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**TRINITY COLLEGE EAST (BATCE)
**

Sixth Form

TRINCITY, TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, WEST INDIES

CENTRE NO. 160570

**CXC CAPE Physics
**

Unit 1 Lab Manual

2015-2016

c Copyright by Bishop Anstey High School East and Trinity College East

(BATCE) 2015

All Rights Reserved

ii

**Rules and Regulations of the Laboratory
**

1. All experiments in this laboratory manual must be performed and written scripts

for each experiment must be submitted to your class teacher to obtain a practical

coursework mark.

2. Commencement of sessions: You are expected to be at your experiment station punctually.

3. Preparation: Laboratory manuals are available at the class website. These manuals

contain a description of all the laboratory experiments that must be performed as

part of the requirements for CAPE Physics SBAs. Students are required to prepare

adequately for their assigned laboratory experiment prior the start of the session.

Preparation includes reading the experimental description adequately and performing the necessary research to enable one to perform the experiment with ease in the

laboratory.

4. Starting experiments: All laboratory equipment must be checked prior to students

commencing their experiments. DO NOT switch ON equipment until it is checked

by your teacher!!

5. Laboratory report submission: All laboratory reports must be submitted to the class

teacher ONLY on the date it is due. If your laboratory report submission date falls

on a public holiday, then the report must be submitted on the next available school

day. Laboratory reports must be submitted with the appropriate cover sheet (with all

the details completed) and a signed anti-plagiarism sheet. Students will given until

the following day, of performing the experiment, at 10:30am (break time) to submit

their lab reports. At this time the student would sign the teachers’ lab record book as

evidence the lab was submitted.

6. Absenteeism: Students absent from any experiment must provide a medical/excuse

to administration.

7. Students who are absent on the day of the lab practical activity would be scheduled

with the lab technician to perform the lab within a one week period from the date of

iii

a scientific calculator and other stationery items inclusive of pen/pencils. At the end of each laboratory session: At the end of each experiment. The use of the internet is strictly permitted for laboratory research only. Additionally. Students who fail to submit their lab reports at the deadline would be marked as no work submitted. 12. erasers. General rules: Students are not permitted to eat. They are to sign the lab technician’s rcord book with the date the lab was performed.the missed lab. The signed results pages must not be altered after the teacher has fixed his/her signature. Laboratory requirements: For each laboratory session students are required to bring their laboratory manual. writing paper. A check of equipment assigned to each student will be made by the technicians at the end of each laboratory exercise. 11. 15. This report would be due the following day at 10:30am. rulers and geometrical instruments (if needed for the laboratory experiment). 8. 10. iv . before students leave their work station they must ensure that they have removed all their personal belongings and replaced all equipment to the designated area. If a student needs to leave the work station. Students should not leave the laboratory until this check is made. Plagiarized work will not be marked. Students must seek the permission of the teacher prior to the exiting of the laboratory at the end of each session. on the day the report is due. permission must be sought and granted from the class teacher. 13. 16. Copying and plagiarism in the lab scripts are strictly forbidden. for example a death in the family or physical injury. Laboratory attire: Students are required to wear a laboratory coat and closed shoes while present in the laboratory. 9. students are required to take all their results to their teacher for review and correction. graph pages. Special allowances would be given to studetns with a valid excuse. Difficulties with an experiment: Students experiencing difficulties with experiments should seek assistance from their class teacher. Students will have to pay a compensation fee for missing or broken equipment. These results pages must be signed by the teacher and must be included in the laboratory report. This excuse must be confirmed via a note and phone call from the parents or medical where applicable. drink or smoke in the laboratory. Work stations: Students must remain at their assigned work station for the duration of the laboratory session. Mobile phones: The use of mobile phones is not permitted for the duration of the laboratory session unless approval is given. 14.

to understand the process of scientific investigation and develop their understanding of concepts. sources of error.g. Practical work engages students. v . They provide an avenue where theory taught in the classroom can be tested. applied and/or proved.Policy Principles Practical work and lab reports are an important part of the student’s understanding of the subject area. Lab Reports form 20% of the student’s Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examinations (CAPE) Physics grade. teacher’s guidelines). Also scripts written up during the practical activity ensures that the students recall information clearly about the experimental procedure (e. helps them to develop important skills. Timely submission of work ensures students can receive timely feedback from their teachers. the method.

Summarize the basic physics of your experiment. (First and last names. Get the spelling right!) 1. Title Titles should be straightforward. 5. 4. Keep it short! If there are standard or accepted values known these should be included in this section. but make sure it is accurate and complete. Using clear paragraph structure (or step by step format). 2. date that experiment was performed. Diagram These should be clearly labelled with a title. explain all steps in the order they actually happened. Theory/ Introduction 1-2 paragraphs. Cover Sheet Title of Experiment. Method/ Procedure/ Experimental Details This section describes the process in chronological order. not as they vi . and less than ten words (i. informative. your name. partners’ names. Apparatus This can usually be a simple list.e. Aim/Objective(s) 3.Format for Written Reports 0. Not "Lab #4" but "Lab #4: Sample Analysis using the Debye-Sherrer Method"). Include equations and other principle things the reader would need to know in order to understand the experiment. 6.

Slope calculations should be included after the graph.g. in tabular form. if applicable. The table should have a title and include the uncertainty of the measurement as well as the unit in the heading (e. It is important here that the rule governing significant figures be used in computing and displaying these values. If your raw data is illegible. accurate plotting of points. Variable ± uncertainty in the measurement/ unit). Results The original raw data that you take in the lab. Error Analysis This section must include the pertinent computed uncertainties (error estimates). Sample Calculations Include a few of your calculations in this section. It is always written in past tense. appropriate scales. 8. e. Tables must be bordered by 4 lines and neatly constructed.g. drawing best straight line (smooth lines through experimental data points) and labeling of axes. Precautions & Sources of Error Indicate what steps were taken to reduce/eliminate random and systematic errors. Each graph should convey a complete message and be fully understandable without referring to any other section in the report. General Analysis The computed results are shown in a clear and concise manner utilizing properly labelled tables and graphs. it must include the following: title. 7. This should be easy to follow. If you’ve done it right. 10.were supposed to happen. 11. the grade will suffer. “Table/Graph showing results” is not an appropriate title. another researcher should be able to duplicate your experiment. 9. Poor data recording skills lead to poor writeups. Note: Mistakes are not classified as errors. Do not show each and every calculation. one of each type. If a graph is to be drawn. Each column of the table must have a heading and units. vii .

the results should be compared with these and a reference given (see below). viii . If no known value is available. The experimental results should be compared with predicted values. Analyse. Labs are to be communicated in a logical way using correct grammar and spelling.12. References Any source of material used in the report should be listed here. Explain. Simply state what you know now for sure. 13. ways of improving it etc. they mean this is what is not readily observable. If known values exist. it is still important to consider all the possible errors. 14. and justify your statement. use both aspects of discussion: Analysis: What do the results indicate clearly? What have you found? Explain what you know with certainty based on your results and draw conclusions. as a result of the lab. Interpret. they should be answered in this section of the report. By that. procedural difficulties. Discrepancies should be considered in the light of the experimental error obtained and other random and systematic errors not evaluated numerically in ‘Results’. its advantages and failings. If any questions are asked in the lab manual. Discussion This is the most important part of your report. Some people like to think of this as the "subjective" part of the report. Then discuss the experiment in general. because here. Final Results with Errors and Conclusion This should indicate how well the experiments have fulfilled the aims stated at the beginning. Interpretation: What is the significance of the results? What ambiguities exist? What questions might we raise? Find logical explanations for problems in the data. This part of the lab focuses on a question of understanding "What is the significance or meaning of the results?" To answer this question. you show that you understand the experiment beyond the simple level of completing it. Note: Labs are always to follow this format except for planning and design labs.

MM & ORR: Archimedes’ Principle 23 10 Lab #10 .MM & ORR: Acceleration due to gravity. ’g’ 8 3 Lab #3 .PD: Terminal velocity of steel balls in oil 14 6 Lab #6 .PD: Reaction Time of an Athlete 12 5 Lab #5 .Contents Rules and Regulations of the Laboratory iii Policy Principles v Format for Written Reports vi 1 Lab #1: The Simple Pendulum 1 2 Lab #2 .PD: Terminal Velocity with a Parachute 15 7 Lab #7 .MM:Coplanar Forces 17 8 Lab #8 .AI: The “Bug-up” Toy 26 ix .MM: Paperclip Oscillation 21 9 Lab #9 .MM & ORR: Gravitational Field Strength. ’g’ 10 4 Lab #4 .

x CONTENTS .

the acceleration due to gravity is computed. Practically it consists of a small body. and curves of period versus length and square of period versus length are plotted. as a particle suspended by a weightless string. the center of the sphere . Theory: A simple pendulum is defined.Chapter 1 Lab #1: The Simple Pendulum Objective: To investigate the motion of a simple pendulum. commonly called the 1 . and to make an experimental determination of the acceleration due to gravity. Method: The period of a simple pendulum is measured for each of several lengths. usually a sphere. From the average value of the ratio of the length to the square of the period.namely.and the problem may be handled by considering the translational motion of the suspended body. suspended by a string whose mass is negligible in comparison with that of the sphere and whose length is very much greater than the radius of the sphere. the mass of the system may be considered as concentrated at a point . Under these conditions. ideally.

In this position the downward pull of gravity ω is counteracted by the upward pull p of the cord. as can be seen by comparing positions B and C. Thus the bob is subjected to a translational force f which increases with the displacement and always tends to reduce the . Thus a ring hung on a peg. or a bar supported at one point. The mathematical formulation for the compound pendulum is somewhat more complicated than in the case of the simple pendulum. A compound pendulum consists of a body of any shape or size vibrating about a horizontal axis under the influence of the force of gravity.1. the weight ω may be resolved into two components. the mass may not be considered as concentrated at a point. is a compound pendulum. The greater the displacement.1: The Simple Pendulum Consider the diagram of a simple pendulum shown in Figure 1. and the motion is one of rotation rather than translation. In its equilibrium position the bob is at the point A vertically below the point of support O. In this case.” along a circular arc. LAB #1: THE SIMPLE PENDULUM “bob. the greater is this component f and the less the force p in the string. When the bob is displaced. to some point B. and a force f tangent to the arc which tends to restore the pendulum to its equilibrium position.2 CHAPTER 1. Figure 1. one n normal to the arc AB which is counteracted by the pull p of the string.

When the bob is displaced (say from A to C) it is lifted against the force of gravity ω = mg through a distance h. The increase in potential energy is equal to the work done mgh. When the point B0 is reached. acquiring thereby a momentum which carries it through the neutral position and produces a negative displacement. although not necessary. When the pendulum is released from a given displacement. 1. This to-and -fro motion of a pendulum is called vibratory. It should be noted here that the choice of positive and negative directions is purely arbitrary: it is convenient. Potential energy is defined as the energy which a body possesses because of its position. Neglecting the effect of friction. Stated differently. i. to call displacements to the right positive and those to the left negative.3 displacement. at any point in its path the sum of the potential and kinetic energies is constant if the frictional forces are negligibly small. the time between successive transits through any point in the same direction. 3. the restoring force causes a reversal of the motion and the bob returns to B. or in terms of the linear displacement s along the arc. The length of the pendulum is measured from the point of suspension to the center of the spherical bob. The period is defined as the time required for the pendulum to execute its complete motion.. the maximum negative displacement will be equal exactly to the initial positive displacement. The amplitude of the motion is defined as the maximum displacement from the equlibrium position. As the body falls from C it loses potential energy and acquires kinetic energy. Three fundamental quantities are involved in the motion of the pendulum. motion. 2. it moves with increasing velocity toward its equilibrium position. It is interesting to note the energy changes that occur during the oscillation of the pendulum. and kinetic energy is that due to its motion. A body of mass m travelling with a velocity v has a kinetic energy equal to 12 mv2 . or oscillatory. . it may be described in terms of the anguar displacement θ . The kinetic energy at A is equal to the potential energy at B provided there has been no loss due to friction.e.

Under this restriction. Moreover.1) It is to be noted that in this equation neither the amplitude θ nor the mass m of the bob appears. This tautochronous property was first observed by Galileo in the sixteenth century.1 θ represents the maximum value the time required for the bob to travel from B to B0 and back is the same time required for a very small vibration about the point A. provided that the amplitude is not too great. s T = 2π l g (1. the period is the same for all amplitudes up to the value of θ set by the above approximation. the period T . i. if in Figure 1. By making measurements of l and T . Thus the bob may be of any material and of any size subject to the condition that its radius r be small in comparison with l. One way of stating the limitation on the amplitude is to require that θ shall be so small that the chord BB0 shall be equal approximately to the arc BAB0 .. although not absolutely necessary. and a time measuring device which may be a stop watch or merely an ordinary timepiece with a second hand. Apparatus: The essential apparatus employed in this experiment consists of a simple pendulum. The only auxillary apparaus required consists of a length measuring instrument. A vernier caliper for measuring the diameter of the ball is desirable.4 CHAPTER 1.1 can be used to determine the acceleration g due to gravity. usually a meter stick. . It is this tautochronous property that makes the pendulum useful as a timing device. which is composed of a metal ball suspended by a light cord from a rigid support. neglecting friction. LAB #1: THE SIMPLE PENDULUM A fundamental characteristic of the pendulum is its tautochronous property. For example. it can be shown that. is quite complicated. A sheet of rectangular coordinate paper is needed for graphing the data.e. The complete formulation of the mathematical relationships between the length l. the relationship expressed by Equation 1. the period is independent of the amplitude. and the amplitude θ . but when certain limitations are introduced a simple approximation results which is satisfactory in many practical cases.

2: Simple Pendulum 1 2 3 4 5 Length Time Period Square Ratio of 50 T of l/T 2 Vib.5 Figure 1. Period t T2 TABLE 1 .

if not. square Eq. Take a series of six such observations. Measure the diamter of the bob. LAB #1: THE SIMPLE PENDULUM Procedure: Experimental: 1. Start the pendulum vibrating through a small arc. 1. increase. Make the initial length of the pendulum 120 cm. a reasonably good measurement can be made with two blocks and a meter stick. of course. The support should be sufficiently rigid that no appreciable movement will be imparted to it by the vibration of the pendulum.2.2) . Compute the ratios of l to T 2 and enter in column 5. Square these periods and enter in column 4. taking into account the radius of the bob. To calculate g. (2) length as abscissa and square of period as ordinate . if the linear displacement is held constant the angular displacement will. Determine the time required for 50 vibrations.column 1 vs. in doing so count each passage of the bob. For some convenient length compare the periods when the arc is less than 5 degrees and when it is over 30 degrees.6 CHAPTER 1. column 3. in the same direction. Caution: The angular displacement must be kept within the limit specified. column 4.1 which gives T 2 = 4π 2 · Solving for g yields l g (1. On the same sheet of Cartesian coordinate paper plot two curves: (1) length as abscissa and period as ordinate . Make a simple pendulum of a ball and string and suspend it from a suitable support as shown in Figure 1.column 1 vs. through the midpoint beginning with the count of “zero.” Enter the data in columns 1 and 2 of Table 1. 2. Analysis: From the data in column 2 compute the corresponding periods and enter in column 3. shortening the length each time by 20 cm. not greater than 5 degrees between extreme displacements. using a vernier calliper if one is available.

8. 2. Explain how curve 2 confirms the relationship expressed by Eq.7 g = 4π 2 · l T2 (1.g. Compare the shapes of the two curves. How is the period influenced by the amplitude for small amplitudes? 4. 6. 3. What experimental errors influence the determination of g in this experiment? 7. . Explain how the simple pendulum could be used to compare the values of g in two different localities. Discuss the energy transformations that occur during one complete vibration of the pendulum. substitute in Eq.1. (a) What is the period of such a pendulum? (b) By referring to the graph.3) Take the average of column 5. 1. 9. e. Discuss the effects of a yielding of the support upon the results of this experiment. Questions: 1. at sea level and on a mountain top. Compare with the generally accepted value. determine the length of a seconds pendulum. By what factor is the period of a simple pendulum altered when its length is doubled? 5. A so-called “seconds pendulum” is one that passes through its equilibrium position once a second.3 and compute the value of g. 1.

’g’ Objective: The aim of this experiment is to obtain a value for ’g’. 4 and 3 cm and also mark a diameter AOB. 8 . Place the block of wood on top of the closed end and clamp the assembly to the desk firmly with the G-clamp. 2.1. 7. the acceleration due to gravity. to the highest accuracy possible with this simple apparatus. Cut out carefully a circular disc 8 cm in radius. Hang the disc on the U-shaped wire as shown Fig. (ii) Place the U-shaped wire on the edge of the desk (at a corner) with the prongs projecting. You must be careful not to bend the card. (iii) Push the needle normally through the disc at the point of intersection of OA and the 7 cm circle. 6. Determine carefully and as accurately as you can the average radius R of the disc. Procedure: (i) Draw on the given card concentric circles of radii 8.Chapter 2 Lab #2 .MM & ORR: Acceleration due to gravity.

. 2 (vii) Substitute these values into the formula: gcalculated = 4πl (l 2 + 0. T 2 and (l 2 + 0.5R2 )/T 2 to obtain a value of gcalculated . l. (v) Repeat your measurements with the needle on the circles of radii 6. read off the value of (l 2 + 0. From your graph. T72 . Record t1 . Calculate the mean square period. and 3 cm. 4. for these two settings on the 7 cm circle. Measure r and use the formula gcorrected = gcalculated (1 − r/l) to obtain your final answer. l 2 . t2 .1: Setup of Apparatus Figure 2. T and T 2 for each observation.5R2 )/T 2 at the point for which l = 5.9 Figure 2. Measure as accurately as possible the distance 2l shown in Figure 2.5R2 )/T 2 .2: Circle (iv) Obtain the mean period T of small oscillations of the disc about the needle pivot. This value must be corrected for the radius r of the needle.00 cm. Plot (l 2 + 0. (vi) Tabulate. Move the needle to the intersection of the 7 cm circle with OB and repeat the procedure to find T and T 2 .5R2 )/T 2 against l.2.

the gravitational field strength. Measure and record ’a’. Seal this end also with Sellotape. after tapping. (d) Using the needle as a pivot.MM & ORR: Gravitational Field Strength. no more can be added. (b) Seal one end of the plastic straw with the smallest convenient piece of Sellotape: pour in dry sand from the opposite end until. Procedure (a) Grip the ’U-shaped’ wire in a clamp about 25 cm above the bench with its plane horizontal. ’g’ Objective: This is a simple experiment for the determination of ’g’. support the straw on the U-shaped’ wire so that the straw 10 .Chapter 3 Lab #3 . which can give a high degree of accuracy. (c) Push the needle through the straw at right angles to its axis and at a distance X about 1 cm from the mid-point of the straw. Mark the mid-point of the straw. the length of the plastic drinking straw.

In any case. the period of oscillation of small amplitude of the straw.11 can oscillate as a pendulum (Figure 3. this closing can be helped by stroking the plastic at the hole with the side of the needle.) (f) In your results. Do this for four values of X between 1 cm and about 2 cm and for three further values of X up to 5 cm. the straw should be carefully checked for loss or settling down of the sand: any loss or vacant space should be made good by ’topping up’. If necessary. 4π 2 a2 2 (h) Given that g = T 2 12 + X /X plot a suitable graph and hence calculate g. Figure 3. 2 a (g) Tabulate T 2 and 12 + X 2 /X.1: Setup of Apparatus (e) Determine T . . the holes left in the plastic should close up sufficiently to prevent loss of sand. Record your values of X and T . (Note: When withdrawing the needle to alter the value of X.1). state the type of timer you used and the smallest interval of time it is capable of recording.

It takes a short time for the athlete’s speed to increase above zero (the reaction time).1 shows how the speed v of an athlete varies witth time t during a 100 m race. (b) Plot a speed-time graph similar to that of Figure 4. 12 .1.PD: Reaction Time of an Athlete Figure 4. You are to design experiments which will enable measurements to be made in order to (a) Determine the reaction time of an athlete.Chapter 4 Lab #4 . The race starts at time t = 0.

1: Speed-Time Graph .13 Figure 4.

PD: Terminal velocity of steel balls in oil When a ball falls through a fluid. one possible improvement that you would make to the design or execution of your experiment if you had to repeat it. or additional standard laboratory equipment. the plumb-line (thread with a small mass attached) and the magnet. either using existing apparatus. Record your observations. the set square C. (c) Suggest. (a) Design and carry out an investigation to test the validity of the suggestion made above using the materials provided. together with any conclusions that you have reached concerning the validity of the suggestion. 14 . (b) Write a brief account of your experimental procedure including any use made of the sticky tapes A and B.Chapter 5 Lab #5 . with a reason. Plot a suitable graph of your results. You should avoid excessive contact between the oil and you skin. It is suggested that this terminal velocity is proportional to the square of the radius of the ball. it soon reaches a steady speed called the terminal velocity. The diameters of the four smallest balls are given on a card.

The designer of the rocket wants to know how the terminal velocity of this parachute is affected by the diameter of the canopy and the load which it carries.. (c) any important precautions you would take which may improve the accuracy of your experiment. In your account you should pay particular attention to the following: (a) the method by which the diameter of the canopy and the terminal velocity to be measured. (b) the control of variables.Chapter 6 Lab #6 . Design a laboratory experiment to investigate how the terminal velocity of the parachute depends upon the load which it carries and the diameter of the canopy.PD: Terminal Velocity with a Parachute A parachute falling in air eventually moves with a constant velocity known as the terminal velocity. A toy rocket contains a small parachute which is ejected from the rocket a short time after launching. 15 .

1: Diagram of toy parachute with load . LAB #6 .PD: TERMINAL VELOCITY WITH A PARACHUTE Figure 6.16 CHAPTER 6.

75 cm.Chapter 7 Lab #7 . • Then line up two projectors together and mark the centre ≈ 9. Five sets of readings are sufficient. andθ3 . • Then connect three pieces of thread of the same length and use it as a guide over the centre of the protractor.MM:Coplanar Forces Method • Students are to connect three spring scales together and alter the angle and forces applied. • Place your finger over the knot OR ensure that knot is centred over the centre of the protractor. 17 . • Record the values of θ1 .θ2 .

MM:COPLANAR FORCES Diagram Figure 7.18 CHAPTER 7. LAB #7 .1: Setup of Apparatus Table of Results F1 /N 1 2 3 4 5 F2 /N F3 /N θ1 /◦ θ2 /◦ θ3 /◦ .

The apparatus has a 3% error. Draw in F1 . If you are 5◦ off the angle = 5/180 x 100 = 3%. • Complete the parallelogram. Figure 7.5 N for F2 & F3 . show that R and F1 are in the same straight line.19 Method continued: • Draw the free body diagram for each of the 5 readings with the correct angles.e. a scaled diagram with the magnitude and direction of the forces F2 and F3 should be drawn. Ensure lines are parallel. • F1 is the equilibriant. • Hence. i. θ = 180◦ . Make sure to keep one of the forces on the ’y’ plane. R = 23 cm = 11. • Then on the same page as the free body diagram.2: Free Body Diagram . Say. • Note: In practice this is not obtained. Check to see if your answer is within 10%. R is the resultant of F2 and F3 . Obtain Resultant R.

MM:COPLANAR FORCES Figure 7.3: Scaled Diagram. LAB #7 . .20 CHAPTER 7.

(ii) Attach a chain of n paper clips to the hook as shown in Fig.1 with an initial value of n = 25. 21 .MM: Paperclip Oscillation In this experiment you will investigate the oscillations of a chain of paper clips. 8. Figure 8.Chapter 8 Lab #8 . boss and stand.1: Setup of Apparatus (ai) Firmly clamp the cork using a clamp.

(b) Change the value of n (25 ≥ n ≥ 5) and repeat (a) (iv) until you have six sets of readings of t and n. LAB #8 . and assuming that the proposed mathematical model is an acceptable one. measure and record the time t for twenty oscillations.1) where p and q are constants. (c) For this oscillator it is suggested that the quantities T and n are related by a simple power law of the form T = pnq (8. use your graph to calculate values for p and q.MM: PAPERCLIP OSCILLATION (iii) Displace the chain from its equilibrium position by moving the bottom clips sideways.22 CHAPTER 8. (iv) When the chain is oscillating smoothly. Include values of the period T for each value of n in your table of results. . and briefly describe how the chain behaves until it reaches a state where it oscillates smoothly and reproducibly. Plot a suitable graph. (v) Estimate the uncertainty in your value of t and suggest one way in which this uncertainty could be reduced.

The balance you will use. Figure 9.1.MM & ORR: Archimedes’ Principle Aim To determine the upthrust on an object totally immersed in water.Chapter 9 Lab #9 . consists of a metre trule suspended by a thread from a retort stand and clamp.1: Setup of Apparatus 23 . illustrated in Figure 9.

The rule should be horizontal when balanced. Now find a new position for suspension of the 100g mass so that the rule is again balanced. Be careful to see that the stopper does not touch the edge or bottom of the beaker. providing you do not touch the bottom? Why? A.MM & ORR: ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE Method • First. Archimedes Principle shows that: upthrust = weight in air . the principle of moments states that the sum of the moments of forces about the point of suspension in the clockwise direction is equal to the sum of the moments in the anticlockwise direction. Hence. Now balance the rule by suspending a 100g mass by a thread on the other side of the rule. Record the point of suspension of the 100g mass. • When the rule is balanced. LAB #9 . determine the mass of the stopper. Determination of upthrust on an object floating in water.24 CHAPTER 9. • From the above readings calculate the “apparent weight” of the stopper while it was immersed in water. All the results should be carefully tabulated. • Take the RUBBER stopper provided and suspend it by a thread close to one end of the metre rule. find the upthrust on the stopper. • Draw a diagram indicating forces acting on the rule. Record the position of the thread. Write an equation for the balance of the moments of the forces. . Q1 Why balance the metre rule with nothing suspended at the start? • Leaving the stopper suspendded from the same point. Q2 Does it matter how far below the surface of the water you immerse the stopper. Thus.apparent weight in water (assuming air gives negligble upthrust). The loss of weight is due to the upthrust of the water or “buoyancy force”. adjust the position of the thread on the rule so that it balances horizontally on its own with no other masses suspended. place a beaker of water below the stopper and arrange it so that the stopper is completely immersed in water.

v.m. Find the weight of the displaced water collected in the beaker. Determination of the weight of water displaced by the rubber and cork stoppers. on the shelf over the sink. Again. • Compare the weights of displaced water with the upthrust found in the corresponding cases in A and B above. Q3 What must the relation be between the upthrust on the stopper and its weight? What is this upthrust in your case? You may use the commercial balance to determine the mass of the cork. • For these measurements a displacement measuring vessel (d. wait until the water has completely stopped draining from the spout.v. .). Repeat the above procedure with the cork and find the weight of water displaced by the floating cork in the beaker.m.25 • Place the CORK stopper provided in a beaker of water. Note that since the cork is floating it is only partially immersed.m. B. Fill it with water until water runs out of the spout into the sink. Place the d.) is used. Wait a minute or so until the water has stopped draining from the spout then place an empty beaker under the spout and carefully lower the rubber stopper into the displacement measuring vessel (d.v.

the entire Bug-up jumps into the air when the rubber sucker separates from the base. approximately life-sized. Whe n the top is pushed down and the spring is fully compressed. the rubber sucker sticks to the plastic base. a jumping toy called a “Bug-up”. Figure 10.Chapter 10 Lab #10 .AI: The “Bug-up” Toy The diagram shows. A spring joins the hollow plastic top of the toy at P to the base of Q. A few seconds after being let go.1: The Bug-Up Toy 26 . With a hollow plastic top the centre of gravity of the Bug-up rises about 60 cm.

Take the mass of the Bug-up itself to be mo and assume that the spring is fully compressed before each jump.27 (a) A student proposes to investigate the height h to which the Bug-up jumps when a mass m of Plasticine is stuck inside the hollow plastic top. (b) The table shows the results of a series of experiments measuring m and h.1) .0 0.8 0. which. the mass of the Bug-up.57 2.23 15. By considering the physical principles associated with the mechanics of the toy. m/g h/m 0 0.5 0. he assumed to be the same for compression and extension. the period of oscillation T of a mass-spring system is given by T = 2π p M/k (10. (c) The student decided to investigate the energy stored in the spring before each jump by finding its spring constant k. Unfortunately the student forgot to record the mass mo of the Bug-up itself.44 5.6 0.33 8. (iii) Determine mo .28 12. derive a relationship which predicts how h will vary for different values of m.2 0. When supporting a mass M.19 TABLE 1 (i) Explain how you would use these results to test the prediction you made in (a). (ii) Draw up a suitable table of values and plot a graph which would enable you to deduce mo .

the spring constant. Figure 10. (ii) The graph shows T 2 plotted against M for the student’s results. (iii) The student’s measurements of M were only found to the nearest 1g. State any precautions which would take to reduce uncertainties in your measurements.AI: THE “BUG-UP” TOY (i) Assuming that the spring has been detached from the Bug-up. Explain whether the possible errors in the values of M are more significant for large or for small oscillating masses.2: Graph of Student’s Results Use the graph to find k. . LAB #10 .28 CHAPTER 10. describe briefly how you would obtain a set of values of T .

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