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©} capacitance 9.1 Charging and discharging a capacitor Preliminary work: Using a battery and a light emitting diade (LED) Experiment: Measuring the rate of discharge of capacitor through a resstor Investigation: Measuring capacitance from a discharge curve MEE Using a battery and a light emitting diode (LED) Apparatus» small 9 V battery 1 LED with protective resistor (e.g. 33 0) x 100 uF capacitor « connecting leads Figure 9.1 wv Plan ‘The idea is to charge the eapacitor using the battery and then discharge it through the LED. «= Charge the capacitor by connecting it tothe battery terminals. (Make sure the + end of the capacitor goes to the + terminal of the battery.) ‘= Connect the charged capacitor to the LED and resistor. (Make sure the LED is connected correctly, as itis a diode and only conducts in one direction. See Figure 9.1.) Look at the LED end-on to see if it lights as the capacitor discharges. Analysis Report on how long it takes the capacitor to discharge through the LED, 5 aaa 7 =a 7 % “uanciis tobe called from the meesured res, Put these sample results into a spreadsheet and program in formulae to caleulate the missing results, Calculate the average and the standard deviation as a percentage. 140 m ELECTROMAGNETISM Answers Fealuation This is nota precise experiment but it is important because it uses frst principles to measure the strength of a magnetic field from the force it exerts on a current. ‘The chief lack of precision is in setting and reading the eurrent needed to balance the weight of the pieces of aluminium, It is dfficll to judge when the frame is exactly horizontal and the current ean jump as the frame moves on the knife edges. The uncertainty in the current could be 0.2 A in 2. A (=10%). ‘The uncertainty in L is eaused mainly by not knowing where the edges of the field are (an uncertainty of 2mm at each end would be ~8%). The masses of the pieces of aluminium are so small that even 2 good electronic balance will introduce a sizeable % uncertainty (e.g. 0.02 g in 0.2 g = 10%). So the value of magnetic flux density will be uncertain to something like 30%, You may find that the standard di shows that your actual results ‘are more precise than this. Improving the plana Make the masses and currents as largo as you ean to reduce the percentage uncertainties, u Redesign the plan to make the electromagnetic force larger. The method | in the following investigation is one way of doing this. MMIII Using the force on a coil carrying a current to measure magnetic flux density more precisely Apparatus small rectangular coil (see below) clamp and stand variable voliage supply ammeter (0-5 A) we leads electronic balance ferrite magnets on an iron U-frame Hall probe (@ptional) ‘The rectangular coil can be constructed by winding about 10 tums of thin, ulated copper wire onto plastic or wooden rectangular frame, The armature frames used in school motor kits are suitable. Leave long leads at cach end, The magnets and U-picees used in the same kits ean be used to produce the magnetic field, Plan Place the U-frame with its magnets on the electronic balance. ‘a Clamp the coil in position above the magnet with its bottom edge in the centre ofthe field (see Figure 10.7). 1 Connect the power supply and ammeter to the leads of the coil. Note the reading on the balance. 1 Adjust the emt of the supply toa few volts and switch on. Check that the balance reading changes as the force between the current and the magnetic field pushes or pulls the magnet. Figure 10.7 Analysis The force on a conductor in a magnetic field @ 111 1» Obtain 8 to 10 careful readings from the balance and the ammeter as the current (f)is varied up to about 3 A. 12 Measure the length of the bottom edge of the coil that lies in the magnetic field (C). = Count the number of turns on the coil (N). 1 Put your readings into a spreadsheet, with columns for calculating the force on the coil, the magnetic flux density and the uncertainty (see the Sample readings ovesleal). ‘The force on the magnets is equal to the force on the co mg = BILN 50 B= mgllLN 2 Calculate the force (mg) from the change in the balance reading; m will be shown in grams, so convert to newtons by dividing by 1000 and multiplying by g. 8 For each reading, calculate magnetic flux density from B = mg/ILN. ‘These values will help you estimate the random uncertainty. 4 Also plot a graph of mg (y-axis) against / (r-axi) to help spot anomalous readings, Measure its gradient (=BLN) and use it to calculate a value for B 5 Use a Hall probe if you have one, to check your value of magnetie flux density and decide which method gives the most accurate result. ere eR 112 = ELECTROMAGNETISM Sample readings This opreadshest was eet up. A » [eTovTel+iTe]Te| x). 1 Jeslonceressingig [15872 | 1aeaa [138.20 [3767 | 13709 [oes0 | boc |raEss | Gaia [eee [aa 2 [erent ° oa} 036] 075) ie] isz] 1m} 220] 250] 283] 301 3 | change in balance ° oa] ose [sso ves [222] 26a ai) 360] ace} aaa reading fa 4 [iecermn 0 235 | 510 1079 | 1599 | 2178 | 2500 | 3080 | 530] aoa | e208 5 |x density it 304 | 93 | 297 | 205 | 296 | 299 | ano | 92 | 292 | 202 6 [numeral eiternce so jar | os | or [oz | ox | os | a2 | 02 | oa rom aeeage ka zs 1 4 [engi ofcotia teem | aa 8. [ ruber of wine it 10 Jerage tuxdarstyint [204203 Shill level (Analysing) © ocalcwate the reouite automatically, the following formulae were put ire in C3 =$8$1-C1 and fill across to column L. jn C4 =€8*9.81 and fill across to column in C5 =C4*1001(2°$6$6*9B$9) and fil across to column L in B10 =AVERAGE(C6:L5) in C6 =AB6(C5-$B$10) and fil across to column L A Plot the graph suggested in the Analysis for the sample readings, measure its sradient and calculate a value for B. Ee Eee ee PE Answer ~30 mt, ee ‘A: entered the balance and current readings nto a spreadsheet. leniered 9 formula to calculate force in newtons from the change in the balance reading, {used the program to plot and print a graph of force against current. I drew the best ine and measured the aradient of the graph. | entered a formula to calculate the average flux density. Allbut one of the above = all but two = C; al but three = D; all but four = €. Evaluation The readings of the balance and the ammeter are quite precise and the ‘uncertainty in B is further reduced by finding the average of a large number ‘of values. In the sample readings, the mumerical difference ofthe readings from the average is about 0.3 out of 29.4, which is an uncertainty of only about 1%, (The standard deviation is 04 m? and can be used instead.) Flaws in the design ofthe experiment will reduce the accuracy of the final result as follows, 39 3a 43 wae 292 a2 sein: ber ings ly The deflection of an electron beam by a magnetic field @ 113 1 The magnetic field does not have a sharp edge and so it is impossible to know the exact length of the conductor in the field. The field will not be uniform and so the value for lux density will be an average. Also, the coil may move in the field, = The wires atthe top of the coil will be in part of the field and will exert an zunknow force on the magnet. Improving the plan Use a long frame to construct the coil, so that the top edge is as far as possible from the magnetic field, 2 Use a frame that is narzower then the magnetic field so you know itis completely within the field, The length can then be measured with greater certainty. 10.3 The deflection of an electron beam by a magnetic field Experiment: Measuring the speéd of electrons ina beam by using a magnetic fiald 10 dellect the beam and recoiding the path MESSI» Measuring the speed of electrons in a beam by usinga magnetic field to deflect the beam and recording the path Apparatus w deflection tube containing deflecting plates and a screen marked in centimetre squares 1 stand for the tube 1 power supply for the tube (EHT and 6 V ac) connecting leads bar magnet a Helmholtz coils 2 low voltage de power supply far the coils » ammeter (0-1 A) Note ‘There are several different ways of using the ‘Teltton ‘deflection tube? illustrated in Figure 10.8, and several slternative items of apparatus. For ‘example, the speed of an electzon beam can be found using a fine-beam tube’, in whieh the beam is made visible by the presence of a low-pressure gas filling Some of these alternatives use an HT supply (0-300 V de) instead of or in addition to the EHT supply. A typical educational HT supply is potentially lethal because it can supply sufficient eurrent to be fatal and it arust therefore be subject to strict supervision when used by students, It must always be used with shrouded 4 mm plugs and the supply imust always be off when changing connections. ‘An EHT supply is much safe, in spite of the higher voltage, because its \ output is limited to a safe current, 114 m ELECTROMAGNETISM Figure 10.8 Plan Analysis St Heimiotz coll Helm col savact Tater low votage dieu cet for eco. 1 Set up the tube in a darkened room. Connect the 6 V ac supply tothe tube's heater coils, Connect the earthed negative terminal of the EHT supply to a heater connection and the positive to the anode (see Figure 10.8). « Switch on, turn up the EHT supply to 2 or 3 kV and check you can see the luorescent line produced on the sereen by the electron beam, = Bring up the N pole of the magnet to the side ofthe beam and observe the direction and shape of the deflected bear. 1 Switch off the EH supply and the heater supply before setting up the S Helmholtz coils. Fit the Helmholtz coils either side ofthe tube and connect them in series with the ammeter and the low voltage de power supply (see Figure 10.8). 1 Adjust the current in the coils to give a suitable deflection on the screen «and record x and y co-ordinates ofthe line from the scale on the screen. = Read the current (/), the number of tums on one of the coils (N) and the mean radius of one of the coils (). (This will also be the distance between them) 1 Draw a diagram ofthe direction ofthe electron beam, the magnetic field from the bar magnet and the resultant force on the electrons. Explain how the directions fit in with Fleming’ ‘left hand rule’. the the ies Sample readings Answers Evaluation The deflection of an electron beam by a magnetic field @ 115 2 Record the readings of /,N,r for the Helmholtz cols 3 Find the radius (R) of the circular are of the deflected beam by plotting its co-ordinates, life-size, on graph paper. You could use trial and error with a compass, or the intersecting chord theorem. ‘The magnetic lux elensity (8) atthe centre of the Helmbolz coils i piven by B=9.0 (Nth) X 10777 Newion’s second law of motion for the centripetal force and acceleration of the electrons gives: Beo = m4lR So »=BRelm 4. Find a value for the speed (0) of the electron: ) Calculate B from the formule for the coils, i) Substitute B and R in the equation giving 2, (elm = 1.76 X 10! Cg”) ‘Accelerating pd (V) = 2.40 kV Current In-the coils () = O31 A Numnber of turns on each coil (N) = 320 Meat radius of the colle (r) = 7:2.0m Co-ordinates ofthe deflected pth lem oi eter ar te ettte ter ite ylom 0 08 os oF 08 i 22 Plot the sample co-ordinates life-size to obtain the path radius, R. Calculate v. Re 15.6cm; v= 3.4% 10 ms ‘The fluorescent line that shows the curved path of the electron beam is not shayp; the electrons have a spread of speeds and henee path radii and the screen is only marked in centimetre squares. The measured radius of the path is therefore not precise and could have an uncertainty of 1 em in 15 em (= 1%). ‘The value for B will be uncertain because it uses measurements of current and eoil diameter. Also, it will not be exactly uniform aver the whole electron path. ‘The overall uncertainty in the electron speed will be at least 10%. 116 m ELECTROMAGNETISM 10.4 Electric fields Computer simulation 4: field ‘Computer simulation 2: Pill. ste no lab experiments for this topic.) (Th GEISER field within a Aim To investigate the elect uniform electric field, field strength and electric pote Apparatus = computer running the progtam ‘Efield from the CD asain Plan 1 Sclect ‘electric field strength’ and plot electric field lines by el ing the mouse in the field. Look at the graph of electric field strength E against dy and note thatthe field strength is constant in the region between the plates. Select ‘electric potential’ and measure the electric potential V at different positions between the plates. Look at the graph of V against d, and note that the potential rises uniformly with distance from the bottom plate, = Print out your results and write brief report about this topic, the std, vent Electric fields 117 ‘Aim To investigate the electric field strength and electric potential in the fled of a point charge. Apparatus» computer running the program ‘fied from the CD Plan a Select electric field strength’ and plot electsie field lines by clicking the mouse in the field. Look at the graph of electric field strength agsinstr toace how the field strength varies with distance frém the central charge. Print out your results. «s Select ‘electric potentia? end measure the eleotrie potential V at different points in the field. Look st the graph of V against r, and print out your results. 4 Compare how electric potential and electric field strength vary with distance from the charge. Waite a brief report about this topic. 198 @ ELECTROMAGNETISM 10.5 Apparatus Figure 10.9 Plan Observing the path of electron: The deflection of moving charged particles by electric and magnetic fields Experiment: Observing the path of electrons in ‘crossed’ electric and magnetic fields and measuring their speed Computer simulation: Qpaths rossed’ electri magnetic fields and measuring their speed AAs for the experiment in topic 10.3 (p. 113), plas: 1 second high voltage power supply, for the electric deflecting plates (see the Note on p. 113 about eare needed with an HT supply) If this is not available, the pd for the electric deflecting plates can be taken from the first EHT unit, as in Figure 10.9, although this will limit the control of the path. lec detecting pistes heater ere 2 ied fom Helot cols (oot shown) out of paper er = Ensure that the high voltage supplies are switched off while connections are made. = Check also that the supply intended for the deflecting plates is turned down to zero. Carefully connect the positive and negative terminals to the The deflection of moving charged particles by electric and magnetic fields @ 119 connections of the two parallel metal deflecting plates. Turn on the power and gradually increase the pd between the plates. 1 Observe the deflected path of the electrons in the electric field, Note that it is a parabola and not the are of a cirele. 1 Tum on the Helmholtz coils and adjust the strength and direction of the ie iagnetic field until the eleetrie deflection is cancelled and the beam travels in as straight a line as you can achieve. 1 Take readings that vill allow you to caleulate the strength of the magnetic 4 field (see the experiment in topic 10.3, p. 114). «Record the pd (V) and the distance between the parallel deflecting plates (2). a Switch the supplies off before dismantling the apparatus. Analysis 1. Record all your readings with proper descriptions and units,