Cc ri li qui hon v Thi Cc.
V th Thiu t ni: Cc bn Dch u pht xut t Trung im, vn ha, vn s u sinh xut t Tm[3]
C ngi hi ngha cu ny.
ng p: trong hnh v ch trng l Thi Cc; 32 qu m, 32 qu Dng l Lng Nghi; 16 qu m 16
qu Dng l T Tng, 8 qu m, 8 qu Dng l Bt Qui. Li ni Mun vt, mun ha u t trong lu
xut ra, v th ni rng mi s pht l hin dong ca tm u t trung im pht xut ra.[4]
9. V Thi Cc v hnh tng, nn dn d c nhn v cc vng Dch trng gia. trng gia khng phi
l qun i mt gc gc, mt Thi Cc, m ch cn lu tm, lu n ho qui, vn tng Vn Hu. trng gia
chnh l mt cch kho lo nhn chn rng Thi Cc l Thc Th Tuyt i, khng th no hnh dung m t
c.
Thiu t nhc nh cc hc gi rng khong trng trng gia vng Dch chnh l Thi Cc, ngun mch
sinh ra Vn Hu. [5]
10. Lu nht Minh ch trng rng Phng
cng c Thi Cc. Thi Cc chnh l Tm im ni ch hai ng cho gc ca hnh vung giao thoa
nhau, v ni y chnh l ch giao thoa, giao thc ca 8 qu

[6]
11. V hiu Thi Cc sinh xut mun loi, ch cht sinh t, nn o gia cn gi Thi Cc trung tm im l
Sinh mn, T h.
Hay nhiu khi b hn vng bin thin Vn Hu bn ngoi ch cn gi trung im Thi Cc. Cc ngi gi
l Kim n, v v tr Vn Hu c th iu linh, tn t, nhng Thi Cc thi vnh vin trng tn[7]
12. V Thi Cc trung im mun loi, nn Trung cng l Thi Cc. Con ngi khi c dim phc sng
kt hp vi Thi Cc, s theo c Thin o, c Trung o, s tr thnh Thnh Nhn. V th, c Khng mi
ni o Trung Dung cao siu, ton m, v rt t ngi theo c o Trung Dung. [8]
CH THCH
[1] Thi Cc tc Dch d . Qui Nguyn Trc Ch, quyn h - trang 601.
118

[2] n t Nht u, Nguyt cc, trung gian nht hoch h nht nguyt hp pht chi v d. , ,
. Tu Chn Bt T Phng - trang 26.
[3] giai tng Trung khi, vn ha vn s giai sinh vu Tm. , . Chu Dch i
Ton, quyn nht - trang 41b.
[4] Vit: K trung bch x tin th Thi Cc, tam thp nh m, tam thp nh Dng, tin th lng nghi, thp lc
m, thp lc dng , tin th t tng, bt m bt dng , tin th bt qui. Hu vit: vn vt vn ha giai
tng gi l lu xut, th Tm Php giai tng Trung khi d. , , ,
, , . , . ,
. Ib. 41b, Cf. Ng Tt T, Kinh Dch, quyn I - trang 52 - 53.
T V Lng gii ngha: Tm l vt nng sinh; tm php l vt s sinh. (Tm th nng sinh. Tm php th s
sinh chi php) T V Lng, TQTHS, tam thin thng - trang 15.
[5] Vit k bch x, tin th Thi Cc . Chu Dch i Ton, trang 41b.
[6]...Ti vin tc Cn Khn trung h x th, ti phng Thp T trung phn x th... Ti vin tc Cn Khn
giao i x th, ti phng tc thp t giao tip x th , ....
, . Chu Dch Xin Chn, trang 10 (Tin Thin Phng Vin
)
[7] V th ta thy hnh Lo t ch cm 1 bn Thi Cc u sch Tnh Mnh Khu Ch
...y l hnh Kim n trong Chu Dch Xin Chn, trang 16

[8] Trung Dung k ch h h. Nhn tin nng cu h. Trung Dung, chng III

Chng 5. Tng quan gia Thi Cc v V Cc, Thi Cc v Vn Hu


A. Thi Cc v V Cc
Nho gia khng phn bit Thi Cc v V Cc.
Chu Lim Kh vit: V Cc nhi Thi Cc.
Cc o gia cng cho rng rt kh m phn bit Thi Cc vi V Cc. Thi Cc c l hm ng sinh ha,
to thnh v tr, cn V Cc l thc th siu vi ca v tr. Xng o Chn Ngn tng trng V Cc, Thi Cc
bng 2 hnh sau y [1]

V Cc

Thi Cc

Thi Cc c thm chm gia ng rng Thi Cc l Huyn Quan sinh xut mun loi.
Ngy nay ta c th ngh lun nh sau:
Thi Cc v V Cc l 2 phng din ca mt Thc th duy nht, V Cc l Thc th th tim n cha
hin dng; Thi Cc l Thc th hin dng bng cch to thnh v tr. V Cc l Tri n, ThiCc l Tri
119

Hin. V Cc hm ngha siu xut qun sinh (Transcendent) Thi Cc hm ngha n ng gialng Vn Hu
(Immanent) Thi Cc ng u Vn Hu, nn gi c l Hu.
V Cc v siu xut trn mi hnh thc, nn gi l V. Cho nn ni Hu sinh V, hay Thi Cc t V Cc
xut sinh cng ng; m ni Thi Cc l V Cc cng vn ng. [2]

B. Thi Cc v Vn Hu
Thi Cc l Bn Th Vn Hu, nn Vn Hu chnh l s biu dng ca Thi Cc.
Thi Cc sinh Vn Hu.[3] Thi Cc va lng trong Vn Hu va bao trm Vn Hu.[4]
Thi Cc bt bin; Vn Hu bin thin
Vn Hu c phn tn; Thi Cc chng h phn tn.
Thi Cc v hnh tng, Vn Hu c hnh tng.
Thi Cc l Tin Thin v cha c hnh tng trm triu [5]
Nhn vo bn:

Ta thy Vn Hu t tm im dn dn sinh ha ra. Trung tm tng trng cho Thi Cc ton bch, nn ta thy
ch c mt vng trn c chm gia l trung tm. Cng tin ra cc vng ngoi, ta cng thy phn tn, chia phi, th
tp.
i ng Chn Kinh vit:Cn bn vn t trung tm m ra...
C suy cu, mi thy Cn bn v tr, thc l do trung im pht sinh. Cc hin tng bn ngoi u bt
ngun t bn trong.
Cc s ng dng hin l bn ngoi u do Bn Th bn trong sinh xut...[6]
Thiu Khang Tit cng vit: Cc bn u t trung tm m sinh ra. Vn ha, vn s cng sinh ra t Tm
im Thi Cc. [7] Th tc l ch trng: Thi Cc trung tm, cn Vn Hu bao bc bn ngoi.
Thiu t cn ni: Hc v Tin Thin l hc v tm. Hc v Hu Thin l hc v cc bng hnh, vt tch ca
tm. Nhng t tng trn hon ton ging vi t tng n .
Tht vy, cc Trit gia n cng cho rng: Thng tim n ngay trong lng Vn Hu [8] Mi s
c thu dt trn cn c vnh cu [9] ng Bt T n sau bc mn hin tng [10] Tm ta l vt tch ca i
Th; nh tm, m ta bit i Th, cng y nh nh vt chn, m ta kim ra ngi [11]
Nh vy Vn Hu chnh l vt tch ca V Cng.
Quan nim vn vt sinh t Tm im cng l quan nim ca sch Zohar. Zohar vit: T im Thi Cc huyn
vi ra cho ti cc tng cp h ng Vn Hu, ci g cng nh l o, l v bao quanh tng lp trn... [12]
p dng vo con ngi, ta thy xc khng phi phn quan trng, xc ch l o, l v; c no mi quan trng.
Suy thm na th c no cng cha phi thc quan trng; trung tm no b mi thc l quan trng[13] Trung tm
l Nht, vng ngoi cng l Vn. Nht sinh Vn. Vn li quay v Nht [14], nh vy vi l vn l tun hon. Lc
y Trung Tm li tr thnh qui cn khiu, phc mnh quan.
Quan im ny, xc nh hai chiu vng lai [15], t tn ca v tr v ca con ngi. Chiu i ra l chiu
thun, sinh nhn sinh vt. Chiu i vo, l chiu nghch sinh Thnh, sinh Thn:
120

CH THCH
[1] Xem Xng o Chn Ngn II, trang 8.
[2] V Cc tc th Thi Cc . Xng o Chn Ngn, quyn II - trang 8.
[3] Vn vt giai thy Khng. Thi Cc Khng gi d. . . Xng o Chn Ngn II,
trang 9.
[4] Thi Cc d i tc bao thin a, tiu tc nhp gii t. , . Xng o Chn
Ngn II, trang 8a.
[5] Ph Tin Thin, vt tng v hnh, bt l trm triu. , , . Xng o Chn Ngn
II, trang 3.
[6] Cn bn nguyn do Trung... Cu k cn bn tht do Trung. Hin h ngoi gi bn h ni. Chiu h dng gi
do h th d. ... . . . i ng Chn
Kinh quyn h trang 11b.
[7] giai tng trung khi, vn ha vn s sinh tm. . T V Lng, Trung
Quc Trit Hc S, tam thin thng, trang 15.
[8] Brahma underlying the world. -- The Thirteen Upanishads - page 15.
[9] C'est sur l'Imprissable que tout est tiss. (B.A.V. III 8 - 3 - 10) Instant et Cause, page 117.
[10] C'est l'Immortel voil par le rel.
(Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad I. 6. 1 - 3) Instant et Cause 107
... That is the Immortal veiled by the real (satya) Life (prana, breath) (a designation of the Atman) verily, is
the Immortal. Name and form are the real. By them this Life is veiled.
(Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad I. 6.3.).
[11] Ones self (Atman), for therein, in all these become one. That same thing, namely, this self, is the trace of the
All; for by it one knows this All. Just as, verily, one might, find by a foot print. The Thirteen Up, page 25.
[12] A partir du mystrieux Point Suprme jusqu'au plus infime degr de la cration, tout sert de vtement
quelque autre chose et cette autre chose sert de vtement une chose suprieure, et ainsi de suite. De sorte
que le cerveau entour d'une enveloppe sert lui mme d'enveloppe un cerveau suprieur. Le Point Suprme
projetait une lumire immense d'une telle limpidit, d'une telle transparence et d'une telle subtilit qu'elle
pntra partout... Ainsi partir du Point Suprme, tous les degrs de la cration ne sont que des enveloppes
les unes pour les autres; l'enveloppe du degr suprieur forme le cerveau du degr infrieur... Extraits du
livre du Zohar, Trad. Jean de Pauli Ed.
Reder Paris 1935 page 73 - Cf. M. Senard, Le Zodiaque, page 326.
Tout dans le monde est divis en deux parties dont l'une est visible et l'autre invisible. Ce qui est visible n'est
que le reflet de ce qui est invisible. Le livre du Zohar page 125 - Cf. M. Senard, le Zodiaque, page 327
121

[13] No chi quan nhn dic i h. . Tnh Mnh Php Quyt Minh Ch, quyn 4 - trang
12.
[14] Trnh phu t tri vn l qui nht l, nhi bt tri nht l tn vn s... ,
. o H T, o D Lc, trang 19
[15] Vng lai gi, d ni ngoi ngn d, d tiu tc ngn d. T ni nhi ngoi v chi vng, t ngoi nhi ni v chi lai
, . , . Tng Nguyn Hc n, Quyn 37 trang 5.

Chng 6. Quan nim Thi Cc Trung Quc i chiu vi quan nim Atman n
v Logos u Chu
A. THI CC VI ATMAN
Quan nim ca cc Hin Trit n v Atman c th ni c l tng t vi quan nim ca cc Hin Trit
Trung Hoa v Thi Cc.
So snh hai quan nim Atman v Thi Cc, chng ta s hiu r Thi Cc hn.
Thot tin chng ta phi nhn nh rng quan nim v Atman rt l phong ph.
Atman c rt nhiu danh hiu, mi danh hiu nh v li c mt trng thi, mt hot ng ca Atman. Ni
nm na ra, th i vi n gio, Atman chnh l Thng , l Bn Th ca v tr, l To ha v.v...V th,
Atman[1] c th l: Brahman,[2] Thn Ngn,[3] Nguyn L Bt Dit,[4] Brahmanaspati (Ha Cng) (R.V. 10.
72.2), Visvakarman (To ha-The All Maker) (R.V. 10. 81), Purusha (Chn Nhn) (R.V.10. 90)
Prajapati (Ch T Cn Khn, Lord of Creatures) (A.V. XIX. 17), Hiranyagarbha (Kim n Kim nhn, Golden
Germ) (R.V. 10. 121. 1), Nguyn Th (The original Being), [5] Cn c v tr, [6] Thi Nht (The One),[7] (the
Underlying Unity of all being),[8] Chn l,[9] S sng, [10] Thn, Chn Tm,[11] trc ct, nm rn, [12] ca v
tr v Vn Hu.
Sau khi bit khi qut rng Atman chnh l Brahman, l Thng , l Bn Th, l Cn Nguyn, l Tm
im Sinh Ha ca v tr, ta c th so snh t nhiu quan nim then cht gia thnh kinh n (nh Ph , o
Ngha Th) vi Dch Kinh.)
1) o Ngha Th ch trng Atman chnh l Brahman[13]. Thnh Hin Trung Hoa cng ni:
Hu sinh V [14] V Cc nhi Thi Cc [15]
2) o Ngha Th ch trng Atman to dng nn v tr, Vn Hu [16] th cc Trit gia Trung Quc cng ch
trng Thi Cc sinh ha ra v tr,Vn Hu [17]
3) Atman hay i ng chnh l Nguyn Kh hay Nguyn Thn, mt m huyn o, n khut trong y lng vn
vt. T vi th thc t vi, m mnh mng th khng b khng bn, y l Atman n ng trong thm tm Vn Hu.[18]
Atman cc k vi t y, li ln hn mi th gii: bao qut qun sinh... v x, v thanh y l Chn Tm trong
lng ti, y chnh l Brahman (Thng ) [19]
Quan im cc Hin Trit Trung Hoa cng tng t: Xng o Chn Ngn mn hai cu Trung Dung:
Ng i, thin h mc nng ti, ng tiu thin h mc nng ph bnh lun rng:
Thi Cc bao trm tri t... Thi Cc lng trong lng Vn Hu. Th l Thi Cc va l cc i va l cc
tiu. [20]

122

i vi o Ngha Th, v tr ch gin phn, sai bit ngoi mt; gin phn, sai bit v danh t, hnh thc hot
ng khc nhau, nhng thc th vn ch l mt. [21]
chnh l quan nim nht th, vn th ca Dch Kinh v ca cc Trit gia Trung Hoa [22]
4) o Ngha Th ch trng Atman l ton th v tr [23], v tr l biu dng ca Atman [24] v Atman
tim n ngay trong y lng Vn Hu [25]
Kho st th tch Trung Hoa ta thy:
Chu lim Kh ch trng:Vn vt thng th nht Thi Cc, vn vt hp nht li tc l Thi Cc. [26] Chu
lim Kh vit thm: Mi vt u c mt Thi Cc.[27]
Sao Kiu o nhn vit: Tri t l biu dng ca Thi Cc.[28]
Chu Hi cng vit: Ngi ngi u c mt Thi Cc, vt vt u c mt Thi Cc[29]
Tuy ch c mt Thi Cc nhng mun loi u bm th, chng nhng th cn bm th trn vn c Thi Cc,
v nh mt trng trn tri, tuy ch c mt nhng tn ra khp sng h, thi u u cng thy c trng, tuy nhin
khng ni c l trng chia phi san s. [30]
5) o Ngha Th cho rng Atman l Duy nht, Tuyt i [31]
Chu T cng ch trng: Thi Cc l duy nht, l Tuyt i [32]
6) o Ngha Th ch trng Atman l:
Tm, Trc Ct, Cn , Cung rn Vn Hu, v Vn Hu y nh bin thin o ha vng trn bn ngoi. Ta
c th v nh sau:

[33]
Dch Kinh v cc o gia cng v vng Dch tng t, trong : Thi Cc trung tm, Ho Qui tng
trng cho Vn Hu bin ha bn ngoi.

7) Cc Trit gia n rt ch trng n Tm im ca bnh xe Vn Hu, v Tm im y thot vng lao


lung bin o ca v tr [34]
Trung Quc cc o gia cng ht sc ch trng n Tm im vng Dch v bit l im Trung Hong
Thi Cc, khu nu ca t tri.
Vn o t vit: C nhn gi trc y l Trung tm tri t, l Cc im Thi Cc.
Theo Thin o, tc l vo c Trung im Thi Cc. Ngi qun t, mi u tu Nhn o cho hp vi
Thin o. Khi hp Thin o s vo c gia vng Dch, siu xut trn hnh tng...
i, vi diu thay l trc bnh xe Vn Hu. Ai
l ngi thng hiu c?[35]
Ch Nht Chn Nhn vit trong Nhp Dc Knh nh sau: Ngi hiu To ha tt s tm gc gc mnh ni
Chn Th. Tm c Chn Th tc l an o thnh [36]

123

Chn Th tc l Trung Hong Thi Cc, Chn Th nh vy chnh l Qu hng, l t t, l nh, l


Bng o Trng Sinh, hin ln gia mun trng ba lng bin thin ca hon v [37]
8) o Ngha Th c tm cho ra c im ca Vn Hu, l Atman. Atman s l ni c ng, chn dng chn
ca nhng bc i c tu tr [38]
Dch Kinh cng dy ngi qun t phi bit Ngha ca Tm im Thi Cc Trung Hong, v phi coi
l ni c ng thit yu ca tm hn mnh[39]
9) o Ngha Th cho rng ci hc cao siu nht l ci hc tm cho ra Atman, cho ra Tuyt i Th tim n
y lng v tr v y lng con ngi [40]
Chu lim Kh cng cho rng: Bit c Thi Cc, Hong cc l ci bit cao siu nht [41]
10) Mc ch o Ngha Th l i ln theo mi giy lin lc gia Vn Hu, dn d t Vn tr v Nht, t
Vn th ti Tinh hoa duy nht, ci Tinh hoa hm ng c V cng, V tn, ti Atman Bn Th [42]
Mc ch ca Dch Kinh cng l bng qua Vn Hu, hnh tng, tm cho ra Thi Cc, V Cc.
chnh l ven theo ging tr v ngun theo t ng ca Trnh T [43]
i ng Chn Kinh vit:
Chn linh ti ng, bt nan tm,
Phn chiu hi phong hn Tm [44]
Tm dch:
Chn Linh sn c ni ta,
Chn Linh tm ti, c l kh u,
Tm nu mun hi u
Ngc dng v tr, tin su v ngun.
Li vit:
Cn Bn do lai Thi Cc tm
Cn Bn phi tm ni Thi Cc [45]
ng Huyn Linh Bo Tt Php vit:
Minh v tng hu hnh chi hu,
Tr h cc v triu chi tin[46]
Tm dch:
Bng qua sc tng, hnh hi,
Qun thng v tng, v sai, v th,
t tri t cha manh nha,
Tm ra H cc mi l cao siu
Thi Cc Quyn Bng Thuyt vit mt cu rt v khi cho rng Dch Kinh dy ngi phng php tr
v vi Tri [47]
11) Taittiriya Upanishad (II, 1 4) ch trng con ngi c nhiu tng lp, con ngi bn ngoi th th thin,
con ngi bn trong th t nh. T ngoi vo trong, con ngi cng ngy cng tr nn t nh. Con ngi cc k t
vi, t nh bn trong chnh l Atman, l Brahman, l Thc Th Siu Hnh ca v tr v ca lng ngi [48]
Tc gi Thi Cc Quyn Bng Thuyt cho rng Dch c 64 qu, qu no cng c 6 Ho, tc l su tng,
nh vy con ngi cng c su tng, t ngoi vo trong l: 1. B phu (da), 2. C nhc (tht), 3. Cn kin (gn) 4.
Vng m (mng), 5. Ct tit (Xng khp xng), 6. No ty (c ty) [49]
124

Nhng ngoi su tng Ho ra, Dch cn mt tng cn c ct cn na: l Thi Cc. Ta xem cc bn Dch
bt k l vin , hay honh , ta u thy 7 tng . Suy ra th trong con ngi, di tng lp No ty, cn c
tng lp Thi Cc na. C nh vy Dch mi n khp c vi con ngi, v ta mi hiu sao Chu Hi li ni c:
Ai ai cng c Thi Cc trong mnh[50]
12) Nu hc tm cho ra Atman tim n y lng mnh l ci hc cao siu nht, th sng phi hp vi Atman
cng l mt i sng o l cao siu nht i vi cc Thnh Hin Trung quc.
Cc Thnh Hin Trung quc du l Nho hay Lo cng u ch trng: i sng o hnh, thun ty cao siu
nht l sng phi hp vi Thi Cc, vi Tm im, Trung im Hon V. Cc ngi gi th l Hong Trung Thng
L, chnh v c th [51] Hiu bit c l Trung Hong Thi Cc, vo c Trung Cung Chnh V ca t tri.
Cc ngi gi l o Trung Dung [52], hay l luyn thnh Kim n...[53]
Xng o Chn Ngn ch trng luyn thnh Kim n, tc l thc hin c Bn Th ca Thi Cc. [54]
So snh 2 quan nim Atman v Thi Cc ta thy rng cch din t tuy c khc, nhng chung qui cng ch c mt
ti: Thng l cn bn qun sinh v tr

B. THI CC VI LOGOS
Quan nim Thi Cc cng tng t nh quan nim Logos u Chu.
Quan nim Logos t Hraclite (540 - 475 TCN), truyn dn qua cc hc phi Tn B Lp , Khc K,
qua Philon le Juif (30 TCN n 54 CN) ri du nhp vo Tn c Cng gio. [55] Hraclite cho rng:
Logos l L ph qut, [56] Logos l mi giy lin lc gia v tr, qun sinh, [57] Logos ph qut i ng, l
ton bch. [58]
Logos l Chn L, v Chn L Ph Qut bao dung c ht mi kha cnh. [59] Logos l C Cu Vn Hu.
[60] Logos l Thn, l Thng [61]
i vi Hraclite, Logos va l cc i, va l cc tiu, v Logos va ph qut, va bao dung Vn Hu [62]
li va tim n trong lng Vn Hu. [63]
Hraclite ch trng: Logos soi sng mi ti tm, phi by mi n o, s lm cho ta thy rng v tr l nht
th, ton bch. Logos va l Nht, va l Vn; Logos tuy hin dng trong Vn, nhng vn l duy nht bt kh
phn... Mi ngi u c th nhn bit Logos, v Logos l ca chung mi ngi, trong lng mi ngi. Tuy
nhin, khng phi ai cng c th suy ngh, ni nng, hot ng ng vi Chn l, vi bn tnh, vi Logos... [64]
Quan nim Logos trn y no c khc g quan nim Thi Cc u.
Thc th, cc Trit gia Trung Hoa t lu vn cho rng: Thi Cc l L [65] Thi Cc l Chn [66] Thi Cc
l Thin L ph qut, i ng. [67]
Thi Cc va bao qut Vn Hu li va tim n trong lng trong Vn Hu [68] Thi Cc tim n trong
lng mi ngi. l o Tm, l Thin Tnh; Tnh y ni Thnh chng tng, ni phm chng gim. l Kim
Cng Thn bt kh hy hoi [69] C cu Vn hu hm tng trong Thi Cc. [70]
Hraclite cho rng: Logos bao gi cng chn thc, v vng, nhng ngi thng khng hiu c Logos,
du l cha c nghe, hay l c nghe bn ti. Con ngi nh Logos mi bin thin sng ng, nhng
thng li cc chng bit tm hi g v Logos...Logos ch cng, ch chnh, cn ngi thng th li lun c
nhng ngh ring t, l bit. Tuy l thng xuyn tip xc vi Logos, nhng ngi ta thng mu thun tng
phn vi Logos; v ci m h gp hng ngy i vi h li tr nn ht sc xa l. [71]
125

Nhng li ni trn lm ta lin tng n mt cu Mnh t:


Vn mang Ngi, m thn chng hin
V qu que,n nn khin chng suy,
Sut i ngi ta i,
Nhng m dung tc bit chi o Ngi.
Hraclite ch trng vn vt bin thin, nhng vn cho rng: Thi Cc trung nht mun i chng bin thin
[72]
Philon le Juif (30 TCN - 54 CN) cho rng: C cu Vn Hu c ghi tc trong Logos [73]
Chu Hi cng cho rng: Thi Cc l L ca Vn Hu [74] Theo cc hc gi u Chu, ch L c th hiu c
nhiu cch, v d l khun, l c cu, l dng thc v.v... [75]
Cc bn dch Cu c v Tn c bng ting Trung Hoa li cng cho ta thy lin quan mt thit gia Thi
Cc v Logos. Thc vy, ngi Trung Hoa t lu vn ch trng: Thi Cc l Thn, l o. Th m ch Thn,
ch o ngy nay li c dng dch danh t Thng v Logos trong cc bn Thnh Kinh Trung Hoa. [76]
M Sng Th K ta thy ngay trang u: Khi s, Thn sng to thin a.
M Phc m Thnh Jean, ta c thy ni trang u: Thi s hu o, o d thn ng ti, o tu th thn.
i vi Thnh Jean, Logos l cn c Vn Hu; khng Ngi thi khng c Vn Hu [77]
Trong mt bi din vn trc ta Thng thm Nh in, Thnh Paul ni i khi rng: Con ngi sinh ra
i ct l tm ti cho ra Thng , v t ti Thng . V Thng cng chng xa con ngi, v ta
lun sng ng trong Thng ... Chng ta l ging gii Thng [78]
Cc bc Thng tr, Thng nhn Trung Hoa thc ra cng khng ch trng g khc.
i vi cc Ngi con ngi sinh ra ct l tm o, tm Thi Cc. V o hay Thi Cc cng chng xa
con ngi, v o hay Thi Cc chnh l cn ct con ngi, l tnh mnh con ngi [79]
Nhng so snh trn y chc chn lm sng t rt nhiu v quan nim Thi Cc v gip ta bc mt nhp
cu thng cm gia ng Ty.
CH THCH
[1] Maitri Up. 7
[2] He (i.e. Atman) is Brahma (Ait. 5.3.)
[3] Cet Imprissable est le monde entier, pass, prsent, avenir et tout ce qui transcende le triple temps. Ceci aussi
est le phonme Om car en vrit tout ceci est le Brahman; cet Atman, est le Brahman (Mand U.I. 2)
Cf. Instant et Cause, page 116
[4] L'aksara, l'Imprissable est la matrice de tout ce qui existe, omniprsent et infiniment subtil... c'est de lui que
les choses surgissent, en lui qu'elles retournent la fin (Mund. U.I. 6 - 7).
Cf. Instant et Cause, page 116
...Brahman, atman et aksara dsignent indiffremment l'unique ralit, le rel du rel, la plnitude sans fissure
saisie en une intuition mystique (prajnnghna ou jnna) qui est au del de la dualit du sujet et de l'objet
(B.A.V. IV 5 - 13) Ib. 117
[5] Verily in the beginning this World was Brahma
(Brahma 1,4. 10) Cf. The Thirteen Upanishads
[6] The ultimate ground of the world. Ib. 10
126

The world ground. Ib. 21


[7] The primal entity Ib. 21
... Him who is the One existent, sages name variously
(R. V. I 164 - 461) Ib. 13
[8] Ib. page 1
[9] This Soul (Atman) assuredly indeed is Isana (Lord), Sambhu (the Beneficent), Bhava (the Existent), Rudra (the
Terrible), Prajpati (Lord of Creation), Visvarsrij (Creator of All), Hiranya garbha (Golden Germ), Truth
(Satya), Life (prana), Spirit (Kainsa), Sastri (Punisher, or Commander or Teacher), the Unshaken, Vishnu
(Pervader), Nryana (Son of Man) Maitri Up. 7.7, Cf. The Thirteen Up, page 453
[10] Coi ch thch trn.
[11] Le coeur, dit il (Yajnavalkya) manifeste la stabilit (sthiti), il est le sige (ayatana) de tous les tres, le pivot
(pratistha) de tous les tres. C'est en prenant leur point d'appui sur le coeur que subsistent tous les tres. Le
coeur est le Suprme Brahman. (B.A.V. IV - 17), Instant et Cause, page 124
[12] Ce moyeu est la nbhi du pre, nbhi signifiant la fois moyeu et nombril, le lieu originaire, source des tres.
(R.V. I. 164 - 2), Instant et Cause, page 15
[13] Verily, that great unborn Soul, undecaying, undying, immortal, fearless, is Brahma (Brih. 4. 4 - 25)
He (i.e., Atman) is Brahma (Ait 5. 3)
The Thirteen Up. p. 29
[14] o c Kinh Chng II
[15] Cf. Thi Cc Thuyt (Chu lim Kh) TQTHS, Thin III thng - trang 5
[16] He, Truly, indeed is the Self (Atman) within the heart, very subtile like fire, assuming all forms. This whole
world is his food.
On Him, creatures here are woven.
Maitri Upanishad 7.7.
[17] Thi Cc nht khai c, nhi vn tng giai tng th triu. . Xng o
Chn Ngn, quyn II 8a
[18] Cette (essence) difficile percevoir, intgre dans le mystre, cache, sise dans la caverne primordiale. Plus
fin que le fin, plus grand que le grand est l'atman dpos dans le secret de la crature (K.U. II 12 et 20)
Lilian Silburn - Instant et Cause, page 112
[19] Cet Atman infiniment petit est plus grand que tous les mondes! embrassant tout ce qui est.. muette,
indiffrente, est cette me qui est au dedans de mon coeur, c'est Brahman mme (Ch. U III 14. 4) Ib. 112
[20] Trung Dung vit: Ng i thin h mc nng ti Thi Cc bao h thin a chi ngoi d. Ng tiu thin h
mc nng ph. Thi Cc nhp h Vn Hu chi trung d. Hp chi thin a ng nht Thi Cc. Phn chi vn
vt cc nht Thi Cc. . .
. . . Xngo Chn Ngn, quyn II - trang 8b.
[21] Noms, formes, actes (nama - rupa - Karma) engendre la multiplicit, mais la continuit immdiate et profonde
n'est brise qu'en surface par l'aspect extrieur et le langage. Les discontinuits sont illusoires: par la ferveur
(tapas) et la connaissance intuitive, on retrouve la continuit essentielle, le Tout unique et indiffrenci, le
havre mme du salut, Ds qu'on connat le Tout, on devient le Tout (P.U. IV. 9,11) La pluralit n'est pas.

127

Il court de mort en mort qui croit voir la multiplicit dans l'univers. Il faut voir (le soi) dans l'unit (ekadha),
Lui ce stable infini (B.A.U. IV. 4. 19)
A la triade des noms, formes et actes s'oppose une autre triade dans laquelle l'homme affranchi de la soif
prend son refuge l'heure de la mort: Tu es l'imprissable, tu es l'inbranlable, tu es la plnitude de la vie
(Ch. U. III 17, 6 et note 3 page 45 de la traduction E. Senart)
Lilian Silburn, Instant et Cause, page 117 - 118
[22] Nht th nhi vn th. . i ng Chn Kinh, Quyn thng - trang 5.
[23] Atman alone is the whole world (Chand. 7. 25. 2)
The Thirteen Up. page 31
...This Soul (Atman) this Immortal, this Brahma, this All (Brih. 2 5 - 1) Ib. 29
[24] Reality is One. Diversity and manifoldness are only an appearance. Ib. 36
Cf. Brih 4.4. 19 - 20 - Chand. 7. 26. 2
... If all is One, the manifold differences that seem so real in experience are not constitutive of the inner being
of the One; they must be only an appearance, a phenomenon.
Ib. 36
Cf. Maitri 6. 22
[25] The Inner Soul of all things...
Who makes his one form manifold (Katha 5 - 12) Ib. 37
[26] Vn vt nht Thi Cc d. Ci hp nhi ngn chi, vn vt thng th nht Thi Cc. .
, . T v Lng, TQTHS, Thin III thng - trang 7
[27] Nht vt cc c nht Thi Cc. T V Lng, TQTHS, Thin III thng - trang 7.
[28] Thin a gi, Thi Cc chi chng d. , . Sao Kiu ng Chng, quyn thng trang 8a
[29] Nhn nhn hu nht Thi Cc, vt vt hu nht Thi Cc. , . Ib. trang 59
[30] Bn ch th nht Thi Cc nhi vn vt cc hu bm th, hu cc t ton c nht Thi Cc nh. Nh nguyt ti
thin, ch nht nhi d, Cp tn ti giang h, tc ty x nhi hin, bt kh v nguyt phn d. Chu hi Am Ng lc, TQTHS, tam chng thng trang - 59
[31] The one God, hidden in All things,
All pervading, the Inner Soul of all things
... The one among many, who grants desires
Svetasvatara Up. 6 11,13
[32] Thi Cc tt Duy Nht, tt Tuyt i. , . T V Lng, TQTHS, tam thin thng trang 58
[33] Roue de l'agenc (rta)
...Cette roue est galement le prototype de la roue de la transmigration. Instant et Cause, pages 15 - 17
[34] L'emplacement exig par le Buddha est, comme l'a montr P. Mus, au moyen de la roue du devenir, la nabhi,
ce centre immobile et paisible qui chappe au tournoiement de l'espace que les Upanishads nommaient Kha
du nom mme du moyeu, et qui, dans le Vda, est le nombril de l'immortel, le lieu de l'autel o se trouvait
plac le feu, Agni (R.V. III, 17.4) Instant et Cause, page 196.
128

[35] C nhn xng th trc vi thin a chi trung. Thi Cc chi cc. Thin o duy c trung ng cc... C qun t
tu k nhn o, t hp Thin o. Hp Thin o tc c k hon trung, siu h tng ngoi. Y hi, vi h
huyn tai, php lun chi trc, y thy nng thc. . . . ...
. , . , . Vn o
T Ging o Tinh Hoa Lc, quyn II - trang 36
[36] Thc To ha gi tt chn th trung cu k cn yn. c th tc an o lp h. Nhp DcKnh trang 4b
[37] Chn Th l min Trung Cung ni H , Lc th nn cng chnh l Thi Cc, n lm ta lin tng n
min t ha (Terre promise) trong Cc c. Ni Hng Cu bt bin, ngc hn vi cc vng bn
ngoi tng trng cho Vn Hu bin thin.
[38] Le lieu vritable de tous les tres est, nous le savons, l'Atman, le Soi Celui qui considre que l'Atman est sa
vraie place, de celui l, le mrite ne s'puise pas. Quelque chose qu'il dsire, il le tire de cet Atman. Celui qui
quitte le monde sans avoir considr son lieu vritable, celui - l faute de savoir ne jouit pas (B.A.U.I. 4. 15 16) et la mme Upanishad reprend plus loin (Iv. 4. 22): C'est vers lui (le Soi) que tendent ceux qui recherchent
leur vritable lieu (loka) aprs une vie errante. C'est en effet parce qu'ils savaient cela que les sages d'autrefois
ne recherchaient pas de postrit: Que ferions nous d'une postrit nous qui, avec l'Atman, avons le lieu
vritable?
A la recherche de la continuit temporelle qui se manifestait par le dsir d'une descendance s'est substitue la
qute de la Patrie d'origine. Lilian Silburn - Instant et Cause, page 114.
[39] Qun t Hong trung thng l chnh v c th. . Dch Khn, Qui
[40] The lower knowledge is of various sciences, but the higher is that whereby that Imperishable is
apprehended (Mund. I.I. 4 5) The Thirteen Upanishads, page 36
[41] Trung tc ch L h thng bt kim ch ngha. i hc, Vn ngn giai ngn tri ch. S v ch gi tc th L
d. Ng c Dch gi vit: Nng tri Thi Cc tc th tri ch. Ng c Hng Phm gi vit: Nng tri Hong cc
tc th tri ch... . . . :
. . Tng Nguyn Hc n, quyn 12 - trang 6 (Lim Kh Hc
n)
[42] Les Upanishads sont la recherche d'une continuit de proche en proche d'ordre spatial, celle du fil o sont
tisss tous les tres et qui s'achemine de l'infini l'infime (Anu) dans lequel se concentre toute l'infinit.
Lilian Silburn - Instant et Cause 113
[43] ...Elles aboutissent donc l'essence de l'essence, au fil du fil, l'infime de l'infime, au cach, au mystre, en
un mot l'Atman plus prcieux que tout et plus intime et qui demeure inaccessible dans son immanence.
Ib. page 113
[44] i ng Chn Kinh, trang 17a
[45] i ng Chn Kinh, trang 4b
[46] ng Huyn Linh Bo nh Quan Kinh Ch, trang 3
[47] Dch chi vi th gio nhn hi Thin chi i kinh, i php d. , . Thi
Cc Quyn Bng Thuyt, trang 52
[48] La Taittiriya Upanishad (II, 1 - 4) dcrit les diverses personnes embotes les unes dans les autres en allant de
l'extrieur l'intrieur et en passant du plus grossier au plus subtil. Ce sont le soi fait de nourriture, le soi fait
129

de souffle, le soi fait d'organe mental (manas), le soi fait d'intelligence (vijnan), enfin le soi fait de flicit
(ananda): la plus intime remplissant la plus grossire et se distinguant d'elle. C'est selon la progression de ces
cinq personnes qu'on apprend que l'Atman est identique au Brahman, la substance universelle et ce dont tous
les tres sont ns, ce dans quoi tant ns, ils vivent, ce en quoi leur mort ils entrent (III, 1) et ce Brahman
est, nous le savons, la substance relle (satya), spirituelle, infinie, tablie au secret (du coeur) (II, 1) Lilian
Silburn - Instant et Cause, pages 112 -113.
[49]...Th lc thp t qui in o tng thc d minh Thi Cc quyn bng trin ti chi i khuyn, tiu
khuyn c hu lc tng, d nhn thn chi b phu, c nhc, cn kin, vng m, ct tit, no ty lc tng thch
tng ph hp. , , , , ,
, , , .Thi Cc Quyn Bng thuyt trang 49.
[50] Nhn nhn cc hu nht Thi Cc. . (Chu Hi) Cf. T V Lng, TQTHS, tam thin
thng, tr. 59.
[51] Hong trung thng l, chnh v c th. Dch Khn qui
[52] Trung Dung hay Trung o. Trung Dung k ch h h dn tin nng cu h
o Trung Dung cao siu ton m.
Theo Trung h d my ai.
Trung Dung - Chng II
[53] C kt an d gi, hon Thi Cc chi th tc an thnh h. , . Xng
o Chn Ngn, quyn 2, trang 8b.
[54] Xin c thm on ni v Thc cht ca Atman trong L xun Khoa Nhp mn Trit hc n trang 159
[55] Hraclite, hros promthen de la pense, apporte aux humains endormis, le feu du Logos. Hraclite et la
Philosophie page 65
... A l'interprtation sceptique du Logos hraclitien, succde son interprtation stoicienne... Puis vinrent les
Noplatoniciens... Aprs lui (Chalcidius), le Logos passa des Stoiciens Philon le Juif et l'vangile
johannique. Ib. page 79
[56] Le Logos est la Raison une, universelle, unificatrice (Vernunft) Hraclite et la Philosophie, page 59
[57] Le Logos est ce qui lie les phnomnes entre eux, en tant que phnomnes d'un univers un... Le Logos est un
lien. Ib. 57
[58] Le Logos est universel.
[59] Le vrai c'est l'universel, la totalit des fragments du monde, l'intelligence de l'universel, la mditation de
l'invisible, la saisie de l'unit, de la totalit. Ib. 64
... Le critre de la vrit n'est pas fourni par l'opinion commune qui n'est qu'une somme d'opinions
particulires, mais par le Logos universel. Ib. 85
[60] Le Logos est la structure de tout ce qui est. Ib. 71
[61] Le Logos hraclitien est divin et la divinit est Logos. Logos et Dieu constituent les liens de l'Univers et sont
prsents dans la pense humaine. Ib. 125
... Dieu est uni au Logos, au cosmos, au feu; Il est l'unit des contraires. Ib. 123
... Le Logos avec lequel son Logos (le Logos d'Hraclite) entre en communication est un Logos divin qui unit
les contraires. Ib. 86

130

[62] L'englobant universel englobe aussi bien la nature cosmique que le devenir humain dans leur originelle unit.
Hraclite et la Philosophie, page 120.
... L'englobant universel, c'est dire la Totalit, dvoile chaque fois un de ses modes d'tre; le regard humain
contemple la manifestation de ces aspects, mais risque de les isoler. La pense aspire saisir la totalit comme
totalit; au cours de cette vise, elle recontre la divinit (le fondement de tout ce qui est), et en essayant de
parler d'elle, se mue en thologie. Ib. 126
[63] La divinit assure la permanence du devenir universel; elle est mme le devenir de l'tre. Elle ne gouverne pas
le monde du dehors, elle ne survole pas l'univers, elle n'est pas la transcendance qui s'assujettit une
immanence, comme le Logos et le feu, elle est intrieure au monde. Ib. 127
[64] Le Logos en clairant les tnbres et ce qui est cach, manifeste la signification totale de l'Univers,
signification unitaire. Il est un et universel se manifestant dans le tout, il reste Un et montre que la totalit
n'est totalit qu'en tant qu'Unit. Les hommes peuvent connatre le Logos, car la pense est commune tous
et habite leur me; cela ne signifie pas que tous pensent. agissent et parlent conformment la vrit, c'est
dire la nature vraie. Hraclite et la Philosophie, p. 62
[65] C Thi Cc ch th nht c L t. (Chu Hi Am) T v Lng, TQTHS, tam thin thng tr. 58
[66] D Chn vi th... c vn V Cc chi chn. Qui Nguyn Trc Ch, quyn h - trang 604
[67] Khng t tc vit Thin L... Dch o tc vit Thi Cc. Ib. Quyn Trung, trang 369
[68] Thi Cc bao h thin a chi ngoi... Thi Cc nhp h vn vt chi trung... ...
. Xng o Chn Ngn, trang 8b
[69] an gi, h d? Nhn trung chi Thi Cc d. Xng o Chn Ngn, tr. 8a
[70] Thi Cc ch th thin a vn vt chi l. . Phng Hu Lan, Trung Quc Trit Hc
S, tr. 905
[71] Le Logos que voici, tant toujours vrai, les hommes n'en acquirent pas la comprhension, ni avant de l'avoir
entendu, ni une fois qu'ils l'ont entendu. Car bien que tout devienne selon ce Logos - ci, ils sont pareils des
inexpriments, mme s'ils ont fait l'exprience et des paroles et des ouvres... Mais bien que le Logos soit
universel, les gens du commun (la foule) vivent comme s'ils avaient une pense particulire. Le Logos avec
qui pourtant ils ont le plus constant rapport, avec lui ils sont en dsaccord et ce que tous les jours ils
rencontrent, cela leur parat tranger.
Hraclite et la Philosophie, page 58.
[72] Thi Cc chi trung nht, cng vn c nhi bt bin. . Vn o T Ging o
Tinh Hoa Lc, quyn I - trang 21
[73] Philon le Juif (30 av. J.C. 54 aprs): La constitution de toutes choses est grave dans le Logos (Art. Philon
d'Alexandrie, Grande Enc. francaise) M. Senard, Le Zodiaque 322
[74] Thi Cc ch th thin a vn vt chi l. . Phng Hu Lan - Trung Quc Trit Hc
S, trang 905
[75] Trong quyn Science and Civilisation in China ca Joseph Needham ta thy cc hc gi u Chu dch ch L
bng nhng ch sau y: 1 Form, 2 Natural law, 3 Pattern in things, 4 Principle, 5 Vernunft, 6 The generative
Reason (Logos Sper- matikos), 7 Prajna, the ineffable, unchangeable, supramundane, absolute, 8
Metaphysical absolute, 9 Buddhata, 10 Absolute.
[76] Cf. Cu c Ton Th Thnh Kinh Cng Hi ti Hng Cng n hnh. Cu c trang 1, Tn c trang 125
131

[77] Nguyn bn Vulgate nh sau: Omnia per ipsum facta sunt, et sine ipso factum est nihil quod factum est.
Bn dch Crampon: Tout a t fait par lui, et sans lui rien n'a t fait de ce qui a t fait.
Evangile de Saint Jean, Prologue I. 3
[78] S'il a fait habiter sur toute la face de la terre tout le genre humain...C'tait afin que les hommes cherchent la
divinit pour l'atteindre si possible, comme ttons et la trouver; aussi bien n'est elle pas loin de chacun de
nous. C'est en elle en effet que nous avons le vie, le mouvement et l'tre. Ainsi d'ailleurs l'ont dit certains des
vtres: Car nous sommes aussi de sa race Actes des Aptres XVII - 26- 27- 28 (Bible de Jrusalem) p.
1463
[79] S'il a fait habiter sur toute la face de la terre tout le genre humain...C'tait afin que les hommes cherchent la
Divint pour l'atteindre si possible, comme ttons et la trouver; aussi bien n'est elle pas loin de chacun de
nous. C'est en elle, en effet, que nous avons la vie, le mouvement et l'tre. Ainsi d'ailleurs l'ont dit certains des
vtres: Car nous sommes aussi de sa race Actes des Aptres XVII- 26- 27- 28 (Bible de Jrusalem) p.
1463

Chng 7. Nhng hu qu ca quan nim Thi Cc


A. Hu qu Trit L
Quan nim Thi Cc rt quan trng v cp n Bn Th v tr.
Theo quan nim ny, th Bn Th v tr l Thi Cc v thanh, v x, c kh nng bin ha v cng, sinh xut
vn s, vn vt m chng h c tng, c gim. Vn vt hu hnh bin thin, Thi Cc bt bin. Vn vt hu hnh
c hoi, c thnh c suy; Thi Cc mun i nh nht.
Thi Cc khng phi l tinh thn, cng khng phi l vt cht. Thi Cc bao qut c tinh thn ln vt cht, li
siu xut trn tinh thn ln vt cht.
Thi Cc sinh ha vn vt theo nh lut tun hon, vng lai, phn phc.
Thi Cc sinh Thn, Thn sinh Kh, Kh sinh Tinh hay Cht, B ba Thn, Kh, Cht h giao, h hon, tng
hp, tng phn, sinh xut vn vt. Ngc li, Tinh c th ha Kh, Kh c th ha Thn, Thn c th tr v
Thi Cc; nh vy l tun hon, thy chung nh nht.
Quan nim sinh ha ny v cng bin o, bao qut c c mi mn phi Trit hc v n khng duy tm cng
chng duy vt, m vt hn ln trn cp mu thun tng i ny. N bao qut c ht mi lp lang bin dch
trong hon v, v trong nhn qun v nh c vng tun hon vng lai, phn phc ca v tr, v Vn
Hu. N cho chng ta mt tm nhn bao qut, chng nhng v c cu vn vt, t c cu t vi ra cho n nhng c
cu hu hnh; cho ta thy chiu hng bin ha ca Vn Hu, bt qu ch c l t vi n tr t v hnh n hu
hnh ri li t hu hnh tr v v hnh. Hn na n cn cho ta mt ci nhn bao qut v vng thi gian ton bch,
vng lai, phn phc ca tri t v ca lch s.
Suy ra, v tr c tn, tt nhin phi c t. Lch s din bin t cc gi tr tinh thn xung dn ti cc gi tr
xc thn, vt cht ngoi cnh, ri c hi li quay tr ngc li, din bin t cc gi tr vt cht, xc thn ngoi cnh
tin dn v cc gi tr tinh thn cao thng.
Vn vt sinh t Thi Cc, bin ha mun vn ri li quay tr v Thi Cc.Th l thy chung nh nht.
Vn vt khc nhau bng hnh tng bn ngoi, nhng u cng c mt cn nguyn ct cch l Thi Cc. M Thi

132

Cc chnh l o,l Tri. Ni vy c ngha l v tr Vn Hu l biu dng ca mt Thc th duy nht: l


Thi Cc hay Thng [1]
rng ng kho st chng ta hy lc kho cc quan nim v Cn nguyn v tr
1) Ca cc Trit gia Hi Lp, t thi Thals (640 548) cho n ht thi Aristote (322)
2) Ca cc nh Huyn hc u , v Teilhard de Chardin.
1) Quan nim Thi Cc v quan nim Nguyn Th v tr ca cc Trit gia Hi Lp
Cc Trit gia Hi Lp c nhiu kin d ng v Nguyn Th v tr:
C ngi cho rng vt cht sinh ra v tr.
a) Nguyn Th v tr l mt n cht: hoc l thi h v nh (Anaximandre 611-547), hoc l nc (Thals
640 - 548), hoc l kh (Anaximne 545 - 522), hoc l la (Hraclite 540 - 475)
b) Nguyn Th v tr c th a oan phin tp: hoc l 4 cht: t, nc, la, kh (Empdocle 500 - 400),
hoc l 5 cht: t, nc, la, kh v thi h (hyle) (Aristole 384 - 322), hoc l nhng con s (Pythgore 580 500), hoc l v s nguyn cht c hnh th khc nhau (Anaxagore 500 - 428), hoc l vs nguyn t (Leucippe
de Millet (th k IV) v Democrite 470 - 400).
C phi cho rng tinh thn sinh xut v tr.
Ch c tinh thn mi l thc th, cn hnh tng bn ngoi ch l gi tng (Xnophane - cui th k VI),
Parmnide (?540 - ?50), Platon (429 - 347) [2]
em cc quan nim trn y snh vi quan nim Thi Cc, ta thy quan nim Thi Cc vn cao siu hn,
bao qut hn, v Thi Cc tuy l thc th duy nht ca Vn Hu, nhng bao qut cc ng tnh, m Dng, nn
c mt kh nng bin ha v cng hng hu. Hn na Thi Cc siu xut trn cc quan nim m Dng, tinh
thn, vt cht, siu xut trn ton s. Quan nim Thi Cc c th ni l cao siu hn cc quan nim Trit hc Hi
Lp v v tr khi nguyn v Thi Cc chng nhng l Bn Th ca v tr m cn l o, l Logos, l Thng
.
Thi Cc l cn nguyn v tr, l mt thc th nhng lng din v ng tnh, t tn khn lng; l mt thc
th nhng vn th: nh c vi m Dng bin ha, c th sinh ra mun mun, ngn ngn bin thin, bin ng; l
mt thc th bin o mun ngn, nhng sau trc vn thy chung nh nht nh vng Dch: m bin Dng,
Dng bin m, tun hon, phn phc...
2. Quan nim Thi Cc vi quan nim ca cc nh Huyn hc u v Teilhard de Chardin
Quan nim Thi Cc ca Dch Kinh thc ra cng l quan nim ca cc nh Huyn hc ng Ty, kim c. N
khng c ph cp vo qun chng, nhng ngc li, c nhng bc thng tr, thng nhn mi ni mi
i, bt phn o gio ch trng. Ta thy ch trng ny, ni cc nh Huyn hc u chu thng c, cc thnh
Paul, Jean [3], cc nh Huyn hc B La Mn, Pht gio, Lo gio, cc tc gi Zohar v Kaballe v.v.. v gn y
c Teilhard de Chardin lm sng ng li. Ch trng ny i khi nh sau:
*Tri t vn vt chng qua l thin hnh, vn trng ca mt thc th duy nht, ca Tuyt i Th.
*Tuyt i Th ny l hin thn ca Thng siu vit bt kh t ngh.
*Tuyt i Th ny mi ni mi i u ku bng mt danh hiu, hoc l o, l Chn Tm, l Thi Cc, l
Logos. Tuyt i Th ny l mt Thc th duy nht bao qut c hai phng din tinh thn, vt cht [4]
Teilhard gi Tuyt i Th ny l Nguyn Th v tr. Nguyn Th ny c hai phng din vt cht v tinh
thn.
133

Nht th y sinh xut qun sinh; qun sinh li qui hng tin ha v nht th [5]
Nht tin ra vn, ri vn li qui v nht, theo nhp iu ca thi gian. Cho nn trong tri t, u u cng
trn y l bin dch. S bin dch theo hai chiu hng: mt l phn tn o thi; hai l sc tch tin ti tinh
hoa, tr v Nguyn bn [6]
Tm li, n , Trung Hoa v Nht Bn u quan nim v tr l Nht Th, v cn nguyn v tr l Thi Cc
duy nht. Quan nim ny ch trng Vn Hu u c ng mt Bn Th nh nhau. Mun lnh hi Chn l ny,
tu gic cn c khi ng; mun c khi ng cn tn cng phu, tim tm suy cu, ni quan qun chiu [7]
V nhn chn rng: V tr = Thi Cc, quan nim ny coi Thi Cc l Ton th, ton bch, cn vn vt chng
qua l phn b, phn th ca Thi Cc.
Quan nim ny thc l mt quan nim siu vit v Thng . N va l nn tng, va tr thnh mc ch tu
luyn ca cc bc Thnh Hin xa nay.
Mc ch y l t b tiu tit, phn b, t t, a
phng, thi gian, giai on, thin kin t ti chn l ton bch, i ng...

B. Hu qu lun l
Thi Cc l ton th v tr; Vn Hu l phn th Thi Cc. T quan nim vn vt nht th ny cc Trit gia
suy din ra nhim v bc i i vi mi ngi, v ch trng mi ngi u c th tr nn ging Thi Cc, nn
ging Thng . Hu qu lun l ny c Cha Ricci ghi nhn nh sau: Tro lu t tng m nhiu ngi
theo hin nay, theo ti, c l vay mn mt gio phi t thn (?) t 500 nm nay (Tng Nho) Quan nim y
l: Thin a Vn Vt Nht Th, ngi, vt, c cy, t tng u hp thnh mt c th duy nht m vn vt l
nhng phn b. T quan nim nht th y h rt ra nhim v bc i, i vi mi ngi, v ch trng mi ngi
u c th nn ging Thng . [8]
Thi Cc chnh l Thin L; m Thin L th ph qut i ng, ch cng, ch chnh, v cng c ghi tc
ngay trong tm khm ta.
Cho nn, ngi qun t lun lun phi chin thng t t, t dc sng hp Thin L, hp vi lng tm, lc
no cng ch cng, ch chnh, khit tnh, tinh vi.

C. Hu qu o gio
Quan nim Thi Cc v cng cuc i tm Trng sinh v Chn L
Quan nim ny xy nn p tng cho cng cuc tu thn ca ngi xa. V tin rng Thi Cc l Bn Th
v tr, l Vn Hu [9] l o [10], l Chn, l L, l Cn nguyn, Ct cch con ngi, v tin rng Thi Cc vnh
cu trng tn [11], v thanh, v x nhng li tim n ngay trong y lng con ngi [12], nn cc bc chnh
nhn, qun t sau khi thu hiu Dch Kinh, hi tm phn tnh, tr vo tm thn mnh m tm o, tm tri.
Thi Cc l o[13], l Cn Bn [14], Bn Lai Din Mc[15], Chn Nh Bn Th, Kim Cng Thn[16],
Kim n.[17] Cho nn tm ra c Thi Cc trong tm hn mnh l c o, Qui cn, phn bn, tm li c Bn
Lai Din Mc, tm li c Chn Nh Bn Th, tm li c Kim Cng Thn, luyn c Kim n.
V Thi Cc tim n ngay trong y lng con ngi, nn Thnh nhn ty ra lng mnh cho sch trn ai tc
ly v rt lui vo chn n o huyn vi ca tm hn sng phi hp vi ng Ti cao [18]
Dch Kinh khuyn ngi qun t hy hiu thu l Trung Hong Thi Cc ng cho lng b vt dc, ngoi
cnh khin dn m hoc, tr v vi Thi Cc, tm ra ngi v Chnh Trung trong hon v lm ch nng thn
134

[19] lm ni dng chn, ng li. [20] Tt c cng phu hc hi suy t l ct tm ra Thi Cc, Cn nguyn, Ct
cch con ngi [21]
Mun Vin minh, Diu gic, phi thc hin c Bn Th Thi Cc.[22] Mun luyn n, trc ht phi tm
cho ra Thi Cc tim n trong lng mnh [23]
Khi minh nh rng Thi Cc va l Cn nguyn, va l cng ch ca Vn Hu, cc bc Thnh Hin xa
suy ra c 2 chiu bin ha ca hon v v ca con ngi.
Chiu thun: t tinh thn, tin dn mi ra vt cht.
Chiu ngc: t vt cht bin ha dn mi phc hi li trng thi tinh thn.
i theo chiu thun, th y nh tri theo ging nc, chng phi suy ngh, tn cng phu, nhng kt qu ch
thnh phm phu tc t.
i theo chiu nghch, th y nh bi ngc ging sng, lun lun phi tranh u, phi c gng, nhng kt qu
s thnh Tin, thnh Thnh. [24]
Ta c th hnh dung 2 chiu bin ha y nh sau

Cc Hin Trit n cng cho rng v tr, cng nh ngi c 2 chiu hai hng. T tm im ra bn
ngoi, l bin ha theo chiu sinh sinh v cng, t nht sinh ra vn; t ngoi tr v tm im, l chiu ha ha
bt tn, t vn quay tr v nht [25]

i tm Thi Cc, tc l i tm con ngi chn thc ni ta. Trong ta tim n sn mt ngun nng lc v
bin, mc tnh ta khai thc. Ta ng nn b qua kho tng v gi ni tm, m chy theo ngoi cnh, ng hu thm
c i cht tin nghi...[26]
Khi th hin c Thi Cc c Tuyt i, con ngi s c gii thot.
Lc y s c mt thn lc v bin, v lm c nhiu k cng, i s; ci khng c l g v con ngi lc
y nhp c vo ngun sinh lc, ngun nng lc v bin ca v tr...[27]
Tm li, Thi Cc l Thin Tm, l Vin Gic, l Kim n [28]
Tm ra c Thi Cc, thy c Thin Tm trong lng mnh, l Thn Minh n vi mnh vy [29]
CH THCH
[1] La priode que nous allons tudier commence avec Thals (640-548) et la Grce ionienne, elle s'tend sur les
diffrentes coles philosophiques), qui firent la renomme intellectuelle des Grecs et s'achve avec la
conqute de la Grce par Alexandre (332) et la mort d'Aristote (322) Edition Ren Kester - Les Secrets de
l'Atome page 12.
[2] Phng theo ti liu trong cun Les Secrets de l'Atome (Editions Ren Kister, trang 12 - 15)
... Xem thm: S.E. Frost, Jr., Basic Teachings of the Great Philosophers. Chng 1: The Nature of the
Universe, trang 1 - 16.
135

[3] Si tout effort de connaissance est tentative pour se placer au point de vue de Dieu, la connaissance absolue
consiste l'avoir atteint, ce qu'apercoivent le stoicisme que citait Saint Paul aux philosophes d'Athnes: in
ipso vivimus, et movemur et sumus - Plotin, Spinoza aussi bien que, d'autre part, Hege, c'est que pour Dieu la
matire n'a pas d'existence indpendante, car l'esprit absolu se reconnat soi - mme en tout...
Science et Matrialisme page 31. Cf. Actes des Aptres 17; 24 - 30. Evangile de Sainte Jean - Prologue.
[4] Il y a d'abord la croyance en un Principe unique, duquel tout est issu. Quels que soient les noms qui lui aient
t donns durant les diffrentes poques et sous les diffrents ciels ou la forme du culte extrieur qui lui soit
rendu, ce Principe est de tout temps, le Dieu de l'Univers manifest comme Unit, celui qui a engendr le ciel
et la Terre, le crateur et la crature, le contenant et le contenu, l'Essence et la Forme, l'Esprit et la Matire,
l'Espace et le Temps, l'Infini et le Fini.
Ce Principe Unique est un prodigieux aimant qui attire lui toutes les mes, de mme que le Terre attire tous les
corps vers son centre. Le Religon Essentielle - page 11.
[5] Etoffe cosmique: matire et Esprit, crit le P. Teilhard en 1950, non point deux choses mais deux tats, deux
faces d'une mme toffe cosmique suivant qu'on la regarde ou qu'on la prolonge dans le sens o elle se fait ou
au contraire dans le sens suivant lequel, elle se dfait.
Teilhard de Chardin (Plon) page 81.
...Teilhard gi Thc th y l Cha C c v tr. ng vit: Le Christ n'est pas un accessoire surajout au
monde, un ornement, un roi comme nous en faisons, un propritaire. Il est l'Alpha et l'Omga, le principe et
la fin, la pierre du fondement et la cl de vote, la plnitude et le plnifiant. Ib. page 114.
[6] Au lien d'opposer deux termes matires et esprit, il faut opposer deux directions l'une qui descend vers la
poussire du multiple et se perd ainsi dans le nant, l'autre qui s'lve avec toute la nature vers des types
d'union plus complexes et mieux centrs... Jean Onimus - Teilhard de Chardin (Plon), p. 84.
[7] LInde, la Chine et la Japon ont en commun un principe unique sur lequel repose leur science et leur
philosophie...
Ce Principe affirme l'identit d'essence de tous les tres et de toutes choses. Pour saisir cette vrit, il faut une
ouverture de la conscience suprieure de l'homme, ouverture qui ne peut d'obtenir que par l'effort personnel et
l'analyse de soi mme. Robert Lasserre - Etranges Pouvoirs, page 20.
[8] Mais l'opinion la plus suivie actuellement et qui me parat (pare), emprunte la secte des idoles depuis 500
ans (philosophie des Song), c'est que tout ce monde est fait d'une seule substance et que la cration du monde
avec le ciel et la terre, les hommes et les animaux, les arbres et les vgtaux, et les quatre lments, forment
un corps continu dont les divers tres sont les membres. C'est de cette unicit de substance que l'on dduit le
devoir de la charit envers les hommes et la possibilit pour tous de devenir semblables Dieu. (Cf. Henri
Bernard - Matre - Sagesse Chinoise et Philosphie Chrtienne, page 108)
[9] Khng t tc vit: Thin L, Lo t tc vit: Cc Thn, Dch o tc vit: Thi Cc. Danh tuy hu d: k thc
ng nht Chn Nh bn tnh d. , , . ,
. Qui Nguyn Trc Ch, quyn Trung, trang 360.
[10] o vi Thi Cc . T v Lng, TQTHS, tam thin thng, trang 14.
[11] Hu vt Tin Thin a

V hnh bn tch liu

Nng vi vn tng ch

136

Bt trc t thi iu

Qui Nguyn Trc Ch, quyn Trung, trang 370.


[12] an gi h d, nhn trung chi Thi Cc d. . . Xng o Chn Ngn, trang 8a.
[13] o vi Thi Cc . T v Lng, TQTHS, tam thin thng, trang 14.
[14] Cn bn do tng Thi Cc tm . i ng Chn Kinh, Quyn thng, trang 4b.
[15] Chn Nh bn tnh gi, ph mu v sanh tin, nht chn v vng chi th, v chi bn lai din mc. Thin tng
tc vit: Chnh php nhn tng. Lin tng tc vit: Bn tnh Di . Khng t tc vit: Thin L. Lo t tc
vit: Cc Thn. Dch o tc vit: Thi Cc. Danh tuy hu d: K thc ng nht Chn Nh bn tnh d.
, , , . . .
, , . , . Qui Nguyn Trc Ch, quyn
Trung, trang 369.
[16] Th php gi ch k bn tnh d. Bn tnh d h Kim Cng. Ngn k kin c bt hoi d.
. . . Ib. 371
[17] an gi h d, nhn trung chi Thi Cc d. Xng o Chn Ngn, trang 8a.
[18] Thnh nhn d th ty tm, thoi tng mt. Dch Kinh - H T thng, chng 11.
[19] Qun t Hong Trung thng L, chnh v c th. Dch Kinh - Khn Qui.
[20] Ch ch thin . i hc.
[21] Thi Cc khng gi d... Khng gi vn vt chi t d. Hc gi yu kin chn khng. . ...
. . Xng o Chn Ngn quyn I trang 2.
[22] Ph vin minh diu gic, nguyn Thi Cc chi th d. .
[23] Tin gia kt an, tin cu thn trung chi Thi Cc . Ib. trang 9.
[24] Nht chn v tc, v chi hn n; nht nguyn phng triu, v chi nhn un. Thn sinh kh, kh sinh tinh,
Thi Cc chi s d thun nhi sinh d. Tinh ha kh, kh ha thn, nhn d nghch nhi vi tin, phn bn hon
nguyn chi ngha d. , ; , . , , .
. Xng o Chn Ngn, trang 9.
[25] A la causalit vitaliste, celle de l'expansion du germe et qui va du germe concentr vers un panouissement
sans fin, du centre la priphrie, s'oppose la causalit formelle, rituelle qui est mensuration et construction,
oeuvre savante des prtres et qui elle, va de la priphrie vers le centre, du tout parpill au tout concentr,
intgral, continue. Aprs avoir entour et consolid le sacrifice anne, l'activit rituelle s'achemine vers le
centre de l'autel, vers le jour central (visuvat) de l'anne, vers la personne interne (Atman) de Prajapati,
l'ensemble des actes sacrs. Alors que dans le courant vitaliste, la densit maxima se trouve au dpart, dans le
courant ritualiste, elles culminent au point d'arrive. Instant et Cause, page 56.
[26] Cf. Robert Lasserre - Etranges Pouvoirs, page 32:
En fait, c'est la dcouverte de l'homme rel que nous partons. Une nergie infinie est la disposition de
chacun de nous, si nous savons seulement la saisir, mais l'homme moderne, submerg par les progrs des
sciences, s'est loign de plus en plus de la voie de l'volution intrieure. Tourn vers les conqutes
extrieures, qui produisent l'amlioration des conditions de vie, c'est dire la diminution de l'effort, il a perdu
le got de celui ci, et cela entrane la dgnerescence de l'individu. La seule voie de salut doit tendre placer
l'homme dans l'atmosphre psychophysiologique la mieux adapte la maintenir en pleine activit physique
et mentale.
137

[27] Lorsque l'adepte parvient d'une facon parfaite cette ralisation de l'absolu, qui est plus une conscience et une
identification qu'une comprhension, il est libr; sa force est celle qui anime le tonnerre et les clairs, la
puissance de la vague comme celle du feu... en contact troit avec la source o tous les phnomnes puisent
leur nergie, de l'atome l'toile, du souffle de la tempte la dflagration de la poudre, il peut y puiser infi
niment et raliser des prodiges. Robert Lasserre, Etranges Pouvoirs, page 20
[28] Thi Cc gi, ng tm chi thin tm d. Thch th vit: vin gic. o vit Kim an. Nhu vit Thi Cc...
. . . . Liu Dng in vn p thin Thin nht trang
2b.
[29] Thin tm kin nhi thn minh ch h. i ng chn kinh quyn thng trang 5b.

Chng 8. Tng lun


Chng ta bn gii nhiu v Thi Cc. By gi ch cn thu tm v nhc li t nhiu im chnh yu.
1. i vi cc Thnh Hin Trung Quc, Thi Cc sinh xut Vn Hu. Thi Cc va bao qut Vn Hu, va
lng trong vn vt, Vn Hu. Thi Cc l Bn Th ca v tr, bt bin, bt thin, bt sinh, bt hoi, nhng li vn
ch tr mi cuc bin thin ca v tr v ca con ngi.
2. ng v phng din v tr khi nguyn, Dch Kinh ch trng Thi Cc sinh Vn Hu. l Nht
NguynCh Ngha. Thi Cc tuy l Nht, l Nguyn nhng li bin ha, v cng tn. V Thi Cc cng li l
V Cc, l Thn, l Thng , siu xut trn c cu m Dng, cho nn quan nim Thi Cc c th ni c l
hon b hn nhng quan nim Apeiron ca Anaximandre, quan nim Duy linh ca Platon, quan nim Ng Hnh
ca Aristote.
3. Quan nim Thi Cc tng t nh quan nim Atman ca B La Mn, quan nim Logos ca u chu, hay
quan nim ng Christ v tr ca Teilhard de Chardin.
4. V ch trng rng Thi Cc chng nhng l Bn Th ca v tr, m cn l V Cc, l Tri, nn quan
nim Thi Cc khng phi l mt quan nim Trit l thng thng, m cn l mt ti o gio ht sc quan
trng.
5. i vi cc Trit gia Trung quc, Thi Cc tim n ngay trong lng Vn Hu, trong lng con ngi.
Nhng ch c con ngi mi nhn c Chn l y, mi cm thng c vi Thi Cc, mi tr v c vi Cn
nguyn.
6. Nh vy, quan nim Thi Cc m li cho mt phng php tu thn, mt phng php tr v vi Thng
, vi Cn Nguyn gc gc ca mnh. l con ng Hng Ni, con ng Ni Tm m xa nay cc Thnh
Hin khp th gii u nht lut bng qua.
Cho nn mun hc Dch, trc tin phi tm hiu cho rnh r V Cc v Thi Cc. Hiu c iu huyn vi,
o diu ny l hiu c chnh Dch Kinh, v Dch Kinh khng phi l mt quyn sch bi ton nh ngi ta
thng hiu, m chnh l mt phng php chnh yu tm o, tm Tri, tr v vi o, vi Tri
Khng phi nguyn nghe bnh lun, m cn cn phi c tm thn thanh tnh mi hiu c Thi Cc. Tm
thn c thanh tnh, s thy c Thin a Chi Tm, s thy c Thi Cc. [1]
[1] Ng chi thn thanh, tc Thi Cc chi l t minh. Thng nng nht nim bt khi cu cu trng thanh, h
cc tnh c chi thi, tc h tht sinh bch, kim c phi in, phc kin thin a chi tm nhi t minh h.

138

. , , , .
Tnh Mnh Php Quyt, quyn 1, trang 4.

Ph lc 1. T NHIU DANH HIU TNG NG VI THI CC


ANH NG
* Mercurius (Thi Cc)
* Prima materia (Nguyn Th)
* Archetype of the Divine Child (Ha Nhi)
* Anthropos (Chn Nhn)
* Herms (Thi Cc)
* Philosophical Gold (Kim n)
* Quintessence (Tinh)
* Unum, Unica res, Monad (Nht)
* Rebis (Thi Cc)
* The Drug of Immortality (Trng Sinh Dc)
* Lapis Philosophorum (Ngc Chu Vin Gic) [1]
* The Universel Self (Ton Nht) (162) [2]
* The One (Plotinus and theVedanta) (162) (Nht)
* The Divine Unity (Thi Nht) (Eckhart, Ruysbroeck) (162)
* The Dazzling Obscurity (Suso) (162) (Yu Minh)
* Vacuum Plenum (W.T. Stace) (162) (H Thc X)
* The Divine Ground (Chn Th) (175)
* The En Sof ( t) (177)
* The Hidden God (Tri n) (177)
* The Infinite Cosmic Self (i Ng V Tr) (178)
* The Very Reality (Chn) (170)
* The All Good (Ch Thnh - Ch Thin) (170)
* The Primal Being (Nguyn Th) (185) [3]
PHP NG
* Nature Naturans (L Nng Sinh) [4]
* Matrice matrielle (Cn Nguyn)
* Racine (Cn Bn)
* Prana (Thn Kh)
* Purushattama
* Suprme Purusha (Chn Nhn)
* Alaya
* Avalokileshvara
* Padmapani
* Psych (Tm)
139

* Anima Mundi (Thin a Chi Tm)


* Christ
* me Universelle (V Tr Tm)
* Monade (Nguyn Th)
* Purusha lHomme (Chn Nhn)
* Chrestos, Homme Divin (Chn Nhn)
* Sagesse (Tu, Gic, v.v.. ) [5]
CH THCH
[1] Cc danh t trn trch trong C.G. Jung Psychology and Alchemy on. The Prima Matria t trang 304
n 331.
[2] Cc s Rp l s trang trong quyn W.T. Stace, Mysticism and Philosophy.
[3] Cc danh t trn y trch trong W.T. Stace. Mysticism and Philosophy. Cc s Rp trong ngoc l s
trang trong sch Mysticism and Philosophy.
[4] T y sp xung, cc danh t u trch trong A Tanon - Thosophie et Science t trang 55 n trang 64.
[5] Nhng t ng trn trch trong sch A. Tanon - Thosophie et Science t trang 55 n trang 64.

Ph lc 2. T NHIU BI TH VNH THI CC


I
Thi Cc, Kim n c khc g [1]
Tinh ton vng vc, ta quang huy [2]
Ni y sc khng, khng mc mu [3]
Quang minh mun tha, chng suy vi [4]
II
Thi Cc u nh Thin a Tm,[5]
M tri dng t h qua phn [6]
Chia chia, hp hp, ty thi tit [7]
Mun vn chuyn dch vn m rm [8]
III
Cnh ca m Dng, cnh ca Tri [9]
p m Thi Cc, h chia phi [10]
Huyn Quan, m hi ni u t?
Gia lng tri t, gia lng ngi
IV
Lo t gip ta m ca tri,
Cn Khn hp tch thu c ngi.
Bng qua Qui, Tng vo Tm im,
Gc gc Trng Sinh, r chn ni [11]
V
i o cn c, t k hay,
140

Trong tm chng kim, kim ng Ty,


Ta nay ch r Thn Tin x,
Thi Cc trng trn chng vn my [12]
VI
Phn minh, bin ha ti trung ng,
Chn y, Huyn Chu vn n tng.
Phn bn, qui cn, manh mi l
Th Trung, Bo Nht, c lo lng [13]
VII
Phanh phui, rng m Khiu Huyn Nguyn,
Vo ni hn n, thu u huyn.
nh em nc la v on t.
Quyt bt h long, phc cu uyn [14]
VIII
Thi Cc, Chn Tm ca t tri,
m Dng bin ha, y c ngi [15]
C mu To ha, bng thng t [16]
Vn Tng mi manh, ht ri bi [17]
IX
To ha khng Cn ,
m Dng c Bn Nguyn
C vi huyn nhim y,
Ph t chng tng truyn
X
V hnh, v tng, m mng
Mt m, m vn sng trng, rng ngi.
Xy vn vn tng, vn loi,
Hip ha T Tng, mun i quang hoa.
Ng Hnh thu li mt nh
Tam hoa hi t, sng la v bin.
CH THCH
[1] Kim gi kin cng, vnh cu bt hoi chi vt. n gi vin mn quang tnh v khuy chi vt. C Tin t Kim
n chi danh d d Bn Lai Vin Minh Chn Linh Chi Tnh d. Th Tnh ti Nhu tc danh Thi Cc, ti
Thch tc danh Vin Gic, ti o tc danh Kim n. . .
. . Tng
Ngn Ph Nghi, quyn h, trang 1.
[2] Vin , quang chc chc. .
Tnh kha kha, xch si si. . Ib. 1a.
[3] Sc khng bt trc. . Ib 1a.
141

[4] Thnh minh kim cai. . Ib. 1a.


[5] Thi Cc gi thin tm d. . o Nguyn Tinh Vi Ca, quyn h, 52a.
[6] Ph sn vn vt gi, do th Thi Cc chi trung nht im dng tinh pht sinh. ,
. o Nguyn Tinh Vica, quyn h, trang 52a.
[7] Hp chi, thin a ng nht Thi Cc, phn chi, vn vt cc nht Thi Cc, nhi Thi Cc h phn chi hu.
, . Xng o Chn Ngn, trang 8b.
[8] Vit V Cc nhi Thi Cc, To ha lu hnh chi th, v thi hu tc. , ,
. T V Lng, TQTHS III, thng, trang 9.
[9] Nguyn Quan tc Nguyn Tn chi bit danh, nhn k m Dng ti th, c v Nguyn Tn Mn. Nhn k
nguyn diu bt trc, c v Nguyn Quan khiu. , , .
. Tng Ngn Ph Nghi, quyn h, trang 2a.
[10] Th khiu phi phm khiu,

Cn Khn cng hp thnh,

Danh vi thn kh huyt,

Ni hu Khm Ly tinh.

Tng Ngn Ph Nghi, quyn h, trang 2a.


[11] Phng theo bi th sau, trong Kim n i Thnh Tp, tr. 10a.
Lo T minh khai chng diu mn,

Nht khai nht hp ng Cn Khn

Qu vng tng v hnh x,

Hu c trng sinh bt t cn .

[12] Phng theo bi th trong Kim n i Thnh Tp, trang 12a


i o cn kinh thc gi hi,
Thng nhn nht dng thc nng tri

V qun ch xut thn tin qut

Nht khiu loan loan t nguyt mi .

[13] Phng theo bi th trong Kim n i Thnh Tp, trang 13a


Nht nh Phc Lm dng ha,

Th k mc dc tim tng

Phn minh bin ha ti trung ng,

Kt tu huyn chu phin hng.

Hon phn, qui cn, thot th


Th thnh bo nht phng

Hunh nh lai vng th tm thng

Hong ht chi trung tng phng .

[14] Phng theo mt bi th trong Hon Nguyn Thin, trang 2a:


Tc ph huyn nguyn khiu,
Xung khai hn n quan,
n tri phanh thy ha

142

Nht nhim h long bn.

[15]To ha v Cn
m Dng hu Bn Nguyn

Gi ta chn din x

Ph t bt tng truyn

Hon Nguyn Thin, trang 3a.


[16] Thin c thm vin, huyn diu nan trc. . Kim n i Thnh Tp, trang 21a.
[17] Cu phi ng hiu m Dng, thm t To ha, an nng tc khai hn n, thi thin a ph mu chi cn,
nhi vi i n chi c. , , , , . Ib.
20b.

Sch tham kho


Cc tn sch vit tt trong thin kho lun.
H C R O P C Histoire des Croyances Religieuses et des Opinions Philosophiques en Chine.
AIT.

Aitareya Upanishad.

B.A.V

Brhadaranyaka Upanishad Trad. E. Senart ,

BRIH.

Nh trn

CH.U.

Chandogya Upanishad. CHAND Traduction E. Senart, Paris 1930

K.U.

Kathaka ou Katha Upanishad Publie et Traduite par L. Renou, Paris 1943

MAITRI UP.

Maitri Upanishad.

P.U.

Prana Upanishad d. et traduite par J. Bousquet Paris 1948

T.N.H.A.

Tng Nguyn Hc n

T.Q.T.H.S.

Trung Quc Trit Hc S

T.M.K.C.

Tnh Mnh Khu Ch

T.M.P.Q.M.C

Tnh Mnh Php Quyt Minh Ch

X..C.N.

Xng o Chn Ngn

A. PHP VN
Etranges Pouvoirs Robert Lasserre
Heraclite Shri Aurobindo
Hraclite et la Philosophie Kostas Alexos
Instant et Cause Lilian Silburn
La Bible de Jrusalem
La Mdecine Chinoise
La Sainte Bible Crampon
La Religion Essentielle Illan de Casa Fuerte
La Voie Rationnelle de Dr J. Choain
Le Philosophe Tchou Hi Stanislas de Gall
Le Zodiaque M. Senard
Les Secrets de lAtome Edition Ren Kester
143

Paris 1934

Les Sept Valles Balla'u'llh


Sagesse Chinoise et Henri Bernard Matre philosophie Chrtienne
Science et Matrialisme Recherches et Dbats Arthme Fayard.
Teilhard de Chardin Jean Onimus
Textes Philosophiques Lon Wieger.
Thosophie et Science A. Tanon
B. ANH VN
Basic Teaching of the Great S.E. Frost, Jr.
Mysticism and Philosophy W.T. Stace
Philosophers
Psychology and Alchemy C.G. Jung
The Thirteen Upanishads Robert Ernest Hume
C. HN VN
Chu Dch i Ton
Chu Dch Xin Chn Lu Nht Minh
i ng Chn Kinh
o D Lc o H T
o c Kinh Lo t
ng Huyn Linh Bo nh Quan Kinh
Ging o Tinh Hoa Lc Vn o T
Hunh nh Kinh gii Lu nht Minh
Liu dng in Vn p Thin
Nhp Dc Knh
Sao Kiu ng Chng
Thi Cc Quyn Bng Thuyt
Trung Dung
Trung Dung Hoc Vn Chu Hi
Trung quc Trit Hc S Phng Hu Lan
Trung quc Trit Hc S T v Lng
Tu Chn Bt T Phng
Tng Ngn Ph Nghi
Xng o Chn Ngn
D. HN VIT
Qui Nguyn Trc Ch thiu Lng (dch)
E. VIT VN
Kinh Dch Ng tt T (dch)
Tng Nho Bu Cm

Phn 5 H
144

Chng 1. Xut x
Bt k quyn Kinh Dch no cng c hnh v H ni u sch, nh vy chng minh H c lin
quan mt thit n Kinh Dch.
Nhng n khi gii thch H , th thng cc tc gi gii thch mt cch s lc phin din, nn rt cuc
ngi c khng nhn thc c nhng ngha l su xa ca H . C hai li gii thch H :
Mt l li hc ng, khoa c. l ng li Nho gia chn.
Hai l li siu hnh, o gio, l ng li o gia theo.
Gii thch theo li hc ng, mi u xem ra c v chnh thng, l s nhng cui cng chng gip ta thm
kin thc l bao. Gii thch theo li siu hnh, o gio, mi u tng nh khng c chnh thng, nhng thc
ra gip ta tho g c nhng then cht, phanh phui c nhng huyn vi ca H .
Mun tm li gii thch vn hc, ta ch vic c:
Dch Kinh i Ton,
Dch Kinh Th Ch,
Dch Kinh c Bn v.v..
Mun tm li gii thch siu hnh, o gio, ta phi c:
Chu Dch Xin Chn (Lu Nht Minh),
Tinh Hoa Lc (Vn o T),
Tham ng Kh (Ngy B Dng).
Thin kho lun ny s bao qut c hai li gii thch .
XUT X CA H
Tc truyn, i vua Phc Hi c con Long m hin ra ni sng Mnh H, trn lng c mang mt hnh , v
vy gi l H . [1]
[1] H xut , Lc xut Th, Thnh nhn tc chi. .
Dch Kinh Bn Ngha, Mc H & H T Thng Truyn, chng 10.

Chng 2. Cu to ca H
H nguyn thy ch c 55 im en trng phn phi nh sau:

Cc nh Huyn Hc Lo Gio dn d thm vo c bn H :


1. Ng Hnh, Thp Can
145

2. Ng Nguyn, ng c
3. Ng Tc, Ng Vt
lp thnh nhng H bin ch nh sau:

A. C H

B. Hu Thin m Ng Hnh

C. Tin Thin Dng Ng Hnh

D. Sinh S m Dng Ng Hnh Hn Hp


146

Chng 3. i cng
A. H gm 55 im en trng chia thnh chn l, m Dng.
Dng s: 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 = 25
m s: 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 + 10 = 30
Tc l chn nhiu hn l, m nhiu hn Dng, vi ng :
m phi bao bc cho Dng tn qu bn trong, m ti tin bn ngoi. m chnh ra phi ng vai b phu,
v bc, vai khch. m Dng mi l ch ng, ct cn.
Tuy nhin, nhn vo H ta thy:
Bn pha phi, cc s l 7 v 9 (Dng) li bn ngoi, cc s chn 2 v 4 (m) li bn trong.
bn tri, th ngc li: Cc s l 1, 3 (Dng) pha trong, cc s chn 6, 8 (m) pha ngoi.[1]

Cc nh bnh gii mun thot ng b, mi ngh rng: H phi coi cc s sinh 1, 2, 3, 4 bn trong l
Dng, cc s thnh 6, 7, 8, 9 bn ngoi l m.
Nh vy Dng s bn trong, m s bn ngoi, tng trng nh m Dng giao thi. [2]
Gii thch rng trong l ch, ngoi l khch, th
ng. Nhng ni trong l Dng, m ngoi l m e ch ng mt na. Thc vy, Kinh Dch trc sau vn
ch trng cc s 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 l Dng s; 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 l m s. [3] Cho nn c l, nn gii thch nh sau:
H cng nh Dch Kinh lun ch trng: m Dng bt trc, m Dng h vi k cn, cho nn d nhin
c hai chiu, hai mt, hai ch trng i lp: [4]
Na phi: m ch, Dng khch
m trm, Dng ph
Tng trng: m Dng bt giao (B)
Na tri: Dng ch, m khch
Dng trm, m ph
147

Tng trng: m Dng tng giao (Thi)


Li gii thch ny cho ta thy li kt cu H cng y thc nh vng Dch Tin Thin, m Dng p i
ngi v ch khch, ph trm. N hp vi Dch l v cho ta thy i tuy c hai chiu, hai mt nhng nhng con
ngi bit suy t phi bit in o m Dng phn cu hon, xoay tr m Dng tr v qu hng gc
gc. Ni cch khc, phi bit in o thu Dng Thn vo bn trong ng cho tinh thn ph phim tn
lon ra bn ngoi, bi v:
Anh hoa pht tit ra ngoi,
Nghn thu bc Mnh mt i ti hoa [5]
B. H chuyn v thng, Lc th chuyn v bin.
V chuyn v thng, nn H cho ta thy:
1. Bn th chn thng, ng thp c trung ca v tr.
2. Cc tiu chun bin thin tin ha bng cch trnh by 4 trng thi tng i, tng phn nhau tng i
mt. ni trong vng bin thin c nhng giai on i lp, i nh nhau, v c cu vn hu cng hm tng
nhng mu thun ni ti. Cho nn thnh suy thng trm l l t nhin ca Tri t.
Nguyn l c trnh by nh sau:

Trong , Thy Ha mu thun i lp nhau, Kim Mc mu thun xung khc nhau. Hai i mu thun
c t vo nhng phng v i xng, i nh.
3. H ch s ton thin, ton bch, lc chung cuc nn c 10 con s, v em s 10 t li vo Trung
Cung, ni Thin a tun hon chung nhi phc thy. [6]
CH THCH
[1] Thi Cc chi tin, m dng h Dng, Thi Cc chi hu, Dng thng h m. ,
. i ng Chn Kinh, trang 19.
[2] D k ni gi vi ch, nhi ti ngoi gi thnh chi d. . Dch Kinh i Ton,
trang 19.
[3] Cf. Dch Kinh c Bn, trang 1, chng thuyt. H T thng, chng 8, trang 99.
[4] Hai chiu, hai mt y c th hin bng hai quan nim sau y: mt l ngoi cnh, hnh hi, h tr ni gii
tinh thn, hai l tm thn n l cho hnh hi, ngoi cnh.
a. C hu vi v chi cung, hnh ni thn chi tht. . Ch Chn Ng Lc, trang 2
b. Thn vi tm dch, tm vi vt khin. . Thi Thng Lo Qun Thuyt ThngThanh
Tnh Kinh Ch, tr 2.
[5] Kiu.
[6] Thin a ng lu nhi nh phn bt Dch d. t k ton d th nhn, nhi o k thng gi. S ch thp nhi
thy ton. Khuyt nht tc bt ton h. . . .
. Dch Kinh i Ton, trang 21.
148

Chng 4. H vi khoa s hc
Cc Trit gia i Tng cho rng: H hnh trn tng trng cho thin tng, cho tinh t.[1] V vy cc s
trong H c th dng cho lch s. Theo Chu T:
S 1, 2 dng phn m Dng, Cng Nhu.
S 5, 6 dng lm lch s.
S 9, 10 dng nh chu k thng nhun. [2]
Nh vy, Chu T cp n 3 vn :
1. Vn Nht Th Lng Din ca v tr
Theo Chu T, s 1 v 2 tng trng cho Dng v m tc l hai chiu hai mt ca v tr. V tr lun bin
thin theo hai chiu khc nhau, nht phc nht khi, nht tiu nht tc, nh vy bin ha s v cng tn.
Nu v tr ch bin ha theo mt chiu th th no cng c lc tn th.
Trong th k XIX, khoa hc tng v tr ch tin ha c mt chiu hng, theo nguyn l II Carnot-Clausius.
Theo nguyn l ny th ng lc ngy mt tiu hao, v c mt lc no s trit tiu. Khi y v tr s tr nn im
lm, tnh lng, lnh lng. [3]
Nhng sang th k XX, vi quan nim tng i ca Einstein, [4]nguyn l bt nh ca Heisenberg, [5]
phng trnh phn phc ca Dirac, [6] quan nim nht th lng din ca Louis de Broglie, [7]nhiu nh bc hc
trong c Lecomte du Noy [8] nhn nh phi c mt chiu tin ha ngc li vi nguyn l Carnot.
Lecomte du Noy ch trng tinh thn v vt cht tin ha ngc chiu nhau, nn khi tinh thn ln n cc im
tinh hoa, th vt cht s trit tiu ph tn. [9]
S d c hai chiu, hai hng tin ha, bin thin l v tinh thn vt cht chng qua cng ch l hai mt ca
mt thc th duy nht. [10]
Theo khoa hc hin i, th nng lc c th bin thnh vt cht, vt cht c th bin thnh nng lc. [11]
Th l thuyt m Dng ca Chu ngy nay c khoa hc u M xc nhn.
2. S 5 v s 6 vi lch s
Chng ta hy kho st nh hng ca hai con s 5 v 6 trong lch s.
Trn thc t th v s bin chuyn c hai chiu m Dng, nn s 5 v 6 thng c nhn 2 thnh 10 v 12.
Xa 10 l mt tun 10 ngy.
10 l Thp Can
12 l Lc Lut (Dng),v Lc L (m).
* Lc Lut (Dng) l: 1/ Hong chung (Do),
2/ Thi thc (Re), 3/ C Ty (Mi), 4/ Nhy tn (Fa#),
5/ Di tc (Sol#), 6/ V Dch (La#)
* Lc L (m) l: 1/ i L (Do #), 2/Gip Chung (Re#), 3/ Trng L (Fa), 4/Lm Chung (Sol), 5/ Nam L
(La), 6/ ng Chung (Si)
Theo Trung Hoa 12 l 12 gi mt ngy (2 gi Trung Hoa xa l 1 gi u Chu)
Mt nm c 360 ngy: (5 x 6) (6 x 2),
24 tit (mi tit l 15 ngy), 24 x 15 = 360)
72 hu (mi hu l 5 ngy (72 x = 360)
C 60 nm (6 x 10 = 5 x 12 = 60) l mt Hoa Gip.
149

Mt tri qua mt cung Hong o mt 2160 nm (360 x 6), i mt vng 12 cung Hong o mt 25920 nm
(360 x 72).
Mt Nguyn theo Trung Hoa l 129600 nm (360 x 360): Con s 129600 rt l v:
129600 nm l mt Nguyn (12 hi)
129600 thng l mt Hi (30 vn)
129600 ngy l mt Vn (12 th)
129600 gi l mt Th K (30 nm)
129600 phn l mt Nm (12 thng)
129600 ly l mt Thng (30 ngy)
129600 ho l mt Ngy (12 gi)
129600 ti l mt Gi [12]
3. S 19 (10+9) vi php tnh Thng Nhun
Mt nm Dng Lch c 365 ngy 235/940.
Mt nm m Lch ch c 354 ngy 348/940.
Nh vy mi nm, Dng lch v m lch chnh nhau: 10 ngy 827/940
V vy phi lp thng nhun cho m lch.
Kinh nghim cho thy, trong mt vng 19 nm nu thm vo m lch 7 thng nhun, [13] th sau 19 nm, m
lch v Dng lch li c cng mt ngy thng nh nhau. l Chu k Mton.
Ngoi ba trng hp p dng S hc ca H i tm cc nh lut ca tri t k trn, theo nhn nh
ca Chu T, ta c th dng 10 con s H tm ra nhiu nh lut v tr khc. y ch xin dn thm t nhiu v
d:
1. 18 nm (10 + 8) l Chu k Saros (18 nm 11 ngy cho ta chu k cc Nht thc, Nguyt thc. Trong 18
nm c 70 ln Nht thc, Nguyt thc. Ht 18 nm li tr li nh c.
2. Ta c th dng cp s nhn ca 2 m tnh ra khong cch gia cc hnh tinh v mt tri theo nh nh lut
Bode. Ta vit:
0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128.
on nhn cho 3:
0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384.
on cng vi 4:
4, 7, 10, 16, 28, 52, 100, 196, 388.
on chia cho 10:
0, 4, 0, 7, 1, 1, 6, 2, 8, 5, 2, 10, 19, 6, 38, 8.
Ta c: [14]

Tn cc hnh tinh
Thy tinh
Kim tinh
Tri t
Ha tinh
Crs
Mc tinh

Mercury
Venus
Terre
Mars
Crs
Jupiter

Khong cch i khiKhong cch tht s theo


theo li ton trn
khoa hc
0,4
0,3871
0,7
0,723
1
1
1,6
1,523
2,8
2,77
5,2
5,202
150

Th tinh
Thin vng tinh
Hi vng tinh

Sature
Uranus
Neptune

10
19,6
38,8

9,554
19,21
30,10

4. T Tng v V tr vn vt
H dng cc con s 1, 2, 3, 4 ch c cu vn vt 6, 7, 8, 9 ch s bin thin ca vn vt.
Theo cc nh Huyn Hc u Chu th T Tng ch l bin thi ca mt thc th duy nht. [15]
Theo Pythagore, th bn con s 1, 2, 3, 4 tng trng v tr v s vn chuyn ca vn hu.
1, 2, 3, 4 l 4 trng thi biu dng s pht hin ca Thng . H vit

Nhng ch Do Thi y l:
Yod
Yod - He
Yod - He -Vau
Yod - He Vau - He[16]
Vit thnh vng trn ta c:

m Yod He Vau tc l YHVE (YAHVE, JEHOVAH).


Mn phi Pythgore gi hnh T Tng l Ttractys hay Tetragrammaton.
V T Tng phn b ra bn phng c ngha l v tr chuyn ha khng ngng. [17]
Khng i su hn vo vn S hc, ta thy rng H vi nhng con s c th cho ta bit nhiu huyn c
v tr, hn na ta cng thy rng trn nhng vn cn bn, ng Ty chng khc chi nhau.
CH THCH
[1] Thiu t vit: Vin gi tinh d, lch k chi s k triu th h. : , .
Dch Kinh i Ton, trang 17.
[2]Dch Kinh i Ton, trang 17.
[3] La deuxime loi, celle de Carnot-Clausius permettait de comparer l'coulement de l'nergie dans l'Univers
celui d'un fleuve dont le courant descend le plus aisment du monde, mais qu'il est plus difficile de remonter.
Pierre Rousseau, Histoire de la Science, p. 594.
[4] Thorie de relativit.
[5] Principe d'intterminisme de Heisenberg.
151

[6] L'quation de Dirac pour la matire se trouve compltement rversible. Lecomte du Noy - L'homme devant
la Science p. 109.
[7] Associer, dans tous les cas, l'onde la particule, qu'il s'agisse de la lumire ou de la matire, telle fut l'ide
gniale qui guida l'illustre savant (Louis de Broglie) et l'amena en quatre ans, mettre debout la mcanique
ondulatoire... La physique tait unifie, il n'y avait plus dsormais qu'un seul code rgissant l'univers, qu'une
seule entit lmentaire dans la nature, entit double face, qu'il tait tantt commode de baptiser onde tantt
plus commode de baptiser particule. Pierre Rousseau, Histoire de la Science - page 777.
[8] Cf Lecomte du Noy, L'Homme devant la Science, L'Avenir de l'Esprit, la Dignit Humaine, L'homme et sa
Destine.
[9] Ainsi la marche de l'univers physique dans la direction d'un chaos inerte et du nant serait compense par la
progression parallle d'un univers impondrable, celui de l'esprit, dont l'ordre et la perfection natraient des
cendres du monde matriel...
Finalement dans un univers refroidi, chaotique, ananti o aucune action physique ne sera plus possible, existerait
un ordre parfait, spirituel, affranchi de toutes chanes matrielles, L'ordre du dbut, purement matriel
aboutissant un ordre de qualit plus haute pour finir...
Le fait curieux est que si l'on exprime par deux nombres les variations des deux processus contraires, leur produit
est constant. Lecomte du Nouy, L'homme devant Science - page 109.
[10] Matire et Esprit, crit le P. Teilhard en 1950, non point deux choses mais deux tats, deux faces d'une mme
toffe cosmique suivant qu'on la regarde ou qu'on le prolonge dans le sens o elle se fait ou au contraire dans
le sens suivant lequel elle se dfait. Jean Onimus, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin,- page 81.
[11] La masse tait gnratrice d'nergie, et celle-ci inversement, devait possder une masse, autrement dit, la
lumire, la chaleur, les rayons X devaient avoir un certain poids, c'est--dire encore qu'nergie et masse
devaient tre une seule et mme chose, les deux faces d'une mme mdaille... Pierre Rousseau, Histoire de
la Science, page 756.
[12] Cf. Louis Chochod, Hu la Mystrieuse, trang 51.
Cf. Louis Raoul Auclair, Le Livre des Cycles, page 178.
[13] Thng nhun c thm vo cc nm th 3, 6, 9, 11, 14, 17, 19 ca mi chu k Mton. Nh vy 19 nm m
lch s c 235 thng.
[14] 1 l khong cch gia tri t v mt tri khong 150,000,000 km. (149,500,000 km) Cf. Astonomie
Populaire, Flammarion, trang 664 - 665 v 299 - 300.
[15] Ce qu'ici-bas nous nommons par ces termes (Quatre lments) sont les ressemblances et pour tout dire les
vtements dans le monde physique, de ces quatre Principes, de ces quatre Etats, de ces quatre Normes que
sont les quatre Elments. Raoul Auclair, Le Livre des Cycles p. 143.
[16] Cf. Mackey's revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry Volume 11, page 1033. Raoul Auclair, Le Livre des
Cycles, page 175.
[17] Pythagoras having learned in Egypt the name of the true God, the Mysterious and Ineffable Name Jehovah,
and finding that in the original tongue, it was composed of four letters translated it into his own language by
the word Tetractys, and gave the true explanation of it, saying that it properly signified the source of nature
that properly rollsalong. (Dacier)...

152

... I swear it by Him who has transmitted into our soul the sacred Tetractys. The source of nature, whose
course is eternal (Jamblichus - Life of Pythagoras)
Cf. Mackey's Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry - Volume II p. 1033.

Chng 5. Lin lc gia h , Bt Qui, v Lc Th

Bt Qui

H c Thi Cc, Lng Nghi, T Tng, Bt Qui.


Thi Cc

= 5 + 10

Lng Nghi

a) Dng Nghi: 1 + 3 + 7 + 9 = 20
b) m Nghi:

T Tng

2 + 4 + 6 + 8 = 20

= 1 + 6; 2 + 7; 3 + 8; 4 + 9
153

Bt Qui

= 7, 2, 8, 3, 6, 1, 9, 4

Mun c Bt Qui ta ch vic a 4 con s bn trong vo 4 phng Bng (T Duy) theo chiu nghch kim
ng h:
7
2
83
1
6

Cn
7
oi 2
Ly 8
Chn 3
6
Khn

49

4 Tn
9 Khm
1 Cn

Mun c Lc Th, ta:


1. B s 10 Trung cung
2. o ln 2 cp s 4/9 v 2/7 vi nhau
3. t cc s chn vo bn phng bng (t duy) theo chiu nghch kim ng h. Ta s c:
7
2
83
1
6

5/10

49

9
4
83
1
6

27

9
4
2
3
5
7
8
6
1
Th l Kim Ha i ngi, v chiu vn dng ca Lc Th s theo chiu Ng Hnh tng khc.

tc l chiu m ca cc v sao trong T Vi.


H ch sinh. Lc Th ch khc.
H v tu ni, mc ch gip con ngi tr thnh thn thnh.
Lc Th ch tr ngoi, gip con ngi sng an vui hnh phc. Cc bc Thnh vng nhn Lc Th lm
ra Hng Phm Cu Tr dy cc bc vng phng php t gia, tr quc, bnh thin h. (Xem quyn Khng
Hc Tinh Hoa ca tc gi.)

Chng 6. Nhng vn siu hnh tng n trong H


Trong H tng n nhiu b quyt siu hnh, nhiu vn trit l, nhn sinh, o gio.
Chng ta s ln lt kho cu t nhiu vn then cht sau y:
1. Trung Cung, Trung im hay Bn Th V tr.
2. Chu Vi hay l Vn Hu vi Nguyn L Din Dch Tun Hon.
154

3. Quan nim m Dng, hay Nht Th Lng Din.


4. Nguyn tc sinh thnh hay l s cng tc ca m Dng, ca tinh thn vt cht, thc hin i cng ca
v tr.
5. Cc hnh thi hay cc tng lp con ngi theo H .
6. Quan nim Thin Nhn Tng D theo H .
7. To ha Qui Trung Chi Diu theo H .

1. Trung Cung, Trung im hay l Bn Th ca V tr


Kinh Dch ch dng c my bn H , Lc Th v cc ha bn Dch m mc nhin cp c ht
cc vn :
a) Cn Nguyn, Cng ch ca vn vt
b) S bin thin: Cc giai on bin thin, v chiu hng bin thin ca vn vt. [1]
Tt c cc ha bn u din t mt chn l siu vit: Vn vt t mt thc th siu vi sinh xut, bin ha mun
vn, thi trin ht mi kh nng, tn dng mi kt qu, ri cui cng li tr v Cn Nguyn bn th.
V tr du tn phn, phng pht bao nhiu chng na ri ra cng qui v i th siu vi.
Phn tn th chu lu cng v tr, thu lim th kt t trong tm im t vi. [2]
C bit nh: Nht th bin Vn th, Vn th qui Nht th, c bit nh bin ha tun hon, phn phc,
phng ng, di lu, ri li qui cn, phn bn, th mi hiu c vi ca cc ha bn H , Lc Th v Dch.
i th, Bn Th Bt Kh T Ngh y cc nh Huyn Hc Nho, Lo gng p m t cho nhng tn Thi
Cc o v gng p tng trng bng nhng s nhng hnh.

Thi Cc

trong Dch

Ng trong Lc Th
Ng thp trong H .
Theo cng khun mu y cc khoa Thin vn, a l, Nhn sinh cng ch trng:
1. Trung tm tri l Thin Khu [3], Thin Cc, Bc Cc hay T Vi cung [4].
Trung im t theo quan nim Trung Hoa l ni Cn Ln [5].
Trung im trong con ngi l: N Hon Cung, Cn Ln, Cc Thn hay Thin Cc v.v.. [6]
Nh vy ng thp c trung trong H l bn th, tc l Thi Cc. [7]
5 v 10 l s i thnh bao qut m Dng:
5=1+4
5=2+3
15 = 6 + 9
15 = 7 + 8
cng nh 5 v 10 phn tn ra t phng s sinh ra cc s m Dng bn ngoi, Thi Cc cng sinh xut
mun vt.

155

Cho nn bt k trong mt bn no, Trung Cung, Trung im cng tng trng cho Thi Cc, Cn nguyn
sinh xut mun vt v cng l ni giao hi, qui hon ca vn vt:
Mi hay:
Con con chu chu vn vng,
ng, Ty, Nam, Bc bn phng hi u.
Cn, Khn, Ly, Khm gp nhau,
Hp thnh mt khi, gt u chng phn.
Th l thn kh qui cn,
Mt lo khinh khot, bng chng h v.
m Dng thng l, hip ha,
S cng to ha vo ra mun i. [8]
C nhn dng Trung Cung, Trung im tng trng cho Thi Cc, cho Bn Th ca v tr l mt s kin
hin nhin c minh chng chng nhng bng H , m cn bng Lc Th, v cc bn ca Dch.
Cao tng Diu H vit:
n c th trung v qui ngi.
Thin nhin bn th t h khng [9].
Tm dch:
c Trung, l ht li thi.
Thin nhin, Bn th t tri l Trung.
i ng Chn Kinh cn ghi:Tm cn bn phi tm ni Thi Cc [10]
Hiu c ng thp ca H tc l i su vo lng su mun vt, tm ra vi diu ca Cn Khn, hay Ngc
Chu ca To Ha.
C khai ph Huyn nguyn tam ng
Mi tm ra To ha khu chng
Huyn c Tri trung ng,
Gn trong gang tc, chng vng tng hnh.[11]

2. Chu vi H hay l Vn hu vi Nguyn l Din Dch tun hon


H ch mi c t chnh m khng c t duy nn chnh l mt vng trn, m vng trn l tng trng cho
s tun hon bin Dch.
H xt v phng din ng hnh c th n gin ha nh sau:
Nam
Ha
ng

Mc Th

Kim Ty

Thy
Bc
Nhn vo bn ny ta thy hnh ch thp:

156

Trong Thy Ha chng i nhau nh di vi trn, nh Nam vi Bc, Kim Mc chng i nhau nh T
vi Hu, nh ng vi Ty. Tc l trong s bin Dch c tung honh thun nghch, phi c th i thnh tri, di
c th o ln trn.
Trong tri t, v trong x hi ta cng thy y nhng hin tng i i, phn phc: ng m sng, th Ty
ti; Bc lm t, Nam lm bin; c lc c nhn c trng, c khi on th c trng; c thi, vua l trng, c
thi, dn mi qu; c ni tinh thn c sng thng, c ch vt cht c suy tn; tt c u ty ni, ty thi.
L thun nghch (Tng), i i (Thc ) ca H
c tng trng bng hai cp mu thun:
Kim

Mc

Thy

Ha

v c Dch kinh tng trng bng:


28 cp qu phn phc (Tng)
4 cp qu i i (Thc) [12]
Ngay trong ngn ng, t ng cng c nhiu ch ch, gi ra s i i, thun nghch.
V d: L mt, l tri;
Xoay x, Lt lng;
o in, Phn phc.
hay cch ni li trong ting Vit, cc loi vn bin ngu, cu i. Trong ch Hn cng c nhng loi ch o
in, phn phc, i i.
V d: Co = Sng sa, Yu = M mt
Thng = Trn, H = Di
Hu = Phi, T = Tri
Dit = Li, o = Lm
Tng = Na tri, Phin = Na phi [13]
Suy ra mun bin ha phi bit nh in o, thun nghch. p dng vo con ngi mun c mt i
sng l tng, phi bit ty nh cu, khuynh hng, ty thi gian, tui tc m bit lc no phi trng vt cht, lc
no phi trng tinh thn. Ni chung t b n ln, con ngi cng ngy cng hng ngoi, i tm vt cht, tm cm
o a v, t ln n gi cng ngy cng hng ni, i tm tinh thn, v cc gi tr siu nhin.
chnh l chiu hng bin ha ca H :
Tin v vt cht trc (Thoi ha)
Tin v tinh thn sau (Tin ha) rt ro tr v Trung Cung Thi Cc.[14]

l tin ha theo chiu Dng, chiu Ng Hnh tng sinh, chiu i v hng tinh thn ngc li vi chiu
tin ha ca Lc Th tc l chiu m, chiu Ng Hnh tng khc, chiu i v vt cht, ngoi cnh.
157

Nu tri t ch bin ha mt chiu th s c lc cng, nhng v lun lun bin ha theo hai chiu, hai hng
cho nn lc no cng c mt bn tng, mt bn gim, bn tiu, bn tc, thnh th du bin ha my, ton bch vn
y nguyn, khng vi, khng cn.
Suy ra trong v tr, s bin ha lun c hai chiu hai hng: Tinh t vn chuyn theo hai chiu thun nghch,
o gio v Chnh tr theo ui nhng mc ch ngc nhau, con ngi c hng ngoi, hng ni, vt cht c t,
c tn, v.v..
Trong chiu bin ha ca Lc Th, ng lc ngy mt gim, h lc ngy mt tng theo Nguyn l Nhit lc
II ca Carnot-Clausius. [15]
Trong chiu bin ha ca H , ng lc ngy mt tng, h lc ngy mt gim.

3. Quan nim Thi Cc, m Dng, hay Nht Th Lng Din


S bin ha theo hai chiu hng i nghch nhau, truy k nguyn l v c cu v tr c t chc theo
hai hnh thc i nhau. l quan nim Thi Cc Lng Nghi, Nht Th Lng Din ca Dch kinh. H
tng trng quan nim ny bng s nh sau:
5=2+3
5=4+1
Dch kinh vit:
Nht m, nht Dng chi v o.
Nu vit thnh phng trnh ta s c
o = m + Dng
Thi Cc = m + Dng [16]
Mun hiu b quyt Dch, khng c coi m, Dng l hai thc th i lp, m l hai phng din ca mt
thc th, hai chiu hng ca mt vng tun hon.
Thy H Thin vit: Thc ra, hai ch m Dng ch l mt vt. [17] Cho nn m Dng ch l hai chiu hai
mt ca mt Thc th l Thi Cc. Thi Cc tuy l Cn Nguyn ca m Dng, nhng Thi Cc siu xut trn
m Dng, bao qut m Dng.
S 5 l phi m, phi Dng v bao qut m Dng: 5 = 2 + 3 = 1 + 4 [18]
C nhn cho rng Thi Cc tc l Thn, Thn
tc Thi Cc cho nn Thn cng siu xut m Dng,
nng m, nng Dng, v th nn H T vit: m Dng bt trc chi v Thn. [19]
Khoa hc ngy nay tin dn ti quan nim nht th lng din, Thi Cc m Dng ca Dch kinh, v
ca H .
158

Thc vy, theo thuyt tng i ca Einstein th nng lc c th bin thnh vt cht, vt cht c th bin
thnh nng lc theo phng trnh.
E = mc2 [20]
Theo Teilhard de Chardin, v tr c to dng bi mt thc th duy nht, m tinh thn, vt cht, ch l 2
phng din tng i. [21]
Tm li, v thc th, c hai mt, hai bn, nn cuc bin thin tin ha cng c hai chiu, hai hng.
V tr, d xt v c cu, hay xt v vn ng, tin ha, lun lun theo nh lut m Dng. Khoa hc ngy nay
chp nhn quan im ny khi cho rng:
Thi gian l chiu kch th t ca khng gian.
Tinh thn l bin th ca vt cht, vt cht l bin th ca tinh thn v.v..
Tm li khng c g c th hot ng ring r m lun lun phi da dn vo nhau.

4) H vi l sinh thnh
H cn a ra mt nguyn l cn bn l bt k ci g khng th sinh ra m trng thnh, ton ho ngay,
m cn phi bin ha qua nhiu giai on, nh s h tr ca hon cnh, chu cc nh hng tinh thn, vt cht mi
tr nn thnh ton, hon ho c.
Dng phi c m ph bt mi thnh tu, m phi c Dng b sung mi ton ho. Suy ra tinh thn mun
khuch sung, tin trin phi nh hon cnh vt cht h tr, vt cht mun pht trin cn phi c tinh thn khai thc,
iu ng.
m Dng phi cng tc vi nhau, tinh thn vt cht phi h tr ln nhau, mi thc hin c i cng v
tr.
V th H mi ch trng:
Thin Nht sinh thy, a Lc thnh chi
a Nh sinh ha, Thin Tht thnh chi v.v...

5) Cc hnh thi, cc tng lp con ngi theo H


Thay v phn chia con ngi thnh ba phng din: Xc, Hn, Thn hay Tinh, Kh, Thn, theo nguyn l Tam
Ti.
H , v trng nguyn tc m Dng i tr, nn li phn chia t m hn na, tc l:
phn Hn thnh

A- Du Hn (Dng)
B- Qu Phch (m)

Theo ti liu ca Lu Nht Minh, trong quyn Chu Dch Xin Chn, v quan nim cc nh Huyn Hc u
Chu, ta p dng li phn chia con ngi theo phng thc Ng Hnh, T Tng nh sau:

159

Du hn (Dng), gn Thn minh hn, a nh sng.


Qu phch (m), gn vt cht hn, a bng ti.
Cc nh Dng Sinh Hc, p dng quan nim ny vo cng cuc v sinh, v cho rng nh ca khng nn
cao qu, sng qu v nh vy s thng phch, khng nn thp qu, ti qu v nh vy s thng hn v bnh tt
do s sinh.[22]
u Chu cng c quan nim Hn, Phch.
Theo cc nh Huyn Hc u Chu th Hn, Phch, khc nhau cng nh kh vi nc.
Lc cht, Phch quanh qut bn xc, cn Hn th khinh phiu cng thn kh lng du. Phch l c im ca
dc tnh, ng chp lc sng; v n khi cht, Phch s tan bin dn trong ging sng qun lng, y nh xc
tan bin trong t ct. Cn hn l Kh, l xe ca Thn theo t ng Platon, l ht ging Trng Sinh, mm
mng Kim Thn, Thnh Th...[23]
em nhng quan nim trn i chiu vi khoa C Th v Sinh L Hc hin i ta c th c on:
C im ca Phch c th trung khu no b (diencphale), ni th tng (thalamus ou couches optiques), h
th tng (hypothalamus), [24]hoc trong cc Dung Dch lun chuyn trong cc xoang no ty.
Cn Hn th li lin h mt thit n cc kh th, lu hnh trong cc xoang no b. cng l nhng quan
im xa xa ca Galien v thnh Augustin. [25]

6) Quan nim Thin Nhn Tng D trong H


160

Trong o Lo cng nh trong o Nho, vn c quan nim Thin Nhn Tng ng[26], Thin Nhn Tng
D. [27]
ni Tri chng xa con ngi, m ngay trong tm khm con ngi, lm ch cht cho con ngi,
m tr con ngi.[28]
Quan im ny thc ra khng phi ca ring mt o no, m l gia ti ca nhn loi. i su vo cc o
gio, cc mn phi Huyn Hc ng, Ty, ta thy quan im ny thng c cp ti. [29]
H by ra l m Dng phi ngu theo nhau nh bng vi hnh. Cc nh Huyn Hc Lo gio da vo
H , xin minh nh Tri ngi hp nht, Thin L ti nhn tm.
Theo quan nim ny ta c th ni: Tri l Thn, l Chn Dng. Hn con ngi l Kh, l Chn m [30]. Mt
bn hng dng ch li a ng, mt bn nhu thun, tun theo s hng dn, ng nh hai qu Kin, Khn trong
Kinh Dch.
Tri c:

Ngi c:

1) Ng Nguyn:

1) Ng Vt:

a - Nguyn tnh

a - Du hn

b - Nguyn thn

b - Thc thn

c - Nguyn tnh

c - Qu phch

d - Nguyn tinh

d - Trc tinh

e - Nguyn kh

e - Vng

2) Ng c:

2) Ng Tc:

a - Nhn

a - H

b - Ngha

b - Lc

c - L

c - N

d - Tr

d - Ai

e - Tn [31]
e - Dc
Tri l Chn, Ngi l Gi, hai ng nh hnh vi bng chng la nhau.[32]Ngi cn phi tun phc Tri,
thun theo Mnh lnh Tri, mi c th i n ch m Dng ha hp, thi ha trng cu.[33]Tri, Ngi u c
th lm ch hay lm khch. [34]
Nhng con ngi v bn tnh nng cn, si m, nu t ng ng vai ch nhn, nh ot mi s, th chc s i
n ch tht bi. Cho nn, hay hn ht l nhng cho Tri lm ch, cho lng tm, lng tri lm ch [35], cn
mnh ch bit tun thun theo, nh vy chc chn s tt p. l nh Ch, Khch trong H .
V th cc nh Huyn Hc Lo gio mi ni: Nhng ngi lm Ch, ta lm Khch.[36]
H ly v s m chng minh rng:
Su l Ch, Nng l Khch,
Trong l Ch, Ngoi l Khch
Cho nn, nu Thng l ch ca ta, th chc chn phi ngay trong tm ca ta.
V vy ngi xa cho rng:
Tu hnh phi bit nng su,
Nng su chng bit, tm cu lung cng. [37]

161

7) B quyt To Ha Qui Trung Chi Diu theo H


Dch kinh ct l m t din Dch mt chn l trng i. Mun loi u t mt i th, t mt Cn Nguyn
sinh xut; bin thin, tin ha tng l v bin v tn, nhng k thc ch theo nh lut m Dng, theo hai chiu
hng ngoi, hng ni; Vng Lai theo nh lut tun hon, nn khi ht chu k li tr v Nguyn Bn. [38]
Lo t cng cao Nguyn l y:
o c Kinh vit:
Mun loi sinh ha a oan,
Ri ra cng phi lai hon Bn Nguyn,
Hon Bn Nguyn, an nhin phc Mnh,
Phc Mnh ri, trng vnh v cng. [39]
H cng xin minh nh Vn Vt Qui Trung bng cch t li s 10 vo Trung Cung.
Hn na nu ta bt u t Trung (Th) i theo vng Ng Hnh tng sinh: Th( Kim( Thy( Ha( Th th ht
mt vng bin Dch ta li tr v Trung (Th).
V li nu ta xp li cc con s trong H theo phng thc di y, ta s thy chiu hng lun chuyn
cc con s l tr v Trung Cung, Trung im. [40]

Ngy B Dng vit:


Ly con s 5 trung ng, tn phn ra t phng s thnh 6, 7, 8, 9 tc l Thy, Ha, Mc, Kim, u da vo
Th mi thnh.
Ly cc s 1, 2, 3, 4 bn phng thu v trung ng s c 10, tc l Thy, Ha, Mc, Kim, u Phn Bn
Hon Nguyn, hi hp Trung th. Thc l vi diu thay. [41]
Vi ch ca Dch thc l cao siu, huyn diu.
Mi u ch cho ta thy Thi Cc, o Th biu dng dn d thnh S, V, Hnh Tng, Mu Sc, Th cht,
Khng gian, Thi gian, Vn Vt, Vn Hu.
Sau , li cho ta nhn thy nhng giai on bin thin, nhng yu t cu to nn vn vt, nhng then cht
bin ha, t Vn Tng rt li v Ng Hnh, v T Tng, m Dng ri li tr v Thi Cc, V Tng, V V,
V S. Mi hay:
T o phn chia, S mi thnh,
Ng Hnh hnh tng: o nha manh
Nm phng v tr: Thn phn lit,
Cht sc nm mu: o tn sinh. [42]
162

S t v s xut sinh,
Tr v v s, mi thnh vng lai.
Tng t v tng, phn bi,
Tr v v tng, trong ngoi m m
V hon v v, mi nn,
Cht hon v cht, tinh tuyn trc sau.
Ch chia o th nhim mu,
S kia bm vu vo u sinh thnh.
Mun tr cho ht tng hnh,
Ngng c bin ha, mi manh tiu lin.
V ngi mun ht di trn,
Thi ng phn bit Bn Nguyn lm g.
o khng pht tn chia ly,
Thi thi vt cht bin i t i.
o l v s, v ngi,
V hnh, v cht, chia phi nh no.
o Tri vi diu xit bao...[43]
H vi con s 15 vit Trung Cung, tc l cho ta thy rng cn bn hay cng ch ca vn vt l ti
Trung Cung, m Trung Cung li l Thi Cc, cho nn, theo H , th Cn Nguyn v cng ch ca v tr vn l
Thng . Sch i ng Chn Kinh vit: Cn bn vn trung tm im. [44]
Sch Nhp Dc Knh vit: Ngi no bit To ha, s tm cn nguyn v tr ni Trung Cung (Chn Th)
[45]
Mi hay:
Huyn c Tri Trung ng,
Gn trong gang tc chng vng tng hnh.[46]
Nh ni trn s 15 Trung Cung tng trng
Thi Cc. L lng thay, i vi cc nh Huyn Hc u Chu, s 15 ch Thng . V h cho rng Lc Th
c qu trng v ngang dc u cng thnh 15, cho nn Lc Th l biu dng ca Thng . [47]
c bi th trong sch Kim Lin Chnh Tng K, ta cng nhn thy r rng Trung Cung, Trung im H
chnh l Nht, l Thng , l Thy T V Tr, Cn Khn.
Chn Nht Trung Cung c T Tng, T Sc (, en, xanh, trng) bao quanh, c thi s m t nh l
Thnh Mu n thn trong thch ng mu , [48]nh Linh Thn ng trn lu ging cung, [49], nh Chn Cng,
hay Kim n chm di ln sng h mu bic, [50] nh m my bay trc ngn ni Bch Ngc mu trng [51].
Nguyn vn bi th nh sau:
Nht trung hu Nht, Nht nan lun,
Tam cnh nguyn tng nht x phn,
Xch thch ng trung tng Thnh Mu,
Ging cung i thng lit Thn Tn.
Bch m ba ni chn chn cng,
Bch ngc phong tin i i vn.
163

C th cn khn khai tch t.


Th gian ngu tc, khi giao vn.[52]
Khi bit Trung Cung tng trng cho Thng Bt Kh T Ngh, V S, V V, V Tng, th b quyt
tr v vi Thng , v Trung Cung l phi bit vt ln trn ht mi nh tng [53], chi ly, phin tp, phi bit
thu nhip vn th, qui nht bn.
Ngi xa gi th l:
Ton thc Ng Hnh,
Ha hp T Tng
Tam hoa t nh
Ng kh triu Nguyn
To Ha Qui Trung Chi Diu. [54]
Ni mt cch thit thc hn, mun tm v Trung cung, con ngi phi bit u l Chn Tm trong con ngi.
Cc nh Huyn Hc Lo gio cho bit N Hon Cung, trung tm no b chnh l Chn Tm, l Trung
Cung, Trung im ni con ngi.
Mi hay:
N hon mt khiu, thu ca Tri
Ngc Hong Thng , y ta ngi,
Thnh Hin lui ti, duy ng y,
Ci hc bng chng, thng ti ni.[55]
Giai on sau l thu thn, lim kh cho qui t v c no, sng i sng ni tm cho tht ri ro, dng ht tm
thn ch vo cng cuc chim ngng Thng , sng hp nht vi Thng . [56]
l ngha nhng khu quyt:
Hon tinh b no
Tam hoa t nh
Ng kh triu Nguyn [57]
hay:
T dc bt t tu Cn Ln [58]
Qui Trung tm li l:
em nga , qui v thn tht [59]
Bt vn tm, gi chc ng phng. [60]
Tm, Thn, Hn, Phch, qui trung. [61]
Ni theo t ng Cng gio tc l mun sng kt hp vi Thng , phi knh mn Thng ht lng, ht
sc tm thn. [62]
Hiu c ngha Trung Cung, bit c b quyt To Ha Qui Trung Chi Diu, con ngi mi c th tm ra
c a v sang c ca mnh [63] m nh Mnh con ngi l sng kt hp vi Thng .[64]
CH THCH
[1] Vn vt tc ng hnh chi t d. . m Ph Kinh S, trang 2.
[2] Phng chi tc di lc hp, quyn chi tc thoi tng mt. . Trung Dung Ta.
[3] C nhn s xng ch thin khu bt ng. Hin i o Gia Tu Luyn Bo in, trang 113.
[4] Thin cc nht tinh danh Bc cc v ti trung ng, t phng s th chnh, c danh trung cung. Vit: Thin
cc tc Bc thn d , , . . (Kho yu)
164

Thng Thi nht thn ti T vi cung, thin chi ti hin d. .


Gustave Schlegel - L'UranographieChinoise, page 524. J. Legge, the Shoo King, page 34 notes.
[5] Trung nguyn, Cn Ln sn, thin a tm. . Joseph Needham: Science et Civilisation in
China, (Cambridge at the University Press) quyn 3, trang 566 - 567.
[6] N hon hu xng B hi... tc c nhn s ch ch bch mch tng hi... No xoang c nhn xng vi Thin
cc, nhi c th trung ch tinh thn tc dng, khiu t Cc Thn, gi th Sinh Mnh chi chn t...hp xng
vi Thin khu. ... ...
, . Hin i o Gia Tu Luyn Bo in, trang 113.
[7] H ng thp h trung nhi vi Thi Cc . a L Chnh Tng, trang 3.
[8] Ch huyn thin vn: Miu miu du du min min l, Nam Bc ng Ty t hp lai. Th Cn, Khn, Khm,
Ly chi s d hip nhi vi nht d. Hp nhi vi nht, tc thn kh qui cn, Knh nhp h v, yu yu minh minh,
mc tri k s d nhin h. ng hiu m Dng, thng t To ha. : .
. . , , , , .
, . Chu Dch Thamng Kh, quyn Trung, trang 3.
[9]i ng Chn Kinh, quyn Trung, trang 10b.
[10] Cn bn do lai Thi Cc tm. . i ng Chn Kinh, Quyn Thng, trang 4b.
[11] Tc ph huyn nguyn tam ng, bt khai To ha khu chng. Hi Di diu ch ti trung ng, ch xch v
danh vng tng. . . Phc Mnh Thin,
trang 4a.
[12] 28 cp qu phn phc nh: Trun, Mng; Nhu, Tng; S, T; Tiu sc; L; Thi, B v.v...
4 cp qu i i l Cn, Khn, Khm, Ly, Di, i Qu, Trung Phu, Tiu Qu.
[13] Xem thm Dch Kinh Tn Chng, trang 5, on Phc Tng.
[14] Atteindre le Ciel par achvement de la Terre (Teilhard de Chardin) Cf. Jean Onimus, Teilhard deChardin,
page 65.
[15] La quantit d'nergie que l'on peut transformer en travail va sans cesse diminuant, l'nergie se dgrade et
l'univers tend vers l'immobilit etc... Clausius parat avoir t le premier donner du principe de Carnot une
dfinition satisfaisante en introduisant la notion d'Entropie. Le second principe est alors devenu le principe de
l'accroissement de l'entropie ou principe de Carnot-Clausius...
En outre lorsqu'un systme est en quilibre, son entropie est un maximum... C'est cette marche sens unique,
toujours dans le sens de la dgradation irrversible, qui justifie le nom de principe d'volution par lequel on
dsigne souvent le principe d'volution, le second principe de la thermodynamique. -- Lecomte du Noy,
L'homme devant la Science, page 94 - 95.
[16] Nht m nht Dng chi v o, Thin m thin Dng chi v tt. , .Phc Mnh Thin, 1a.
[17] K tht, m Dng nh t th giai nht vt d. . Thy H Thin, trang 2a.
[18] Nhc o chi th tc v m Dng, nhi vi m Dng chi cn... , .
Xng o Chn Ngn, tr.8b.
[19] C th l m, c th l Dng, bt k bt trc nn gi l Thn (H T).
[20] E = nergie (nng lc)
m = masse (khi lng)
c2 = tc nh sng ln bnh phng.
[21] Matire et Esprit, crit le P. Teilhard en 1950, non point deux choses mais deux tats, deux faces d'une mme
toffe cosmique suivant qu'on la regarde ou qu'on la prolonge dans le sens o elle se fait ou au contraire dans
le sens suivant lequel il se dfait... -- Jean Onimus, Pierre Teilhard ou La foi au Monde, page 80.
... L'Esprit, n'est ni un surimpos, ni un accessoire dans les cosmos, mais il reprsente tout simplement l'tat
suprieur pris en nous par la chose premire indfinissable... rien de plus mais aussi rien de moins. L'Esprit
n'est ni un mta, ni un piphnomne: il est le phnomne. Ib. page 85.
[22] Thin n T, Dng Sinh Th, trang 1b.
Si nous considrons les quatre Elments dont le monde est compos: la Terre, l'Eau, l'Air et le Feu, le corps
correspond l'Elment Terre, l'me aux Elments Eau et Air, l'Esprit l'Elment Feu, et de mme que dans le
domaine physique, l'eau a le pouvoir de se mler la terre, l'air au feu, de mme, une certaine me, l'me
liquide est attache au corps, tout le moins demeure en son voisinage, mme aprs la mort, l'autre me,
l'Arienne, rejoint l'Esprit. Raoul Auclair, Le Livre des Cycles, page 143.
[23] Cette me (l'me liquide) est le sige de nos passions et de notre individualit prsente, mais elle est destine
se dissoudre dans Lth comme le corps dans la Terre. L'autre me, c'est le Pneuma, le char de l'Esprit,
ainsi que l'appelait Platon, le noyau, sans cesse grossi de l'immortalit de l'homme, l'embryon du corps
glorieux. Ib. page 144.
[24] Le Thalamus participe, enfin, par ses relations avec les corps stris et l'hypothalamus l'expression des
motions. -- A. Fabre et G. Rougir, Physiologie Mdicale, page 558.
165

[25] According to Galen, the natural spirit, the product of nutrition, passed from the liver and the gut to the heart
and were there modified by the material from the lungs. A portion of the resultant product, known as the vital
spirits was passed to the head. Here within the rich collection of blood vessels at the base of the brain, a
watery distillate was recovered and mixed with air and supposedly entered the cranial cavity through the
porous base of the skull above the nose. The psychic pneuma was then collected and circulated in the
chambers of the brain.
By the fourth century A.D. this ingenious Galenic conception of the circulation of psychic pneuma within
the chambers of the brain had been much modified. Saint Augustin (A.D. 354 - 430) among others held that
the three ventricles of the brain contained psychic pneuma with special qualities. Indeed some of the
Aristotelian faculties were identified with the watery contents of the respective chambers but not, with the
substance of the brain...
Cf. Lyman Bryson, An Outline of Man's Knowledge of the Modern World, page 44.
[26] Thin nhn tng ng chi l b Xun Thu... . Thi Thng Cm ng Thin
Ton Ngha, trang 1.
Ph c nh hng chi l: (Tri ngi nh di vi trng, nh ngi vi bng, nh m thanh v
ting vng) Thi Thng Bo Phit Thuyt, trang 6a.
[27] ng trng Th vit: Thin nhn tng d chi t, thm kh y d. : , .
Thi Thng Cm ng Thin Ton Ngha, trang 1a.
[28] V vit: B thng thm diu d, nht s chi cng t, tc vi thin a s thc lm. V vit: nh tht kh khi d:
Nht nim chi t chnh, tc vi qu thn s ch trch. .
. . Thi Thng Bo Phit Thuyt
Dch cu 53: ng ni: Xanh kia xa lc: bt k cng vic g d cng hay t, t tri u hay bit; ng ni:
bung kn c th la i c. Bt k mt nim g hoc t hoc chnh, u c qu thn ph phn.
[29] Ne savez-vous pas que vous tes un temple de Dieu, et que l'Esprit de Dieu habite en vous? Si quelqu'un
dtruit le temple de Dieu, celui-l, Dieu le dtruira. Car le temple de Dieu est sacr, et ce temple c'est vous. -I Corinthiens 3, 16, 17.
...Ou bien ne savez-vous pas que votre corps est un temple du Saint-Esprit, qui est en vous et que vous tenez
de Dieu? Et que vous ne vous appartenez pas? Vous avez t bel et bien rachets! Glorifiez donc Dieu et le
portez dans votre corps. --I Corinthiens 6, 19, 20.
...In short, many see in the story of Solomon's Temple a symbolical representation of Man as the temple of
God, with its Holy of Holies deep seated in the center of the human heart. -- Mackey's Revised Encyclopedia
of Freemasonry, Tome II, page 961.
[30] Chn m Chn Dng th Thn Kh. . n Dng Chn Nhn Ng Lc - trang 5b.
[31] Xem Chu Dch Xin Chn, ca Lu nht Minh - Chng H .
[32] Gi t Chn tn, Chn dic t Gi nhi lu d. . Lu nht Minh, Chu Dch Xin
Chn, Chng H .
[33] m Dng kt Thi nguyn. . Hon Nguyn Thin, trang 1.
[34] D nhn hp thin. D thin tng nhn. . Huyn Tng Chnh Ch, trang 10.
[35] Vng Dng Minh tin sinh thuyt: Lng tri tc Thng . .Hin i
o gia Tu Luyn Bo in, trang 82.
[36] Nhiu tha vi ch ng vi tn. . Nhp Dc Knh - trang, 14b.
[37] Thc ph trm, minh ch khch, yu t hi, mc gin cch. . Nhp Dc
Knh, trang 14a.
[38] Thy chung nh nht. . i ng Chn Kinh, trang 7b.
[39]o c Kinh, chng XVI.
[40] Xem bn ny, ta thy chiu bin ha l t Dng dn m, ri li t m tr v Dng trc khi tr v
Trung Cung.
[41] C d Trung ng chi ng, tn t phng nhi thnh 6, 7, 8, 9, tc Thy Ha Mc Kim li Th nhi thnh.
Nhc d t phng chi nht, nh, tam, t qui trung ng nhi thnh thp, tc Thy Ha Mc Kim giai phn
bn hon nguyn nhi hi th trung d. Hu huyn tai. , , , , ,
. , , , . .
Chu Dch, Tham ng Kh Pht Huy, trang 24.
[42] Ngc Th vit: Nht, tam, ng, tht, cu, o chi phn nhi hu s. Kim mc thy ha th, o chi bin nhi
hu tng ng Ty Nam Bc Trung, o chi lit nhi hu v. Thanh, Bch, Xch, Hong, Hc, o chi tn
nhi hu cht. , , , , , . .
. . Linh Bo Tt Php, trang 12a.
[43] S qui v s, tng phn v tng, v ch v v, cht hon v cht. Dc o chi v s, bt phn chi
tc v s h. Dc o chi v tng, bt bin chi, tc v tng h. Dc o chi v v, bt lit chi tc v v h.
Dc o chi v cht, bt tn chi tc v cht h. V s o chi nguyn d, v tng o chi bn d, v v o
166

chi chn d. . .
. . . .
. . Linh Bo Tt Php, quyn H, trang 12a.
[44] Cn bn nguyn do Trung. (Cu k cn bn, tht do trung, kin h ngoi gi, bn h ni. Chiu h dng gi,
do h th d) . . . . i ng Chn
Kinh, trang 19.
[45] Thc To ha gi, tt Chn Th trung cu cn yn. , . Nhp Dc
Knh 4b.
[46] ... Le monde, pris dans son universalit, n'mane pas immdiatement de Dieu. Ce qui mane de Dieu, c'est un
Etre unique, qui est le Principe de toutes les cratures. C'est une intelligence spare, c'est--dire une
substance qui existe par soi, qui est exempte de toute multiplicit, qui se conat et connat son principe
(Averros) Illan de Casa, La Religion Essentielle, p. 122.
[47] For fifteen was a sacred number among the Orientals, because the letters of the holy name Jah jy were, in
there numerical value, equivalent to fifteen, and hence a figure in which the nine digits were so disposed as to
make fifteen either way when added together perpendicularly, horizontally, or diagonally, constituted one of
their most sacred talismans. Mackey's Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry,Vol. II, p. 1109.
...Thus in Hebrew, the name of God, Jah jy is equivalent to 15, because y =10 and j = 5 and 15 thus become a
sacred number. Ib. p. 722.
[48] Tng trng Nam Phng, Ha, Xch.
[49] Tng trng Bc Phng, Thy, Hc.
[50] Tng trng ng Phng, Mc, Thanh.
[51] Tng trng Ty Phng, Kim, Bch.
[52] Dung hp vi nht, thng qun v gin, d o vi th, nhi hn phch cu ha, t i giai khng. Tht kh v
tr Trm tch chn thnh. Qun thng V Cc., , , , ,
, , . i ng Chn Kinh, trang 23.
[53] Qu vng tng v hnh x, Hu c trng sinh bt t cn. , . Kim
n i Thnh Tp, trang 10.
[54] ... Pour tre satisfait par Dieu, il ne faut point se contenter de ce qui est ceci ou cela, mais de ce qui est Tout.
Car Dieu est bien l'Un, et doit tre l'Un, mais il est aussi Tout et doit tre Tout...
Thologie Germanique. Illan de Casa Fuerte, La Religion Essentielle, p.161.
[55] N hon nht khiu t Thin mn,

Trc thng H Hong Ngc tn

Th th Chn Nhn lai vng l

Thi thi kha hc kh triu Nguyn.

Nhp Dc Kinh, trang 10b.


[56] Thng triu ngc thanh, d Thin vi nht h. . i ng Chn Kinh, trang 7b.
[57] Cf. Hin i o Gia Tu Luyn Bo in, trang 124.
[58]Nhp Dc Knh, trang 10b (Cn Ln tng trng cho u no).
[59] Thn Tht tng trng cho xoang trung tm trong c.
[60] ng phng l tn mt xoang trong c.
[61] Hon Nguyn Thin Trang 1b.
[62] Tu aimeras ton Dieu de tout ton coeur, de toute ton me, de tout ton esprit et de toute ta force. L'Evangile
selon St. Marc, 12, 30.
[63] Qun t Hong Trung thng l, chnh v c th. Dch Kinh Khn Qui (Vn ngn).
... Il (Pascal) sait, lui, que le tourment de l'homme tient ce qu'il ne sait quel rang se mettre, tendu qu'il est
entre un infini de grandeur qui l'crase et un infini de petitesse avec lequel il semble n'avoir aucune mesure...
Georges Cresp, De la Science la Thologie (Essai sur Teilhard de Chardin), p. 13.
[64] D nhn hp Thin . Huyn Thin Chnh Ch, trang 10.

Bt
S, vn d o, o ti thng,
H, Lc huyn vi ti chnh trung
Lun chuyn, tun hon quan trc cc,
Bin thin thng ging, h tm cung
167

Cn chi, Bn mt minh oan ch,


T tn, hin vi thc thy chung
Tri ch tc nhin tri gii thot
Pht, Tin bt qu c Hon Trung. [1]
(Nhn t chuyt )
o c siu vi kh lun bn,
Ly li, ly s t lan man.
Huyn vi H, Lc ni tm im.
Trc chuyn vnh xe, mi vn ton.
Trc chuyn vnh xe, mi vn ton,
Trn hon bin chuyn, h tm xoang
Ngn ngnh, gc r, thng u cui
T tn, hin vi, chng ng ngng.
T tn, hin vi, chng ng ngng
u ui thng t, ht a oan
Pht, Tin, gp g ni Trung im [2]
Tm c Hng Tm, thot nhiu nhng.

[1] Hp Thin chi o tc c k hon trung. Tinh Hoa Lc, trang 36.
[2] Vn o T, Tinh Hoa Lc, trang 36

Phn 6 LC TH
Chng 1. Xut x ca Lc Th
168

Lc Th c mt tm nh hng rt ln lao trong mi lnh vc t tng, chnh tr, o gio Trung Hoa, v vy
cn c kho st cho tng tn.
Theo Kinh Th, sau khi tr thy thnh cng, Vua V c Tri ban cho Hng Phm Cu Tr, tc l php
tc cai tr x hi, v nh ch nhn lun.[1]
Tc truyn Tri cho thn qui hin ln sng Lc, mang trn lng mt hnh v. Vua V nhn y lm ra
Hng Phm vi s cng tc sau ny ca C t. [2]
Sch Chnh Ngha Xun Thu V ghi:
H d thng Kin xut thin bo,
Lc d lu Khn th a ph [3]
Cu rt qu bu, v s gip ta hiu r phm vi v mc ch ca H , Lc Th. H gip ta hiu Tri,
Lc Th gip ta hiu t.
H gip ta tu luyn tm hn, Qui Nguyn, Phn Bn. Lc Th ch v cch thc an bang, t th; t chc
i sng x hi v vt cht bn ngoi.
V l , nn H hnh trn, cn Lc Th hnh vung. Trn tng Tri, vung tng t.
H , Lc Th h tr, b sung ln cho nhau, v c th ni c l hai phng din ca mt hc thuyt duy
nht, l: ni thnh, ngoi vng chi o, y nh tm vi c si ngang si dc, [4]nh cuc i c hai chiu
xui ngc, hai mt trong ngoi.
Theo T nguyn, Lc Th dy cch t chc x hi tr quc an bang. [5]Ta s bng c vo cu , phanh
phui cho ra cc b quyt ca Lc Th.
CH THCH
[1] V ni t hng, Thin ni tch V Hng Phm Cu Tr; di lun du t. .
Th Kinh Hng Phm, tit 2. Sraphin Couvreur, Les Annales de la Chine, page 196.
[2] H T truyn vit: H xut , Lc xut Th; thnh nhn tc chi. : , , .
Chu Dch i Ton, Chng Thuyt, trang 17a.
[3] Chnh ngha Xun Thu v vit: H d thng Kin xut thin bo; Lc d lu Khn th a ph.
. Uyn Gim Loi Hm, Quyn 3, trang 3,366, Mc Chu Dch III.
[4] H d Lc Th tng vi kinh v, Bt qui, Cu chng tng vi biu l. ,
. Chu Dch i Ton, trang 17b.
[5] n Hng Phm Cu Tr vi tr thin h chi i php. . Cf. T Nguyn, ni ch
Cu Tr.

Chng 2. Cu to ca Lc Th
Lc Th c cu to nh sau:

169

Trong Chu Dch Xin Chn ta thy c mt hnh C Lc Th nh sau:

hnh ny lm ta mng tng n cch cu to ca nguyn t vi nhn chnh gia v cc qu o


in t bn ngoi. Nhng d nhin hnh ny khng phi l chnh thng.
Ta v li s din tin t H sang Lc Th nh sau:
(a)

(b)

(Ta thy cc s chn sung vo bn hng ph, cn 4 s l bn phng chnh.)


170

(c) H bin chuyn theo chiu Dng, chiu Ng Hnh tng sinh.

Chiu bin chuyn ca H


(Ta c: Th sinh Kim; Kim sinh Thy; Thy sinh Mc; Mc sinh Ha; Ha sinh Th.)

Chng 3. i cng
Ta c th ni c rng Lc Th xut pht t H [1], nhng c bn im d bit quan trng sau y:
1. Mt s 10 gia.
2. m Dng khng cn ha hp, phi ngu m phn k, chia r.
3. 2 cp s 9/4 v 7/2 i ch ln cho nhau [2]
4. Lc Th, Ng Hnh tng khc, vn chuyn theo chiu m. H , Ng Hnh tng sinh, vn
chuyn theo chiu Dng.
Chiu bin chuyn ca Lc Th.
(Ta c: Th khc Thy; Thy khc Ha; Ha khc Kim; Kim khc Mc; Mc khc Th.)
Lc th v thiu s 10, nn ch cn c chn s; hn na v m Dng phn k, Ha Kim in o, nn Lc
Th tng trng cho th gii hu hnh, vn tng vn hu, th gii thc ti, ly nghch cnh bin thin on
luyn vn vt.
Cc s Lc Th tng cng l 45.
Cc s H tng cng l 55.
M 45 + 55 = 100
S 100 vn tng trng vn tng, vn hu. [3]
Nh vy ta cng thy r c H ln Lc Th mi tng trng cho vn tng vn hu, t th gii v
hnh n th gii n th gii hu hnh.
H tng trng cho th gii tm thn, ni tm, ni cnh. Lc Th tng trng cho th gii vt cht ngoi
cnh, cho x hi bn ngoi.
V th, cc bc tin hin nhiu khi li v H nm bn trong, Lc Th bao bn ngoi.
Ngi xa cho rng H , Lc Th c ba im ging nhau v hai im khc nhau.
Ngc Trai H th bnh rng:
3 im ging nhau:
1. H cng nh Lc Th s 1, s 6 u pha Bc.
2. S 3 v 8 u pha ng
3. S 5 u Trung Cung
2 im khc nhau:
1. H th s 2 v 7 pha Nam, cn Lc Th th s 2 v 7 li pha Ty.
2. H th s 4 v 9 pha Ty. Lc Th tri li 4 v 9 pha Nam. [4]
171

Tm li, cc s Dng 1, 3, 5 khng i v, ch c cc s m 2 v 4 mi thay i, ln lo. [5] H v Lc


Th mi bn theo mt ng ng.
H sinh Tin Thin Bt Qui.
Lc Th sinh Hu Thin Bt Qui.
Phc Hi nhn H v ra Tin Thin Bt Qui.

(C hai hnh u c cng mt chiu din tin)


H ta thy na bn phi, cc s Dng l u bn ngoi, cc s m chn u bn trong.
Cn na bn tri, th cc s l Dng li bn trong, s chn m li bn ngoi.

Tin Thin Bt Qui, ta cng thy na bn phi cc ho m bn trong, cc ho Dng bn ngoi;


Cn na bn tri, th cc ho Dng li bn trong cc ho m bn ngoi. Nh vy H v Tin Thin Bt
Qui rp theo mt khun mu.

Lc Th lin lc mt thit vi Hu Thin Bt Qui:


Hu Thin Bt Qui nh s cc qu ng theo th t Lc Th.

172

Hu Thin Bt Qui, cc qu theo s th t sau: Nht Khm, nh Khn, tam Chn, t Tn, ng Trung, lc
Cn, tht oi, bt Chn, cu Ly.
Thiu khang Tit cho rng, ngi xa nhn vng trn ca H m suy ra lch k, nhn hnh vung ca Lc
Th m ngh ra cch chia chu, chia t.
ng ni: Trn l hnh sao, s ca lch k c l bt u t . Vung l hnh t, nhng cch chia chu, chia
t c l bt chc t chng. [6]
Chng ta s tr li vn ny.
Cng nh H , s quan trng nht ca Lc Th vn l s 5. S 5 bao gm Tri t, m Dng
Tri l 3, t l 2. S 5 l s tam thin lng a, nn chnh l Thi Cc. [7]
Ngoi tm im ra, H v Lc Th u c:
Dng s: 1 + 3 + 7 + 9 = 20
m s: 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 = 20
Tng cng u l 20
Nh vy l m Dng qun bnh.
Lc Th xa n nay vn l mt ci g huyn vi, b n. C nhiu li ct ngha Lc Th; nng c, su c ty
theo trnh , ty theo tm trng ca mi ngi.
Thi Nguyn nh gii rng: 9 s Lc Th tng trng cho cc b phn ca thn qui.
ng vit:
S cu cung l:
i chn, p mt
T ba, hu by
Hai, bn lm vai
Su, tm lm chn
S nm gia
Tng hnh lng ra. [8]
Cng thy c ca rng:
Ti cu l nht
T tam hu tht
Nh t vi kin
Bt lc vi tc
Ng thp c trung
vu Khn cc.
173

C l ch l phng php gip ta nh phng v cc s trong Lc Th, ch cha gii thch c chi v Lc
Th.
Mt nh bnh gii Hunh nh Kinh cho rng s 5 trung im l Thi Cc, Thi Nht, 8 s bn ngoi l Bt
Qui. Tt c hp thnh Cu Cung.
Hi trn, ta c th gii Lc Th nh sau:
S ng l Thi Cc. [9] Cn 8 s bn ngoi tng trng cho Bt Qui tc l Vn Tng Qun Sinh, l th
gii hin tng, hin hu.
S thay bc, i ngi gia hai cp s 9/4 (Kim) v 7/2 (Ha), gy nn th bt qun bnh, m khi mt th
qun bnh, chc chn bin thin chuyn ng s pht sinh. l mt nh lut khoa hc. [10]
Kim Ha i ngi gy nn in o chuyn vn, ct l d on luyn mun vt cho nn tinh ton, rng Kim
rn, m Ha luyn. [11]m Dng tng khc ct gy nn bin thin.
Lc Th vi s o in, dch v ca Kim, Ha,
s tng khc ca m Dng l phn nh chn thc v th gii hu hnh chng ta, mt th gii y o in,
bin ha. Y thc nh Ha cng c dng nghch cnh pht huy tim nng, tim lc ca v tr, cng nh ca
con ngi, vn vt v con ngi cng ngy cng tr nn tinh thun, cao khit.
Hn na, Lc Th tuy ch trng n bin ha bn ngoi, nhng vn khng qun khu nu, qun Thi Cc bn
trong. V nh trong Tri t c Thi Cc lm ch cht iu ha mi bin thin chuyn ng, th trong mt
quc gia cng phi c mt v Vng, mt v Nguyn Th cm rng mi ch huy.
V vy m Trung im Lc Th c Thi Cc, trung im Hng Phm c Hong Cc. Thi Cc trong Lc
Th tng trng cho Tri. Hong Cc trong Hng Phm tng trng cho v Thin T thay Tri tr dn.
ng khc, c t nhiu v chn tu c o bng qua c cc lp lang hnh tng ca vn hu, sng kt hp
vi Thi Cc, Thi Nht, mn v s ca Lc Th ni ln s c o ca mnh; i khi rng mnh vo
c tm im hon v, vo c trong lng To Ha. Tung tm mt bao qut tm hng, th thy vn tng, vn
hu triu phc, h tr chung quanh y nh tay chn, vai v; chng khc no 8 s m Dng bao quanh s 5 Thi
Cc gia.
Sch Chm Trung Kinh vit:
Ta n phng
Bn ta: Thi Nht
T ba, hu by,
Chn trc, mt sau
Hai bn ng vai
Tm, su ng chn
Ta chnh gia. [12]
Mi hay Lc Th cha ng c mt kho tng vn ha, chnh tr v o gio. [13]
CH THCH
[1] Tuy nhin cc hc gi thng cho rng H , Lc Th khng c lin lc gc gc g vi nhau.
[2] Ngi xa gi th l Kim (9/4) c ha (7/2) v. Ha (7/2) c Kim (9/4) v. Chu Dch Xin Chn, trang 3b.
Hay ni vn v l: Kim tha Ha v, Ha nhp Kim hng. Chu Dch i Ton, trang 27a.

174

[3] ... H chi s ng thp hu ng...Lc th chi s, t thp hu ng... tng hp qut vi nht bch chi s, vn
vt vn tng, ch vi, ch i chi s, qun cng th h. ... ...
, , , , . Nhim ng Thu - m Dng Ng Hnh.
[4] Ngc Trai H th vit: Tam ng gi: Th chi nht, lc giai ti Bc; tam bt giai ti ng; Ng gi ti trung.
Tam gi chi v s giai ng d. Nh d gi: chi nh tht ti Nam, nhi Th tc nh tht ti Ty; chi t cu
ti Ty, nhi Th tc t, cu ti Nam. Nh gi chi v s giai d d. : : , ;
; . . : , ; ,
. . Chu Dch i Ton, trang 20b.
[5] Ci Dng bt kh dch, nhi m kh dch... . Chu Dch i Ton, trang 20b.
[6] Thiu T vit: Vin gi tinh d; lch k chi s k triu th h? Phng gi th d. Hoch chu, tnh a chi
php k phng th h. : ; ? . , .
Chu Dch i Ton, trang 18a.
[7] Ta c th ni c H th Thi Cc l 5 + 10 = +
Lc Th th Thi Cc l 5 =
Cn s 10 s c nh s phi hp m Dng bn ngoi v:
1 + 9 = 10;

2 + 8 = 10

3 + 7 = 10;

4 + 6 = 10

V s thnh tu ca v tr ch c, khi no ha gii c ht cc mu thun, em li c s ha hp gia


mi phn t; ch khi y mi gi c l 10 phn vn 10.
[8] Thi Nguyn nh thuyt:

Cu cung chi s

Ti cu l nht

T tam hu tht

Nh t vi khin

Lc bt vi tc,

Ng c trung ng
Qui bi chi tng d.

Dch Tit Th dn, Nhim ng Thu, m Dng Ng Hnh, trang 48, (Ph lc: H , Lc Th thin
thuyt)
[9] Trung ng hu tng Thi Cc. . Chu Dch Xin Chn (Lc Th).
[10] l nguyn l th II v nhit lc hc ca Carnot-Clausius: Nguyn l ny i khi nh sau: Nng lc ch
c th tc dng khi bin ng, tc l khi gp mt s chnh lch (gy nn bi a th, nng , mt , nhit
v.v. Ni cch khc, mun bin thin chuyn dch, cn mt th thng bng, cn c s chch lnh. Cng
mt thng bng, cng bin thin, cng tc ng mnh. Mt ng lc khi bin thin tc dng, khng th t
nhin m phc hi c phong thi nguyn thy... Lecomte du Noy v Hc Thuyt Vin ch ca tc
gi, trang 113.
[11] Ha d luyn chi, Kim d hnh chi, c Kim c Ha v, Ha c Kim v. Kim Ha ng cung, nhi vn vt v bt
t li o dung thnh tu h. , , , . ,
. Chu Dch Xin Chn, Lc Th, trang 3b.
175

[12] Ng c n phng. Thi Nht vi ng ngu. T tam hu tht, Ti cu l nht. Nh t vi ng kin, lc bt vi


ng tc. Ng c trung cung, d vi phc thc. . . . . .
. . . Chm Trung Kinh, trang 1.
[13] Le dialogue qui ouvre le Hong Fan exprime assurment l'ide que l'amnagement de l'Univers implique une
rpartition des choses et des hommes laquelle peut se traduire tout aussi bien par un arrangement en 9
Rubriques (Lc Th Hng Phm) que par une distribution en 5 Elments (H ) Marcel Granet, La
Pense Chinoise, page 168.
... Quant au Lo Chou, le diagramme qui prtend le restituer, s'inspire des donnes formellement attestes ds
l'poque des Han...Les 9 premiers nombres y sont disposs en carr magique (autour de 5), ainsi qu'on
pourrait le prvoir pour un tableau du monde offert (par l'intermdiaire d'une tortue) un Hros qui divisa la
Terre (carre) en 9 Rgions. Ib page 178.

Chng 4. nh hng Lc Th vi cc vn quc gia, x hi, hc thut Trung Quc


Lc Th rt quan trng, v c em p dng vo nhiu lnh vc, khoa hc, chnh tr, o gio Trung
Hoa. Cu Phong Thi th ni:
H th trn m dng vung,
Lc Th th vung m dng trn. [1]
H sinh bt qui. Bt qui tng m Dng nn phi chn mi pht biu c ngha phi ngu v i
tr.
Lc Th sinh Cu Tr, m Cu Tr l s Ng Hnh bin ha, nn phi l ng vn ng. [2]
Cho nn mi c cc chuyn k l l H th c nhiu lin lc vi con s 6, cn Lc Th li gn b vi con
s 9. Trong thin H chng ta thy tm quan trng ca s 6 trong lch s, nay chng ta s chng minh tm
quan trng ca s 9 trong cch phn chu, phn d Trung Hoa.
1. Lc Th c 9 s, tng trng 9 cung
Mt Trung ng lm khu nu, ch cht
Tm chung quanh hm ng ngha bin thin, ph bt.
Tin Hin Trung Quc nhn Lc Th m t chc phn phi Tri, t, Ngi nh sau:
V thin vn, vm tri c chia lm 9 min gi l Cu Cung, hay Cu D nh sau:
Dng Vim

Chu

thin thin
Thng Qun

thin
Ho

thin
Bin

thin thin
Huyn U

thin

thin

thin

[3]
2. Chia Trung Hoa thnh 9 chu
Chiu vo a , ta thy v tr cc min xa i khi nh sau: [4]

176

Nh cch phn chu, phn d trn Tri, di t thnh 9 min, nn cc nh Thin Vn Hc Trung Hoa nh
c chm sao no chiu vo min no, v mi khi c hin tng l trn tri, s bit c min no di t chu
nh hng.
3. Trung Quc c chia thnh chn vng theo kiu Lc Th nh sau: [5]

Khu dn
c
Dn c
Khu dn
c

Khu dn

Ch

Vng
cung
X miu
Triu

X miu
Khu dn
c

nh

4. Ta Minh ng ca nh vua c chia thnh 9 phng nh sau: [6]

C
(l 1 khu
vc)
Thanh
Dng
C
(l 1 khu
vc)

Minh

(l 1 khu

ng

vc)

Thi tht
Thi
miu
Huyn
ng

Tng
chng
C
(l 1 khu
vc)

5. Chia t cho dn thnh 9 khonh: K l hn na l php tnh in tuy c t thi vua Hong (2697 2597), nhng cng rp theo khun mu Cu Cung v c phn phi nh sau:

Trm

Trm

mu

mu
Cng
in

Trm

Trm

mu

mu
177

Mi Tnh c tm nh chung quanh; mi nh c 100 mu rung; gia l Cng in c ging nc


(Tnh) Tm nh chung quanh phi gp sc lm 100 mu Cng in gia np cho nh vua. Cn hoa li th
c hng c. l php Trit in.[7]
6. Chia no b con ngi thnh 9 cung nh sau: Thin nh, Cc Chn, n Huyn; Minh ng, N
Hon: Thin Tm, Thi Hong; ng Phng, Lu Chu, t. [8]Tnh Mnh Khu Ch v Cu Cung trong u
i khi nh sau: [9]

C ci l l y hc c u Chu cng chia c no v cc xoang no b thnh cung tht. Hin nay ta cn thy
nhng ch no tht 3 (3 ventricule), no tht 4 (4 ventricule) v.v... Hn na ch Thalamus theo t nguyn cng
chnh l ng Phng. [10] Th mi hay Cu Cung ca Lc Th tr thnh nng ct cho cng cuc kho st
Thin Vn, a L, Nhn Sinh.
So li cc bn: Lc Th, Thin Vn, a L, Nhn Sinh, Cu Cung, Cu D, Minh ng, Tnh in
v.v..., ta thy Trung Cung, Trung im lc no cng dnh cho Thi Cc, hoc l cho Thin T, cho Vng Cung,
Vng in; cn ni con ngi th Trung Cung tng trng cho N Hon hay Huyn QuanNht Khiu. Nh
vy Trung im, Trung Cung tht l ti trng. Suy ra, th bt k trn tri, di t, trong ngi, c bin thin,
l phi c ch cht. Kinh Dch cho rng trn tri, di t, trong ngi, ch cht huyn vi y ch c mt: l
Thi Cc...
CH THCH
[1] Cu Phong Thi Th vit: H th vin nhi dng phng, Lc Th th phng nhi dng vin. :
, . Chu Dch i Ton, trang 18a.
[2] Qui gi m Dng chi tng d. Tr gi Ng Hnh chi s d. . . Chu
Dch i Ton, trang 18a.
[3] Xem T nguyn ni ch Cu Thin. Cu Thin ny l theo ti liu ca L Th Xun Thu. Hoi Nam t cng
ch trng tng t. Sch Thi Huyn hoc i ng Chn Kinh li gi Cu Thin bng nhng tn khc.
i ng ch Cu Thin l: Thy thanh, Thi thanh, Thy n, Thi n, Thy t, Thi t, Thy huyn, Thi
huyn, trung ng i Phm... i ng Chn Kinh Thng, trang 5.
[4] Cf. P. Angelo Zottoli S.I. Cursus Litteratur Sinic, Tabula 1a -Mappa ante Tcheou.
[5] Ti liu ca P. Angelo Zottoli S.J. trong quyn Cursus Litteratur Sinic,Tabula VI Agricultura.
178

[6] Minh ng l ni xa vua ng thng cm vi thn minh, bt chc vng Dng vn chuyn soi sng
cho tri t, tuyn b nguyt lnh, lch k v.v.. Bn ma Xun, H, Thu, ng, vua ty thi mc phm phc
xanh, , trng, en, lun phin ng ti cc cung Thanh Dng, Minh ng n Tng Chng, Huyn
ng. Sau Ngy H ch, vua mc o Hunh bo, vo ng ti trung cung Thi Miu. Nh vy theo ng
chiu Ng Hnh tng sinh: Thanh Dng (Mc), Minh ng (Ha), Thi Miu (Th), Tng Chng
(Kim), v Huyn ng (Thy) v.v... Marcel Granel, La Pense Chinoise cc on: Le Temps et l'Espace (t trang 86-114), v on Les Nombres (t trang 49 n 208).
[7] Php Tnh in c thit lp t thi Hong (2697- 2597)
- Leon Wieger, Textes Historiques, Tome I, trang 2
- Angelo Zottoli, Cursus Litteratur Sinic, Tabula VI Agricultura.
-Sraphin Couvreur, Les Annales de la Chine, page 401.
[8] u hu cu cung, trung hu N hon. , . i ng Chn Kinh, trang 7a.
[9] Xem Tnh Mnh Khu Ch quyn Nguyn trang 8b.
[10] Constitutio Apostolica (Munificentissimus Deus) de Pie XII... Oportebat sponsam Quam Pater desponsaverat
in thalamis coelestibus habitare (Il fallait que l'pouse que le Pre avait pouse habitt dans la chambre
nuptiale cleste. C.J. Jung, Rponse Job, page 216.

Chng 5. Lc Th v Ton hc
Cc s Lc Th xp vo Cu Cung thnh mt ma phng (carr magique).

Gi l ma phng, v ngang dc xui ngc, cho, gc, pha no cng li cng u thnh 15, hn na ma
phng cn bin ha ra nhiu hnh thc mi, bng cch hon chuyn cc con s. V d ma phng trn cn c th
bin ha nh sau:

5 x 5 = 25
hoc c:

7 x 7 = 49
179

9 x 9 = 81
27 x 27 = 529 v.v...
4 x 4 = 16
6 x 6 = 36
hoc c:

8 x 8 = 64
10 x 10 = 100 v.v...

Ngi u Chu v ngi Trung ng cng rt trng ma phng. H gi ma phng 9 l ma phng Th


tinh (Zahal) v chn s trong ma phng cng li l 45, tr s ca ch Zahal trong mu t Rp.
Ma phng 4x4 = 16 l ma phng Mc Tinh (Jupiter); ma phng 5x5 = 25 l ma phng Ha Tinh; ma
phng 6x6 = 36 l ma phng Thi Dng; ma phng 7x7 = 49 l ma phng Kim Tinh; ma phng 8x8 =
64 l ma phng Thy Tinh; ma phng 9x9 = 81 l ma phng Thi m v.v... [1]
V d vi ma phng thng thng, c gi tin ng kho st:
Ma phng 4 x 4
1
12
8
13

15
6
10
3

14
7
11
2

Ma phng 5 x 5

4
9
5
16

1
20
9
23
12

18
10
7
24
21
13
15
2
4
16
S = 65

S = 34

22
11
5
19
8

14
3
17
6
25

Ma phng 6 x 6
1
12
24
13
30
31

35
8
17
23
26
2

4
28
15
21
9
34

33
27
16
22
10
3

32
11
20
14
29
5

6
25
19
18
7
36

S = 111
Ma phng 7 x 7
46
45
44
7
11
12
10
S = 175

1
35
34
17
20
19
49

2
13
28
23
24
37
48

3
14
21
25
29
36
47

42
32
26
27
22
18
8

41
31
16
33
30
15
9

40
5
6
43
39
38
4

Ma phng 8 x 8
1
56
48
25
33
24

63
10
18
39
31
42

62
11
19
38
30
43

4
53
45
28
36
21

5
52
44
29
37
20

59
14
22
35
27
46

58
15
23
34
26
47
180

8
49
41
32
40
17

16
57

50
7

51
6

13
12
60
61
S = 260

54
3

55
2

9
64

Ngi xa coi ma phng nh l linh ph v knh trng ma phng 9 nht. Ngi Rp trng ma
phng ny v tng s 9 l 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 0 = 45, m 45 l tr s ca ch Zahal (Th Tinh) trong
ting Rp.
Nhng ngi Do Thi, chuyn kho sch Talmud, trng ma phng ny v s 15 l tr s ca ch JAH tc l
Thng . [2]
Ngi ng trng ma phng ny v 5 v 15 u tng trng cho Thi Cc, cho Tri. V vy m Lc Th
hay ma phng 9 vn c coi l thn b.
Cc hc gi u Chu cho rng ma phng Lc Th c lin quan n ch Vn v:

4 + 9 + 5 + 1 + 6 = 25

2 + 9 + 5 + 1 + 8 = 25

2 + 7 + 5 + 3 + 8 = 25

4 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 6 = 25

M 25 chng qua l 52.


Cho nn du Lc Th hay ch Vn, hai bn cng u ch bn th v hin tng ca v tr. [3]
CH THCH
[1] Mackey's Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry. Vol. II, mc Magic, trang 611. -W.S. Andrews, Magic
squares and cubes cc trang 1, 2, 4, 13, 18, 20, 25, v.v...
[2] Mackey's Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Quyn II ni ch Magic trang 611.
[3] Cf. Marcel Granet, La Pense Chinoise, page 197.

Chng 6. Lc Th v chnh tr
Lc Th gip i V v C t lp ra Hng Phm Cu Tr, mt hin chng dng tr quc, an bang. T
nguyn c ghi: Hng Phm Cu Tr l phng php i qui m cai tr thin h.
Hng Phm Cu Tr gm 9 chng:
1. Ng Hnh

4. Ng k

7. K nghi

2. Ng s

5. Hong cc 8. Th trng

3. Bt chnh

6. Tam c

9. Ng phc

181

Chn chng Hng Phm gm tt c 55 tit, ng vi s 55 ca H . Hng Phm Cu Tr l hin chng


cn bn dy ng qun vng cch thay Tri tr dn.
Hnh v di y gip ta hiu r lin lc gia Lc Th v Hng Phm Cu Tr:

Ta c th tm tt Hng Phm bng nhng ngn ng thng thng ngy nay nh sau:
1. Ng Hnh
ng qun vng phi am tng vt l, phi bit khai thc ht ti nguyn ca t nc lo cho dn no m.
2. Ng S
ng qun vng phi bit phng php tu thn.
a. Ging iu phi nghim trang, knh cn.
b. Ni nng phi hp l.
c. Trng nhn phi cho sng sut.
d. Nghe ngng phi cho tinh t.
e. Ngh ngi phi cho thu trit.
c nh vy, ng qun vng s trang nghim, oai v, l s, ng hong, khn ngoan, sng sut, tinh
tng, mu lc, thnh thin, o c.
3. Bt chnh
ng qun vng phi bit phng php tr dn. Cng lnh tr dn gm 8 im, tr dn l lo cho dn:
1 - No m
2 - Sung tc, tin nghi
3 - C l nghi, t t
4 - C nh ca, t ai
5 - C mt nn gio ha hn hoi
6 - Khi b bn gian c, bt lng, quy nhiu.
7 - Bit ng tip nhn, x th
8 - c bo v tnh mng v ti sn, thot nn ngoi xm nh binh hng, tng mnh ca nh nc.
4. Ng K
ng qun vng phi am tng ngha ca Nm; Thng; Ngy; s vn chuyn ca Nht Nguyt,
tinh cu; Lch s. Nh vy, mi c th dy dn bit cch iu ha cng tc cho hp thi, hp tit, c m
no, thnh vng; cho tri, t, ngi cng ha tu mt bn nh ca thanh bnh, thi thnh.
5. Hong Cc
182

ng qun vng s ngi Hong Cc thay Tri tr dn. Mun c vy, phi c c hnh tuyt vi, siu
phm, thot tc, xng ng lm mi gii gia Tri v mun dn.
6. Tam c
Thut tr dn phi da vo ba c: Chnh trc, Cng, v Nhu. Ni th, tc l mun tr dn, chnh trc cha
, cn phi bit cng, nhu, quyn bin, ty thi.
7. K Nghi
ng qun vng phi bit suy ngh, bn bc, hi han khi gp trng hp nan gii. ng trc mt cng
vic trng i, s hi kin ca nh vua, ca khanh s, th dn, ca Tri (bng cch bi thi, qui) Phi kim li, s
bit th no l tt, th no l xu, v tm ra c ng li p nht x s.
8. Bt Trng
ng qun vng phi nhn cc im Tri m sot xt li ng li cai tr ca mnh; xem tun tit, lng
gi ma, nng lnh ca Tri m suy ra mnh cai tr hay, hay d. L do l v ng qun vng, ng danh hiu,
s cm ng c vi t Tri, v hiu c ting ni thm lng ca t Tri, qua cc bin thin ca thi tit.
V d: Nu thy quanh nm ma thun, gi ha, ma mng ti tt ri ro, th bit cch cai tr dn nc
khn kho, dn thnh, nc yn. Nu quanh nm, thi tit gng qui, la m h hao, th chc l vic tr dn ti
tm, km ci, dn suy, nc kh.
9. Ng Phc, Lc Cc
ng qun vng phi nhn vo tnh cnh nhn dn nhn nh gi tr nn cai tr ca mnh.
Nu cai tr hay, dn chng s hng c ng phc: th, giu, yn vui, ham chung nhn c, cht gi yn
n.
Nu cai tr d, dn s lao lung, tt bnh, to vong, yu t, kh s, bt lng. Th l lm vng lc cc: cht
non, bnh tt, lo bun, ngho kh, ti c, yu t. Kinh Th vit: Ngi xa c li rng:
Con ngi chng nhng soi bng nc,
Cn phi ngm mnh trc gng dn. [1]
Mc ch ca nn Thin tr theo Hng Phm Cu Tr chnh l : To cho mi ngi dn mt i sng vt
cht, y, , mt bo m an ninh ti a, mt nn hc vn kh quan, mt i sng x hi cng bnh trt t, mt
nn gio ha hn hoi. Nh vy, mi ngi u c c hi v hon cnh thun tin tu luyn bn thn, tr nn
thnh thin, chng khc g v Thin t. [2]
Tng kt li, Hng Phm Cu Tr thc l mt hin chng, mt hc thuyt chnh tr c u ui, mch lc v
c thc thi bi cc v Thnh Vng Trung Quc. l Lc Th p dng vo phm vi chnh tr vy. [3]
CH THCH
[1] C hu ngn vit: Nhn v thy gim ng dn gim. . Kinh Th,
Tiu Co, tit 12.
[2] Hi k hu cc, qui k hu cc. . Kinh Th Hng Phm.
[3] Xin c quyn Khng Hc Tinh Hoa ca tc gi, trong bn gii cn k v Hng Phm Cu Tr.

Chng 7. Lc Th v phng php khc k tu thn qui nguyn phn bn ca cc o gia


Cc o gia v chuyn lo tu luyn bn thn, nn nhn Lc Th m suy ra nhng c cu tm linh cng nh cc
phng php hu hiu sa sang chch mc, d dang trong tm hn, ng hu qui nguyn phn bn.
183

V phng din nhn thc Trit hc, cc ngi da vo H , Lc Th, nhn nh trong con ngi c hai
phn m Dng. y l Nhn tm v o tm, y l Ngi v Tri.
Tri hay o tm gm c:
1. Ng Nguyn: a. Nguyn tnh, b. Nguyn thn, c. Nguyn tnh, d. Nguyn tinh, e. Nguyn kh.
2. Ng c: a. Nhn, b. Ngha, c. L, d. Tr, e. Tn.
Nhn tm hay con Ngi gm c:
1. Ng Vt: a. Du hn, b. Thc thn, c. Qu phch, d. Trc tinh, e. Vng
2. Ng Tc: a. H, b. Lc, c. N, d. i, e. Dc.
H , 5 s chn bao gi cng kt i vi 5 s l. Cc ngi suy ra rng: trn bnh din l tng, Nhn tm
v Thin lc no cng hp nht vi nhau.
Tc l, Thin nhn hp nht, ch thnh ch thin.
Lc Th, tri li cc s m Dng, chn l u ng ring r. Cc ngi suy rng: trn bnh din thc t,
nhn tm thng xa cch vi Thin l, gng qui, chia phi, y nh phu th phn mc, k Nam ngi Bc, quay
lng thay v quay mt li vi nhau.
Lc Th, chng ta thy m Dng, Ng Hnh tng khc. Cc ngi suy ra rng: nhn tnh, nhn dc
thng chng i, thng i ngc li vi Thin Chn, Thin L, v th nn mi c cnh o in thc lon trong
trn hon cng nh con ngi.
Lc Th, nu ch quan st vng ngoi, ta thy m khc Dng. Cc ngi suy ra rng nhn tnh, nhn dc
trn bnh din thc t ln t, che lp mt Thin L, Thin Chn, nn tnh Tri khng th pht huy; Ng
Nguyn, Ng c hu nh thoi v, cho Ng Tc, Ng Vt nhy ra chp chnh, rng r lm cn. Cc ngi
m t s ri lon y bng bn Lc Th sau:

Tuy nhin, cc ngi ch trng rng s thc lon, o in ny vn c th sa cha c. Ta vn c cch


dp nhn tnh, nhn dc, cho vng dng thin tnh, thin c hin ra vi vng ho quang ng sc: Nhn, Ngha,
L, Tr, Tn.
Lm sao khc phc c nhn dc, nhn tnh?
Mun khc phc nhn dc, nhn tnh, cc o gia ch trng ch cn p dng nh lut m Dng tng
khc. Thay v cho m khc Dng, m thng Dng nh trc, ta o ln tnh th, ngha l lm sao cho
Dng khc m, Dng thng m.
Mun ch ng Ng Tc, Ng Vt, nhn dc nhn tnh, Ng Nguyn, Ng c hin dng, ta c ng li
nht nh, tun t hn hoi.
184

Mun Qui Nguyn Phn Bn, iu kin tin quyt l phi tin tng mnh lit rng Thi Cc hay Tri ng tr
trong tm khm mnh. Nim tin su xa vng mnh ny s lm tan bin ht mi u t su mun, v lm cho thn
tr tr nn sng lng. [1]
Thn tr sng lng s gip con ngi phn bit d hay, tho g c tc ly, khng cn m ui trong nhng
th vui vt cht h ng, m ch yu chung nhng lc th tinh thn cao thng.
Khi tm hn tr nn thanh khit, thot tc nh minh nguyt, thanh phong, con ngi s uy nghi, trang
trng, phong thi thn tin dn dn hin l ra. [2]
Khi l nghi trang trng, khi phong thi thn tin hin l ra, tm thn s tr nn bnh thn, v nhng s
gin hn s khng cn c hi pht sinh. Mi hnh vi c ch con ngi nht nht s hp ngha l. [3]
i sng khi khun theo ngha l, con ngi s tr nn nhn c, hon thin. [4] nhn c hon thin,
nhn dc s tiu ma v con ngi s tr v Trung Cung, phi hp cng Thi Cc, cng Thng .
l l Phn Bn, Qui Nguyn v cc lp lang, tun t tu thn, tin c m cc o gia suy din ra t
Lc Th.
Cc ngi m t s din tin ca cng trnh Khc k phc l, Qui Nguyn Phn Bn bng bn Lc Th vi
cc li ch thch sau y:

Tm li, i vi o gia, nguyn ng lc mnh lit nht c th hon ci tm hn con ngi, l nim tin
vng mnh c Thng ng tr y lng.
Ch khi no nhn nhn ra c Thng , c Thi Cc trong tm khm mnh, by gi con ngi mi c th
thc s vn ln, thc s hon ci tm hn tr v kt hp cng Thng .
Sau khi kho st quan nim ca o gia v Lc Th v cch p dng Lc Th vo cng cuc khc k, tu thn,
ta thy quan nim y hon ton khc bit vi quan nim Nho Gia v cc chnh tr gia Trung Quc v Lc Th.
Nhng s khc bit ny ch c li cho ta, gip ta hiu thm v tm hn con ngi, cng nh v phng php tu
thn ca ngi xa. Mi hay Lc Th thc l mt ma phng bin ha khn cng. M bin ha th no theo
chiu hng no cng thy y l s, thch th.
CH THCH
[1] Th Tn nht phc, Mu Th pht hin, ni hu ch t, vn duyn giai khng, ch l cu tc. Tc bt ai nhi
sinh tr. Th Mu Th khc Qu Thy, nhi Thy phn Dng h. , , , ,
. . , . Chu Dch Xin Chn, Lc Th.

185

[2] Tr bt Vng dng, v tham v cu, tm bnh kh ha, tc lc chn nhi hu l. Tr trung xut l, th Nhm Thy
khc inh Ha, nhi Ha phn Dng h. , ,, . ,
, . Chu Dch Xin Chn, Lc Th.
[3] L bn tr, ha nhi bt ng, phi l bt l, to kh tt ha, tc bt n nhi thnh ngha. L trung xut ngha, th
Bnh Ha khc Tn Kim, nhi Kim phn Dng h. , , , ,
. , , . Chu Dch Xin Chn, Lc Th.
[4] Ngha bt qu thin, thng quyn t bin, tun qui o c, tc h Thin nhi tng Nhn. Ngha trung sinh Nhn
th Canh Kim khc t Mc, nhi Kim phn Dng h. , , , .
, . Chu Dch Xin Chn, Lc Th.

Chng 8. nh hng Lc Th trong t nhiu nc u


Lc Th c truyn th c ln u, khng phi di hnh thc nguyn thy, m di hnh thc ma
phng.

nhiu ni, nh Do Thi, cc nc Rp, ma phng ny c coi nh l mt o linh ph. Nhiu hc


gi u Chu bnh rng s 15 s d c ngi ng knh trng v s 15 l biu tng Thng . 15 = JAH
Trong Lc Th ta nhn pha no cng c 15.[1] Ba T ngi ta c nhng kiu vn gi l vn Trung
Hoa. Trong vn c mt vng nh, ch nhn ra trm t, mc tng. Vng nh trng ra mt cnh h nc.
Gia h c mt hn o hnh thn qui mnh danh l Vn Phc Sn; trn c trng nhiu hng thng theo cc s
ca Lc Th.

Ngi ta ch c th t vng nh, quan chim o Vn Phc, nhng khng c phng tin i vo. [2]
Ren Grousset cho rng s 5 chnh gia ma phng l mt con s c c ngi Trung Hoa ln ngi Hi
Gio v Ba T lu tm kho cu. [3]
Ghazali cho rng ma phng Lc Th l mt k quan m ng gp c trong i.
Ngi Nht cng c loi vn Trung Hoa ny, nhng li bc cu i vo o. Thc ra, ngi Trung Hoa
vn ngh rng o ny khng phi ai cng c th vo. Mun bc chn ln o, con ngi phi c phong thi c
bit...
Nu ta hiu rng s 5 l Thi Cc, l Tri, ma phng Lc Th vi tng s 15 l biu tng ca Thng
th ta s hiu ti sao hn o Vn Phc Sn c hnh ma phng li ch c th ngi xa m lng ngm, ch khng
th ti gn, ti sao hn o trong h ny li c mnh danh l Vn Phc Sn.
CH THCH
186

[1] For fifteen was a sacred number among the Orientals, because the letters of the holy name Jah jy were in their
numerical value equivalent to fifteen, and hence a figure in which the nine digits were so disposed as to make
fifteen either way when added together perpendicularly, horizontally, or diagonaly, constitute one of their
most sacred talismans. Mackey's Revised Encyclopedia of FreeMasonry, Vol. II . Ni ch Winding, page
1,109.
[2] Le plus ancien type de jardin est arriv jusqu'en Perse, mais il venait de trs loin: c'est le jardin chinois. Il
consiste essentiellement en une perspective plongeante que la Chine a tudie avec beaucoup de pntration.
Le matre du jardin est assis sur une terrasse devant un lac qui porte le nom de l'eau de l'ternelle aurore au
millieu duquel s'lve une le inaccessible qui s'appelle La Sainte Montagne des mille batitudes. Cette le
est plante de pins, en signe de longvit et elle a la forme d'une tortue car cet animal singulier reprsente
dans la lgende chinoise celui qui est sorti le premier de l'ocan pour enseigner la science aux hommes au
moyen d'un carr magique inscrit sur son dos par les ranges des pins. Ren Grousset, Henri Mass,
L'me de l'Iran, page 95 - 96.
[3] De plus il est assez amusant de remarquer que le chiffre 5 est situ au milieu; or le 5 a toujours beaucoup
intress les Chinois, et l'Islam et les Persans aussi d'ailleurs. Nous savons quel rle important il a jou pour
les gnostiques schiites... Ib p. 96.

Chng 9. H , Lc Th v hai chiu xui ngc bin ha ca v tr v ca nhn loi


Nh ta bit, H , Lc Th vi mt vi s bin thin, o ln c hai chiu, hai hng hon ton i
nghch vi nhau.
Lc Th i theo chiu nghch kim ng h m ta c th gi l chiu vt cht, chiu m, chiu sa a ca
tinh thn, chiu thoi gim ca nng lc.
H i theo chiu kim ng h m ta c th gi l chiu tinh thn, tc l chiu ha gii, chiu thng hoa .
Con ngi lc y s bt sa a.
H , Lc Th xc nh mt nh lut quan trng chi phi v tr, qun sinh. l nh lut t tn,
tin thoi, thng trm.

Suy ra:
1. V tr c tn (chiu m) c t (chiu Dng)
2. Vn vt c thng (chiu Dng) c ging (chiu m) c hy hoi ri li c ti sinh (chiu Dng).
3. Con ngi hoc c th tin ra x hi, ra ngoi cnh t chc, ci thin x hi ngoi cnh, ra xc thn
(chiu m), hoc l c th tin su vo pha tm thn ci thin, tu luyn cho nn hon thin, tin ti thn
linh (chiu Dng).
187

4. Ta c th coi chiu Lc Th l chiu m, chiu Vng, chiu H l chiu Dng, chiu Lai, v nh vy
v tr s mi mi t tn, lai vng, vng lai v cng, v tn chng minh s hin hu ca mt ngun sinh bt
dit. l l vng lai, phn phc ca tri t. Dch kinh vit:
Vng lai bt cng chi v thng;
V bnh bt b; V vng bt phc.
cng khng ngoi . Nhn hai chiu hai hng ca H , Lc Th ta c th phc ha li con ng
vng lai, phn phc ca v tr nh sau:

Nh vy, H , Lc Th gip ta hiu r chiu hng bin ha ca vn vt, v tr, v c lin quan mt thit
n Dch Kinh.
L lng thay, t ngn xa, cc bc Thnh Hin nhn thy hai chiu hng ca v tr, m mi n th k 20
ny cc Khoa Hc Gia mi dn dn nhn nhn ra c Chn l ny.
Thc vy, sut th k 19, cc nh Khoa Hc vn inh ninh rng v tr ch c mt chiu hng tin ha, v
chiu hng tin ha ny c chi phi bi nguyn l Carnot-Clausius.
Theo nguyn l ny th v tr ch tin theo c mt chiu duy nht l chiu suy gim ph tn ca nng lc v
ca tinh thn, dn d i n ch suy vong, l, tnh lng. [1] Lecomte du Noy l mt trong nhng nh Khoa
Hc gn y trc gic c hai chiu, hai hng ca v tr.
Trong Quyn Con Ngi Trc Khoa Hc (L'homme devant la Science) v quyn Tng Lai TinhThn
(L'avenir de l'Esprit) ng c chng minh rng Nguyn l Carnot khng hon ton chi phi c cc hin tng
sinh l. ng ch trng rng v tr phi c hai chiu, hai hng, bin dch, tin ha.
Mt chiu bin ha theo cc nh lut vt cht, theo nguyn l Carnot, mt ngy mt tin ti bt ng, l, ti
tm, lnh lo, hn lon.
Mt chiu tin ha theo cc nh lut tinh thn, mt ngy mt tin ti tinh vi, k o linh ng, sng ti, p
, ha hp. Khi tinh thn tin ti tinh hoa tuyt diu, th vt cht s tin ti giai on hn lon trit tiu. [2]
. Y Normand cng ch trng rng v tr bin ha khng th theo mt chiu, mt hng.
Mt chiu hng ri ra s b tc, phi c hai hay nhiu chiu hng th chuyn dch mi linh ng c. [3]
Ta c th ni c rng hai chiu, hai hng bin ha ca v tr ngy nay c cc Khoa Hc Gia th k 20
xc nhn vi phng trnh: E = mc2
Th mi nay, nu chng ta bit cch phi kim nhn nh ca tin nhn vi cc khm ph khoa hc, v trit
hc tin tin ngy nay, ta s thy cc khi c siu vit xa v nay lun gp g.
188

CH THCH
[1] Rappelons que le Principe de Carnot traduit la tendance le l'nergie se dgrader ou se dissiper, ce qui
entrane une augmentation de l'entropie, c'est dire de l'extension spatiale de l'nergie au cours de ses
transformations. Andr Lamouche, La Destine Humaine, page 49, note 16.
... L'nergie se dgrade et l'univers tend vers l'immobilit.
... C'est cette marche sens unique toujours dans le sens de dgradation, qui justifie le nom de principe
d'volution par lequel on dsigne souvent le second principe de Carnot. Ib. page 95.
[2] Ainsi la marche de l'univers physique dans la direction d'un chaos inerte et du nant sera compense par la
progression parallle d'un univers impondrable, celui de l'Esprit dont l'ordre et la perfection natraient des
cendres du monde matriel. L'homme devant la Science - L'avenir de l'Esprit, page 293.
[3] La thermodynamique de Carnot Clausius nous apprend que tout systme isol tend vers l'homogne et le
statique.
La biologie nous apprend que la conjugaison de deux ou plusieurs systmes est la source unique de toutes les
nouveauts, de toutes les naissances.

Les deux messages ne sont pas contradictoires, ils sont

complmentaires. Un systme isol est un systme tu, il n'est pas tonnant de la voir voluer en sens inverse
des systmes vivants. Y. Normand (Paris) Science et Avenir N c 237 Novembre 1966, page 780.

Chng 10. Tng lun


Kho st Lc Th, ta thy n c mt a v quan trng v mt tm nh hng ln lao trong cc lnh vc vn
ha, chnh tr, o gio Trung hoa.
Cc Hc gi th da vo Lc Th m phn chia Tri t v u no con ngi thnh 9 min, khu, xc
nh gi tr mi min, v nghin cu nh hng h tng. Cc bc Thnh vng th nhn Lc Th suy ra mt
ng li l tng tr quc, an bang.
Cc o gia th t Lc th li suy ra c mt ng li Khc k, Tu thn, Qui Nguyn, Phn Bn.
Da vo cc l thuyt khoa hc by gi, ta c th cho rng H v Lc th cn cho ta thy c hai chiu,
hai hng tin ha xui ngc ca hon v.
ng v phng din nhn thc siu hnh, Lc Th cho chng ta thy trong lng v tr bin thin, in
o vn c Thi Cc, c Tri n o ng tr, iu khin, hng dn vn s vn vt.
Nh vy, Lc Th mc khi cho chng ta nhng iu hiu bit rt l quan trng.

Sch Tham Kho


Anh vn:
* Mackey's Revised Encyclopedia of FreeMasonry
* Magic Squares and Cubes W.S. Andrews
* The Shoo King James Legge
La tinh:
* Cursus Litteratur Sinic P. Angelo Zottoli
Php vn:
* L'me de l'Iran Ren Grousset
189

* Les Annales de la Chine Sraphin Couvreur


* L'Avenir de l'Esprit Lecomte du Noy
* La Destine Humaine Andr Lamouche
* L'homme devant la Science Lecomte du Noy
* La Pense Chinoise Marcel Granet
* Rponse Job Carl J. Jung
* Textes Historiques Lon Wieger
Hn vn:
* m Dng Ng Hnh Nhim ng Thu
* Chm Trung Kinh
* Chu Dch i Ton
* Chu Dch Xin Chn
* Kim n i Thnh
* Kinh Lc Hc Thuyt Gin Bin Bc kinh Trung Y hc vin bin
* Tn Nguyn o Phng Hu Lan
* Tnh Mnh Khu Ch
* T Nguyn
* Uyn Gim Loi Hm
* Vn o T Ging o Tinh Hoa Lc

Phn 7 M DNG
Chng 1. Lai lch

1. Nh hc gi Marcel Granet, trong quyn La Civilisation Chinoise, cho rng: theo truyn thng Trung
Hoa, th hai ch m Dng c l c cc nh Thin Vn Hc Trung Hoa u tin to ra. [1]
Nu vy th quan nim m Dng c t nht l t thi vua Nghiu (2357 - 2255) v trong kinh Th, thin
Nghiu in, ta thy cp n my nh Thin Vn Hc nh Hi Ha, Hi Trng, Hi Thc. [2]
2. ng M. Maspro th cho rng tc gi H T sng to ra quan nim m Dng. [3]
3. Nhng nu ta chp nhn rng Phc Hi (2852 - 2737) l ngi u tin lp ra Bt Qui, th ta thy ngay
rng quan nim m Dng c pht sinh t khi nc Trung Hoa mi c vn, cha c t, ngha l t khi cn
dng vch thay ch, tc l vo khong 2852 trc Cng nguyn, v ngay khi y ta thy:
Kho kinh Th ta thy hai ch m Dng c dng lin nhau trong thin Chu Quan. Thin ny c ch tip
l m Dng, v cho rng cng vic iu ha m Dng (iu ha tri t) l cng vic quan T tng. [4]
5. Kho Kinh Thi, ta thy: m thng ch Tri ti hoc c my, hay ch khut, ch kn.[5] Dng thng ch
mt tri, ch sng, hoc mu sc rc r, hoc thng 10, hoc pha Nam ca ni, pha Bc ca Sng. [6]
Hai ch m Dng c dng i i vi nhau trong bi th Cng Lu, ni thin i Nh:
Tng k m Dng,
190

Quan k lu tuyn. [7]


(Xem ch rm, ch sng; Xem ging nc, ging sng...)
6. Kho Kinh Dch ta thy H T v Thuyt Qui nhiu ln cp n m Dng, nhng khng gii thch
cn k. Trong H T ta thy nhng cu:
Nht m nht Dng chi v o. (H T thng, chng V)
m Dng bt trc chi v thn. (H T thng, chngV)
m Dng chi ngha phi nht nguyt. (H T thng, chng VI)
Dng qui a m, m qui a Dng. (H T h, chng IV)
Kin Dng vt d, Khn m vt d. (H T h, chng VI)
Trong Thuyt qui ta thy nhng cu:
Lp Thin chi o vit m d Dng. (Thuyt Qui, chng II)
m Dng tng bc. (Thuyt Qui, chng V)
7. Kho o c Kinh, ta thy Lo T vit: Vn vt ph m nhi bo Dng (Vn vt cng m m m
Dng: ngha l m ngoi m Dng trong)
Nhng s kho st trn cho thy:
1/ Quan nim m Dng manh nha t thi Phc Hi.[8]
2/ Quan nim ny thnh hnh thi Chu nht l vo thi Lo T, Khng T ( th k 5 trc Cng Nguyn).
3/ Quan nim ny thc ra c khai sinh do cc i hin trit Trung Hoa ch khng phi do cc nh thin
vn hc, cc nh bc ph, hay cc m nhc gia nh Marcel Granet ch trng. [9]
CH THCH
[1] Cf. Marcel Granet, La Civilisation Chinoise, chap. Le Yin et le Yang. p. 116.
[2] Cf. James Legge, The Shoo King, The Canon of Yaou, p. 18, 19.
[3] Cf. Marcel Granet, La Civilisatin Chinoise, p. 117, note 1.
[4] Lp Thi s, Thi ph, Thi bo. T duy tam cng. Lun o, kinh bang, tip l m Dng. , ,
. . , , . Kinh Th, Chu Quan, on 5.
[5] Cf. The Chinese Classics, The Shoo King, index p. 776.
[6] Ib. p. 777.
[7] Cf. Kinh Thi, i Nh, Chng Dn, Cng Lu Vi, 5.
[8] Phc Hi d tin, bt tri nh h chim kho, ch Phc Hi tng m Dng lng c hoch qui th nhn.
, , . Dch Kinh i Ton, trang 73a.
[9] Marcel Granet, La Pense Chinoise, pages 116, 117.

Chng 2. m Dng v V Cc, Thi Cc


S kho st v V Cc, Thi Cc cho ta thy bn th v tr l duy nht, cho nn i vi ta, m Dng
khng phi l hai thc th t ti, c lp, ring r, m ch l hai chiu hai mt, hai phng din ca mt bn th
tuyt i.
V Cc, Thi Cc l l Duy Nht, l Bn Th ca v tr; cn m Dng l ng c sinh ra mi bin thin,
chuyn ng. S nhn nh ny rt quan h v lm cho ta trng t hai chiu hng cu v bin thin ca v tr.
C hay mt gc hai cnh ch,
191

Mi thy nghn con, vn chu ng.[1]


T V Cc, Thi Cc bc sang lnh vc m Dng tc l chng ta t lnh vc v vi, tuyt i, [2] bc
sang lnh vc hu vi, hu tng, bin thin, bin ha. [3] Thi Cc l o, l L, thuc hnh nhi thng, thuc th
gii tuyt i.
m Dng l Kh thuc hnh nhi h, thuc th gii tng i. Thi Cc hay o, L vnh cu, v bin. [4]
m Dng, hay Kh, bin ha sinh dit v thng, nhng v s bin ha sinh dit y, lun cn ct vo Thi Cc,
nn cng v cng tn nh Thi Cc. [5]
xc nh mi tng quan gia Tuyt i v Hin Tng; gia V Cc v kh cht m Dng, v phng
din thi gian, ta ghi nhn my quan nim then cht ca Nho gia nh sau:
1/ H c L thi c Kh, ngha l mt khi c Bn Th tuyt i, th tt nhin l c s hin dng, sng
ng.[6]
2/ m Dng, Hnh Kh tuy c sinh dit, nhng h hin tng ny dit, th hin tng kia li sinh, nh vy
v tr s sinh ha v cng tn nh Thi Cc, ngha l bao lu cn c Bn th, by lu cn c sinh ha. [7]
3/ Nh th c ngha l o, L, Tuyt i Th th v cng mt cch t nhin t ti.
Kh cht m Dng th sinh sinh, dit dit, bin ha v cng, nhng cng v cng nh Tuyt i Th v lun
l thuc vo Tuyt i Th. [8]
cng l quan nim ca vua Trn Thi Tn v Tuyt i Th trong sch Kha H.
i khi vua Trn Thi Tn cng ch trng rng: Thc ti gm hai phng din: Phng din Bn th siu
hnh th khng sinh ha. Phng din hin hu th c sinh ha. C hai u vnh cu, tuy rng hai phng din
cn bn y tri nghch mu thun.[9]
4/ Thi Cc V Cc siu xut trn thin c. m Dng bin ha trong vng thin c. Chu Lim Kh ni:
Thnh v vi, ki thin c. (Khi cn l Bn th tnh lng thi tinh ton, khi ng c bin ha thi mi phn thin
c.) chnh l v vy. [10]
Ch trng ca o Ngha Th cng nh ca Dch. Theo o Ngha Th, th Brahman i th gm hai phng
din:
* Hu hnh v V hnh,* T vong v Bt t.
* Bin ng v Thng tr.
Th tc l hai phng dinn v hin ca v tr, hai phngdin khinh khot v l thuc ca thn tr, u
cn ct trn Brahman duy nht, ng bao qut mi phn cc v mi mu thun. [11]
Xt v thi gian, th i Th cng c hai phng din l: Thi gian, v Siu Thi gian.
Ni cch khc, Thi gian v Hng Cu l hai phng din ca mt Nguyn L.
Trong Brahman, ci Hng v ci Bin ha hp. Maitri Upanishad vit: Ci c trc mt tri l v thi v v
gin (akala) Ci bt u vi mt tri, l thuc thi gian v c phn b gin cch. [12]
Thi Cc vi m Dng, hay Bn th vi Hin Tng, theo nhn quan Pht gio s c m t bng nhng
danh t sau:
Chn Nh

Vn Tng

Bn Th

Vn Php

(Ralit, tre)

(Manifestation, Phnomnes)
(tres)
192

(Natura Naturans)

(Natura naturata)

1/ Bn th

1/ Hnh thc sc tng

2/ Tim th

2/ Hin th

3/ Vin gic

3/ M vng

4/ Nit bn

4/ Kh hi, Sinh t

5/ Nht nht, Nh nh

5/ Vn hnh,Vn php

6/ Chn tm

6/ Vng tm

7/ V vi

7/ Hu vi

8/ V lu

8/ Hu lu

9/ V tr, v trc

9/ Chp trc

10/ Chn nh mn

10/ Sinh dit mn

11/ Cnh gii tch dit

11/ Cnh gii v thng

12/ L

12/ S

13/ Ng

13/ V ng

14/ Thng

14/ V thng

15/ Tnh

15/ U

16/ Gii thot

16/ Phin trc

17/ Khng

17/ Sc

18/ B

18/ Phin no

19/ Trng dng

19/ Ba lng

20/ Bnh ng gii

20/ Sai bit gii

21/ Tuyt i, Tuyt i gii

21/ Tng i, Tng i gii

22/ Chn
22/ Gi v.v...
Sau ht, cho ci nhn vin dung v Thi Cc v m Dng, ta nn c nhn xt nh sau:
Trit Gia Trung Quc khng phi phn m phn, nhng phn ri, li ct hp. Cho nn ch tch m
Dng khi Thi Cc v phng din Kh, nhng li khng tch bit m Dng khi Thi Cc v phng din
L.
Ni cch khc, nu coi m Dng l Kh, l biu th cho hai trng thi ng, tnh ca mt kh, th lc y m
Dng thuc Hnh nhi h. [13]
Cn, nu coi m Dng l L tiu trng, doanh h ng tnh ca v tr, th lc y m Dng li thuc v
Hnh nhi thng, v L ng (Dng) v L tnh (m) chnh l hai phng din ca Thi Cc. [14]
CH THCH
[1] Tu tri nht bn nng song cn, Thy tn thin nhi d vn tn. , . Dch
Kinh i Ton, trang 35b.
[2] C Thi Cc tt duy nht, tt tuyt i. . Xem T V Lng, Trung Quc Trit hc S
V, tam bin thng, thp nht chng, trang 59.
[3] Nht m, nht Dng giao nhi thin chi dng tn chi h. Nht Nhu, nht Cng giao nhi a chi dng tn chi
h. . . T V Lng, Trung Quc Trit Hc S V,
tam bin thng, t chng, trang 15.
193

[4] o vi Thi Cc. . T V Lng, Trung Quc Trit Hc S V, tam bin thng, t chng
trang 15.
[5] K th hnh kh, t nhin hu suy dit chi thi... . T V Lng, Trung Quc
Trit Hc S V, tam bin thng, thp nht chng, trang 60.
[6] Hu lun L, Kh chi tin hu vit: L kh bn v tin hu kh ngn. Nhin tt dc suy k s tng lai, tc tu
thuyt tin hu th l, nhin L hu phi bit vi nht vt, tc tn h th kh chi trung. V th kh tc th L dic
v qui thp x. : . , ,
, . .. T V Lng, Trung Quc Trit Hc S V,
tam bin thng, thp nht chng trang 57.
[7] Thin a nht nguyn nhi nht canh, nhin nguyn chi chung tc vi thn chi thy. Chu nhi phc thy, vng
phc v t... , . , . T V Lng, Trung Quc
Trit Hc S V, tam bin thng, ng chng trang 61.
[8] L th nng sinh, kh th s sinh. Nng sinh gi sinh sinh bt cng, c kh t nhin bt cng.
. , . T V Lng, Trung Quc Trit HcS, tam bin thng,
tht chng, trang 35.
[9] Nguyn ph t i bn v, ng un phi hu do khng khi vng, vng thnh sc, sc t chn khng, th vng
tng khng, khng hin vng, vng sinh chng sc. K bi v sinh v ha, vnh vi hu ha hu sinh. V sinh
ha tc v ha v sinh, hu ha sinh c hu sinh hu ha. , , ,
, , , . . . ,
. Xem bi Trit l Nhn Bn trong schKha H, ng trong Vn Ha Chu, thng 9, 1959 s 18
trang 1 v 2.
[10] Xem Trn Trng Kim, Nho gio II, trang 121.
[11] Comme on le sait, les Upanisads distinguent deux aspects de Brahman, de l' tre Universel: le corporel et
l'incorporel, le mortel et l'immortel, le fixe (sthita) et le mobile etc...(Brhadaranyaka - Upanisad, ii, 3, 1) Ce
qui revient dire qu'aussi bien l'univers dans ses aspects manifeste et non- manifeste, que l'Esprit dans ses
modalits de non-condition et de condition, reposent dans l'Unique, dans le Brahman, qui cumule toutes les
polarits et les oppositions. Mirca Ilade, Images et Symboles, 96.
[12] Or le Maitri Upanisad (VII, II, 8) en prcisant cette bipolarit de l'tre Universel sur le plan du Temps,
distingue les deux formes (dve rupe) de Brahman (cad les aspects des deux natures) (dvaitibhva) d'une seule
essence (tad ekam) comme Temps et Sans Temps (klc-cakalac-ca) En d'autre mots, le Temps comme
l'ternit sont les deux aspects du mme principe: dans le Brahman, le nunc fluens et le nunc stans,
coincident. Le Maitri Upanisad continue: Ce qui prcde le Soleil est Sans-Temps (akla) et non-divis
(akala), mais ce qui commence avec le Soleil est le temps qui a des parties (sakata) et sa forme est l'Anne...
Mirca Ilade, Images et Symboles, 96.
[13] ng tnh m Dng giai th hnh nhi h gi. . Chu Hi, Ton Th, q 49.
[14] m Dung c th hnh nhi h gi, nhin s d nht m nht Dng gi, ni th l, hnh nhi thng gi d.
, , , .

Chng 3. Quan nim m Dng


Quan nim m Dng thot nhn th gin d, nhng cng suy kho cng thy khc mc, kh khn.
194

Cho nn, mun hiu r m Dng, ta s kho cu m Dng di nhiu kha cnh.
1. Ta c th coi m Dng khng phi l hai thc th ring r i lp, m ch l hai chiu hai mt ca mt
Thc th duy nht.
2. Ta cng c th coi m Dng nh hai thc th ring r c nhiu loi tc dng trn nhau.
3. Ta c th kho m Dng trn phng din Tin Thin.
4. Ta c th kho m Dng trn phng din Hu Thin. Mi quan im, mi kha cnh ni trn s cho ta
nhng nhn nh khc nhau v m Dng.

1. m Dng, hai chiu hai mt ca mt thc th duy nht


Nu ta kho st m Dng trn ging bin Dch chuyn ha, th ta c th coi m Dng nh l hai chiu, hai
mt ca mt thc th duy nht. [1]
Chu Hi vit: m Dng tuy l hai ch, nhng li ch l mt Kh tng gim, mt tin mt thoi, mt st mt
ln; khi tin th l Dng, khi thoi th l m; khi tng trng th l Dng, khi gim thiu th l m. Ch nguyn
c mt Kh gim hay tng m to nn mun vn s trong tri t t xa ti nay. Cho nn gi m Dng l mt
cng c, m l hai cng c. [2]
Gn y bn pha tri ty, Teilhard de Chardin cng vit: Vt cht v tinh thn khng phi l hai thc th, m
l hai trng thi, hai phng din ca mt Bn Th v tr, ty nh ta nhn theo chiu sinh, hay chiu dit, chiu
tng, hay chiu gim. [3]
Trng Ti vit: Khng c Hai ng ra, thi Mt khng trnh hin, thi cng dng ca Hai cng chng cn.
Hai th l h v thc, ng v tnh, t v tn, thanh v trc, nhng suy cho cng th cng l mt vy... Mt vt m
hai th l Kh.Mt nn l Thn, Hai nn l Bin ha. [4]C Hai th c Mt, y l Thi Cc vy... Mt vt l hai th,
y gi l Thi Cc ? [5]
Nh vy i vi Trng Ti, thi m Dng chnh l hai phng din ca mt thc th duy nht. Chu lim
Kh vit: V Cc ri Thi Cc. Thi Cc ng nn sinh Dng, ng cc ri li tnh; tnh nn sinh m. Tnh cc
ri li ng tr li. Mt ng, mt tnh, lm cn c ln cho nhau; phn m, phn Dng, nn Lng Nghi lp vy.
[6]
Tm li, chng ta thy rng cc Trit gia Trung Hoa khng bao gi cho rng m Dng l hai thc th ring
bit thc s, m tri li c lin lc mt thit vi nhau, ci n c th sinh ra ci kia, ci kia c th bin thnh ci
n...
Dch Kinh rt trng m Dng. u Thng kinh hai qu Kin, Khn. u H kinh hai qu Hm,
Hng.
Kin, Khn Thng kinh cn tch ri nhau nh v, phn tn ti.
Nhng H kinh, thi Sn (Dng), Trch (m) ha hp nhau (Sn Trch thng kh) thnh qu Hm;
Phong (m), Li (Dng) tng cng ln nhau (Phong Li tng bc) thnh qu Hng.
Thng kinh, Kin, Khn lkh ha chi thy (kh tri kh t bt u bin ha) thi Thon truyn qu Kin
li c 4 ch phm vt lu hnh.
H kinh, Hm l hnh ha chi thy (hnh hi bt u bin ha) thi li c 4 ch nh Kh cm ng. mun
ni Hnh v Kh, m v Dng khng h ri nhau.
195

Thon truyn qu Kin cp n ch Tnh, Thon truyn qu Hm cp n ch Tnh. Thon truyn qu


Phc ni n Thin a chi tm, Thon truyn qu Hm ni n Nhn tm.
Th l Tnh, Tnh khng h ri xa nhau; Tri, Ngi chng h xa nhau, Hnh Kh chng h xa nhau. m
Dng c ha hi, th vn vt mi sinh. Trong nhn qun, m Dng c ha hi, th nhn lun mi c c bn
vng, x hi mi c c thanh bnh.
Ngoi v tr, m Dng l t Tri; trong nhn qun m Dng l nam n. V tr l mt t trng bao la,
nhn qun l mt t trng rng ln. Vn vt hp dn, cm ng nhau khng ngng, nn mi c c th gii ngy
nay.
Vn vt cng nh con ngi khng th sng ring r, cng khng phi sinh ra m chng i ln nhau,
nhng chnh l cng tc, ha hi cng nhau.
V th ngi xa mi ni: C m tc bt sinh, C Dng tc bt trng, c Thin a phi d m Dng.
Nam d n vi tht, n d nam vi gia, c nhn sinh ngu d phu ph. m Dng ha nhi hu v trch ging; phu ph
ha nhi hu gia o thnh.
Tm Dch:
C m, khng th sn sinh,
C Dng, khng th hoa vinh, xng phn.
Cho nn Tri t i ng,
Ha hi, chng c qui gng khi nao.
Trai thi tm gi tt giao,
Gi mong chp ni t o vi trai.
Cho nn t c loi ngi,
Gi trai phi ngu, nn i v chng.
m Dng, Tri t ha ng,
Ri ra v trch, non sng n nh,
V chng chp ni duyn t,
Ri ra gia o c c vng vng.
Nh vy thi Dch kinh cho rng nh c kh Tri, kh t ha hi, nn vn vt mi c th ha sinh, trng
dng; nhn qun c ha hi, th x hi mi c c thanh bnh, thnh tr.
Dch ch trng ha hp ch khng ch trng chia ly; Dch cao s giao ha, ch khng c sy s mu
thun, chng i. Nhng mu thun m ta tng l thy c trong hon v ny ch l nhng mu thun phin
din, nhng suy cho cng ch l mt s phn cng, mi ng lo chu ton v mt phng din, lc ha hp
li s c mt s hon ho ton bch.
Thon truyn qu Khu vit:
t Tri i ng phn phi,
Nhng m cng vic, thi thi mt vnh.
Gi trai, i ng phn trnh,
Nhng m ch, tm tnh cm thng.
Mun loi, cch bit ging ging,
Nhng m cng vic cng khng qui gng.
S i, ngang tri, d dang,
196

M dng nn chuyn, y trang hin ti...

2. m Dng hai thc th ring r c nhiu loi tc dng trn nhau


Tuy nhin, nu ta tm qun thi gian, tm qun mi cuc bin ha, th ta thy nh m Dng l hai thc th
i i nhau, tch bit nhau, tuy vn c lin lc vi nhau v phng din c cu, cng nh v phng din tc
dng.
Cc Trit gia Trung Quc i khi cho rng:
1/ Trong m c Dng, trong Dng c m.
2/ m cc sinh Dng, Dng cc sinh m.
3/ m c th bin thnh Dng, Dng c th bin thnh m.
4/ C Dng bt sinh, C m bt ha. Ni cch khc m Dng ring r, c lp th khng lm nn cng
chuyn g.
5/ m Dng phi tc dng trn nhau mi sinh ra mi c vi bin dch.
Nhng tc dng gia m v Dng rt l a oan, phc tp. Ta c th ghi nhn t nhiu hnh thc tc dng
chnh nh sau:
1/ Tng tha (invasion rciproque)
2/ Tng khc (Antimonie ou antagonisme)
3/ Tng ch (Inhibition)
4/ Tng ha (Catalyse rciproque)
5/ Tng thnh (Ralisation rciproque)
6/ K tc lun phin nhau (Alternance)
7/ Tng sinh (Gnration rciproque)
8/ Tng hi (Destruction rciproque)
9/ Phn phc (Bouleversement ou Rvolution)
10/ Tng giao (change)
11/ Bt tng giao (Indiffrence)
12/ Thng (Dominance)
13/ Ph (Rcession)
14/ Tng ng (Recouvrement rciproque)
15/ Phc (Latence)
16/ Khi (Manifestation) v.v...
Cho nn, nu chng ta ch ni l m Dng mu thun chng i nhau th thit l thiu st; hoc c m, c
Dng (duy vt, duy linh) th cng ht sc ch quan, khng bao qut c ht thc ti...
Suy cho cng, th mun hiu v m Dng, phi hiu nh i i trong Tri t.
i i l hai chiu, hai hng, hai cc, hai trng thi i nh, i lp nhau. V tr ny c xy dng
trn nn mng i i.
Ngay Tuyt i cng c i i l Tng i. Cho nn c Hng thi c Bin; c khim khuyt tt th
phi c vin mn; c Vt, th tt phi c Thn; c gian lao th tt phi c hnh phc...
Th gii tng i chng ta ny d nhin l trn y nhng cp i i.
197

Chu Hi vit: ng Ty, trn di, lnh nng ngy m, sng cht u tng phn li nhau, v sng i vi
nhau. Trong Tri t, cha tng c vt no li khng c ci ng sng i vi mnh. [7]
Nh tri sinh vt, khng th sinh mt mnh m, t l phi c Dng, khng th sinh mt mnh Dng, t
phi c m, y u l i i c. [8]
Nh vy, nu hiu nh m Dng i i cho rnh r, h bit mt, tt s bit hai, bit c mt phng
din, s suy ngc li, m tm ra phng din i i, sau hp nht c hai phng din li, s tm ra c b
mt thc ca vt th, ca v tr cng nh ca con ngi...

3. m Dng trn phng din Tin Thin


Ngi xa phn bit m Dng Tin Thin v m Dng Hu Thin. Dch Kinh i Ton ni trang 38
c cu: V Cc chi tin, m hm Dng d. Hu tng chi hu, Dng phn m d.
trong Tin Thin th m hm Dng, nh vy tc l Dng trong, m ngoi.
ni Hu Thin, th d nhin l cc din s o ngc: Dng s ngoi m m s trong.
Da vo cc bn Dch trong quyn Chu Dch Xin Chn ca Lu nht Minh, nht l bn Tin Thin
Vin thng thy trong cc sch Dch, chng ta c th suy din v m Dng Tin Thin nh sau:
m Dng s d sinh l do s phn cc ca mt thc th duy nht.
d suy lun, ta hy tng tng thc th duy nht nh mt hnh cu. Nh vy s phn cc s c ba chiu
hng: Trong - Ngoi ; Trn - Di ; T - Hu.

Nu ta chp nhn Trung Tm im ca hnh cu ni trn nh l ngun gc pht tit ra nh sng v s sng,
nu ta chp nhn qui c ca Dch ly pha t lm pha ng, pha mt tri mc, pha nh sng; pha hu lm pha
Ty, pha mt tri ln, pha ti tm; nu ta chp nhn khinh thanh th bc ln trn, trng trc th lng xung di, ta
s gi:
Pha trn, pha T, pha trong l Dng.
Pha di, pha Hu, pha ngoi l m.
T trn xung di, t tri sang phi, t trong ra ngoi l chiu m. T di ln trn, t phi sang tri, t
ngoi vo trong l chiu Dng.
Nh vy ta thy ngay c rng c cu v tr cng nh c cu con ngi, khng c ng ng mi chiu
hng, m trn di khc nhau, phi tri khc nhau, trong ngoi khc nhau, ngay trn bnh din c cu v t chc.
ni con ngi, ta thy mt cch d dng rng tinh thn thi trn, trong, vt cht thi di, ngoi.
Suy ra th tinh thn phi qui t ni u no con ngi...

198

i t trong ra ngoi, l i xa la Chn tm, xa la Thng , tin v pha ngoi cnh vt cht. l i
theo chiu m, v cng ngy tm thn cng tr nn u ti, i vi nhng vn siu nhin, thn b; v con ngi
cng ngy cng tr nn thc tin, thc t. l nhng con ngi hng ngoi, v tinh thn h cng ngy cng tn
mn, ph tn. H s chu nh hng ca lc ly tm (force centrifuge).
i t ngoi vo trong, l tin t vt cht tr ngc v tm thn, tm v Chn tm, tm v Bn th hng cu,
tm v Thng . l chiu Dng, v cng ngy tm thn cng tr nn sng sut, d dng lnh hi c cc
vn siu nhin, v con ngi cng ngy cng tr nn khinh khot tiu si, l tng. l nhng con ngi
hng ni; h s chu nh hng ca nh lut hng tm (force cetripte), ngha l tinh thn h cng ngy cng
c tp trung, cng c nh tnh, tr nn v trc, v lu.
i t trong ra ngoi cng y nh i t cc tng trn xung cc tng lp di, i t tri xung t. l trng
thi m cng ngy cng thng Dng, v con ngi cng ngy cng tr nn sa a v tinh thn, tin b v vt
cht.
i t ngoi vo trong, cng y thc nh i t cc tng lp di ln cc tng lp trn, i t t ln tri, t vt
n Thn. l trng thi Dng cng ngy cng thng m, v con ngi cng ngy cng tinh tin trn phng
din tinh thn, cng thot ly vng kim ta ca vt cht.
Ngi thng cho Hu l Dng, T l m, ngui tu o th li cho T l Dng, Hu l m. Ngui tu o
nh vy s i ngc vi ng li th nhn. Ci g th nhn cho l hay l phi (Dng: phi, droit, dextre, right),
th ngi tu o li cho l d l tri (m: gauche, sinistre, left, tri).
Nh vy cng thy r chuyn i tt c u tng i. Nhn nh v m Dng nh trn, tuy ngc vi nhn
nh thng thng v m Dng, nhng li gip ta tm ra c nhng nh lut thin nhin chi phi qu trnh tin
ha ca c nhn cng nh ca nhn loi.
ni c nhn, ta thy t b cho n ln, cho ti khi ng tui, khong 40-45, con ngi thng hng ngoi.
Khi y con ngi cng ngy cng xa la cc gi tr tinh thn, ln mnh vo i sng thc tin v vt cht.
Nhng khi mi tc hoa rm, khi ng tui, khi m tm s bt u ng sang thu, th con ngi li bt
u chuyn hng. Lc y con ngi li mun i tm nhng gi tr tinh thn, li mun quay tr v lng mnh
m tu tm, luyn tnh.
V li, th cht v tinh thn chng ta thnh suy, tiu trng theo nhng nhp iu ngc nhau.
Th cht mi bt u th yu ui, nhng theo tu nguyt, s n nang, cng trng mi thm ra cho ti mt
cc im v khong 40-45, sau dn dn li suy vi tn t cho ti khi cht.
Tinh thn th ngc li, cng nh cng thanh tao cng hng mnh, nhng theo thi gian, tinh thn mt
ngy mt tr nn phi pha, tn mn, cho ti mt cc vo khong 40-45. Sau , nu nh bit tu luyn, tm thn
s c c phc sinh, v pht trin cho ti khi cht. Lc cht, chnh l lc tinh thn phi ln ti cc im tinh hoa. V
th m, khi mun k nim cc v Thnh Hin, ngi ta thng chn ngy cc ngi vin tch, thnh o...
Xt lch s nhn loi, t khi c vn t, vn ha n nay, ta thy nhn loi tin dn t nhng trng thi thn
linh, n nhng trng thi vt cht.
Khi m sinh hot vt cht bt u thnh, th thin h li xm vo ch bai nhng sinh hot tm linh cho l
m tn, d oan, lc hu, li thi... Lc m sinh hot tm linh thnh, th mi ngi u khinh ch vt cht.
Trn tin v vt cht ngoi cnh, mi s thot ly khi vng nh hng tm linh, thng c coi nh l
mt thng li, mt tin b. Nhng k thc, chng ng t tm linh, tm thn xung ti vt cht, ngoi cnh, phi
c coi l mt s sa a, thoi ha.
199

Sau ny khi vn minh vt cht ln n cc im, con ngi li s tht s hoi vng tinh thn, s li chuyn
hng v pha tm linh v mi mt hnh ng thot ly khi s kim ta vt cht, li s c coi l mt s vn
ln, mt s tin b chn thc.
u cng l cu chuyn n ng ln...
C mt iu cng nn ghi nhn l m lun mun tin v Dng, Dng lun mun tin v m. V th m,
sng trong nhng t chc sinh hot tinh thn, con ngui thng m c nhng lc th vt cht; sng trong nhng
x hi vt cht con ngi li khao kht nhng lc th tinh thn.
Cng v th m khi cn tr, ta thng c nhng khuynh hng vt cht, th tc, hng ngoi; n lc tr v
gi, ta li c nhng khuynh hng siu nhin, hng ni...

4. m Dng trn phng din Hu Thin


By gi chng ta hy d th tch Trung Hoa, xem h nhn nh v m Dng mt cch thc t, thc tin ra
sao. T v Lng vit: Dng l cng, l mnh, l con giai, l vua, l ng, l sng, l pha ngoi, l gin, l Tri,
l Kin, l mt tri, l Thn, l ngy, l con c, l hin.
m l mm, l yu, l con gi, l by ti, l tnh, l ti, lphatrong, l co, l t, l Khn, l mt trng, l Qu,
l m, l con mi, l n... [9]
Qu Cc t cho rng: Dng l m, l ni, l mi iu hay nh sng lu, an lc, ph qu, tn vinh, hin danh,
c , h dc v.v...
m l ng, l yn lng. m gm mi iu xu nh cht non, u hon, bn tin, kh nhc, vong li, tht ,
hnh lc v.v... [10]
Ren Gunon, trong bi kho lun ca ng v m Dng, trong quyn La Grande Triade cho rng:
Dng l tt c nhng g thuc tinh thn, v tinh thn v nh sng l mt, cn m l tt c nhng g thuc vt
cht. ng dng t ng Trit hc m cho rng Dng l ci g hin hu, m l ci g tim n. [11]
ng Trng Th, trong quyn Xun Thu Phn L vit: Vt g cng phi c ci hp. c hp tc l c
trn c di, c T c Hu, c trc c sau, c trong c ngoi, c tt c xu, c thun c nghch, c vui c gin, c
lnh c nng, c ngy c m, u l hp nhau vy. m l hp vi Dng, v l hp vi chng, con l
hp vi cha, ti l hp vi vua. Vt no cng c ci hp, m hp l c m Dng... Vua l Dng, ti l m;
cha l Dng, con l m; chng l Dng, v l m... [12]
Nhim ng Thu, trong quyn m Dng Ng Hnh ca ng xut bn gn y, ti lc a Trung Quc,
nhn nh v m Dng nh sau:
Dng l mt khi nim ht sc rng ri, Dng l ng, m l tnh; Dng l xng, m l ty; Dng l
cng, m l nhu; Dng l ban pht, m l thu nhn; Dng l thng, m l ging; Dng l trc, m l sau;
Dng l trn, m l di; Dng l tri, m l phi. Tin l Dng, thoi l m. Dng thi i nhanh, m thi
i chm v.v... [13]
Nh vy th bt k vic g c i i, lp tc c th phn thnh m Dng...
T Vn cho rng: Trong con ngi, th ngoi l Dng, trong l m, bng l m, lng l Dng; tng l m,
ph l Dng.
Cho nn Ng tng: tm, can, t, ph, thn u thuc m. Lc ph: m, v, i trng, tiu trng, bng quang,
tam tiu u thuc Dng. [14]
200

i vi Y hc Trung Hoa, th Dng ch kh lc; m ch huyt.


Cc mch ni c tay phi u thuc Dng:
Mch Thn : Phi (Kim)
Mch Quan : T (Th)
Mch Xch : Thn ha (Ha)
Cc mch ni c tay tri u thuc m:
Mch Thn : Tim (Ha)
Mch Quan : Gan (Mc)
Mch Xch : Thn thy (Thy)
Ngi cng chi lm ba hng:
Dng tng
m tng
Bnh tng
Dng tng l nhng ngi c kh lc mnh m, da nng, mt mi hn h, tc en rm v tt, ting ni to,
hi th mnh, n ung d tiu, tnh tnh nng ny, sng lu... [15]
m tng l nhng ngi s lnh, da mt v t, mt mi hi xanh, tc mm, lng tha, ngi mau mt, ting
ni yu t, hay y hi, hay b tiu chy, l hu, tht mm nho, tnh tnh trm tnh, v.v...
Bnh tng l nhng ngi c hai phng din kh huyt u mnh ngang nhau. [16]
CH THCH
[1] Hu v th nht nguyn kh chi s pht, nhi hin vi nh vt gi... m Dng nhc lun lu hnh , tc ch th
nht c... , ... . T V Lng, Trung
Quc Trit Hc S, nht bin thng, nh chng, trang 35.
[2] m Dng tuy th lng c t, nhin khc th nht kh chi tiu tc, nht tin nht thoi, nht tiu nht trng;
tin x tin th Dng, thoi x tin th m; trng x tin th Dng, tiu x tin th m. Ch th gi nht
kh chi tiu trng, t xut c kim thin a gian v hn s lai. S d m Dng t nht c thuyt dic c, t
lng c thuyt dic c. , , , , ,
. , . . Chu Hi,
Ton th, L kh m Dng thuyt.
[3] Matire et esprit non point deux choses, mais deux tats, deux faces d'une mme toffe cosmique suivant qu'on
la regarde ou qu'on la prolonge dans le sens o (comme et dit Bergson) elle se fait ou au contraire dans le
sens suivant lequel elle se dfait. De la Science la Thologie, p. 26.
[4] Lng bt lp tc Nht bt kh kin. Nht bt kh kin, tc Lng chi dng tc. Lng th gi, h thc d,
ng tnh d, t tn d, thanh trc d, k cu cnh nht nhi d... ..
, , , , . Chnh Mng, Thi ha.
[5] Hu Lng tc hu Nht, th Thi Cc d. Nht vt nhi lng th, k Thi Cc chi v d. ,
. , . Ib.
[6] V Cc nhi Thi Cc. Thi Cc ng nhi sinh Dng; ng cc nhi tnh, tnh nhi sinh m. Tnh cc phc
ng. Nht ng nht tnh, h vi k cn. Phn m phn Dng, lng nghi lp yn. .

201

; , . . , . , . Thi Cc
Thuyt.
[7] ng Ty, thng h, hn th, tr d, sinh t, giai th tng phn nhi tng i. Thin a gian, vt v thng
v tng i gi. , , , , , . , . Chu Hi
Loi Ng.
[8] Xem Gin Chi v Nguyn Hin L, i Cng Trit Hc Trung Quc II, trang 362.
[9] Dng vi cng, vi cng, vi nam, vi qun, vi ng, vi minh, vi biu, vi thn, vi thin, vi Kin, vi Nht, vi
thn, vi tr, vi hng, vi hin. , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , .
m vi nhu, vi nhc, vi n, vi thn, vi tnh, vi m, vi l, vi khut, vi a, vi Khn, vi Nguyt, vi qu, vi d, vi
th, vi n ng. , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, . T ng, T V Lng, Trung Quc Trit Hc S, nht bin thng, nh chng, trang 34.
[10] Bi chi gi khai d, ngn d, dng d. Hp chi gi b d, mc d m d. m Dng k ha, chung thy k
ngha. C ngn trng sinh an lc ph qu, tn vinh, hin danh, i hiu, ti li, c , h dc vi dng, vit
thy. C ngn t vong u hon, bn tin, kh nhc, kh tn, vong li, tht , hu hi, hnh lc, tru pht vi m
vit chung. , , . , . , . ,
, , , , , , . , , , , , , , ,
. T V Lng, Trung Quc Trit Hc S, nht bin h, ng chng. Tp Gia, Qu Cc
T, tr. 99.
[11] m ch tnh nng th lnh ch, th tnh ch; Dng chi tnh nng th nhit ch, th ng ch... Nht chng
th hng ngoi ch thi lc, nht chng th hng ni ch lp lc. S vi Dng, tu th hng ngoi ch
thi lc. S vi m tc th hng ni ch lp lc... , . , ...
, ., . , . Chu nh
Hnh, Dch Kinh Ging Thoi, trang 41.
[12] Phm vt tt hu hp, hp tt hu thng, tt hu h, tt hu t, tt hu hu; tt hu tin, tt hu hu, tt hu
biu, tt hu l; hu m tt hu c; hu thun tt hu nghch; hu h tt hu n; hu hn tt hu th; hu tr
tt hu d, th giai k hp d. m gi Dng chi hp, th gi phu chi hp, t gi ph chi hp, thn gi qun
chi hp. Vt mc v hp, nhi hp cc hu m Dng... Qun vi Dng, thn vi m; ph vi Dng, t vi
m, phu vi Dng, ph vi m. , , , , , , , ,
. , , , , , . ,
, , . , . , , , ,
, . Xun Thu Phn L, C Ngha, ng thp tam.
[13] Xem Nhim ng Thu, m Dng Ng Hnh, trang 34.
[14] Xem Nhim ng Thu, m Dng Ng Hnh, trang 29.
Xem Ni Kinh, T Vn.
[15] Xem Ln ng, Khn Ha Thi Chn, trang 13, 14, 15, 16 - Y Hc Tng Th p. 206-207, Huyn TnPht Vi p.
24-27.
[16] Ib,

Chng 4. Quan nim m Dng vi i sng


Quan nim m Dng c cc Trit gia p dng vo i sng hng ngy.
202

1. ng Trng Th cho rng: Dng l n c ca Tri, m l hnh pht ca Tri. Tuy nhin, Tri trng
Dng m khinh m, cho nn mt v quc qun mun lm chnh tr cho hn hoi, phi thch thi n b chn l
dng hnh pht tr dn, c nh vy mi thun thin o. [1]
ng li cho rng t nguyn tc trng Dng, khinh m, ta c suy ra nhng khun php lun l: l phi
trng ngha, khinh li. Ngha l, l tng thuc v tm thn; li lc, m thc thuc v vt cht. Tm thn trng
hn th cht, cho nn nghatrng hn li. Ngi ngha kh tuy ngho nn, nhng vn c th sung sng, ngui
giu sang m v nhn bt ngha, cha chc bo ton c tm thn. [2]
Cng mt l, con ngi phi dit lng tham, thc hin c nhn, v phi bit km hm dc tnh, nh vy mi
l hiu bit l cm k ca tri t. [3]
2. Vn T cho rng: m m tin th Dng phi thoi; tiu nhn m c th, th qun t phi n mnh, l l
t nhin vy. [4]
cng chnh l ch trng ca Dch.
i Tng truyn ca qu B vit: Thin a khng giao nhau l B, ngi qun t nhn phi che du tinh
anh, ti c lnh nn. ng nn cu mong li lc v cho l mt vinh d. [5]
Wilhelm bnh i Tng qu B nh sau: Khi tiu nhn cm quyn, chnh s nt, ngi qun t c xut
u l din, cng khng thi th c g ch quc li dn. V vy, ngi qun t khng nn mc b vinh hoa m ra
tham chnh. Ra tham chnh trong trng hp ny l ma chuc ly ha hi, v mnh khng th no theo c
ng li ca h. Cho nn, giu ti c, n dt l hn c.
3. Qu Cc T cng nhn m Dng m lp ra phng php Bi Hp, tc l phng php ng M p
dng vo cng cuc du thuyt v lm chnh tr.
Bi l M, l n ni; Hp l ng, l Nn thinh. Th tc l mt nh du thuyt phi bit lc no ng ni mi
ni, lc no ng yn thi phi lng yn.
Thuyt Bi Hp cn ch trng phi bit s dng c hai ngu lc m Dng mi c th thnh tu trong mi
cng tc; lc cn cao thng l tng, th cao thng, l tng; lc cn thc t, tn nhn, cng c th thc t v
tn nhn. Nu lm c nh vy, thi ra vo u cng lt, cp ti vn g cng c, thc hnh vic g cng
xong xui.
Nn nh y ch l phng chm m Qu Cc dy cho nhng ngi lm chnh tr.
CH THCH
[1] Dng gi, Thin chi c d, m gi Thin chi hnh d... Phm chnh tr lun l giai ng ph Dng nhi c
m, tc tn c ti hnh, d thun Thin o. .... ,
, .T V Lng, TQTHS III, nh bin thng, t chng, trang 12, 13.
[2] Hu suy Dng tn m ti chi ngha, dng lun l, tc qu ngha, tin li. C vit: Thin chi sinh nhn d, s
nhn sinh ngha d li. Li d dng k th, ngha d dng k tm...Th mc qu tm, c dng mc trng
ngha. Hu vit: Ph nhn hu ngha gi, tuy bn nng t lc d. Nhi i v ngha gi, tuy ph, mc nng t
tn. , , , . : , . ,
... , . : , . , , .
T V Lng, TQTHS III, nh bin thng, t chng, trang 13.
[3] Thn chi danh th ch thin. Thin lng hu m Dng chi thi, thn dic hu tham nhn chi tnh. Thin hu
m Dng cm thn hu tnh dc nhm d thin o nht d. Th d m chi hnh bt c Xun H, nhi
203

nguyt chi phch thng ym nht quang, x ton x thng thin chi cm m nh th, an c bt tn k
dc nhi chuyt k tnh nhi ng Thin. . , .
. , , ,
.T V Lng, TQTHS III, nh thin lng, t chng, trang 15.
[4] m tin, Dng thoi; tiu nhn c th, qun t hi, Thin o nhin d. , , , ,
. Chu T Vn Ty Tc Bin, quyn 8, trang 5a.
[5] Tng vit: Thin a bt giao B, qun t d kim c t nn bt kh vinh d lc. : ,
, . Dch Kinh, B qui, i Tng truyn.

Chng 5. m Dng vi y hc Trung Hoa


Quan nim m Dng c trit p dng trong y hc Trung Hoa.
Trc y chng ta cp n ba hng ngi. Dng tng, m tng, Bnh tng.
V phng din bnh hc, ngi Trung Hoa cng phn bit Dng bnh v m bnh.
Dng bnh l nhng bnh ngoi cm. m bnh l nhng bnh ni thng. Dng bnh nhiu khi cn c
gi l thc chng; m bnh c gi l h chng.
Dng bnh cng l nhng bnh do kh lc h hao, hoc thn ha suy. m bnh l nhng bnh sinh ra v
huyt Dch h hao, hay thn thy suy.
Khi con bnh suy kit Dng kh, th y hc gi l Dng thot. Dng thot c nhng triu chng sau
y: Mch hu nh tuyt; T chi gi lnh; Trn v m hi; Th ht ra; Kh th; Nc; Hn m; Li co v.v...
Khi con bnh m m suy kit, huyt Dch suy kit, thi y hc gi l m h. m h c nhng triu chng sau
y: Mch vi, mch khn; Nhit cao; Mt , Ngi kh t nh ci; Vt v; Kht nc nhiu; M sng.
Khi con bnh m kh huyt u hao kit, thi Y hc gi l m h Dng Thot. Triu chng nh sau:
- T chi gi lnh; Trn v m hi; Hn m, Th nh suyn, Nc ct.
Nguyn tc cha bnh, chnh l bi b m Dng, iu ha m Dng. Dng thnh th b m ch bt
nh Dng. m thnh th b Dng, lm tiu tan ci u ut ca m. (B thy d ch dng quang; b ha d tiu
m .)
Cc v thuc cng chia thnh m, Dng, hay Bnh v.
Dng dc l nhng thuc nng, c hiu lc lm gia tng s tiu ha, thc y s h hp, s tun hon, bi
b kh lc.
m dc l nhng thuc mt, c hiu lc bi b huyt Dch, lm cho con ngi bt nng, bt ho.
Nhng v thuc bnh v, l nhng v thuc ha hon, va b Dng, va b m.
Phng dc dng tr liu iu ha m Dng, kh huyt c th tot lc nh sau:
a/ Tr liu Dng kh
1 - Khi dng kh gn thot tuyt, ngi xa thng cp tr bng: Nhn sm, hoc Qu, Ph.
2 - Khi dng kh hao tn, giao ng va phi, thi dng:
- Bi T qun ( b kh)
- Bi B Trung ch Kh thang, hoc Ph T L Trung
3 - Khi dng kh, thn kh suy tn lu, thi dng:
- Bi Bt v
- Bi Sinh Mch
204

b/ Tr liu m huyt
1 - Khi huyt dch suy tn thi dng: Bi T Vt, bi Qui T.
2 - Khi thn thy suy tn thi dng bi Lc V.
c/ Bnh b
Mun bnh b c m ln Dng, c kh ln huyt, ngui ta dng bi Bt Trn hay Thp Ton...
nhn nh c tm quan trng ca quan nim m Dng i vi Y hc, ta hy c mt on ca Trng
Cnh Nhc: Phm chn bnh tr liu, trc ht phi thm nh m Dng. l cng lnh ca Y hc.
Lun v m Dng khng sai, thi tr bnh lm sao m sai c? Y hc tuy phin tp, nhng c th bao qut
bng mt cu: m Dng m thi.
Cho nn bnh c m Dng, mch c m Dng, thuc c m Dng. Ly bnh m ni, thi bnh bn
ngoi l Dng, bn trong l m; nhit l Dng, hn l m; trn l Dng, di l m; kh l Dng, huyt l
m; ng l Dng, tnh l m; ni nhiu l Dng, khng ni l m; thch sng l Dng, a ti l m; Dng
yu khng th th ra, m yu khng th ht vo; Dng bnh kh ci, m bnh kh nga. [1]
Ni v mch, th mch ph, mch mnh, mch hot, mch xc l Dng; mch trm, mch vi, mch nh,
mch rt l m. Ni v thuc th thng tn l Dng; lim ging l m; tn nhit l Dng, kh hn l m. Chy
vo kh l Dng, chy vo huyt l m; tnh ng m chy l Dng, tnh tnh m gi l m. l i php
trong ngh thuc...
Dng mnh cn b Dng, thi Dng cng bc ln mnh, m cng tiu hao. Dng khng m li
cn dng m, cn dng m phng, thi m cng thnh, m Dng b dit vong vy.
Nu minh bin m Dng thi du y l tuy huyn vi, nhng cng suy ra c qu na ri vy... [2]
CH THCH
[1] Trng Cnh Nhc thuyt: Phm chn bnh, thi tr, tt tu tin thm m Dng, ni vi Y o chi cng lnh.
m Dng v mu, tr yn hu sai? Y o tuy phn nhi kh d nht ngn t chi gi vit m Dng nhi d. C
chng hu m Dng, mch hu m Dng, dc hu m Dng.
D chng nhi ngn, tc Biu vi Dng, L vi m; Nhit vi Dng, Hn vi m; Thng vi Dng, H vi m;
Kh vi Dng, Huyt vi m; ng vi Dng, tnh vi m; a ngn vi Dng, v thanh vi m; h minh gi vi
Dng, dc m gi vi m; Dng vi gi bt nng h, m vi gi bt nng hp; Dng bnh gi bt nng ph,
m bnh gi bt nng ngng...
: , , , . , ?
. , , .
, , , , , ,
, , , , , .
Truyn Trung Lc, m Dng Thin. (Trng cnh Nhc)
Nhim ng Thu, m Dng Ng Hnh, trang 1.
[2] D mch nhi ngn tc ph, i, hot, xc chi loi giai Dng d; trm vi, t, sp chi loi giai m d. D dc
nhi ngn, tc thng tn gi vi Dng, lim ging gi vi m; tn nhit gi vi Dng, kh hn gi vi m; hnh
kh phn gi vi Dng, hnh huyt phn gi vi m. Tnh ng nhi tu gi vi Dng. Tnh tnh nhi th gi vi
m. Th giai y trung i php... Nhc Dng hu d nhi cnh thi Dng tr, tc Dng d x nhi m d
tiu. Dng bt tc nhi cnh dng m phng, tc m ch thnh nhi Dng t dit h. , , ,
205

; , , . , , , ,
, , , , . ...
, . , . Trng Cnh Nhc, Truyn
Trung Lc, m Dng thin, Nhim ng Thu, m Dng Ng Hnh, trang 1.

Chng 6. m Dng vi thut luyn an hay tu tin ca o Lo


Bn v m Dng, khng th khng ni qua v khoa luyn n ca o Lo.
Khoa luyn n ca o Lo cng y thc nh khoa luyn n u Chu thi c, ch trng con ngi l l
bt qui, tinh luyn nhng huyn lc pht xut t Nht n Vn, ri li Vn v Nht. Quay v c ti Nht s
l Chn Nhn hay Thin Nhn. [1]
Mun hiu khoa luyn n phi hiu Dch.
Dch ch trng Thi Cc sinh m Dng. Sau khi phn Cc, m Dng c th phn k sinh bin
ha, nhng cng c th ha hp li ti to thnh Thi Cc. Nhn , khoa luyn n cng cho rng ni con
ngi, o th hay Bn th cng phn ha thnh o tm v Nhn tm.
Nhn tm v o tm bao lu cn chia r, bao lu tm hn con ngi cn ng rng o ngoi mnh, xa
mnh; th by lu con ngi cn sng trong khc khoi v kh cc.
Nhng mt khi nhn tm nhn thc c rng o tm thc s chng h la xa mnh, vn n ng sn
trong lng mnh, lc y s ra cng tu luyn Nhn Tm ng hu c th kt hp c vi o tm tr thnh mt
thc th duy nht. Nu cng phu ny m i n ch thnh ton, th con ngi s thc hin c Tri, c o,
luyn xong c Kim n, v s sng vnh cu cng tri t.
Khu quyt ca o Lo chnh l Tm l o, o l Tm. Tm m la o, s nhp vo lc o, tam .
Tm cng o hp, s to c Bng Lai, Tam o. (Tm tc th o; o tc th Tm. Tm d o ly, tc nhp
Lc o Tam . Tm d o hp, tc to Bng lai, Tam o.) (Thi Thng Bo Phit, trang 16)
Khoa luyn n tr nn phc tp, k b chnh ti l thay v dng nhng danh t nh Thn, Hn, o tm,
Nhn tm, cc n gia li a dng nhng danh t bng by, him hc, c l l nh lc hng, hay ngn chn
nhng ngi khng cn duyn. Chng ta c th thu thp t nhiu t ng dng ch m Dng, Tm Thn vo
bn sau:
Dng

Thn

Hn

o tm

Nhn tm

Huyn

Tn

Bch kim

Hc ngn

Hng

Din

Kim cng

X n

Khm

Ly

Chu sa

Thy ngn

Kim , Nht tinh

Ngc th, Nguyt hoa

Chn tri

Linh tri

Thng qui, Long v.v...

Xch x, H v.v...
206

Nhng danh t ni trn, c khi v phng din m Dng c th ngc nhau, ty theo tc gi. Nhng bao
gi o Tm cng phi l Dng, Nhn Tm bao gi cng phi l m, Thn bao gi cng l Dng, Hn bao gi
cng l m.
Phng trnh tng qut ca Khoa Luyn n l:
m + Dng = Thi Cc; Kim n
o tm + Nhn tm = Chn Nhn; Kim n
Gi l Kim, v vng tng trng cho s bt hoi. Gi l n v ch n u l Nht, chn l Nguyt. Vy
n tc l Thng th, Ton th, bao qut c m ln Dng, c o tm ln Nhn tm.
Ni theo nhng t ng bng by ca Khoa Luyn n th:
1/ Cht liu, Dc liu luyn n chnh l Din Hng, chnh l o tm v Nhn tm.
2/ L luyn n tc l v tr, v xc thn con ngi.
3/ La dng luyn cho n Thnh hay Ha Hu chnh l ch, chnh l bu nhit huyt, nhit tm ca
mnh.
4/ Luyn n tc l phi kh cn b, lc li ly tinh hoa.
l phng php Su (Bt), Thim (thm) Phi lc, phi b cho ht nhng cn b ca nhn tm. Phi
thm, phi chau chut ci tinh hoa l o tm.
So snh Khoa Luyn n ca o Lo vi Khoa Luyn n ca u Chu ta thy cc n gia ng Ty u
cao chn l vnh cu ny l v tr hu hnh v tm linh, u l s bin ha ca Thn, ca Thng , m s
bin ha v i nht ca Thn, ca Thng c thc hin ngay trong lng con ngi. Thn con ngi, s tr
v c Thin v, nu cc tng lp cc kh nng h ng ni con ngi bit hi sinh cho mc ch cao c y... [2]
Th l cht m sng... [3]Phm nhn cht i, cho thn nhn hot ng.[4]
Luyn n ct ch v cho con ngi nh lut rng nh s bin ha, nh s tinh luyn, con ngi c th tr
thnh thn minh. [5]
Mi hay mun tha tinh anh,
Lng tri, gm sn trong mnh xa u...[6]
CH THCH
[1] Paracelse, comme tous les Hermtistes, considrait l'tre humain comme l'alambic o s'opre la distillation et la
sublima- tion des nergies qui de l'Unique descendent au multiple, pour retourner l'Unique, en tant que
l'homme parfait revtu de sa divinit. M. Snart, Le Zodiaque, p. 490.
[2] L'Alchimie met l'accent sur cette vrit ternelle base de toutes les autres: L'Univers sensible et psychique est
une mtamorphose de l'Esprit et sa mtamorphose majeure s'accomplit par la cons- cience humaine renaissant
son tat divin par le moyen et le sacrifice de ses facults infrieures. M. Snart, Le Zodiaque, p. 482.
[3] Et de ta propre extermination, tu vivras. (La Langue Hbraique Restaure, tome I, note, p. 23) M. Snart, Le
Zodiaque, p. 482.
[4] Tm t thn hot. .
[5]La science alchimique s'efforce de rvlr l'homme la loi qui, par la transmutation, fait de lui un dieu. M.
Snart, Le Zodiaque, p. 482

207

.... Malgr son apparence chimique, l'opus alchymicum fut toujours considr comme un acte culturel, au sens
d'uvre divine. C.G. Jung, Paracelsica, p. 63 v Le Zodiaque, p. 492.
[6] Phng theo bi th ca T bch t gii, tr. 2b.
Dc vt sinh Huyn khiu,
Ha hu pht Dng l.
Long H giao hi bi,
Kim nh sn Huyn chu.

Chng 7. Quan nim m Dng vi khoa siu hnh hc u Chu


Dch kinh vi quan nim m Dng d nhin l khc bit vi Siu Hnh Hc u Chu hin ti.
Dch phn bit m Dng, nhng khng phn bit mt cch ro rit trit , ngc li vn ch trng m
sinh Dng, Dng sinh m; trong m c Dng, trong Dng c m.
Siu Hnh Hc u Chu phn bit, thi li phn bit mt cch trit , rt khot. Cho nn i vi Siu
Hnh Hc u Chu, thin l thin, c l c; tinh thn l tinh thn, vt cht l vt cht, i ng hon ton i nh,
hon ton mu thun nhau.
Sau khi hiu r thi v lp trng cn bn y ca ng v Ty, chng ta s ln lt so snh t nhiu vn
:

1. m Dng vi nguyn l ng nht


Siu Hnh Hc u Chu da trn nguyn l ng nht (Principe d'identit) nn khng chp thun rng A va
l A li va c th l B. Ni cch khc, cc s vt, cc hin tng ch c th chuyn Dch, tng gim, ch khng
sao bin th c. Nh vy v tr ny s khng th bin ha v cng, v ch l mt s nhc i nhc li ca mt s
s kin vi t nhiu tng gim... [1]
Dch l d nhin khng chp nhn nguyn l ng nht. L do rt l gin d: V phng din Tin Thin,
thi Bn th hng cu v duy nht bt bin, nn nguyn l ng nht khng cn phi t ra. V phng din Hu
Thin, thi mi s u bin thin, m bin Dng, Dng bin m, m sinh Dng, Dng sinh m; trong m
c Dng, trong Dng c m, khng c g l thun nht, khng c g l bt bin, m mi s u chuyn ha v
cng tn. Chnh v th m nguyn l ng nht khng c chn ng. [2]
Cho nn Dch l v Siu Hnh Hc u Chu khc nhau ch mt bn th uyn chuyn bin ha, mt bn th
l ngng ng; mt bn th i st vi thc ti, mt bn th tch ri thc ti.

2. m Dng vi quan nim Thn, Hn


Nh trn thy t quan nim m Dng cc trit gia ng i n ch trng rng Tm thn con
ngi c hai phn: l: Thn v Hn.
a s cc trit gia u Chu t lu nay ch phn bit xc hn, hay tinh thn v vt cht. Tuy nhin, quan
nim Thn Hn khng phi l khng c u Chu. Mt chng c hin nhin l t ng cho ta thy di tch ca
mt thi i xa xa, v chng minh mt cch hng hn rng thi xa, u Chu, cng nh Do Thi, quan
nim y c ch trng. Nhng tn tch t ng xa cn xt li nh: Pneurma (Thn), Psych (Hn); Ruah
208

(Thn), Nephesh (Hn), Esprit (Thn), me (Hn), hoc nhng chuyn thn thoi xa nh Castor (Thn), Pollux
(Hn), Eros-Psych, Osiris-isis, chng minh iu .
Gn y c mt vi Trit gia u Chu tr li quan nim c s ni trn.
F.W. Myers (1843 - 1901), mt nh Tm L Hc Anh ch trng: Tim thc chnh l hn v tr, chnh l
Tim ng, v trng thi Huyn ng chnh l s trn ngp ca Tim ng vo tm thc con ngi. [3]
William James cng theo ch trng ca F.W. Myers. James cho rng: trng thi Huyn ng chnh l s hp
nht gia Tm thc (Nhn tm) vi i Ng (o tm) v nh vy m con ngi c gii thot. [4]
Bergson ch trng khc i rng: Huyn ng khng phi l tm thc kt hp vi v thc, m chnh l vi
Thng . Nh trc gic, tm hn c th kt hp vi Thng . Lc y tm hn b Thng xm nhp
chng khc no la nhp vo st lm cho st rc ln. [5]
Dung hp quan nim m Dng, Thn Hn ca cc n gia, o gia, quan nim Tim ng ca Myers, vi
quan nim Huyn ng ca Bergson, ta c th ch trng rng: Huyn ng chnh l s hp nht ca tm hn vi
Thng , nhng Thng chng u xa, m n ng trong tim thc, v thc con ngi, m Thng
chnh l Bn Th con ngi, l Thn con ngi.
Nu quan nim ny c chp nhn, th sau ny ng v Ty s hp nht, Trit hc v o gio s hp nht,
v con ngi s thy r hng i ca i o, l vo su trong tm khm m tm o, tm Tri.

3. m Dng vi quan nim thin c


Nh ta thy, theo ch trng ca Dch Kinh, th m Dng trn phin din tng chng nh l mu thun
nhau, nhng k thc trong cn c li b tc ln cho nhau, li hng tm nhau, sinh ra nhau, mun ha hp vi nhau.
Suy ra, th s mu thun trn th gii ny ch l phin din, cn s thn i, ha hp mi l then cht, mi l cn
bn.
Trong c th chng ta chng hn lm g c s mu thun nhau trit , mu thun nhau thc s. Nu c s
mu thun kim ch nhau chng na, thi cng ch ct khang kin cho ton thn.
m Dng chng qua l hai phng din, hai mt tri phi ca mt thc th. Chng h tng nh hng, tc
dng trn nhau sinh ra thin bin vn ha, nhng u qui hng v mc ch l pht huy v tr cho n hon
m. Cho nn s phn bit m Dng ca Dch Kinh ch l mt s phn bit tng i. m Dng khng phi l
hai t th, m chnh l hai ngi bn.
Cng mt l, i vi Dch, th i ny thin, c, ct hung u l tng i. Thi ny cho th ny l hay l
phi, thi khc cho th kia mi l hay, l phi, cn th ny l d, l tri. V trong ci hay vn c ci d, trong ci
thin vn c ci c.
Lo T vit:
Khi i thy p bit khen
Th l ci xu chen vo ri.
iu hay m r khc nhi,
u nh dang d, li thi sinh dn.
Mi hay khng, c chuyn vn,
D sinh ra kh, vn nhn thnh di.
Thp cao, ty ng ngc xui,
209

Ting ca trm bng, dng i trc sau...


Trang T cng cho rng: Mun ci hay m khng mun ci d, mun trt t m khng mun hn lon, tc l
khng bit nh lut ca tri t. [6]
Hraclite cng cho rng: V tr bin ha i n s ha hp ca mi mu thun. ng cn cho rng nu
chng ta coi lnh d nh hai s kin mu thun, sung khc, chnh l v quan im ta cn hp hi, v v ta cha bit
qui chng v ton bch, ton th. Qui t c chng v ton th, ton bch, chng s ha hip vi nhau.
i vi Thng , mi s l p, l phi, l hay. Nhng con ngi cho rng ci ny phi, ci kia khng
phi.[7]
Thay v hai ch m Dng, u Chu dng hai ch bng ti, v nh sng. Kho th tch u Chu, ta cng
thy hai quan nim khc bit nhau v Ti Sng, Thin c.
1. Mt quan nim c hn, su sc hn cho rng Ti Sng, Thin c l Nguyn L Song Sinh do Thng
sinh xut.
Ta thy du vt ny trong o gio c Ai Cp vi Lng Thn Osiris-Isis, hoc trong o Bi Ha vi nhng
quan nim nh Sng, Bng Ti, Tinh thn v Vt cht. [8]
Sch Ecclsiastique trong Cu c cng vit: Thin v c, Sng v Cht, ngho v giu tt c u do ni
Cha ( Eccl. 11. 14 )
2. Mt quan nim mi hn, phin din hn, c tnh cch thc dng hn coi Sng, Ti; Thin, c nh hai thc
th hon ton i khng, th ch nhau.
Bi Ha Gio v sau ny cng cho rng c thn Thin l Ahura-Mazdah hay Ormud v c thn c l Angra
Manyu hay Ahriman. [9]
o Mani cng ch trng v tr c hai cn nguyn: nh sng v Tm ti. Pha Bc l giang sn ca nh
sng, l ni ng tr ca ng Hng Cu. Pha Nam l giang sn ca Tm ti l ni Satan ng tr... [10]
Quan nim Thng v Satan nh l cn nguyn thin c cng c thy trong gio l Cng gio...
CH THCH
[1] Pour la Mtaphysique en effet, les objets et les phnomnes sont homognes et au repos; leurs formes et leurs
catgories sont fixes, isoles les uns des autres. Les changements possibles ne sont qu'augmentation ou
diminution mcanique. A est A, il ne peut y avoir que rptition. La Mtaphysique est de la terre, elle porte sa
croix. Dr. Jean Choain, La Voie Rationnelle de la Mdecine chinoise, p.73.
[2] Pour la Dialectique, au contraire, cette vue est fausse, parce que l'exprience nous prouve la ralit du devenir
de toutes choses. A ne restera pas A. il faut donc qu'il soit l fois A et non-A. Ainsi A n'est pas mais devient.
La Cause du devenir des choses est en elle-mmes, elle n'est pas purement extrieure...Les Tibtains ont deux
mots pour signifier cause: Rgyu, cause principale, Rkyeu, cause secondaire. De la graine d'un abricotier,
jamais un sapin ne naitra, la graine est le Rgyu. Cependant il faut diffrentes conditions externes de la terre et
de climat pour faire natre un abricotier et pour le faire robuste ou chtif. Dr. Jean Choain, La Voie
Rationnelle de la Mdecine chinoise, p.73.
[3] Pour le Psychologue anglais F.W. Myers (1843 - 1901) le vulgaristeur de la formule Moi-Subliminal,
l'exprience mystique consiste dans l'invasion de le conscience par le Subconscient, ce Subconscient, tant
l'me du monde.

210

[4] W. James fait sienne la thorie de Myers. Les croyants dit-il, ont leur vision, et ils savent - cela leur suffit que
nous sommes plongs dans un invisible milieu spirituel d'o une aide nous vient, notre me ne faisant
mystrieusement qu'un avec un Moi plus grand d'o lui vient la dlivrance. Le Moi conscient ne fait qu'un
avec un Moi plus grand d'o lui vient la dlivrance.
[5] Henri Bergson... rejette l'explication des faits mystiques par l'Inconscient et les attribue Dieu lui-mme.
L'intelligence, dont l'objet propre est la matire, ne peut atteindre directement Dieu. Mais nous savons
qu'autour de l'intelligence est reste une frange d'intuition vague et vanouissant. Grce cette intuition se
ralise l'union de l'me avec Dieu, l'me tant pntre par Dieu comme le fer par le feu qui le rougit. Paul
Foulqui, Mtaphysique, p. 324.
[6] Vouloir le Bien sans le Mal, l'ordre sans le dsordre, c'est mconnatre les lois de l'univers, et la nature des
tres. C'est comme si on voulait le Ciel sans la Terre, le Yin sans le Yang, ce qui est inconcevable.
Tchouang Tseu cit p. R. Bremond, La Sagesse selon le Tao, p. 65
La Voie Rationnelle de la Mdecine chinoise, p. 20.
[7] L'opposition des principes infrieure est elle irrductible? Le bien et la mal, en particulier, sont-ils en face l'un
et l'autre jamais? C'est tout notre problme. Hraclite le rsout par l'unit, par la domination d'un principe
suprme dont les lois humaines, aussi bien que les lois de la nature, ne sont qu'une participation. Toutes les
lois humaines sont nourries par la seule loi divine, crit-il; celle-ci prvaut autant qu'elle le veut, suffit toutes
choses sans mme s'y puiser. Le bien et le mal sont un, ajoute-il; si nous les opposons, c'est en raison de nos
vues troites et partielles, et faute de les rapporter au tout o ils s'unissent dans une harmonie parfaite. Pour
Dieu, toutes choses sont belles, bonnes et justes; mais les hommes tiennent certaines choses pour justes,
certaines autres pour injustes. A.D. Sertillanges, Le Problme du Mal, p. 82.
[8] Si nous tournons, nos regards vers l'Egypte, nous y trouvons, ds l'Antiquit la plus recule, la Trinit bien
connue: Ra, le Pre; puis la Dualit, Osiris-Isis, comme deuxime Logos; enfin Horus. Annie Besant, La
Sagesse Antique, p. 32
... Le Docteur Haug, dans ses Essais sur les Parsis (trad. en Anglais par le docteur West et formant le Vol. V
des Trubner's Orientales Series) dit que Ahuramazda (Aharmazd ou Hrmard) est l'tre Suprme, et qui de
Lui furent engendres deux causes primordiales qui bien que diffrentes, taient unies, et produisirent le
monde des choses matrielles, aussi bien que le monde de l'esprit.
Ces deux principes furent appels jumeaux, et ils sont prsents en toutes choses, dans Ahuramazda aussi bien
que dans l'homme. L'un engendre le Rel, l'autre le Non-rel; et ce sont ces aspects qui dans le Zoroastrisme
postrieur devinrent les deux Gnies antagonistes du Bien et du Mal.
Mais dans l'enseignement primitif, ils formaient videmment de Deuxime Logos, dont le signe
caractristique est la Dualit.
Le Bon et le Mauvais sont simplement la Lumire et les Tnbres, l'Esprit et la Matire, les jumeaux
essentiels de l'Univers, le Deux procdant de l'Un. Annie Besant, La Sagesse Antique, p. 35,36.
[9] La thologie zoroastrienne classique est dualiste: le Dieu bon Ahura-Mazdh ou Ormud s'oppose au Dieu
mauvais Angra Mainyu ou Ahriman... E. Royston Pike, p. 328.
....Critiquant l'ide postrieure (des deux Gnies), le Docteur Haug dit: Telle est la notion zoroastrienne
originelle des Esprits crateurs, qui forment simplement deux parties de l'Etre divin. Mais ultrieurement, par
suite d'erreurs et de fausses interprtations, cette doctrine du grande fondateur fut modifie et corrompue.
211

Spentmainyush (l'Esprit bon) fut considr comme un des noms d'Ahuramazda Lui-mme, puis comme de
raison, Angrmainyush (l'Esprit mauvais) se trouvant entirement spar d'Ahura-Mazda, fut regard comme
son perptuel adversaire. Ainsi naquit de dualisme de Dieu et du Diable. (p. 205) Annie Besant, La Sagesse
Antique, p. 36.
[10] Les doctrines fondamentales du systme manichen sont d'une part la distinction de deux Racines ou
Principes fondamentaux, la Lumire et les Tnbres (qui sont des ralits tangibles, palpables, rigoureusement
antagonistes et de puissance gale.)
A l'Origine des temps deux rgions nettement tranches; Au nord, le Royaume de Lumire, o rgne le Pre
de la Grandeur, L'ternel; au Sud, le Royaume de Tnbres, pure matire sans aucune organisation...
E. Royston Pife, Dictionnaire des Religions, p. 202, 203.

Chng 8. m Dng vi trit hc v khoa hc u Chu hin i


Gn y c nhiu hc gi u Chu cp n vn m Dng. Ci l l d nhin, v bt k ai kho cu
v Vn ha hay Trit hc Trung Hoa, chng t th nhiu cng phi quan tm n vn m Dng.
Marcel Granet trong quyn La Civilisation Chinoise c mt on di ni v m Dng, nhng khng ly g
lm su sc. Kho v m Dng, l th nht c l l Ren Gunon, mt nh Huyn hc u Chu cn i.
Rn Gunon gii thch m Dng theo ng tinh thn Kinh Dch, v nhn nh rng m Dng khng phi
l hai thc th i lp, m l hai phng din b khuyt ln cho nhau, ca mt thc th duy nht l Thi Cc.
Dng l cn ct, l tinh thn; m l ty thuc, l vt cht. Dch ni m Dng, th n gio ni Prakriti
v Purusha. S giao thoa, hon Dch, tc dng gia m v Dng lm cho tri t, vn vt c nhng trng thi
khc bit nhau.
V tr c hai mt: mt Dng, mt Tri pha trong; mt m, mt t pha ngoi. m l nhng g hu
hnh, c th nhn thc c bng gic quan. Dng l nhng g v hnh, ch c th nhn nh c bng
thn tr. V phng din nhn thc, ta c th i t hu hnh ln dn ti v hnh, t ngoi vo trong, t chn
ln nh, t hin n vi, ngha l t m n Dng.
V phng din suy t, ta c th i t pha siu hnh ra dn ti pha hu tng, ngha l t Dng n m.
Dch cho rng pha tri l pha Dng, l pha ca tng lai, thi nm 1967 mi y ng Vilma Fritsch trong
quyn La Gauche et la Droite cho bit rng thnh th Zohar ca khoa Huyn hc Do Thi cng cho rng th gii
hin ti l th gii phi, th gii tng lai l th gii tri.
Sch Bch khoa t in Do Thi nhn nh: Tht l k d khi thy rng theo sch Cabale th pha tri li biu
th mt trnh cao hn, tin b hn.
Pha tri l pha ca tng lai, v ca tin b. M l lng thay, cng chnh l ng hng nhn nh ca
trit hc v chnh tr ngy nay. Trong chnh trng hin ti ngi ta gi nhng ngi bo th l nhng ngi theo
phi hu, nhng ngi cp tin l nhng ngi theo phi t. [1]
C th ni ngy nay thuyt m Dng lng cc ca Trung Hoa c Trit hc v Khoa hc u Chu
mc nhin chp nhn.
Gaston Bachelard mun coi quan nim lng cc nh l mt nguyn l mi, nhn thc tri lun.
ng cho rng tnh cch lng cc tng tha c ghi tc trong cn c s vt, ngc li vi quan nim c
xa cho rng vt th l biu dng ca s thun nht.
212

Khoa hc ngy nay khng cn tham vng i n Nht na, m ch mun i n Nh.
Trit hc cng nh Tm l hc u mun theo ng hng mi y. Nhiu T tng gia ngy nay mun ni:
Thot k thy l cp i.
Schelling, da vo thn thoi Hi Lp, v khai thc t tng then cht ca Jacob Boehme l Nht th lng
phn (Selbsentzweiung) cho rng Thng cng l nht th lng din. [2]
Goethe theo chn Kant, cng nhn nh rng ngay t cn c vt cht c nhng sc hp dn un y ln
nhau, cho nn loi no vt no cng lng tnh, lng cc. l mt hin tng ph qut. [3]
Theo Agns Cerber, th nh Sinh L Hc mi bc u gp nhng cp m Dng, lng cc i i nhau
nh mt cp trai gi khiu v vi nhau, ch khng phi nh l hai k th ch trong mt cuc so gm. [4]
V Khoa hc ngy nay, chng minh c rng khng c loi ngi, loi vt, loi cy mi c trng mi,
m ngay cc tinh th cng c phi, tri khc nhau. Pasteur phn bit c hai loi acide tartique tri v phi, v
cng nhn rng vn vt ngay t trong c cu c tri phi, m Dng. [5]
S gia Toynbee, dng thuyt m Dng, ng tnh p i lun phin nhau gii thch lch s.
ng cho rng lch s i theo nhpiu nht tnh, nht ng, tnh ri li ng, ng ri li tnh.
Lch s cng nh m Dng, c cm li c ng, c ng li c phn, c vng li c lai; c phc li c khi,
nh vy mi c th i mi mi mi... [6]
Joseph Needham, trong tp hai, b Science and Civilisation in China cho rng: Hc thuyt m Dng
khng c mu thin c, nh th m n c th gi c s qun bnh ch thc v th hin c nhng mc ch
chn thc ca i ngi l hnh phc, khang kin v trt t.
Needham cng ch trng rng: t tng phi nh nguyn ca Trung Hoa ny s ng mt vai tr v i trong
Khoa hc. Hn th na, n ng vai tr ri, qua trung gian Leibniz. Needham nhn nh rng cch pht trin
t tng, v cch dng tng hnh ca Trung Hoa c rt nhiu im tng ng k l vi t tng Khoa hc ti
tn nht. Ngi Trung Hoa xa tuy cha to ra c Khoa hc ch thc nh nay, nhng nhiu ln cng tung
mnh ln c ti nhng ch m sau ny Niels Bohr, Max Planck, Einstein t ti.
c vy, l v ngi Trung Hoa thot c tt suy lun mt chiu ca ngi u Chu, hoc l suy lun
theo chiu hng Duy vt, hoc l theo chiu hng Duy linh... [7]
Dch Kinh cho rng m Dng va tng khc, va tng tha, v m Dng giao thoa, tc ng ln trn
nhau nn pht sinh ra mi bin ha.
Karl Marx v Lnine cng cho rng mi s trong v tr u hm tng mu thun ni ti; v tr c chi
phi bng nh lut mu thun x hi, v lch s c chi phi bng nh lut mu thun. V th ngi Mc xt
c gy mm mng chng i trong x hi, v dng u tranh giai cp lm cch mng, ph cc c cu x
hi hin ti, ng hu c th xy dng mt x hi v sn.
Nhng thc ra, ngi Cc Mc ch gy mu thun nhng nc m h cha chim c; cn khi chim
c chnh quyn ri, th h li ra sc dit mu thun chng i di mi hnh thc, tiu dit ngay t khi chng
va mi mm mng ln.
Du sao th bin chng php vi nh lut mu thun mi l mt na phn ca Dch l m Dng, v Dch l
m Dng ngoi s tng khc, cn ch trng tng tha, ngoi s mu thun cn ch trng s ha hip ca
m Dng.

213

Dch kinh cho rng m sinh Dng, Dng sinh m, tn l Dng, t l m, th Einstein vi phng trnh
E=MC2 cng cho rng nng lc sinh vt cht, vt cht sinh nng lc; nng lc l vt cht pht tn, vt cht l nng
lc c ng.
Dch cho rng m Dng t tn l mt nh lut v tr, thi nm 1927, George Lematre, gio s i hc
Louvain, cng cho rng v tr hin ang khuch tn v ging nh qu bong bng ang c thi phng...[8]
Nhiu nh Thin Vn Hc hin nay ch trng v tr khi tn khi t, bin ha khng ngng.
Chu Hi cho rng: m Dng chng qua l nhng trng thi khc nhau ca mt nguyn kh. Ngy 27-31847, Helmholtz trnh ln Hi L Hc Berlin mt tiu lun nhan l: S duy tr nng lc. Trong tiu lun
ny, ng cho rng v tr ny trn y mt khi lng nng lc khng l v bt bin. in, ha, quang, nhit, lc,
tt c nhng ci u l nhng trng thi khc nhau ca mt nng lc duy nht. [9]
Dch t ngn xa khng h phn tch m Dng nh hai thc th ring bit, nhng lun ch trng m
Dng l hai chiu, hai mt ca mt thc th duy nht, trong m c Dng, trong Dng c m... Gn y, cc
nh Khoa Hc chp nhn v tr l mt thc th duy nht, nhng c hai mt, lc th l ba ng, lc th l phn
t. [10] Dch Kinh gi m l chn, Dng l l, v ch trng c th dng hai k hiu m Dng m din xut
mi con s.
Gn y Leibniz, nh ton hc, pht minh ra khoa Ton Php Nh Nguyn, phi b ng khi nhn thy
rng 64 qu trn vng Dch Tin Thin ca Phc Hi t Khn n Cu, ri li t Phc n Kin c th m thnh
nhng con s t 0 cho n 63 theo ng nh k hiu, v phng php Ton Hc Nh Nguyn, nn ng ngh
rng ngi Trung Hoa xa c th bit khoa Ton hc ny t lu ri. Ngy nay khoa Ton Hc Nh Nguyn vi
hai k hiu 0 v 1 c p dng trong cc loi my ton in c, in t u M...
Cc s kin trn cho thy rng, v phng din Trit hc cng nh v phng din Khoa hc, u Chu cng
ngy cng gp g cc quan im ca Dch Kinh, v Nguyn l m Dng c th dng lm nh mt th cha kha
m cc iu huyn b ca v tr v ca cuc i.

Kt lun
Vn m Dng thc ra bao la man mc, v bt k Thin Vn, a L, T Vi, Lc Nhm, Thi t, Tng
S, Y L nht nht u dng m Dng v Ng Hnh phn loi. Trong thin kho lun ny chng ta khng
th i vo nhng chi tit ca mi mn ni trn trnh by v m Dng c. Tuy nhin nhng nhn xt tng
qut ca chng ta s soi sng cho chng ta trong bt k b mn no m chng ta s nh kho cu. L do l v
Dch thi dy nhng nguyn l tng qut, cn cc mn L S khc u em Dch l p dng vo nhng b mn
ring bit mnh m thi.
ng khc, trng tm ca cng trnh kho st ca chng ta l lm sng t nhng vn trng i hn, quan
thit n i sng tm thn con ngi hn, chnh v vy m chng ta khng c php lc lng vo nhng chi tit
vn vt. Chng ta c th tm tt v m Dng, v sau rt ta mt vi bi hc v m Dng nh sau:
Ton th duy nht l Thi Cc, sau khi phn cc, s sinh ra m Dng v nh vy, ta c:
Th gii bn th
Tuyt i

Th gii hin tng


Tng i (m Dng)

Hng

Bin
214

Vin mn

Khuy khuyt

Chn

Gi

Chnh

Ng

V ng

Thng

V thng

Trn bnh din hin tng tng i, bin thin, ta thy bt k ci g cng c hai chiu, hai mt, trn di,
trc sau, hay d, trong ngoi, phi tri, lng mt, giu ngho, sang hn, mnh yu, gi tr, ngy m, nng lnh,
sng ti; t do, kim ta; c nhn, x hi; tinh thn, vt cht; trai gi; c ci; tri t; tin thoi; vng lai; Thnh
phm; Tin tc; sng kh v.v...
Chng ta nhn thy ch c Tuyt i, ch c Ton th mi thot khi vng m Dng tng i, v n bao
qut v siu xut m Dng. trong vng hnh thc, sc tng, tc nhin phi chu nh lut m Dng tng
i, tng i, bin thin, thng trm... trong vng bin thin, tiu chun phn on v m Dng, hay d, cao
thp u l tng i, ngha l n bin i ty quan nim mi ni, mi thi.
Sau cng chng ta nhn nh rng tiu chun m Dng ca thng nhn khc vi tiu chun m Dng
ca Thnh Hin. Thng nhn cho l Dng trc, m sau, Dng ngoi, m trong, c nhn khinh, x hi trng,
cn Thnh Hin thi li cho rng m trc Dng sau, m ngoi, Dng trong, c nhn trng, x hi khinh v.v...
Cho nn, Thnh Hin khc vi thng nhn ch: lc tr th lu tm n m, n tr lc, xc thn, ngoi
cnh, c trau gii cho tr lc trong sng, xc thn khang kin, ngoi cnh thun tin. Lc ng tui s lu tm n
tinh thn, n ni tm, sng khinh khot, thung dung, thot vng kim ta ca tr l, xc thn, ngoi cnh.
Thnh nhn, khc vi thng nhn v cho rng Dng hay Tinh thn, hay tinh hoa con ngi thi pha bn
trong, nn cng ngy cng ch trng n i sng tinh thn, n i sng ni tm hn ngoi cnh, sau khi to
cho mnh c mt i sng vt cht kh quan. Thnh nhn cng khc vi thng nhn ch cho rng mnh trng
hn x hi, cho nn coi x hi l phng tin gip cho mnh hon thnh x mng tu luyn, thn thnh ha bn
thn, ch khng coi x hi l cu cnh n ni phi bn mnh lm ti mi x hi v ngoi cnh.
Thng nhn, th c chp, cho ci g hay th nht nh mi mi s hay. Cn Thnh nhn th uyn chuyn
v cho rng trong ci hay c ci d, trong ci d c ci hay, hay d l ty lng mnh, ty tng hon cnh. V
th nn Lo T mi vit:
Mi hay khng, c chuyn vn,
D sinh ra kh, vn nhn thnh di.
Thp cao ty ng ngc xui,
Ting ca trm bng, dng i trc sau.
c g i chng ta i ng chiu m Dng, m chiu m Dng chnh l: Hu thng tin ging nh
nht chu (Trc ging sau thng nh mt vng) Ni cch khc, na i u chng ta cn phi lu n tr no,
n xc thn, n ngoi cnh, phi gp mt vi i. Cn na i sau, phi c bit ch trng n tm thn, lo tu
luyn tr nn con ngi cng chnh, ton thin, ton m...
Gm o l c sau c trc,
L m Dng c ngc c xui.
Xui l gi cun bi i, [11]
y a vo chn trn ai ct lm.
215

C th thch mi phn vng ,


C lm than mi r chuyn i.
Ngc l sm chp ti bi, [12]
Tng su by gii cn tri ni tm[13]
Trng t ch ch nhn, ch chnh,
Bit mc phiu s nh s an. [14]
Ri ra suy xt ngun cn,
Con ng phi mnh chu ton tc t.[15]
CH THCH
[1] L'idogramme chinois pour droit: main + bouche, nous suggre, par exemple, immdiatement les Chinois,
droitiers comme nous, se servent de la main droite pour manger. Il ne reste alors comme cts des arts et de la
magie que la gauche, et la gauche s'exprime en effet par la combinaison de signes main + querre. Vilma
Fritsch, La Gauche et la Droite, p. 33.
... Si le Zohar assimile la Thora la droite, il donne la tradition orale qu'il ne tient pas moins en honneur la
place gauche. Suivant ce mme ouvrage, le monde actuel serait le monde droit, et le monde futur le monde
gauche. Il est curieux, commente la Jewish Encyclopedia, que dans la Cabale, la gauche reprsente un stade
suprieur plus avanc.
Ct du coeur, ct de l'avenir et du progrs - certaines symbolisations philosophique de nos jours
s'annoncent ici d'une manire indiscutable. Ibid. 55.
[2] Reprenant l'ide fondamentale de Jacob Boehme, de la Selbsentzweiung, il reconnat en Dieu une duplicit
essentielle. La Gauche et la Droite, p. 13.
[3] J'avais retenu des ides scientifiques de Kant, dit par exemple Goethe, que les forces d'attraction et de rpulsion
font partie de l'essence mme de la matire. Il en rsulte une polarit originelle de tous les tres, qui pntre
l'infinie multiplicit de tous les phnomnes et leur bonne vie. Ib. 25.
[4] Le biologiste recontre chaque pas des units bipolaires opposes l'une l'autre comme les deux partenaires
dans un couple de danseurs, et point comme les deux antagonistes d'un pugilat. Ib. 26.
[5] Et comme chacun sait, l'exploit mmorable de Pasteur fut justement de mettre en vidence une diffrence: les
cristaux de l'acide tartique, celui du raisin, sont tous dissimtriques droite; les cristaux de l'acide
paratartique, celui du chimistre sont pour moiti dissimtriques droite, et pour moiti dissimtrique
gauche. Ceci explique que ce dernier soit optiquement inactif: l'un des deux acides dont il se compose dvie le
plan de la lumire polarise droite dans la mme mesure que l'autre le dvie gauche...
... Ceci s'explique, selon Pasteur, par leur gense mme: ds que les principes immdiats de la vie prennent
naissance, les atomes ou les molcules se rangent dissimtriquement, sous une influence mystrieusse qui
semble toucher aux conditions les plus secrtes de l'origine de la vie... Ib. 110.
[6] Que dire de ces mouvements de Yin et de Yang, de dfi et de riposte, de retraite et de retour, d'ascendance et de
filiation que nous avons mis en lumire?... Il est certain que dans le mouvement de toutes ces forces qui
tissent la toile de l'histoire humaine, on rencontre un lment trs net de renouveau... Ib. 280.
[7] Joseph Needham souligne lui aussi, dans le deuxime tome de sa monumentale encyclopdie Science and
Civilisation in China, que l'on ne sent aucune teinte de bien ou de mal dans la doctrine du Yin et du Yang.
216

C'est cela mme qui la rend capable de maintenir un vritable quilibre et d'aider raliser les vritables buts
de l'existence humaine, qui sont le bonheur, la sant et le bon ordre. Selon une thse hardie de Needham, cette
pense non-manichenne est destine jouer grce la mdiation de Leibniz. Needham voit dans un certain
style de pense et de symbolisation en Chine ancienne, d'tonnantes analogies avec la pense scientifique la
plus moderne. Incapable de produire la science classique, les Chinois auraient, d'aprs lui, envoy maintes
flches vers l'endroit o devaient se tenir plus tard Niels Bohr, Max Planck, Albert Einstein et bien d'autres. Et
cela parce qu'ils ont pu chapper cette schizophrnie typiquement europenne qui nous a rendu inaptes
pendant des sicles, penser autrement que dans les termes du matrialisme mcanique ou du spiritualisme
thlogique platonicien. Vilma Fritsch, La Gauche et la Droit, p. 18.
[8] L'Abb Lematre publia cette thorie d'un univers en expansion dans un article des Annales de la Socite
scientifique de Bruxelles... Pierre Rousseau, Histoire de la Science, p. 763.
[9] Le 23 juillet 1847, date mmorable dans les Annales de la science, il prsenta son premier mmoire la Socit
de physique de la capitale allemande.
Dans ce mmoire, intitul: Sur la conservation de la force, Helmholtz se posait dans son ensemble le
problme de la thermodynamique. Puisque travail, chaleur, lectricit peuvent se changer l'un dans l'autre, y
disait-il, c'est que ce ne sont l que des formes diffrentes de quelque chose qui ne varie pas, quelque chose
que nous voyons tantt sous forme de chaleur, tantt sous forme de lumire, tantt sous forme de travail
mcanique, d'nergie chimique ou d'lectricit. Ce quelque chose, c'est l'nergie. Toute la nature est emplie
d'une norme et invariable quantit d'nergie, qui nous apparat sous des aspects divers, bien qu'elle demeure
toujours quantitativement la mme. Pierre Rousseau, Histoire de la Science, p. 590.
[10] Associer dans tous les cas, l'onde la particule qu'il s'agisse de la lummire ou de la matire, telle fut l'ide
gniale qui guide l'illustre savant (Louis de Broglis) et l'amena, en quatre ans mettre debout la Mcanique
ondulatoire... Il n'y a plus dsormais qu'un seul code rgissant l'univers, qu'une seule entit double face, qu'il
tait tantt plus commode de baptiser onde, tantt plus commode de baptiser particule... Ib. 776 - 777.
[11] Thin Phong Cu. .
[12] a Li Phc. .
[13] Phc k kin Thin a chi tm h. .
[14] Tri ch nhi hu nh. .
[15] Vnh ngn phi mnh, T cu a phc. . Kinh Thi i Nh Tam, Vn Vng Chi Thp
Tam Chi Nht.

Phn 8 T TNG
Chng 1. Nhn nh tng qut
Sau m Dng, Dch cp n T Tng.
T Tng l: Thi Dng, Thiu Dng, Thiu m, Thi m. T Tng c th c trnh by hoc hiu
theo mt trong ba cch sau y:
A. T Tng theo cc sch Dch hin ti
Theo cc sch Dch hin nay, T Tng c hi danh v c trnh by nh sau:

217

Thi Dng
Nu v ln vng trn ta s c:

Thiu m

Thiu Dng Thi m

Thi Dng

Thiu m

Thiu Dng

Thi m
Li trnh by trn c ci hay l c mt m ri li tip mt Dng.
B. T Tng theo ng Trng Th
Nhng nu chng ta nhn nh rng: na vng bn tri l Dng, na vng bn phi l m, ta lin thy li
trnh by trn khng chnh, v th c trit gia khng ng v mun trnh by li nh sau:
Thi Dng

Thiu Dng

Thiu m

Thi m
Trnh by nh vy ta s thy na bn tri hin ra l m tiu Dng trng, v na bn phi hin ra l
Dng tiu m trng.
ng Trng Th xp Thiu m v pha Ty Kim, v Thiu Dng v pha ng Mc.[1]
Ti cng theo ch trng ny, v thy n hu l hn.
C. T Tng theo Thiu Khang Tit
Thiu T th cho rng:
Lng Nghi l ng Tnh.
T Tng l: Dng, m, Cng, Nhu.
ng trnh by li nh sau:
Lng Nghi:
T Tng:

ng
Dng

Tnh
m

Cng

Nhu

CH THCH
[1] ng Trng Th vit: Kim sinh Thy gi, Thiu m chi kh n nhun lu trch, tiu Kim dic vi Thy.
: , . (Kim sinh ra Thy, kh Thiu m n nhun chy tri, nhun
thm, vng cng chy thnh nc.) Phng Hu Lan, Trung Quc Trit Hc S, trang 507.

Chng 2. Huyn ngha ca T Tng


218

T Tng trn phng din tng hnh c th gii nh l 4 hin tng, 4 trng thi c bn khc nhau, hoc
giai on trn qu trnh bin ha ca mt thc th duy nht, l Thi Cc.
Ph T Tng vo H , ta c:

Theo H , th cc s 1, 2, 3, 4 u l sinh s. V ta thy cc s 1, 2, 3, 4 tng trng cho T Tng, cho c


cu ca Vn Hu.
Nh vy theo Dch th cc s 1, 2, 3, 4 u l phn th ca s 5 v s 10, v:
1+4=5
2+3=5
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10
Th tc l Thi Dng, Thi m, Thiu Dng, Thiu m l phn th ca Thi Cc, ca Thng .
Ni cch khc, v tr l phn th ca Thc Th duy nht. Tng hp v tr, ta s c li c Ton Th duy
nht. Theo Pythagore th bn con s 1, 2, 3, 4 cng tng trng cho v tr v s vn chuyn khng cng ca
v tr v vn hu.[1]
Hoc, cc s 1, 2, 3, 4 l 4 trng thi biu dng cho s pht hin ca Thng ,
T Tng theo Pythagore c vit l:

Nhiu nh huyn hc thay v vit T Tng bng s, vit bng nhng vn trong ch YHVH.
H vit:
Yod
Yod He
Yod He Vau
Yod He Vau He
Vit thnh vng trn ta c:

219

Vit thnh chu k ta c:

M Yod, He, Vau, He tc l YHVH (Yahve hay Jehovah) hay Thng .


Xt cc bn trn, ta thy rng T Tng chnh l 4 trng thi bin thin chnh yu, 4 c cu chnh yu, 4
hin tng chnh yu, 4 giai on bin thin chnh yu, trong i chu k bin ha ca hon v. Phn ra bn phng
th T Tng l phn th ca Thng . Hp li lm mt ta li c Thi Cc hoc Thng .[2] V th m
mn phi Pythagore tn th v sng thng hnh T Tng m h gi l Ttragammaton hay Ttractys.
Nhn k hiu ca T Tng ta c th nhn nh thm nh sau: Vn vt c th c c cu, kh cht ngc nhau
nh Thi Dng, Thi m; hoc c nhiu hng vn chuyn tri ngc nhau nh Thiu Dng, Thiu m.
Ni cch khc, vn vt c th hoc t, hoc tn, hoc hng ngoi, hoc hng ni, hoc tin t tinh thn n
vt cht, hoc t vt cht tr ngc v tinh thn.
Ta c th lng T Tng vo chu k bin ha ca 4 ma trong mt nm, 4 la tui trong mt i ngi, 4
giai on bin ha trong chu k v tr:
Thiu Dng:
Thi Dng:
Thiu m:
Thi m:

Dng kh t lng t vn ln; Dng kh bt u hot ng. (Xun,


tui thiu nin, sng, Sinh.)
Dng kh ti thi ton thnh, pht huy vn vt, khuch tn vn s. (H,
tui thanh nin, tra, Trng.)
m kh thu lim vn vt. (Thu, tui thnh nin, chiu, Lim.)
m kh hm tng vn vt. (ng, tui lo thnh, ti, Tng.)

CH THCH
[1] Ce quici-bas nous nommons par ces termes (Quatre lments) sont les ressemblances et pour tout dire les
vtements dans le monde physique, de ces 4 Principes, de ces 4 tats, de ces 4 Nombres qu sont les 4
lments. Raoul Auclair, Le Livre des Cycles, p. 143.
[2] Pythagoras having learned in Egypt the name of the true God, the Mysterious and Ineffable Name Jehovah, and
finding that in the original tongue, it was composed of four letters translated it into his own language by the
word Tetratys, and gave the true explanation of it, saying that it properly signified the source of nature that
properly rolls along. Mackeys Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, vol 2, p. 1033.

Chng 3. T Tng vi nn hc thut t tng Trung Hoa


Dch c T Tng th Thin Vn Trung Hoa cng c T Vin. l: T Vi Vin, Thi Vi Vin, Thin Th
Vin, Thiu Vi Vin.[1]
Nh Thp Bt T trn tri cng c chia thnh 4 chm sao:
a. Chm Thanh Long pha ng gm 7 sao: Gic , Cang , , Phng , Tm , V , C .
b. Chm Chu Tc pha Nam gm 7 sao: Tnh , Qu , Liu , Tinh , Trng , Dc , Chn .
220

c. Chm Bch H pha Ty gm 7 sao: Khu , Lu , V , Mo , Tt , Chy , Sm .


d. Chm Huyn V pha Bc gm 7 sao: u , Ngu , N , H , Nguy , Tht , Bch .
Dch c T Tng th mt nm cng c bn ma, th gii cng c bn phng, bn bin, x hi c T Dn
(S, Nng, Cng, Thng), lun l c T Duy (L, Ngha, Lim, S) Dch cho rng chu k bin ha ca v tr
qun sinh s tri qua bn thi k:
1. Nguyn: Cn nguyn Tri lm cho vn vt tr sinh.
2. Hanh: Nh cn nguyn y, nh ngun sng v bin y vn vt ln mnh, s pht huy c mi tim nng,
tim lc.
3. Li: Nh vy s c nhng ng dng v bin, v s c thoi mi, thnh thi, toi .
4. Trinh: Cui cng s i n ch thnh tu, n ch hon thin.
Bn giai on bin ha
Chu k bin dch y s theo tit tu sau: SINH, TRNG, LIM, TNG.
Theo Dch th T Tng cng ng vo T c ni ngi. l: NHN, NGHA, L, TR.
Dch c T Tng th Pht gio cng c T i. l: A, THY, HA, PHONG.
Dch chia chu k bin ha ca v tr, vn hu thnh bn thi k (Nguyn, Hanh, Li, Trinh) th n cng
chia chu k bin ha ca th gii hin tng ny thnh bn thi k:
a. Krita Yuga (Kim i): 4800 nm tri hay 1,728,000 nm t: 4800 x 360.
b. Treta Yuga (Ngn i): 3600 nm tri hay 1,296,000 nm t: 3600 x 360.
c. Dwapara Yuga (ng i): 2400 nm tri hay 864,000 nm t: 2400 x 360.
d. Kali Yuga (Thit i): 1200 nm tri hay 432,000 nm t: 1200 x 360.
n gin cc nm ni trn ly t l, ta s c:
Kim i lu bng 4.
Ngn i lu bng 3.
ng i lu bng 2.
Thit i lu bng 1.
chnh l bn con s ta thy trong H , hoc trong Ttractys ca Pythagore.
V thnh bn nhng nhn xt trn ta s c nh sau:

221

Thiu Khang Tit trit p dng thuyt m Dng, T Tng vo hc thuyt ca ng. ng vit: Ci
ln ca s ng gi l Thi Dng, ci nh ca s ng gi l Thiu Dng; ci ln ca s tnh gi l Thi m,
ci nh ca s tnh gi l Thiu m.
Thi Dng lm mt tri, Thi m lm mt trng; Thiu Dng lm cc ngi sao, Thiu m lm cc khong
cao m trn tri: Nht, Nguyt, Tinh, Thn giao vi nhau m ci th ca tri c bao qut ht vy.
Thi Nhu lm nc, Thi Cng lm la, Thiu Nhu lm t, Thiu Cng lm : Thy, Ha, Th, Thch
giao vi nhau m ci th ca t c bao qut ht vy.
Mt Tri lm nng, Mt Trng lm lnh, Tinh lm ngy, Thn lm m: Nng, lnh, tinh, thn giao vi nhau
m s bin ca tri c bao qut ht vy.
Nc lm ma, La lm gi, t lm sng, lm sm: Ma gi, sng, sm thn giao vi nhau m s ha
ca t c bao qut ht vy.
Nng bin ci tnh ca vt, lnh bin ci tnh ca vt, ngy bin ci hnh ca vt, m bin ci th ca vt:
Tnh, tnh, hnh, th giao vi nhau m s cm ca ging ng vt v thc vt c bao qut ht vy.
Ma ha s chy ca vt, gi ha s bay ca vt, sng ha loi c ca vt, sm ha loi cy ca vt: S
chy, s bay, loi c, loi cy giao vi nhau m s ng ca ging ng vt v thc vt c bao qut ht vy.
Ngi ta i vi nng lnh, ngy m khng c lc no m khng bin; i vi ma, gi, sng, sm khng
c lc no m khng ha; i vi tnh, tnh, hnh, th khng c lc no m khng cm; i vi s chy, s bay, loi
c, loi cy khng c lc no m khng ng.
Bi th mt trng r sc vn vt, tai nghe r ting ca vn vt, mi ngi r kh ca vn vt, ming r mi ca
vn vt. Loi ngi nh th cho nn linh hn vn vt l phi vy.
Thiu Khang Tit cn ly ci th v ci dng ca T Tng m lp thnh s, thnh , cho nn bao gi cng
ly s 4 m phi hp nhau, nh l: Nht, Nguyt, Tinh, Thn; Thy, Ha, Th, Thch, lm ci th v ci dng ca
tri t; ly Nng, Lnh, Ngy, m; Ma, Gi, Sng, Sm, lm s bin v s ha ca t tri; ly Tnh, Tnh,
Hnh, Th; Chy, Bay, C, Cy, lm s cm v s ng ca vn vt; ly Nguyn, Hi, Vn, Th; Tu, Nguyt, Nht,
222

Th, lm ci trc v ci sau ca tri t. ng theo ci l s 4 y m tnh, cho Nht l Nguyn, Nguyt l Hi, Tinh
l Vn, Thn l Th, v ng theo phng php np m m tnh t nm Gip Thn l nm nguyn nin i vua
Nghiu, n nm K Mi l nm th 5 i vua Mc Vng nh Chu, ghi r lc hng, lc vong, thi tr, thi lon,
trong khong thi gian y, lm chng thc cho s hc ca mnh[2]
ng Trng Th th li p dng T Tng vo cch tr dn. i khi ng Trng Th cho rng: Tri c
Xun, H, Thu, ng: Xun sinh, H trng, Thu st, ng tng, th Vua Cha cng phi c bn v l yu,
ght, vui, gin, li phi bit lc khen, lc thng, lc pht, lc hnh, tng ng vi bn ma Tri, bn v ca
Tri, bn tc ng ca Tri.[3] Th l bt chc Tri, bt chc Bn Ma m gio dng cho nhn loi c tr
nn thnh ton.
CH THCH
[1] Hu T Vin d trn t phng: T Vi, Thin Th, Thi Vi, Thiu Vi d. T Vin tc T Tng d.
: , , , ... .
[2] Trn Trng Kim, Nho Gio, quyn 2, trang 109-110.
[3] Phng Hu Lan, Trung Quc Trit Hc S, trang 525.

Chng 4. T Tng v hc thut u Chu


Chng ta cng c th dng T Tng lm bn p nghin cu cc huyn thoi, cc tng hnh ca u
Chu. u Chu, T Tng c th hin bng:
- 4 cnh ca ch Thp
- 4 phng t
- 4 phng tri
- 4 ma
- 4 v sao nh du 4 ma: Aldbaran (Mt Kim Ngu), Rgulus (Tim S T), Antars (Tim Thin Yt), v
Fomalhaut (Ming C Nam u).[1]
T Linh tng trng cho 4 cung tri, 4 phng tri chnh. T Linh l:
- B tc l cung Kim Ngu (Taureau)
- S t tc l cung S T (Lion)
- Phng tc l cung Thin Yt (Scorpion)
- Ngi tc l cung Bo Bnh (Verseau).
Sau ny T Linh cng tng trng cho 4 Thnh S Cng gio:
- B tng trng cho thnh Luc
- S t tng trng cho thnh Marc
- Phng tng trng cho thnh Jean
- Ngi tng trng cho thnh Mathieu.
Thnh kinh Cng gio thng cng hay chp T Linh ni trn thnh mt con th duy nht. Chnh v th m 4
qui th m zchiel trng thy trn sng Kebar u c bn mt: mt ngi, mt s t, mt b, v mt phng.
(zec. I, 4-12) Trong Khi Huyn, ta li thy T Linh (S t, B, Ngi, Phng) vy quanh ta Thin Cha.
(Apo. 4, 7, 8) [2]

223

Con qui th Gizeh, hoc con qui th trong thn thoi Hi Lp c mt ngi, mnh b, chn s t, cnh
phng. [3] T Linh dn ti Thi Cc lm ta lin tng n bn con sng Tigre, Euphrate, Pishn, v Gihn t 4
phng chnh dn ti vn a ng (Gen. 2, 1014).
Dch c Thi Cc (Tuyt i), Lng Nghi (m, Dng; Mt Trng, Mt Tri) v T Tng. T Tng l:
- Thiu Dng, ng Mc, mu xanh.
- Thi Dng, Nam Ha, mu .
- Thiu m Ty Kim, mu trng.
- Thi m, Bc Thy, mu en.
L lng thay, khi c sch Khi Huyn, ni chng By n Tn (Apo. 6, 1 -17) ta thy:
- Khi m n tn th 1, thnh Joan thy mt k m ci nga bch.
- Khi m n tn th 2, thnh Joan thy mt k m ci nga .
- Khi m n tn th 3, thnh Joan thy mt k m ci nga en.
- Khi m n tn th 4, thnh Joan thy mt k m ci nga xanh.
- Khi m n tn th 5 v th 6, thnh Joan thy mt tri, mt trng bin sc (Lng Nghi, m Dng).
- Khi m n tn th 7, thnh Joan thy Ta hoc Bn Th Thin Cha.
Nh vy sch Khi Huyn cho chng ta thy T Tng, Lng Nghi, Thi Cc nh mt cun phim chiu
ngc li, cn Dch cho chng ta thy Thi Cc, Lng Nghi, T Tng nh mt cun phim chiu theo chiu
xui. [4]
c Zacharie, ta li thy cp n 4 mu sc ca T Tng. Zacharie thy 4 chic xe t khong gia hai
ngn ni chy ra. Mt c xe c nga ko; mt c xe c nga en ko; mt c xe c nga trng ko; mt c xe
c nga xm ko. (Zacharie, 6, 1-6).
Nhng s trng hp ca Thnh Kinh vi T Tng ca Dch ny, khng th coi l ngu nhin c.
u Chu cn c mt khoa bi, tng t khoa bi Dch gi l Tarot. Ch Tarot gm c ch Tau v ch Rho.
Hi Lp xp li thnh ch Taro hay Rota. M Rota l bnh xe, l quay. Ch Tarot cng chnh l ch Rota vit ngc
li.

Mt s l bi Tarot
224

C bi Tarot gm c 78 l: 22 l chnh, 56 l ph.


56 l ph ny c chia thnh 4 loi tng trng cho T Tng. l:
- 16 l bi Gy (Bton), tng trng Ha (Feu) hay Sinh (Vie).
- 16 l bi Tin (Denier), tng trng Th (Terre) hay Hu (Possession).
- 16 l bi Gm (pe), tng trng Kh (Air) hay Hnh (Activit).
- 16 l bi Chn (Coupe), tng trng Thy (Eau) hay Th (Sensibilit).
T Tng ni trn: Ha, a, Kh, Thy chnh l nhng cht m ngi u Chu xa tng l 4 nguyn t to
thnh V Tr, Vn Hu.
H cng nh tnh cht ca T Tng nh sau:
Ha thi Nhit (Chaud)
a thi Hn (Froid)
Kh thi To (Sec)
Thy thi Thp (Humide).
Bn tnh cht c bn ni trn, giao thoa, pha phch vi nhau sinh ra tnh cht mun loi. V d tnh nt con
ngi cng c chia thnh bn loi:
* Hng hi (Sanguin): Nhit thp (Chaud humide)
* im tnh (Lymphatique): Hn thp (Froid humide)
* a su (Bilieux): Nhit to (Chaud sec)
* a n (Nerveux): Hn to (Froid sec), v.v
Kho v Huyn thoi, Tng hnh, o gio, Hc thut c u Chu song song vi Dch Kinh v Lng
Nghi, T Tng cho chng ta thy rng xa kia c mt Khoa Hc Thi C, vi nhng Huyn thoi c bit,
nhng Tng hnh c bit, nhng quan nim, nhng nhn nh c bit, c truyn th v lu hnh t ng
sang Ty, v Dch Kinh chnh l chic cha kha gip ta m li nhng cnh ca thi gian v hc thuyt i v ci
d vng xa xm huyn o .
CH THCH
[1] Robert Ambelain, Trait dastrologie sotrique, trang 155.
Khng Hc Tinh Hoa ca tc gi, trang 164.
[2] Louis Lallemant, La Vocation de lOccident, trang 23.
Khng Hc Tinh Hoa ca tc gi, ch thch 1 v 2, trang 165.
[3] Les Mages portaient les Roses + Croix suspendues au cou par une chane dor, mais pour ne pas laisser livrer
aux profanes le mot sacr INRI, ils remplacaient ces quatre lettres par les quatre figures qui sunissent dans le
Sphinx: lAnge, le Taureau, le Lion, et lAigle. Robert Ambelain, Trait dastrologie sotrique, trang 56.
[4] Xem Bible de Jerusalem, cc chng Khi Huyn hoc Zacharie dn thng.
Xem Lopold de Saussure, La Srie Septenaire Cosmologique et Plantaire, pp. 350-358.

Chng 5. T Tng vi ch Thp, ch Vn


Ta c th v T Tng nh sau:

225

Hnh v trn lm ta lin tng n hnh ch Thp ( + ) v ch Vn ( ).


1. Ch Thp + v T Tng
Ch Thp chc thi xa xa cng c ngha tng t nh T Tng. Ch Thp c trn di, ngang dc
bng nhau, nh vy mi xc nh Trung im mt cc d dng c.
Ch Thp l mt biu tng c t thi xa xa. Ch Thp c nht m ngi ta tm c l ch Thp hin
c bo tng British Museum di b s 89.128.
Ch Thp ny c ch to vo triu i Kassite x Babylone. Thi i Kassie bt u t triu i
Gandash nm 1746 trc k nguyn, v kt thc i vua Ellil-Ndin-Ah nm 1171 trc k nguyn.[1]
Snh ch Thp vi T Tng v Thi Cc, ta s suy ra rng bn cnh bn ngoi tng trng cho Vn Hu,
hoc 4 giai on, 4 trng thi bin thin ca vn hu; cn tm im ca ch Thp s tng trng cho Thi Cc,
cho To Ha ch tr mi bin ha.
2. Ch Vn v T Tng
T T Tng suy ra ta cng thy rng bn cnh ca ch Vn tng trng cho vn hu linh ng, bin
ha chuyn dch bn ngoi, cn tm im ch Vn tng trng cho Chn tm bt bin bn trong.
V ch Vn cng khng phi l sn phm ca Pht Gio. Cc cuc khai qut cc c tch Mohenjo-Daro,
Hirappa cho thy rng hnh ch Vn l mt biu tng o gio v ma thut t thi xa xa Babylone v Elam.
M l lng nht l ch Vn, nh l mt trang tr, c thy nhiu trong nh th Cng Gio. V d ta thy hnh
ch Vn Vng cung Thnh ng ging sinh ti Bethlem, hoc trn nhng khn bn th Heiligengrabe
(c), nh th Sainte Marie des Champs tai Soest (c), trong mt bc ha ni nh th Dalby (Nam Thy
in) hoc trn qu chung nh th Utterslev an Mch, v.v[2]
Chng ta c th ni c rng ch Thp l T Tng th Tnh; ch Vn l T Tng th ng.
Ch Thp, ch Vn, u ch Th Gii Hin Tng, hoc Vn Hu bn ngoi.
Snh T Tng ca Dch, Tetragrammaton ca Pythagore, ch Thp v ch Vn, ta c mt phng trnh sau
y:

Nh vy r rng T Tng l hin thn ca Thng , v Vn Hu l l hin thn ca Thng .


CH THCH
[1] E.A. Wallis Budge, Amulets and Talisman, p. 337.
[2] LOrigine de la Croix gamme. Rveillez vous, 22/11/1970. No 22, p. 21 et ss.

226

Chng 6. T Tng v khoa hc hin i


Nm 1960, khi vit quyn Trung Dung Tn Kho, ti tnh c c quyn The Genetic Code ca Isaac Azimow.
Ni trang 162-163 ca sch, ng cho rng c th vn hu c cu to bi 64 Nucleotides. M 64 Nucleotides
li c cu to bi s phi hp ca 4 acids: A = Adelynic acid; G = Guanilic acid; C = Cytidylic acid; U =
Uridylic acid (A; G; C; U l k hiu ca bn cht acid ni trn.) V Isaac Azimow trnh by thnh bn nh sau:
I.

AAA, AAG, AAC, AAU, AGA, AGG, AGC, AGU

II. ACA, ACG, ACC, ACU, AUA, AUG, AUC, AUU


III. GAA, GAG, GAC, GAU, GGA, GGG, GGC, GGU
IV. GCA, GCG, GCC, GCU, GUA, GUG, GUC, GUU
V. CAA, CAG, CAC, CAU, CGA, CGG, CGC, CGU
VI. CCA, CCG, CCC, CCU, CUA, CUG, CUC, CUU
VII. UAA, UAG, UAC, UAU, UGA, UGG, UGC, UGU
VIII. UCA, UCG, UCC, UCU, UUA, UUG, UUC, UUU [1]
c on ny ti lin tng ngay n T Tng v 64 qu Dch. Ti lin thay:

Ta s c 64 qu Dch ng theo th t ca vng Tin Thin Lc Thp T Qui nh sau:


1. Kin, Qui, i Hu, i Trng, Tiu Sc, Nhu, i Sc, Thi.
2. L, oi, Khu, Qui Mui, Trung Phu, Tit, Tn, Lm.
3. ng Nhn, Cch, Ly, Phong, Gia Nhn, K T, B, Minh Di.
4. V Vng, Ty, Ph Hp, Chn, ch, Trun, Di, Phc.
5. Cu, i Qu, nh, Hng, Tn, Tnh, C, Thng.
6. Tng, Khn, V T, Gii, Hon, Khm, Mng, S.
7. n, Hm, L, Tiu Qu, Tim, Kin, Tn, Khim.
8. B, Ty, Tn, D, Quan, T, Bc, Khn.
(Trong hnh sau y, bt u l qu Kin, s 1 hng Nam, i ngc chiu kim ng h l cc qu Qui, i
Hu, i Trng, Tiu Sc, Nhu, i Sc, Thi, v.v...)

227

Tin y ti cng mun cng hin qu v mt trng hp ht sc k th khc. l ng Lama Anagarika,


ngi c, trong cun sch ng vit Kumaon Himalaya, India, nm 1980, xut bn San Francisco nm 1981,
nhan l The Inner Structure of the I Ching, ng cng em 64 qu Dch so snh vi 64 Nucleotides, nhng yu
t cu to nn con ngi. Ti bn v vn ny nm 1960; sch ti ch mi c in roneo, ch cha xut bn.
ng Lama Anagarika vit vn ny, vo khong nm 1980. ng khng c schti; ti khng c sch ng; th
m lc em so snh, thy vn trnh by ch khc nhau cht nh, mt chn mt mi. Thy vy, ti cng tin
rng: Chn l pht xut t thm tm, cng y thc nh ngi xa ni:
Quan m nghn mt nghn tay,
Cng do mt im Linh i m ra.
ng khc, ta c th nhn nh rng bn nguyn t chnh trong v tr c ha tr nh sau:
H (Hydrogne) : 1
O (Oxygne)

:2

N (Azote)

:3

C (Carbone)

:4

Sau ht ta cng nn nhc qua rng gn y Lon Bourdel phn tnh nt con ngi lm bn hng da vo
sinh l (4 loi mu) v nhc l. Theo Lon Bourdel , c 4 hng ngi nh sau:
1. Hng ngi Ha m (Harmoniques) (D cm) [2] c loi mu A.
2. Hng ngi Nhc iu (Mlodique) (Quyn bin) [3] c loi mu O.
228

3. Hng ngi Tit Tu (Rythmique) (Nht quyt) c loi mu B.


4. Hng ngi Tp Cch (Complexes) (D cm) c loi mu AB.
l t nhiu chng minh rng T Tng c th ct ngha c nhiu b n ca cuc i
CH THCH
[1] Isaac Azimow, The Genetic Code, pp. 162-163.
[2] Dans la vie, ces tempraments Harmoniques se comportent comme envers la musique. Ils recherchent toujours
les accords affectifs avec lambiance. Quand ils les trouvent, ils spanouissent. Quand ils se heurtent des
dissonances, ils se replient sur eux-mmes, ils se ferment, ils se rvoltent, ou ils sen vont. Ce sont les plus
vulnrables au milieu extrieur, car celui-ci dclenche en eux des rsonances linfini, et sans que le volont
puisse intervenir. Le milieu peut donc, indpendemment de leur valeur intrinsque, les inspirer ou les
teindre, et quelquefois mme les dtruire. Lon Bourdel, GroupSanguins et Tempraments, p. 10.
[3] Le Mlodique est celui dont ladaptivit est la plus inconditionnelle, la plus totale. Il sent et vit comme une
mlodie qui se droule, sadaptant aux diverses variations du milieu extrieur, ayant tendance sintgrer
spontanment au milieu dans lequel il baigne, changeant quand le milieu change et voluant avec lui, sans
avance prophtique mais sans retard non plus. Ib. 14.

Chng 7. Chu k hot ng ca T Tng


T Tng l bn yu t cn bn to thnh v tr, mi yu t y hot ng mnh m mt thi k, sinh ra mt
sc thi c bit, mt phong v c bit, mt tc dng c bit. V d:
Mc, hot ng mnh m vo ma Xun ca nm, ca con ngi, hay ca v tr, lm cho vn vt sinh si, c
th con ngi ny n, v tr trin dng. V tng ng vi Xun, nn Mc c mu xanh, v Xun sang thi c non
xanh rn chn tri. Mc tng ng vi v chua, cng y nh con ngi khi cn tr thng cong cn, chua ngoa, coi
mi ngi bng na con mt, coi tri bng vung.
Ha, hot ng vo ma H ca mi nm, ca con ngi, hay ca v tr. Ha tng trng cho s hng nng,
s mun pht trin n tt , phng pht n tt . H thi c cy u hoa l rc r mun mu, con ngi th
huyt kh phng cng, lao mnh vo trng i tm cu danh li; v tr thi bnh trng n k cng v
cuc phong trn cng y kh i...
Kim, hot ng vo ma Thu. l lc c cy kt qu, con ngi thu lm thnh qu, v tr cng i vo
con ng thu lim.
S suy tn bc lc c bo tri vi nhng l vng bay trc gi, vi nhng ln sng trng ph u non,
vi nhng mi tc hoa rm, vi nhng ln tm s ba71t u m hi thu mt mi.
Lc ny :
Mi tc ly li t tn kh
ng th , gt r k khu...
Lc ny l lc con ngi mun quay tr v vi lng mnh, vi Tri, vi thin nhin, sau khi dn thn vo
ngoi cnh, v qui c....
Thy hot ng vi ma ng. l thi k m c cy thu nha vo pha bn trong chun b mt ma
Xun mi; v tr cng thu tng, cng sc t (contraction, intriorisation) v con ngi cng thy lng mnh tr
nn lnh lng i vi ngoi cnh, v mun quay tr v sng mt cuc sng ni tm, siu thot hn...
229

V tr thin nhin cng s thu sc li chun b cho mt chu k bin thin, hot ng mi....

Chng 8. Kt lun
Kho st v T Tng, ngoi nhng hiu bit thm v phng din l thuyt, chng ta cn lnh hi c mt
bi hc thc tin v i sng. l phi sng theo tui tc ca chng ta. Chng ta c 4 la tui: thiu nin, thanh
nin, thnh nin, lo thnh.
Vy chng ta phi ty thi, ty tui tc m hnh s, m nhn lnh nhng vai tr, m thc hin nhng cng
trnh dnh cho mi la tui, c nh vy, s pht trin ca c th, v cc quan nng ca chng ta mi c ton
bch.
Th mi hay:
Nm kia c bn ma tri,
Con ngi bn la, khc nhi phn trnh,
Ma tri ln lo, o khuynh,
ng thi oi , H nh tuyt sng.
Xun, Thu tro tr cng thng,
Ni long, t l, tai ng chp chng.
Tui ngi ln lo, ri tung,
D nhin tai ch, khn cng mt thn.
L tri phn phc, khut thn,
m Dng thun nghch phi ln cho ra.
Cng Nhu, ty tin mi l,
Ty theo tui tc m xa, gn Tri.
C cao, c thp, mi vui,
Tinh thn, vt cht, ty thi cht chiu.
m Dng tiu tc chu lu,
Bao la tri t kinh phiu mc tnh...

Phn 9 NG HNH
Chng 1. Nhn nh tng qut
T Tng hay 4 trng thi bin thin bn ngoi khng th lm cho chng ta qun i c thc th duy nht,
lm ch cht bn trong. V th ni n T Tng, tt nhin l phi ni n Ng Hnh, ngha l phi cpthm
n Hnh Th tm im.
Dch khng trc tip cp n Ng Hnh. Ngc li Ng Hnh c cp n Kinh Th, Thin
Hng Phm; L K, Thin Nguyt Lnh.
Tuy nhin, trong b Ng n i Ton Dch Kinh Tn B, ni chng Vn Vng Bt Qui phng v, ta
cng thy c i nh bnh gii cp n vn Ng Hnh, trong c Ng n ca Khang Hi, v li bnh ca
Hng Bnh Am.
Ng n bnh rng: Khm Thy, Ly Ha, Tn Mc, Khn Th th nh l hp vi Tng cc qu ( trong
Thuyt qui) n nh Kim, th mi ch l mt trong nhng Tng qu Kin; Thng Lang Trc (Mc) th mi ch
230

l mt trong nhng Tng qu Chn. Cn m suy ra l Th th cng tm gi l c; n nh oi th tuyt


khng thy c Tng l Kim. (Xem i Ton, quyn I, trang 46, 47)
Hng Bnh Am bnh rng: Th t cc qu Hu Thin em Ng Hnh phi hp vi T Thi.
- Chn Tnu thuc Mc ch Xun, cho nn Chn ng phng, Tn ng Nam.
- Ly, Ha, ch H nn Nam.
- oi, Kin, hai Kim, ch Thu, nn oi Chnh Ty, Kin Ty Bc.
- Khm Thy, ch ng, nn l qu ca Bc phng.
- Thvng T Qu, nn Khn th H, Thu giao nhau, tc l pha Ty Nam. Cn Th, ti ni ng
Xun giao nhau, tc l ng Bc.
- Mc, Kim, Th mi hnh c 2 qu. l hnh vng. Thy, Ha c mt qu. l kh vng.
- Khn, Th m cho nn pha m.
- Cn, Th Dng cho nn pha Dng.
- Chn l Dng Mc cho nn chnh ng. Tn l m Mc cho nn gn pha Nam v tip gip vi m.
- oi l m Kim nn pha Ty.
- Kin l Dng Kim cho nn gn pha Bc v tip gip vi Dng. (Dch Kinh i Ton, quyn I, tr. 47)
Cc nh bnh gii cho rng vng Dch Tin Thin ca Phc Hi khng phn Ng Hnh. Vng Dch Hu Thin
ca Vn Vng mi phn Ng Hnh. Phng v nh sau:
Dch, trong chnh Kinh, khng cp n Ng Hnh. Nhng H xp cc s theo phng v Ng Hnh
nh sau:

7/2
8/3

5 / 10

4/9

1/6
Phng v ca Ng Hnh c th c gin lc nh sau:
Ha
Nam
ng
Mc

Trung Ty
Th
Kim
Bc
Thy
231

A. TRUNG TH L BN TH, L TRUNG CUNG THI CC


Ha, Mc, Kim, Thy, l 4 hin Tng bin thin bn ngoi. Cho nn Trung Th chnh l tinh ty, l Bn
Th, l Tinh Hoa.
u Chu gi l Quintessence hay l Quinte Essence: Tinh ty th 5.
Ng Hnh mi l quan nim ton bch v n gm c T Tng bn ngoi ln Thi Cc bn trong.
Quan nim Ng Hnh c cc hc gi ng Ty bn ci rt nhiu. i vo chi tit s khng bao gi cng.
y ta ch tho g cho ra nhng ging mi chnh, nhng ngha chnh. Ng Hnh c quan h mt thit n Siu
Hnh Hc v V tr quan Trung Hoa thi c. C hiuV tr quan Trung Hoa thi c mi hiu c hc thuyt
Ng Hnh.
Trung Hoa cng nh cc dn tc xa xa, tin rng v tr vn vt u do mt nguyn th, mt nguyn ng lc
phn tn vn chuyn ra bn phng theo hai chiu kinh (dc) v (ngang) thnh ra hai cp ngu lc chnh. Cc
ngu lc ny hot ng, nh hng ln nhau v dn d sinh ra mi loi nng lc.

ng v phng din nguyn liu, cht liu, Ng Hnh l 5 yu t cu to v tr. Hnh Th Trung cung l
cn c v l cng ch cho mun vt. Ch Th y khng nn hiu l t thng, m nn hiu l cnc, hay
bn cht vn vt. V th m sch Ng Chn Thin c vit:
T Tng Ng Hnh ton t Th. (T Tng Ng Hnh u nh t) [1]
Quan nim ny tng t nh quan nim u Chu, v u Chu cng cho rng ngoi 4 nguyn cht to thnh
v tr, cn c tinh ty th nm (quintessence) m h gi l Thi H (ther) hay Bn Cht (matire premire) [2]
n , Ty Tng v nhiu phi Huyn hc u Chu cng ch trng con ngi l tiu v tr v gm Ng
Hnh nh i v tr bn ngoi. V h hnh dung con ngi nh sau:

Nhiu n i Ty Tng hin cn xy theo hnh trn, v d nh n Koumboum Gyants. [3]


Xt theo khng gian th Ng Hnh li chim 5 v tr chnh yu l ng, Ty, Nam, Bc, Trung.
232

Xt v thi gian, th Ng Hnh chnh l 5 thi i khc nhau, 4 ma bin thin bn ngoi v 1 ma hng cu
bn trong, va l ma Hong Kim khi thy, va l ma Hnh phc l tng lc chung cuc.
Ng Hnh cn c th hiu c l 5 yu t cn thit cho s sng. [4] ngha ny hp vi Hng Phm.
Kinh Th chng i V M vit:
Nhn c ca nh vua hin ra trong mt nn chnh tr gii giang, kho lo. M lm chnh tr, trc ht l phi
bit nui dn. [5]
Su yu t cn cho dn l: Thy, Ha, Kim Mc, Th, Cc (nc, la, kim kh, g, t, la); chng cn c
khai thc. Nh vua chng nhng phi lo gio ha, khuyn thin cho dn, m cn phi cho h bit khai thc, li
dng vt cht thin nhin cho i sng h c ri ro phong ph.[6]
Ng Hnh chng qua l tn tung v tr, m vai chnh li l Thi Cc, Tuyt i.
V vy m Thin T Trung Hoa thi xa, hng nm ng li tn tung v tr ni trn trong ta Minh
ng.
Xun th phm phc xanh, c x xanh, ci nga thanh long, dng ngc bch, li ng cung Thanh Dng pha
ng.
H thi phm phc , c x , ci nga hng, mang ngc , ng cung Minh ng pha Nam.
Sau ngy H ch, thi phm phc vng, ci nga vng, eo ngc vng, ng ni Trung Cung Thi Miu,
ng nh vua lm ch cht cho khng gian v thi gian.
Thu thi phm phc trng, c x trng, ci nga bch, eo ngc trng, ng cung Tng Chng pha Ty.
ng thi phm phc en, c x en, ci nga , eo ngc huyn, ng cung Huyn ng pha Bc.
i khi nh mun ni ln chn l ny l, cng nh v tr c thi gian, c tit tu trong cng cuc bin ha,
con ngi cng phi ty theo thi gian tui tc m hot ng cho ng tit tu thin nhin. [7]
CH THCH
[1] Chu Dch, Tham ng Kh Pht Huy, thng quyn, trang 4.
[2] Dune manire gnerale, la quintessence symbolise la pure ralit spirituelle par rapport ses traductions
quarternaires, entaches des servitudes dexpression ou dincarnation. Cest par exemple, le Christ, Verbe
divin, par rapport aux vanglistes, tmoins inspirs participant de sa lumire. La quintessence nest pas pur
symbole, elle a sa ralit propre encore quinsaisissable aux sens humains...
Louis Lallemant, La Vocation de LOccident, p. 24.
[3] Xem Fondements de la Mystique Tibtaine, p. 260-261.
[4] Legge dch l: The five essentials to human life. J. Legge, The Shoo King, p. 326.
[5] V vit: nim tai. c duy thin chnh: chnh ti dng dn. . : .
J. Legge, The Shoo King, page 55.
[6] Thy, Ha, Kim, Mc, Th, Cc duy tu, chnh c li dng hu sinh. , .
Kinh Th i V M, tit 7.
[7] Xem L K Nguyt Lnh.
Xem Khng Hc Tinh Hoa ca tc gi, trang 158-173.

Chng 2. Ng Hnh sinh khc


233

Ngi c thn v th, th Ng Hnh cng c tng sinh, tng khc.


Ng Hnh tng sinh l: Mc sinh Ha. Ha sinh Th. Th sinh Kim. Kim sinh Thy. Thy sinh Mc.
Ta c th trnh by l tng sinh bng hai cch nh sau:

Ng Hnh tng khc l: Mc khc Th. Ha khc Kim. Th khc Thy. Kim khc Mc. Thy khc Ha
Ta c th trnh by l tng khc bng hai cch nh sau:

Sinh c th hiu c l sinh dng, ph tr, tc phc, tm li bao gm tt c mi nh hng tt.


Khc c th hiu c l kim ch, th ch, ln t, xung khc, tc hi, tm li tt c mi nh hng xu.
Mi mt Hnh u c lin lc tt xu vi cc Hnh khc.
- Hai SINH gi l ph Mu v T Tn.
- Hai KHC gi l Quan Qu v Th Ti.
- Mt HA gi l Huynh .
Ngi xa lp thnh nh sau:
- Sinh Ng gi vi Ph Mu (Sinh ra ta l Ph Mu, ci g ph tr ng h, hi sinh cho ta l Ph Mu)
- Ng sinh gi vi T Tn (Ta sinh ra l T Tn, ci g m ta sn sc, bao bc, yu ng, h tr, cht chiu, th
gi l T Tn)
- Khc Ng gi vi Quan Qu (Khc ta th gi l Quan Qu, ci g c ch, n p, bc lt, li dng, lm hi
c ta th gi l Quan Qu)
- Ng khc gi vi Th Ti (Ci g m ta c ch, n p, li dng chi phi c th gi l Th Ti)
- T Ha gi vi Huynh (Ha vi ta th gi l Huynh , ci g i vi ta c nh hng ngang nga, ng
u th gi l Huynh )
V d: Nu ta ly Kim lm ng nhn, ng s, th:
- Th l Ph Mu ca Kim v Th sinh ra Kim
- Thy l T Tn ca Kim v Kim sinh ra Thy
- Ha l Quan Qu ca Kim v Ha khc Kim
- Mc l Th Ti ca Kim v Kim khc Mc
234

- Kim l Huynh ca Kim v Kim vi Kim ng iu, ng loi.


Sau ny ngi ta cn by ra lm chuyn phc tp hn na. Chng nhng Ph Mu, Huynh , Quan Qu,
Th Ti cn c gi bng nhng tn khc, m ty nh Dng gp Dng, m gp m, hay m Dng, Dng
m gp nhau cng cn gi bng tn khc.
Tht l v cng rc ri. Tuy nhin chng ta cng c n gin ha nhng ci rc ri y trong s sau:
Sinh Ng gi vi:

+ gp -, hay - gp + = n th (Chnh n)

Ph Mu (n Th)
Ng sinh gi vi:

+ gp +, hay - gp - = Kiu n (Thin n)


+/- hay -/+ = Thng quan

T Tn (Phc c)

+/+ hay -/- = Thc thn

(Thc thng)
Khc Ng gi vi:

+/- hay -/+ = Chnh quan

Quan Qu (Quan st)


Ng khc gi vi:

+/+ hay -/- = Thin quan (Tht st)


+/- hay -/+ = Chnh ti

Th ti (Ti Bch)
ng loi gi vi:

+/+ hay -/- = Thin ti


+/- hay -/+ = Bi ti (Kip ti)

Huynh (T, Kip)


+/+ hay -/- = T kin
L Ng Hnh sinh khc ht sc phc tp nhng cng ht sc phong ph v bin ha. i su vo chi tit s
tn hao rt nhu th gi rt nhiu giy mc. Hn na cc sch tng s bn ci rt nhiu v vn ny. V th
y chng ta s khng cp n nhng chi tit phin toi m ch ghi nhn rng: Ngoi nh NG HNH THUN
SINH THUN KHC cn c nh NG HNH NGHCH SINH NGHCH KHC tc l NG HNH IN
O. [1]
Ci quan h i vi chng ta l tm hiu ngha su xa ca Ng Hnh sinh khc. Hiu l Ng Hnh sinh
khc, chng ta s tm ra con ng xu ct, t hung.
Phm i m ngi ny ln t ngi kia, vt ny xung khc vt n, s a n nhng hu qu chng hay.
Chng i t thi tai hi t, chng i nhiu thi tai hi nhiu. Nu hai ng cng mnh, th h hao cng lm.
Cho nn, mun lm nn cng chuyn g, cn phi uc s ph tr, s cng tc ca thi gian, ca hon cnh,
ca nhn tm.. l nh thng tnh trong tri t.
Tuy nhin, tri t cng hay dng s tng xung, tng khc lm ny n cc tim nng, tim lc ca vn
hu nht l ca con ngi.
Vng m khng c chau chut bng la, thi vng khng th tr nn tinh rng. G m khng b dao ca
x ct, ba ru o gt th chng c th tr thnh ct ko, bn gh.
Cng mt l, nu To ha khng cho con ngi sng trong nghch cnh, th con ngi s tr nn l, li
bing, cu an hng th, do khng th no tin ha c.
ng khc, trong hon v cng nh trn i, cng cn phi c s xung khc, kim ch ln nhau gim bt
s qu trn, dng d ngng cung, thi qu, y nh xe xung dc cn c thng xe, mi trnh c s i qu tc ,
sinh tai nn. Nhng s xung khc, km hm ch hay, ch tt ti mt mc no. Qu mc n s tr thnh ha
hi. V nh xe b thng, li cn b ngn, b chn, th lm sao m tin ln c.
Cho nn, mt khi gic ng c rng con ngi sinh ra khng phi l sng l, hng th, m cn phi
dng thi gian, ngoi cnh, dng x hi v tha nhn gip mnh ngy mt tr nn hon m, thi lc y con ngi
c quyn, cng nh c bn phn trnh nghch cnh, ng thi to cho mnh thun cnh m thnh tu cng phu
tu dng, ng hu tr nn con ngi ton din.
235

Trong thc t, mun bit mt con ngi hnh phc nhiu hay t, ch cn xem h sng trong thun cnh, hay
nghch cnh, xem tm hn h c bnh an, xc thn h c khang kin, xem h c c xa gn yu mn, gip hay
khng, xem ni h c ng c c trang nh hay khng...
Chnh v th m m Ph Kinh vit: Thin hu ng tc, kin chi gi xng.
Ng tc y chnh l Ng Hnh.
Ti sao m Ph Kinh li gi Ng Hnh l Ng Tc? Tha: v hai l do:
1. Ng Hnh m khng bit s dng, s tr nn tc hi.
2. Ng Hnh trong tri t, sinh khc, tc dng trn nhau, ht sc a oan, phin tp, v do nh hng
nhiu n s thnh bi ca con ngi.
Ng Hnh hay Ng tc, theo t ng m Ph Kinh, trn tri l Ng Tinh (Kim, Mc, Thy, Ha, Th);
di t l Ng Nhc (l Tung Sn, Hoa Sn, Thi Sn, Hng Sn, Hnh Sn); m nhc l Ng m (Cung,
Thng, Gic, Chy, V3); thc phm l Ng V; thn th l Ng Tng; o gio l Ng c (Nhn,
Ngha, L, Tr, Tn).
Tuy nhin, nu ta bit s dng Ng Hnh cho hay, cho phi, thi Ng Hnh khng cn phi l Ng Tc na,
m chng s tr thnh ngun mch hnh phc cho ta.
V th m Ph Kinh mi ni: Nu bit thun dng Ng Hnh thi s c thnh xng, phc khnh.
V d mt ngi ra lm quan m bit thi hnh Nhn, Ngha, L, Tr, Tn, th t s i n ch vinh quang, thnh
t.
V d mt ngi lm Tng m bit Thin vn, a l, Nhn tnh, bit cng im, nhc im ca pha ch
thi t s nn cng.
Th chng phi lm am tng Ng Hnh, s i n ch xng thnh hay sao?
Tm li, theo ng tng sinh ca tri t, bit s dng ngoi cnh, bit ha hp vi nhn qun, bit ha hi
vi thin nhin v v tr, lm nhng cng chuyn o c, i vo con ng cng chnh, con ng Dng minh
ca t tri, tc l i vo vinh quang, phc khnh, v s gt hi c nhiu kt qu.
Cn nh i vo con ng tng khc ca Ng Hnh, ca tri t, gy g, chng i vi mi ngi, sng
trong nghch cnh, hot ng li thi, lm nhng chuyn tai hi, th tc l i vo con ng m m ca tri t,
v d nhin s chiu tai, rc ha vo mnh. Cc kinh sch u khng ngoi y.
[1] Mnh L Nhp Mn, trang 50-51.
Mnh Hc Thin Thuyt, tr. 20 tr i.
Xem Tinh Hiu Thn Phong Tch Mu Mnh L Chnh Tng, quyn 3, tr. 2.
t Nhn Mnh L Thng Gim quyn 1, tr. 112.

Chng 3. Ng Hnh vi V tr quan Trung Hoa


Ngi xa i khi cn dng Ng Hnh m t 5 giai on hnh thnh ca v tr.
Giai on 1: Thi Dch sinh Thy: Tc l giai on cha c kh.
Giai on 2: Thi S sinh Ha: Tc l giai on c kh m cha c th.
Giai on 3: Thi Thy sinh Mc: Tc l giai on c hnh m cha c cht.
Giai on 4: Thi T sinh Kim: Tc l giai on c cht m cha c th.
Giai on 5: Thi Cc sinh Th: Tc l giai on hnh cht u c .
236

Th tc l v tr din tin t v hnh ti hu hnh, t khinh thanh ti trng trc...

Chng 4. Ng Hnh vi s quan Trung Hoa [1]


Ni n thuyt Ng Hnh, chng ta khng th khng nhc n Tru Din, thi Chin Quc. Tru Din sng
sau thi Mnh T v t tng hc thut ca ng c nh hng rt ln i vi nn Vn hc, Ngh thut, Chnh
tr v o gio Trung Hoa. ng l ngi sng lp ra phi m Dng, Ng Hnh.Tru Din ch trng rng vn
tri v vic ngi cn phi c n khp vi nhau. Trn tri c Ng Hnh tc l nm loi kh th. Nm loi kh
th ny nh hng ln nhau, ci ny suy, ci kia thnh, theo th t tng khc.
trn gian, th cc triu i cng lun phin k tip nhau, theo th t Ng Hnh tng khc: triu i ny
suy tn, th triu i tng khc vi n c nhim v thay th.
Cc triu i t thi Hong cho n i Chu lun phin din bin theo th t Ng Hnh tng khc
nh sau:
Hong

Th

i V

Mc

Thng

Kim

Chu

Ha

Tru Din khng cn lu li sch v, nhng nh b L th Xun Thu v b s T m Thin, chng ta bit
c i khi hc thuyt ca ng.
L th Xun Thu vit: Khi c mt triu i hong no sp hng thnh, th tri t s cho thy mt im ct
tng.
Thi Hong , Tri cho su ln, kin ln hin ra. Hong ni: Kh t thnh. Kh t thng, cho nn
mu sc thi qu nht mu vng, v ly t lm du mi cng chuyn.
n thi i V, Tri cho dn thy trc nhng c cy sng tri qua ma Thu, ma ng m khng rng l.
i V ni: Kh g thnh. Kh g thng, cho nn mu sc thi qu nht mu xanh, v ly g lm u mi chuyn.
n thi Thnh Thang, Tri cho dn thy trc Kim; cho thy nhng ao kim hin ln trn mt nc.
Thnh Thang ni: Kh Kim thnh, Kim kh thng, cho nn mu sc thi qu nht mu trng, v ly kim kh
lm u mi chuyn.
n thi Vn Vng, Tri cho thy trc la, thy con qu la ngm quyn sch , u xung tng miu
nh Chu.
Vn Vng ni: Kh la thnh. Kh la thng, mu sc thi qu nht mu , v ly la lm u mi chuyn.
Nc ri y s thay la. Tri s cho thy im kh nc thng. Kh nc m thng, thi s qu nht mu
en, v s ly nc lm u mi chuyn.
Kh nc n, nhng mi ngi cha bit...
Khi chu k hon tt, s quay li v t nh c.
Nh vy Tru Din ly Ng Hnh m ct ngha s din bin ca cc triu i v ca lch s.
Sau ny khi Tn Thy Hong (246-209) thng nht c t nc, kh th thc l hng mnh, nhng Tn
Thy Hong vn b nh hng ca Tru Din, nn ly Nc lm quc vn.
Cho nn phm l y phc, tinh k, mao tit u c vin en pha trn; ly s 6 lm s gc; cc ph php, m
min u di 6 tc; xe thi di 6 thc; li ly 6 thc lm 1 b; cui xe 6 nga; ci danh Hong H l c Thy.
237

n thi Hn Cao T (206-194), thuyt Ng Hnh vn cn thnh nn Hn Cao T li chn Nc lm quc


vn, v l thi gian tr v ca nh Tn qu ngn cha tng trng cho c mt vn Nc.
Nhng vua sau li chn t lm quc vn, v cho rng nh Tn chn Nc lm quc vn ri.
Khi nh Tin Hn suy, Vng Mng (9-23) cp ngi, t xng l Tn Triu i. Vng Mng l ngi rt
snh v thuyt m Dng, Ng Hnh, nn nh li vng tun hon ca Ng Hnh tri qua cc triu i cho n
triu i ca ng nh sau:
MC
1. Phc Hi
NHUN THY Cng Cng
HA
2. Thn Nng
TH
3. Hong
KIM
4. Thiu Ho
THY
5. Chuyn Hc
(*) i Tn: i Vng Mng

6. Khc
Ch
7. Nghiu
8. Thun
9. H V
10. Thng

11. Chu
Tn
12. Hn
13. Tn (*)

Nh vy, theo Vng Mng, th lch s i c hai chu k ri, ch khng phi mt chu k nh i Tin
Hn ch trng.
ng li cho rng cc vua cha, cc triu i k tip nhau theo th t Ng Hnh tng sinh, ch khng theo
th t Ng Hnh tng khc nh ch trng ca Tru Din.
[1] Xem bi Yin Yang Wu Hsing and Han Art trong Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies.

Chng 5. Thuyt m Dng Ng Hnh vi o Gio Trung Hoa


Thuyt m Dng, Ng Hnh ca Tru Din chng nhng c nh hng ln lao trn phng din Chnh tr
v Hc thut, m cn c nh hng ln lao trn phng din o Gio Trung Hoa.
T thi Tn, ta thy cc phng s da vo thuyt m Dng Ng Hnh, luyn thuc trng sinh bt
t.
n thi Hn V (140-86), hc thuyt ny cng tr nn mnh. Ngoi vic nh cc phng s i ra ng
Hi tm thuc trng sinh, hoc ln min sa mc Gobi, tm thn m, c th a nh vua bay thng v Tri,
vua V cn da vo thuyt m Dng, Ng Hnh m lp ra mt th tn gio mi. Vua ly ni Cam Tuyn,
lm trung tm im th t. Trn ni, c lp nhiu bn th, th Thi t (tc Thi Cc), Thin t (tc Kin),
a t (Khn), Ng (Ng Hnh), tc Hong, Thanh, Xch, Bch, Hc .
Thi t, Thin t, a t c th ni tm im, trung im. Hong, Thanh, Xch, Bch, Hc th ni
cc bn th chung quanh. Thanh, Xch, Bch, Hc th ng bn phng. Hong th pha Ty Nam
(Th).
Ngy i l, c nhng nghi thc rt l quan trng. Vua cho sa sang l vt, ru, tru, b, d, ln, lm l
Tam sinh. V ch t bn o tm; nm v bi t mc cc sc phc xanh, , trng, vng, en.
Sng ngy l, vua trai gii, cng qun thn ra d l vi cc v tng s. Vua ly trc bn th Thi t, cn qun
thn thi ly trc vua. V cho rng nhng nghi l lm p lng tri t, v em li thnh vng cho
t nc. Thi t ni trn cng tng ng vi o ca o Lo, vi Thi Cc ca Dch Kinh, vi Nguyn ca
ng Trng Th, cn Thin t, a t, v Ng thi tng ng vi m Dng, Ng Hnh.
n thi Vng Mng, s t chc l nghi li cn chu o hn na. Vng Mng cho xy ta Minh ng.
Minh ng gm 9 cung. Ty theo ma, vuas cung tng ng vi ma , theo ng thuyt Ng Hnh, li
238

mc sc phc tng ng, lm cc cng v quc gia tng ng, y nh ghi ni thin Nguyt Lnh trong b L
K, cho vic ngi ha hp vi chiu tri, vn tri trong nm.
Vng Mng t chc li cng cuc th t nh sau: ng th Thi t, Thin t ti Kinh ,trong mt
n th, v a t trong mt n th ring. Cn Ng (Ng Hnh) thi th ngoi chu thnh. Ng
by gi li l 5 vua u trong lch s Trung Hoa. Hong c th trong mt n pha Ty Nam, cng vi
Hong Long, mt tri, sao Bc Thn, 7 ngi bc u, v Th Tinh, cng cc ngi sao cung T Vi vin.
Phc Hihay Thanh c th mt n pha ng, vi Thanh Long, thn Sm, thn Gi, vi Mc Tinh,
v cc sao trong chm sao Thanh Long. (Gic, Cang, , Phng, Tm, V, C).
Thn Nnghay Xch c th trong mt n th pha Nam, cng vi Chu Tc, Ha Tinh, v cc sao
trong chm sao Chu Tc (Tnh, Qu, Liu, Tinh, Trng, Dc, Chn.)
Thiu Hiu hay Bch , c th trong mt n th pha Ty cng vi Bch H, Kim Tinh, v cc sao
trong chm sao Bch H (Khu, Lu, V, Mo, Tt, Chy, Sm.)
Chuyn Hc hay Hc , c th trong mt n th pha Bc cng vi Huyn V, mt trng, thn ma,
Thy tinh, v cc sao trong chm sao Huyn V. (u, Ngu, N, H, Nguy, Tht, Bch)
Vng Mng cho rng nh vy to nn c s ha hp gia t tri, v em li ha bnh, thi thnh cho
t nc.

Chng 6. m Dng Ng Hnh vi hc thut Trung Hoa


Thuyt m Dng, Ng Hnh c nh hng ht sc ln lao trong hc thut v t tng Trung Hoa: Nho, Y,
L, S u thm nhun nh hng ca m Dng, Ng Hnh. Cc khoa T Vi, Tng, S, u trit p dng
thuyt m Dng, Ng Hnh sinh khc.
V d nh trong khoa T Vi, cc sao u phn thnh m Dng, Ng Hnh; con ngi, v 12 cung T Vi
cng c phn thnh m Dong, Ng Hnh.
Nh vy, ty theo mnh con ngi, ty theo cc sao chiu mnh, ty theo cc cung vn hn m con ngi
tri qua trong mt i, hoc trong tng nm, tng thng, tng ngy, ta c th p dng l m Dng, Ng Hnh
sinh khc m on nh c ct hung mt phn no ri.
Khoa a L cng rt ch trng n m Dng Ng Hnh. Hoc cho rng: Sn H i a bt k cig c
hnh u l m. Cn cikh khng trng thy c mi l Dng
Hoc cho rng: Nc l Dng, Ni l m.
Mch cng phn m Dng. T Ao vit:
Mch c mch m, mch Dng
Mch nhc, mch cng, mch t, mch sinh.
Mch di ng bng phn nhiu i thp, c gi l mch Dng. Cn mch trn sn cc, i theo cc
ni i cao ln, c gi l mch m.
Nhng mch m Dng li c phn chia ty theo hnh, trng thi hng v, thanh nh, linh ng, hoc
bt ng, thnh cc mch cng, nhc, t, sinh.
- Th mch hng v, cao ln, thy u l mchcng.
- Th mch thanh nh, nhn di c gi l mch nhc.
- Th mch trng nh con th quay u, quy ui, linh ng c gi l mch sinh.
- Th mch i un un, ngay , nh con c cht gi l mch t.
239

Hnh th t cng c chia thnh 5 loi theo Ng Hnh. T Ao vit:


Ka nh t c Ng tinh,
Nhn xem cho bit tng sinh loan hon.
1. Hnh trn l con Kim, hay Kim Tinh
2. Hnh di l con Mc hay Mc Tinh
3. Hnh vung l con Th hay Th Tinh
4. Hnh nhn l con Ha hay Ha Tinh.
5. Hnh sng gn l con Thy hay Thy Tinh.
Y hc Trung Hoa cng trit khai thc thuyt Ng Hnh. Quan nim Ng Hnh soi sng Y hc Trung Hoa
v mi phng din: Bnh L (Pathognie), Dc l (Pharmacologie) v Y L Tr Liu (Thrapeutique.)
V phng din Bnh l chng hn, Trung Hoa chia nm thnh Ng Vn.
Cc nm Gip, K

thuc Th

Cc nm t, Canh

thuc Kim

Cc nm Bnh, Tn

thuc Thy

Cc nm inh, Nhm

thuc Mc

Cc nm Mu, Qu

thuc Ha

Ri li nhn l m Dng, sinh khc, thi qu, bt cp, hay bnh kh m suy xem nm no kh hu s ra sao,
nng lnh, m, kh, ma gi ra sao bit nhng bnh g s d sinh trong nm y.
H cho rng cc nm Gip, Bnh, Mu, Canh, Nhm l nhng nm Dng. Vn kh nhng nm y s qu
vng, qu thnh, s tha nn gi l thi qu.
Nhng nm t, inh, K, Tn, Qu l nhng nm m. Vn kh nhng nm y s suy yu, s bt cp, m
mt hnh suy, th kh ca hnh tng khc, s thnh. V d nhng nm Gip (Dng Th), th kh s thi qu,
nh vy s ma nhiu v s m thp nhiu, do cc bnh thp s d sinh.
Nhng nm K (m Th), Th kh s bt cp, nh vy s gi nhiu, do cc bnh phong d sinh, v Hnh
khc l Mc, Mc sinh Phong.
Nhng nm Tn lnh nhiu (m Thy), Thy kh bt cp, nn m thp nhiu, v cc bnh thp d sinh v
Hnh khc l Th, Th sinh Thp.
Tm li ta thy: Mc thnh sinh Phong, Ha thnh sinh Nhit, Th thnh sinh Thp, Kim thnh sinh To, Thy
thnh sinh Hn.
Cn khi mt Hnh m suy, th Hnh tng khc s thnh, cho nn:
Mc suy (bt cp) thi To sinh (v Kim khc Mc), Ha suy (bt cp) thi Hn sinh (v Thy khc Ha),
Th suy thi Phong sinh (v Mc khc Th), (xem th d nm K) Kim suy (bt cp) thi Nhit sinh (v Ha khc
kim), Thy suy (bt cp) thi Thp sinh (v Th khc Thy) (Xem th d nm Tn)
Dc l cng da trn Ng Hnh:
i khi cc thuc mu xanh, v chua cha gan; cc thuc mu , v ng ch tim; cc thuc mu vng, v
ngt cha t; cc thuc mu trng, v cay cha phi; cc thuc mu en, v mn cha thn v.v...
Tr liu cng da theo quan nim Ng Hnh tng sinh, tng khc, hoc Ng Hnh in o. V d:
1. Mu h b k T
Nh Kim (Ph): vn sinh Thy (Thn), nhng nu Ph suy, phi b Thn (Thy) cu Ph (Kim)
Thy (Thn) vn sinh Mc (Gan), nhng nu Thn (Thy) kit, thi phi b Gan (Mc)
240

2. T h b k Mu
Thy suy (Thn suy), phi b Kim (Ph) (m)
Th suy (T suy), phi b Ha (Tm) (m)
Mc suy (Gan), phi b Thy (Thn) (m)
Kim (Ph) to, phi b Th (T) (m)
Ha (Tm) suy, phi b Mc (Gan) (m)
3. Mu thc t k T
Ph (Kim) (m) thc, phi t Thn Thy (con)
Thn (Thy) (m) thc, phi t Gan (Mc) (con)
Gan (Mc) (m) thc, phi t Tm (Ha) (con)
Tm (Ha) (m) thc, phi t T (Th) (con)
T (Th) (m) thc, phi t Ph (Kim) (con)
4. T thc, t k Mu
Thn (Thy) (con) thc, t Ph (Kim) (m)
Gan (Mc (con) thc, t Thn (Thy) (m)
Tm (Ha) (con) thc, t Gan (Mc) (m)
T (Th) (con) thc, t Tm (Ha) (m)
Ph (Kim) (con) thc, t T (Th) (m) v.v...
i su vo vn , ta thy cc Y gia li cn p dng l Ng Hnh in o trong vic iu tr. Nhng ni y,
chng ta cng chng cn phi bn rng hn v vn lm chi na. Ngi no c tm cu hc, nht nh s tm
sch m tra cu ly.

Chng 7. Thuyt m Dng Ng Hnh vi ngh thut Trung Hoa


Ngh thut l biu dng cho i sng, m i sng ngi i Hn b nh hng bi m Dng Ng
Hnh, th ngh thut cng b nh hng theo.
Thnh Lc Dng xa, c xy theo quan nim Ng Hnh v c nhng ca, nhng n i vi nhng
Tng Thanh Long, Chu Tc, Huyn V, Bch H.
Sch Hu Hn Th chp, c mt ngi m quan quyn c xy theo quan nim Ng Hnh. Gn y,
ngi ta cng o c nhiu ngi m xy theo quan nim trn. Cc o quan, cc gch ngi, cc nh vc, v
nhng vt dng thng nht, cng thng c hnh Ng Hnh.
c bit nht l cc gng bng kim kh cng c hnh Ng . La Chn Ngc, trong quyn Hn Lng Kinh
D Lai Knh Minh K Lc, cho chng ta hnh dng v tn tui nhng gng y.
V d: Gng Long Th, Gng Ng , Gng C H, Gng Thng Phng...
Nh vy i Hn, cc ngh s thng em quan nim m Dng Ng Hnh trnh by trong ngh phm.
i mun ni ln rng: nu con ngi bit s dng cc nng lc trong hon v v nhn qun cho ng mc
th s em li hnh phc thi thnh cho c nhn, cho gia nh, cng nh cho giang sn t quc.
u cng l mt quan nim su xa vy.

Chng 8. Tng lun v Ng Hnh


241

Quan nim v Ng Hnh thc l mt quan nim phong ph nhng cng ht sc phc tp. Phong ph nh
cuc i, phc tp nh cuc i. C mt th gi nghin ngm mi thng thc c ht ci hay ca n.
V phng din o c v Trit Hc, thuyt Ng Hnh coi v tr l Thng , v l biu dng ca
Thng . l mt quan nim chung ca cc khoa Huyn Hc ng Ty. Ta thy phi Rose- Croix,
hay Tarot, cng ch trng nh vy.
o Lo vit:
ng tam, Nam nh, ng thnh ng
Bc nht, Ty phng, t cng chi
Mu K, t c, sinh s ng.
Tam gia tng kin, kt Anh nhi.
V phng din Trit Hc, ngi xa mun dng Ng Hnh suy ra cc hin Tng, cng nh cc yu t
cn bn to thnh v tr.
Dch cho rng v tr c to nn do Ng Hnh: Kim, Mc, Thy, Ha, Th. n , Ty Tng, Aristote cho
Ng Hnh l t, Nc, La, Kh v Thi H. Pht gio thi ch c T i l a, Thy, Ha, Phong...
By gi, chng ta ch nn coi Ng Hnh l nhng ting dng Tng trng cho Thng , v nhng yu
t c bn, to thnh v tr, t khinh thanhn trng trc. C vy, ta mi gi nguyn c gi tr ca hc
thuyt Ng Hnh v phng din Trit Hc, v Khoa Hc. Bng nu chng ta c bm vu vo ngha en, m gii
thch th chc chn s lc hu, li thi.
Thc vy, nu hiu theo ngha en, th tt c thuyt xa t Ng Hnh ca Trung Hoa, n , Ty Tng, Hi
Lp, hay T i ca Pht Gio u khng ng vng, trc nhng pht minh ca Khoa Hc.
Ngy nay, theo Khoa Hc, th 4 nguyn t chnh yu to nn V tr l Dng kh (O), Khinh kh (H), Thn
kh (C), m kh (N).
Nu chng ta i su vo chiu hng vi t, vi trn, ta li c th phn mi nguyn t ra lm nhiu yu t khc
nhau nh:
Khinh t......... Proton ........................ 0
(Leptons).......

Neutrino....................... 0
Electron....................... I
Muon (Mson ) ...... 206,9

Trung t.........

Pion (Mson ).......... 264

(Msons).......

Mson K...................... 966

Trng t........

Nuclons....

(Baryons)............................
Hyprons

Proton.... 1836,12
Neutron 1838,65
Lambda

2182

Sigma +

2328

Sigma -

2342

Sigma 0

2330

Ksi -

2583

Ksi 0

5579

v.v...

Th l v phng din Khoa Hc, chng ta cng ngy cng xa vi quan nim Ng Hnh, hay T i xa
xa...
242

V phng din Vn Chng, v Tng hnh ta thy quan nim T Tng, Ng Hnh ng gp rt
nhiu.
V phng din Y, L, S, ta thy quan nim Ng Hnh c khai thc, v p dng ht sc l ti tnh. Tuy
nhin, ta phi cng nhn rng ngay t cn bn, n l tnh cch c l (conventionnel).
N cn c yu im l coi Hnh Th (Principe) nh bn hnh kia, mc du bn hnh kia trn nguyn tc ch
l biu dng (manifestations) ca hnh Th.
Sau khi kho v m Dng, T Tng, Ng Hnh, sau khi bit nh sinh, khc, ch, ha, ca Tri t,
ta c th p dng quan nim m Dng, T Tng,
Ng Hnh, to cho chng ta mt i sng hp tnh, hp l, bit cch xu ct, t hung.
Phng php c th tot lc nh sau:
Nhn nh rng ta l thuc rt nhiu vo hon cnh, nn nu ta bit hon cnh, l bit c mt phn ln s
phn c nhn.
Hon cnh hay, d khc nhau, ty nm, ty thng, ty ma, ty ngy, ty gi, ty nh tm trng qun
chng, ty nh ch chnh thng, hay t thng; qun t thng, hay tiu nhn thng; tinh thn thng, hay vt cht
thng; tinh thn lm ch, hay vt cht lm ch.
Nhng trong mi hon cnh, c nhn c hay, c d khc nhau, ty tm t, ch hng, hoi bo, ti c, hnh
vi ca mi ngi. Li cng cn ty vo a v ca mi ngi, ty nh c ngi gip hay gng qui, ty nh
gn qu nhn, hay tiu nhn; hnh ng ta cng c hay, c d khc nhau.
Hnh ng hay, s em li cho ta li ch. Hnh ng hay, l hnh ng hp o l, hp tnh, hp cnh,
khng lm ta phi xu h, hi hn, hay phn nn.
Hnh ng d, s em li cho ta hung ha, lm cho ta bn khon, hi hn. Nhng hung ha ta gp mt phn
ln pht sinh l v: Chng ta sng trong nhng hon cnh khng thun li; lm nhng cng vic khng thch hp
vi ti cn; cng tc hay sng gn gi nhng ngi khng ng tnh, ng , ng quan nim vi ta.
Vy mun sng mt cuc i l tng, phi thun theo o l, tc l theo nhng nh lut thin nhin,
khng c gng qui vi tri t, vi thi gian, tui tc. Phi tm hon cnh thun tin nhng cng vic mnh
a. Ri ta li phi trnh ha hung, khi chng hy cn cha chm pht, phi c gng dng thi gian, dng hon
cnh, to cho mnh mt i sng l tng, cao i.
Tm li i va l b kh va l tin cnh, ty nh ta bit dng i, hay khng bit dng i.
Chnh v vy m m Ph Kinh mi vit: Thin hu ng tc, kin chi gi xng.
Khng bit dng i, khng bit s dng Ng Hnh, thi i s thnh gic cp, Ng Hnh s thnh gic
cp hm hi ta. Bit dng i, bit dng Ng Hnh, thi i s tr nn tm thm thn, Ng Hnh s tr thnh 5
con rng linh a chng ta ti mt tin trnh vin i v hnh phc...

243