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Mathematisch fr Anfnger

Martin Wohlgemuth (Hrsg.)

Mathematisch fr Anfnger
Die beliebtesten Beitrge von
Matroids Matheplanet

Mit Beitrgen von Norbert Engbers, Ueli Hafner, Johannes Hahn,


Artur Koehler, Georg Lauenstein, Fabian Lenhardt, Florian Modler,
Thorsten Neuschel, Sebastian Stckl, Martin Wohlgemuth

Herausgeber
Martin Wohlgemuth
E-Mail: mail@matroid.de
www.matheplanet.de

Wichtiger Hinweis fr den Benutzer


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Bibliograsche Information der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek
Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliograe; detaillierte bibliograsche Daten sind im Internet ber http://dnb.d-nb.de abrufbar.
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Spektrum Akademischer Verlag Heidelberg 2009
Spektrum Akademischer Verlag ist ein Imprint von Springer
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10

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Das Werk einschlielich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich geschtzt. Jede Verwertung
auerhalb der engen Grenzen des Urheberrechtsgesetzes ist ohne Zustimmung des Verlages
unzulssig und strafbar. Das gilt insbesondere fr Vervielfltigungen, bersetzungen, Mikroverlmungen und die Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronischen Systemen.
Planung und Lektorat: Dr. Andreas Rdinger, Barbara Lhker
Herstellung: Crest Premedia Solutions (P) Ltd., Pune, Maharashtra, India
Satz: Martin Wohlgemuth und die Autoren
Umschlaggestaltung: SpieszDesign, NeuUlm
Titelbild: Jos Leys
ISBN 978-3-8274-2285-9


  
   
        
 
          

    

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M (n, K)  

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det : M (n, K) K
    


    

   



n  

   

En M (n, K)

   


    

det(En ) = 1

   


det

  

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%  

 

det(A) = 0!


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x1

f : K 3 K,

f
x2 := det
x3

x1
x2
x3

 

   f    

       
x1
y1


3

, K      x = x2 , y = y2
K  
x3
y3

x1 + y1
x1
y1

det x2 + y2 = det x2 + det y2


x3 + y3
x3
y3

                


  n 1     !   !    
 
  
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  det : M (1, K) K     
 

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det([1]) = 1

  det   $  %   &' (


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2      f : M (1, K) K -      /
 

f ([a]) = f ([1a]) = f (a[1]) = af ([1]) = f ([1])a,

2   ! [a] M (1, K)


   det  
    "     ./
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det : M (1, K) K, det([a]) = a

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n = 2
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(2,2)/  






det

= det

+ det

 

   
       
       
              


det

= det


b + a

d + c

   !   "      



  # "  n N
 "    " $      %       & 
    


det

= det

= det

= det

= det

= 1

'        (


       
      ) 
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det


a
c


=a

= a det

b det


1 1
0

 


1

+ c det

+ d det


1

d


+c

b det



0 1
1

  1
  det



1 1
0

+ d det

det



0 0
1


0
1


0
1

   )

    2      


det


a

= ad bc


       #     1 #
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  det 
# n = 2       3 4      

     ) 
   5  +      +
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  7  !
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 ! 
      #  !

  3   "  71 )



"     "  )    
f : M (2, K) K,


a

 ad bc

 
  

   


            
  f        det       
      
      
                
 !   
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$#      !
 )&# 

 b d  *
x1

 , K + x =

f

x2

x1 + y1

x2 + y2

,y =

y1
y2

K 2  ,

= (x1 + y1 )d b(x2 + y2 )
= (x1 d x2 b) + (y1 d y2 b)




x1 b
y1 b
= f
+ f
x2 d
y2 d

-      
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a

     K ,


b


b


a

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=f

= bd bd = 0

1 %  *      (    f  2  


 
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3               
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det

= ad bc

 

   n = 3

  n = 3 
   
     
  

     
      
     
   
    n = 2
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"     (3,3)!# 

   ai,j K (i, j {1,2,3})    
 
 
$   %

a1,1

det
a2,1
a3,1

a1,2

a1,3

a1,2

a1,3

a2,3
= a1,1 det 0 a2,2 a2,3
a3,3
0 a3,2 a3,3

0 a1,2 a1,3
0

+a2,1 det
1 a2,2 a2,3 + a3,1 det 0
0 a3,2 a3,3
1

a2,2
a3,2

a1,2

a1,3

a2,2

a2,3

a3,2

a3,3

&
     
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det
0

a1,2

a3,2

a2,2

1 1

a2,3 = a1,2 det 0 0


a3,3
0 0

+ a2,2 det 0
0
a1,3

a1,3

a2,3

a3,3

1 0 a1,3

1 a2,3
+ a3,2 det 0 0 a2,3
0 a3,3
0 1 a3,3
0

a1,3

,

  
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 )        
(/     0     #1   2+ 
 
0     '
 %

det
0

a1,3

a2,3

a3,3

= a1,3 det
0
0

= a2,3 det
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1

1
1

0
+ a2,3 det 0
0
0

1
,
0

0
0
1

0
1

1
+ a3,3 det 0
0
0

0
0
1

 
  

   
   



  

 
   




  
     

 


a1,1

det
a2,1

a1,2

a1,3

a2,2

a2,3

a3,1

a3,2

a3,3

= a1,1 a2,2 a3,3 det


0
0

+ a2,1 a1,2 a3,3 det


1
0

+ a3,1 a1,2 a2,3 det 0


1

0
1

+
a
a
a
det
1 0
1,1 3,2 2,3
0
0 1
0

1 0
0

+
a
a
a
det
0 0
2,1 3,2 1,3
1
0 1
0

1 0
0

0 1 + a3,1 a2,2 a1,3 det 0


0 0
1
0

0 1

1 0

0 1

0 0

1 0

0 1

1 0

0 0
0

 !


 
 
 
  

  
"
 

#

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(3,3)
&   %

 
 


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)

A1 , A2 
 A3      
   )  
 

" 
det(A1 , A2 , A3 ) = det(A1 , A1 + A2 , A3 ) = det(A2 , A1 + A2 , A3 )
= det(A2 , A1 , A3 ) = det(A2 , A1 , A3 ).

- 
 
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)  

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1 0 0
1 0 0

det
0 0 1 = det 0 1 0 = 1
0 1 0
0 0 1

   
! 

0 1 0
0 0 1

det
1 0 0 = det 0 1 0 = 1,
0 0 1
1 0 0
 
    
 
 
! 

0 0 1
0 1 0

det
1 0 0 = det 0 0 1 = 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
    
     "
 
 
  
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a1,1 a1,2 a1,3

det
a2,1 a2,2 a2,3 = a1,1 a2,2 a3,3 + a1,2 a2,3 a3,1 + a1,3 a2,1 a3,2
a3,1 a3,2 a3,3
a1,3 a2,2 a3,1 a1,1 a2,3 a3,2 a1,2 a2,1 a3,3

            
   &  
  
 
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'  
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/

 
  

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a1,1 a1,2 a1,3 a1,1 a1,2

a2,1 a2,2 a2,3 a2,1 a2,2

a3,1 a3,2 a3,3 a3,1 a3,2

 
  

  

  
      
 
    

  a1,1 a2,2 a3,3  
   
 

  
   
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a1,2 a2,3 a3,1  
    


 

 
  


 
  
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$ a1,3 a2,1 a3,2   



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%
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( 
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+! 

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! 0


 
0
 
  

 
   

 n  



   



 
     

: {1, . . . , n} {1, . . . , n} .

     
      
    Sn
   
  




 
      
 

       {1, . . . , n}  
     

    
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       " 
   
   
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  &  

id : {1, . . . , n} {1, . . . , n} , i  i  


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(   )  
 

   
  

 
  

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 (n, n) !  "


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#  ! Sn #
! %&       #
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 (i)   "   


  
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  #"     M () (! 
# )    ai,j
 i, j {1, . . . , n}    M ()   !
 * #
)

ai,j =

j = (i)

!
 %  "   !   +%!   Sn 
  Pn  ,
!
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 !   M () "!    % 
" #    " +
)
0

   
       

id : {1, . . . , n} {1, . . . , n} , i  i

    n 


     
  n = 4     
S4    
(1) = 2, (2) = 1, (3) = 4, (4) = 3

     


  

1 0 0
M () =

0 0 0

1
0

    
        !     " 
 
Sn    #      $
% &


  !   '   
  M () $
(
 
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  n  


  
 Sn     
  (i, j)  1 i < j n      (i) > (j)

  
 
      
 F ()   
 
   


 
 

sign() = (1)F ()

   





 







   

    

   

    
 
 
  

  
 !

id Sn

!
 
"

 # $  


  "




!
 
    
 

  



 

n=4


     

S4

   

  

(1) = 2, (2) = 1, (3) = 4, (4) = 3


 

!
 %


   

(1,2)
 (3,4)

    


   



&

 
  ' 

' 

det


    
 


 


 


 
  
 






  Sn   
det(M ()) = sign()

#%    
  

  
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"
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)
*
 + $

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K





  

4   # 

   

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sign( ) = sign()

#  
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    !

 

   
 
    %
  
   
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!
 
 
    M (id) = En    
$,  #-  (((  "
det(M (id)) = sign(id)

 
     
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$
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3 ,  M (n, K)    
"

a1,1


det

an,1



a1,n




an,n

'    '   3 ,  1    
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         1 &  #      

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  nn '
    '
 n = 3
 
   
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    #     3 ,  
    5
  n  6    $, 7 *     
'
    #     3 ,  
 
  
'       (    8      
   9

 
  

 
  

a1,1

a1,n

an,1

an,n

det

    

=
det(M ())a1,(1) a2,(2) an,(n) ,

Sn

       


S 
 
 
    
  
   




a
a

     = sign()a a a
det

1,1

1,n

1,(1) 2,(2)

an,1

an,n

n,(n)

Sn



    
        
!        "
     
#
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n N   % 
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       $
    '    
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+ 
 ,
#    
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)  
.  #
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0
 
! 
  
 
   
  



  


  K     n       
   
  det : M (n, K) K   
     
  
      A = (ai,j ) M (n, K) 
  !

sign()a1,(1) a2,(2) an,(n)

det A =

Sn

 1
  . 
         $
    (2,2)$2&           2 
{1,2}
    
 0  id    0 -    ! $
    3 #
 !
 
       
    
  %   4   +
  
 

 /


det

a1,1

a1,2

a2,1

a2,2

= a1,1 a2,2 a1,2 a2,1

,#  
 2   )
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*     
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  !  #   
-  
 
!
 


  
   
    ( 
,

   
)   . #
 

 
        

  
 

  K   


 n      

       

A M (n, K) det A = det AT  AT 



   
   A  

 

 K   
  A M (n, K)  det (A) =
n det (A)
 A M (n, K)  det A = 0  
 Rang(A) < n

             


     



   

   

   ! "


  

   ! "      



#    ! "

 $       

          

  ! "

  

det (A) =

det (B)



A, B M (n, K)
det (AB) = det (A) det (B).




 

! 

 



!   %


        

  
  
      n N  
 
  
   
 (n, n)  A   

 K    det A K !
" # 
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     #!  $ 
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!  n 4

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 (! n! ) *)( )   )!) $ 
" 
#     )  + (!  

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 + 

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 .! " %   /   ! 
!  
   
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)
  
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! 

   
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(4,4)   
M (4, R)   

2 2 3
7

det (A) = det

4 5 1 3

  
  
    
             

          
    
  

      

2
det (A) = det

     

9
2

!  "

     
  #$ %          
 

1
2 &    '     (       
       & 
   
& ) 
# ''*  

0
det (A) = det

0
0

9
2

5
2

3
11

9
2

+ %         #$         

2
    ,    
3 &    (     -   

0
det (A) = det

0
0
       

(3)

9
2

5
2
59
53

0
0

29

&    (

11

2
70
9
53

&    ,     -    .  

   
/      &   0 $   


0
det (A) = det

0
0

9
2

5
2
59

11
2
70
9

25

0
0

= (4) 9 5 (25) = 250

2
9

 
        

  
     

   


   
     




 
   
    

 
  (n, n)

 
  (n 1, n 1)

     !  
  
 
"    
# !     $   %    &'
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  n 2  A = (ai,j ) M (n, K)  

$  (  i, j {1, . . . , n}     Ai,j ) (n1, n1)


 M (n 1, K)"  
 A "   i    
j  &*
 
 
   
      
  K 
 n 

     n 2 
 A = (ai,j )
M (n, K)  
    

    j {1, . . . , n}   






  j ! 
" #$
det (A) =

(1)i+j ai,j det (Ai,j )

i=1

%
     i {1, . . . , n}   



  i! 

 #$
n
det (A) =

(1)i+j ai,j det (Ai,j )

j=1

   
 * +
   ,   ) 
  -  .
  *  
 
 
  
  (5,5)
 
 M (5, R)'

2
2
3 0 7

det (A) = det 4 5 1 0 3

1 17 3 2 27

0
3
0 0 2

  


   " 
    &*
   #  
     

 
  &*
"  
'
5

(1)i+4 ai,4 det (Ai,4 )

det (A) =

i=1

 &     )


   & 
" 



& 
  , /   
  '

 
  

det (A) = a4,4

2 2 3
7

det (A4,4 ) = 2 det

4 5 1 3

  


          

           
               
det (A) = 2 250 = 500

     


     ! 
        "  #  $   $  
  %   &  " 
 
   '  "   ( !

  
    








                                                 

  



                                 

  
   
                                 

  
   
 

!"                      

  





                                  



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#  $                                    








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+ '  %     $#   
  


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2  '
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(n, n)


 

 


 
    
 

    











0
0



 
 
n
0







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0
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0

n n




      



 
     
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K



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A   


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n
n
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. 
fA : K K , x  Ax 0
!   S
n
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  A   

%
  
 
 
%   . 
fA "  
  
n

2   K    
 
 + 




' 
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%

'  


B = (b1 , . . . , bn )   K (   K n    



 
% B MB (fA ) 
fA "    2

%  
2
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% 4

1   +      
!  



 2 0  




      

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f (+1) = 27 = 0

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x = 1
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f (1) = 1 = 0

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f (x) := x3 + 2x2 2x 4
= (x3 2x) + (2x2 4)
= x (x2 2) + 2 (x2 2)
= (x + 2) (x2 2)

9 
(   ,  2, 2  2
3 :
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f (x) := x8 + 3x7 + 2x6 2x5 6x4 4x3 + x2 + 3x + 2
= (x8 2x5 + x2 ) + (3x7 6x4 + 3x) + (2x6 4x3 + 2)
= x2 (x6 2x3 + 1) + 3x (x6 2x3 + 1) + 2 (x6 2x3 + 1)
= (x2 + 3x + 2) (x6 2x3 + 1)

  * 
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9
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,  z = 1   9 

,   f (x)      x = 1 = 1
2

  

         

 
   


  
         

  
           
 
!  "   #     " $
x4 + ax3 + bx2 + ax + 1

     %"  &  


 
  '       x2 # (     x = 0

)          *  +
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1
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x
x




1
1
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+b=0
x
x

  
  
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x
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2
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2.
x

  
     

2


1
1
x+
+a x+
+b2=0
x
x
 
 z := x+ x1   
 
  
  
   

z  
 

            
z 2 + az + b 2 = 0
a
= z1 = +
2
z2 =

 
a 2
2
 
a 2
2

b+2
b+2

z = x+ x1 
  x   
 
  x      

 
 
  
    
 
  
   

1
x
zx = x2 + 1
z =x+

0 = x2 zx + 1
 
z1
z1 2
1
= x1 =
+
2
2

 

z1
x2 =

2
x3 =

z2
+
2

x4 =

z2

 
z 2
1

 
z 2
1

 
z 2
1

1
1
1

 
             
      
  
     
        
      
 
0 = x6 + ax5 + bx4 + cx3 + bx2 + ax + 1
1
1
1
= 0 = x3 + ax2 + bx + c + b + a 2 + 3
x
x
x






1
1
1
3
2
= x + 3 +a x + 2 +b x+
+c
x
x
x

      


1
x + 2 =
x
2

 ! 

1
x + 3 =
x
3


2
1
x+
2
x


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1
1
x+
3 x+
,
x
x

      
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x
4


4

2
1
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4 x+
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x
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sin2 (a) + cos2 (a) = 1




  

& 3
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cos(a + b) = cos(a) cos(b) sin(a) sin(b)

 

'   4   ABC
cos(b) = AB



   


sin(b) = BC

  




  


C
a
1

b
a

E


BCD



tan(a) =
=

   




   
BD
BD
=
BC
sin(b)
BD = sin(b) tan(a) = sin(b)

ACE



cos(a + b) = AE

ADE



cos(a) =
=

sin(a)
cos(a)

AE
cos(a + b)
=
AD
AD
cos(a + b)
AD =
cos(a)




     

AD + BD = AB = cos(b)
= cos(b) =

cos(a + b)
sin(a)
+ sin(b)
cos(a)
cos(a)

= cos(a + b) = cos(a) cos(b) sin(a) sin(b)

 
     
sin(a + b) = sin(a) cos(b) + sin(b) cos(a)

 
  





    
 
 



sin(c) = cos c

cos(c) = sin c





2
2



sin(a + b) = cos a + b

 2 
= cos a + b
 2 


= cos(a) cos b
sin(a) sin b
2
2
= cos(a) sin(b) + sin(a) cos(b)


     

sin(a b) = sin(a) cos(b) sin(b) cos(a)
cos(a b) = cos(a) cos(b) + sin(a) sin(b)

       sin(c) = sin(c)  





   
!  cos(c) = cos(c) "#
  $  
%
! 

sin(a b) = sin (a + (b)) = sin(a) cos(b) + sin(b) cos(a)
= sin(a) cos(b) sin(b) cos(a)

& 
    
 
cos(a b) = cos (a + (b)) = cos(a) cos(b) sin(a) sin(b)
= cos(a) cos(b) + sin(a) sin(b)

&  ' 


 (  )  a  b 
"   *

 (  # 
  


     
tan(a + b) =

tan(a) + tan(b)
1 tan(a) tan(b)

tan(a b) =

tan(a) tan(b)
1 + tan(a) tan(b)

  




  


sin(c)
   tan(c) = cos(c)
  

tan(a + b) =

sin(a + b)
sin(a) cos(b) + sin(b) cos(a)
=
cos(a + b)
cos(a) cos(b) sin(a) sin(b)

   cos(a) cos(b)            

tan(a + b) =
=

cos(a) cos(b)

cos(a) cos(b)

sin(a)cos(b)
cos(a)cos(b)

sin(b)cos(a)
cos(a)cos(b)

cos(a)cos(b)
cos(a)cos(b)

sin(a)sin(b)
cos(a)cos(b)




tan(a) + tan(b)
1 tan(a) tan(b)

                        b 


b      tan(c) = tan(c)





sin(a) + sin(b) = 2 sin


sin(a) sin(b) = 2 cos

  


sin(a) = sin


sin(b) = sin

a+b
2


cos

a+b
2


sin

a+b ab
+
2
2
a+b ab

2
2

ab
2
ab
2







        !   "#$ 


a+b
ab
+
2
2








a+b
ab
ab
a+b
= sin
cos
+ sin
cos
2
2
2
2


a+b
ab
sin(b) = sin

2
2








a+b
ab
ab
a+b
= sin
cos
sin
cos
2
2
2
2

sin(a) = sin

 
 


sin(a) + sin(b) = 2 sin


sin(a) sin(b) = 2 cos

a+b
2
a+b
2


cos


sin

ab
2
ab
2


,


.

 
   

 


cos(a) + cos(b) =

2 cos


cos(a) cos(b) = 2 sin

 

a+b
2
a+b
2


cos


sin

ab
2
ab
2





a+b
ab
+
2
2








a+b
ab
a+b
ab
= cos
cos
sin
sin
2
2
2
2


a+b
ab
cos(b) = cos

2
2








a+b
ab
a+b
ab
= cos
cos
+ sin
sin
2
2
2
2

cos(a) = cos




cos(a) + cos(b) = 2 cos


cos(a) cos(b) = 2 sin



a+b
2

a+b
2


cos

ab
2


sin

ab
2


   

 
sin(a + b) sin(a b) = sin2 (a) sin2 (b)
cos(a + b) cos(a b) = cos2 (a) sin2 (b)




sin(a + b) sin(a b) = (sin(a) cos(b) + sin(b) cos(a))
(sin(a) cos(b) sin(b) cos(a))

  




  


   


   
    
= (sin(a) cos(b))2 (sin(b) cos(a))2
= sin2 (a) cos2 (b) sin2 (b) cos2 (a)

  cos (c) = 1 sin (c)  



2

= sin2 (a) (1 sin2 (b)) sin2 (b) (1 sin2 (a))


= sin2 (a) sin2 (a) sin2 (b) sin2 (b) + sin2 (b) sin2 (a)
= sin2 (a) sin2 (b)

             
cos(a + b) cos(a b) = (cos(a) cos(b) sin(a) sin(b))
(cos(a) cos(b) + sin(a) sin(b))
2

= cos (a) cos (b) sin2 (a) sin2 (b)


= cos2 (a) (1 sin2 (b)) (1 cos2 (a)) sin2 (b)
= cos2 (a) sin2 (b)

 

sin(a) sin(b) =

cos(a b) cos(a + b)
2

cos(a) cos(b) =

cos(a b) + cos(a + b)
2

    



cos(a + b) = cos(a) cos(b) sin(a) sin(b)
cos(a b) = cos(a) cos(b) + sin(a) sin(b)

   

cos(a b) cos(a + b) = 2 sin(a) sin(b)


= sin(a) sin(b) =

cos(a b) cos(a + b)
2

       



cos(a b) + cos(a + b) = 2 cos(a) cos(b)


= cos(a) cos(b) =

cos(a b) + cos(a + b)
2

  
    



 
   


 
sin(2a) = 2 sin(a) cos(a)

  

      
b = a
= sin(a + a) = sin(a) cos(a) + sin(a) cos(a)
= sin(2a) = 2 sin(a) cos(a)

 
cos(2a) =

2
2

cos (a) sin (a)


2 cos2 (a) 1

1 2 sin2 (a)



 
   

    
b = a
= cos(a + a) = cos(a) cos(a) sin(a) sin(a)
= cos(2a) = cos2 (a) sin2 (a)


    
    

 
   sin2 (a) = 1 cos2 (a)  
!  


cos(2a) = cos2 (a) 1 cos2 (a)
cos(2a) = 2 cos2 (a) 1

" # 

#
 cos2 (a) = 1 sin2 (a)  
!  
 
 
 
cos(2a) = (1 sin2 (a)) sin2 (a)
cos(2a) = 1 2 sin2 (a)

  




  


 
tan(2a) =

2 tan(a)
1 tan2 (a)

  
        b = a

 
sin

a
2

1 cos(a)
2

 
   a [0 + 4k,2 + 4k],
cos

a
2

k Z

1 + cos(a)
2

 
   a [ + 4k, + 4k],

k Z

 
       

  

sin

sin(a) sin(b) =

cos(a b) cos(a + b)
2

a

cos

sin

a
2

=1

a
2

cos
2

a
2

a
2

 
cos(0) cos(a)
2
sin
=
2
2
a
1 cos(a)
= sin
=
2
2
a

        


     

cos(a b) + cos(a + b)
cos(a) cos(b) =
2
a
 a  cos( a a ) + cos( a + a )
2
2
2
2
cos
cos
=
2
2
2
 a  1 + cos(a)
cos2
=
2
2
a
1 + cos(a)
=
cos
2
2

  
 


  
           
        
 
tan

a
2

sin(a)
1 cos(a)
=
1 + cos(a)
sin(a)



     !  "
tan2

a
2

sin2 ( a2 )
1 cos(a)
=
cos2 ( a2 )
1 + cos(a)

# $    %   1 + cos(a) #   "


=

1 cos2 (a)
(1 + cos(a))2

     &   ' sin2 (a) = 1 cos2 (a)     


    (  % # $     1 cos(a)   
1 + cos(a)   '   $  %



 
 


       a [1,1]


 


1 a2

cos(arcsin(a)) = 1 a2
sin(arccos(a)) =



 # 

 "

cos2 (c) + sin2 (c) = 1

    arccos(a)  c  

cos2 (arccos(a)) + sin2 (arccos(a)) = 1


a2 + sin2 (arccos(a)) = 1

sin(arccos(a)) = 1 a2

  




  


   
     arcsin(a)  
cos2 (arcsin(a)) + sin2 (arcsin(a)) = 1

cos(arcsin(a)) = 1 a2

 
sin2 (arctan(a)) =

a2
a2 + 1

cos2 (arctan(a)) =

1
a2 + 1




a = tan(arctan(a)) =

sin(arctan(a))
sin(arctan(a))
= 
cos(arctan(a))
1 sin2 (arctan(a))

a2 (1 sin2 (arctan(a)) = sin2 (arctan(a))


a2 = sin2 (arctan(a)) + a2 sin2 (arctan(a))

sin2 (arctan(a)) =

a2
+1

a2

   
 
sin2 (arctan(a))
1
=
1
cos2 (arctan(a))
cos2 (arctan(a))
1
a2 + 1 =
cos2 (arctan(a))

a2 = tan2 (arctan(a)) =




    

  

 




  


      sin(a+b)    cos(a+b)  
 
  !"# $
    
 !%   
  x

 
    

  
 

eix = cos(x) + i sin(x)

  x = a + b
  
ei(a+b) = cos(a + b) + i sin(a + b)

    
ei(a+b) = eia eib
eia eib = (cos(a) + i sin(a)) (cos(b) + i sin(b))
= cos(a) cos(b) + cos(a) i sin(b) + i sin(a) cos(b) sin(a) sin(b)
= cos(a) cos(b) sin(a) sin(b) + i (sin(a) cos(b) + sin(b) cos(a))

         


  
cos(a + b) = cos(a) cos(b) sin(a) sin(b)
sin(a + b) = sin(a) cos(b) + sin(b) cos(a),

      


  


  
   
      !
sin(3a) = 3 sin(a) 4 sin3 (a)

"  #
        ! eix = cos(x) + i sin(x)
$ ! %     
ei3a = cos(3 a) + i sin(3 a)

    


ei3a = (eia )3 = (cos(a) + i sin(a))3

         $   &    
 !   

  

 
     

 
 




                                                 

 
 
                              

 
 
  
 
                

     !"


#$                              %%
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b
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( 
 
6    4  f   7  
  
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Of =
=

n

k=1
n

k=1

sup {f (z) | z [xk1 , xk ]} (xk xk1 )


sup {f (z) | z [xk1 , xk ]} xk

 
 

  


Uf =
=

n

k=1
n


inf {f (z) | z [xk1 , xk ]} (xk xk1 )


inf {f (z) | z [xk1 , xk ]} xk

k=1

    I = ab f (x) dx       

  
Uf I Of      [a, b] 
      
 

    

n
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  aij   j  "  n 


i=1
j=1 aij  
i  "  m # 
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m 
n


aij =

i=1 j=1

n 
m


aij

j=1 i=1

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 %
m 
n


aij =

i=1 j=1

m 
n


aij

i=1 j=1

    %


m 
n


(aij + bij ) =

i=1 j=1

*     

m 
n

i=1 j=1

aij +

m 
n


bij

i=1 j=1

f (x, y) dx dy  

    +    ,#    - 


  

    
 
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  /      
   #
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0  f 
 [a, b]
1 f    2   

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        3
 
f (x, y)  
$




   
  

& # 

f (x, y) dx dy  #       .


R : a x b  c y d #    f (x, y) dx dy

 
   
  
y
d

c
x
a

    



  

R     R   xy   
      
         !    f " R       
 [a, b]  Z1 = {x0 , x1 , . . . , xm }  [c, d]  Z2 = {y0 , y1 , . . . , yn }
#  Z = Z1 Z2 = {(xi , yj ) | xi Z1 , yj Z2 }  $ 


 R Z     % &  (xi , yj )     R  m
 n 
&& 

 Rij ' ()*
Rij : xi1 x xi  yj1 y yj
y
d = yn
(xi , yj )

yj
Rij
yj1
c = y0

x
a = x0

xi1

xi

xm = b

  
   R
# R 
+  
   '  
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   f " , Rij  -.   -  / Mij 

 
 

z = f (x, y)

Rij

    f 


Rij

  R  m 
  R       
   
  

   R 
 A = (x x ) (y y ) = x y  

 
m A M A
ij

ij

ij

ij

ij

ij

ij

ij

i1

j1

ij

Mij
mij

Rij

Rij

   mij   Mij


 
   
Uf =

n
m 

i=1 j=1

mij xi yj ,

 
   
  

  
  
 
Of =

m 
n


Mij xi yj .

i=1 j=1

              I   


    
 
Uf I O f


 
     
   I    





f (x, y) dx dy 

   
          !
       
    " 
  
         

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f (x, y) dx dy =

f (x, y) dx dy
c

    $
         " 
     
  " 
  %   
       &   
   " 
  
        #




f (x, y) dx dy =

f (x, y) dy dx
a

'

    
( 
       
 
)
   
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  f    $   


'    f 
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    + 

 



  

,     $     (-

 
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 1 y 3    )  
  f (x, y) = x y + 2  
 
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0 1223
   

  

f (x, y) dx dy   

34
1

  
   
" 



(x y + 2) dx =

1 2
x yx+2x
2

    4
#


3
1

(x y + 2) dx dy 


4
= 3y +
1




3
27
3 2 27
3y +
dy = y +
y = 15.
2
2
2
1


(-

   $   )  15 $

27
,
2

 
 
z

f (x, y)

    


   

  
    (x y + 2) dy dx        
   

   
     
         

 
 
      f(x, y) = sin(x) sin(y) !  
 "   
 

sin(x) sin(y) dx dy 1,827 


    
  #  f    

  !  R
$   
#  %      
4
1

3
1

3
1



4
1


   
  




&       f (x, y) dx dy#   "  


#

        %   '() *

       

 
   
  
 


   


  f (x, y) 
     (x, y)
    
             
   
       !    

"## f (x, y) dx dy  $  
% 
   
   %
 
" 
       &

  '() 
  f 
  
y
h(x)

g(x)
x
a

  

" *       x = a  x = b


%  

   y = h(x)  y = g(x) +   g(x) h(x)  a b
, %  %      -
##  .   / 
&

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y
h(x)

g(x)

     

 
 

   
    

  
 




 


   
 
  



 

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 #
# $% 
  
 

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   $ 

&     

dx dy 

 
 '#(

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,



f (x, y) dx dy 

y
h(x)
dy

g(x)

dx

   



 

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+  "


f (x, y)

+


Vx

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"
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y
h(x)

g(x)
a

xi1 xi
x

   


 

g(x)

h(x)

 
   
  
 


  


h(x)

Vx =

f (x, y) dy
g(x)




  
   
 
  
 


 


   Vx 
a  b   
x 

!     



V =

f (x, y) dx dy =
a

h(x)

Vx dx =

f (x, y) dy dx
a

g(x)

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# 
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a 
 b 
 
 x&'(

 
g(y) 
 h(y) 
  

    
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V =

h(y)

f (x, y) dx dy =

f (x, y) dx dy
a

g(y)

y
b
g(y)

h(y)

a
x

   


    


 

+  

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 '   - r  

! 

f (x, y) = r2 x2 y 2   )  


 ' 
(
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    '   ' 
 xy&.
 
(
 !
# 

: r x r 
 r2 x2 y r2 x2
 , 
V  '  
V =2

f (x, y) dx dy =

r2 x2

r2 x2

r2 x2 y 2 dy dx

 
 


      y = sin(u) r2 x2  
 dy =

cos(u) r2 x2 du      




r 2 x2

u1 = arcsin
=
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 = sin(x) + C
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d x0 + e y0 + f = 0

 
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y
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x


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a = 1

    


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x

     


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d

+
=
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x 
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 y " x .





   

  
 
/    
  





  
  

  

     



ey dx + (1 x ey ) dy = 0

   

P (x, y) =
Q(x, y) =

   

U (x,y)
x

U (x, y)
= ey
x

U (x, y)
= 1 x ey
y

= ey

  x   

U (x, y) = x ey +C(y).
C(y)

     x      U (x, y) = x e


= 1xe
   

U (x,y)
y

+C(y)



x ey +C  (y) = 1 x ey C  (y) = 1

   U (x, y) = x e +C(y)  y     C (y) = 1  


C(y) = y + C      U (x, y)
y

U (x, y) = x ey +C(y) = x ey +y + C1

        U (x, y) = const     
x ey +y = c

  !  "     y #"     x
     "  
x(y) = ey (c y)

 
       

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 & '     !    ( m(x, y) )= 0* 
 $    !  %     ' $ 
 m(x, y)  !  %     m(x, y)

 


 
 

 





m(x, y) P (x, y) dx + m(x, y) Q(x, y) dy = 0

 
    

      

   
     



(m(x, y) P (x, y))
(m(x, y) Q(x, y))
=
,
y
x

    
   
 

m(x, y)
P (x, y)
m(x, y)
Q(x, y)
P (x, y) + m(x, y)
=
Q(x, y) + m(x, y)
y
y
x
x

       


 

P (x, y)

m(x, y)
m(x, y)
Q(x, y)
+ m(x, y)
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y
x


=0

  m(x, y)              


 

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(           
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x


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y
x

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x

=0


=0

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m (x) = m(x)

 
!     
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 m(x) = 0      + 
 
!  ,-.     &

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y(x) =

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             !        


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y2 x y
2 x y 3 + x y + x2

0 = (y 2 x y) dx + (2 x y 3 + x y + x2 ) dy

  
   #               
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+ m(x, y)
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x

P (x, y)
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y
x

=0

 P (x, y) = y2 x y  Q(x, y) = 2x y3 + x y + x2  m(x, y) = xa yb


    
(y 2 x y) b xa y b1 (2x y 3 + xy + x2 ) a xa1 y b


+xa y b (2y x) (2y 3 + y + 2x) = 0

     '       


b xa y b+1 b xa+1 y b 2axa y b+3
a xa y b+1 a xa+1 y b + 2xa y b+1
xa+1 y b 2xa y b+3 xa y b+1 2xa+1 y b = 0

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b y b x 2a y 3 a y a x + 2y x 2y 3 y 2x = 0
(2a 2) y 3 + (a + b + 1) y + (a b 3) x = 0

 
    

      

  
               
         
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 b = 2      !  "        
  
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 !            #



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1
x y2





1
1
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x
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dy dp
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=p
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x = g(y  )

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  ./.   y (p) = x(p) p  
y  (p) = g  (p) p

g  (p) p dp + C
y(p) =

  
  

  

x = ey

 


 
 
x(p) = g(p) = ep



p g (p) dp = C +

y(p) = C +

  

  
 

 

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x(p) = ep
y(p) = C + ep (p 1)



  
  
 
   

  
  x(p)
  p 
  
 y(p)



x = ep p = ln(x)
y = C + eln(x) (ln(x) 1)

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p

  

) 



y = y  ln(y  ) y 

 

y(p) = p ln(p) p,

 


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p

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1
dp = (ln(p))2 + C
p
2

 
    

      

 

  

x(p) =

1
2

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y(p) = p ln(p) p

  
  
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p = e

2(xC)

     y(p) 



ln e 2(xC) e 2(xC)

 

y(x) = e 2(xC) 2(x C) 1
y(x) = e

2(xC)

  
  




y = x y  + g(y  )

  


   
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x(p) = ep

    

y(p) = ep (1 p)

  x(p)  p   p = ln(x) 


 
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y(x) = x (1 ln(x)) = x (ln(x) 1)

 
  
 ! "   
y = cx + ec
 



 


 

y = x f (y  ) + g(y  )

#    y
 p
y(p) = x(p) f (p) + g(p)


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y  (p) = x (p) f (p) + x(p) f  (p) + g  (p)

   y (p) = p x(p)   % &' &() 


p x (p) = x (p) f (p) + x(p) f  (p) + g  (p)
x (p) (p f (p)) = x(p) f  (p) + g  (p)
x (p) =

x(p) f  (p) + g  (p)


p f (p)

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#  

y = x y 2 + ln(y 2 )


      
y(p) = x(p) p2 + 2 ln(p)

 
  
   



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p

p p2

  
     


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dp + (p p2 ) dx = 0
p

 
  
        
 
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(p

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p +
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#   $% y(p)


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yh (x) = ex
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!            


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!      "   n +       


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ei x , x ei x , x2 ei x , . . . , xk1 ei x

      

 
  
   




 

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 1 = 2  2 = 1  
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 ex     
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eax (C1 ebix +C2 ebix ) =
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#    $%&    $

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cos(x) = cos(x)
sin(x) = sin(x)

  %

%

   


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= eax (C1 cos(bx) + C2 cos(bx) + C1 i sin(bx) C2 i sin(bx))
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 C1 + C2 =: A
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(  #  "         )
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y  4 y  + 9 y  10y = 0

  
 
3 42 + 9 10 = 0,

   


1 = 1 + 2i, 2 = 1 2i 
 3 = 2  

    
 

yh (x) = C1 e(1+2i)x +C2 e(12i)x +C3 e2x
yh (x) = ex (A cos(2x) + B sin(2x)) + C3 e3x

  


 
 
 
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 yhi (x)(i = 1,2, . . . , n) 



  

 

 


  


Ci  


ui (x) 
  

yp (x) = u1 (x) yh1 (x) + u2 (x) yh2 (x) + + un (x) yhn (x)

   


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!  


" 


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u1 (x) yh1 (x) + u2 (x) yh2 (x) + + un (x) yhn (x) = 0
...
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(n2)

u1 (x)

(x) + u2 (x) yh2

(n1)
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(x)

(n2)

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(x) + + un (x) yhn

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= g(x)

 
  
   




 

y  + y =

2
cos(x)

  

   2 +1 = 0   
 1 = i  2 = i
   
     

yh (x) = C1 cos(x) + C2 sin(x)

     


    
 
yp (x) = u1 (x) cos(x) + u2 (x) sin(x)



  
 

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 u1 (x) = 2 tan(x) 
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u1 (x) = 2 ln(|cos(x)|)
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$   
   

yp (x) = 2 ln |cos(x)| cos(x) + 2x sin(x)

   
        
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$  
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x = et   y(et )  

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t

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x3 y  + 3x2 y  6x y  + 6y = 0
         

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x y  = u
           

 



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u 7 u + 6 u = 0
       
         

u(t) = C1 et +C2 e2t +C3 e3t


 

y(x) = u(ln(x))!      t = ln(x)  u(t)  ! 



 

y(x) = C1 eln(x) +C2 e2 ln(x) +C3 e3 ln(x)


y(x) = C1 x + C2 x2 +

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