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The acronym GSM stands for Global System for Mobile communication.

It is an open, digital mobile telephony system that is used for transmitting

mobile voice and data services
It supports voice calls and data transfer speeds of up to 9.6 kilobits per
GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two
other streams of user data, each in its own time slot.
It operates at either the 900 MHz frequency band.
GSM network operators have roaming agreements with foreign operators
therefore users can continue to use their mobile phones when they travel to
other countries.