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WorkshopProgramDFI2013Conference,IITBombay

WELCOMEALL

WorkshopProgramDFI2013Conference,IITBombay

Rock Socketing using Reverse


Circulation Rig under operation at
Karwar, India

Piling with 180kN.m Torque Hydraulic


rigs

Piling with Tripod rigs at Gangtok,,


Sikkim, India

ROCKSOCKETEDPILES CURRENTINDIANPRACTICE
Dr.SunilS.Basarkar
ITDCementationIndialimited

PRESENTATIONOUTLINE
Conceptofrockanddefiningthem
Relevantquestionsonrocksocketing
Behaviour ofrocksocketedpiles
Designapproachesforrocksocketedpiles
Fieldterminationcriteriaforsocketedpiles
Rocksocketingtechniques Indiacontext
ConcludingRemarks
References

DFI2013India,IITBombay

CONCEPTOFROCK&DEFININGTHEM

DFI2013India,IITBombay

SOCKETEDPILES

SocketedPiles:

Aportionofpileshaftthatpenetratesintoarock
formationunderneaththeoverburden(IS:14593)

Thesepilesderiveresistancefromsideshearand
endbearingatthesocketportion

Thesepileshavelessdisplacementcomparedto
pilesinsandandclays

Advantages:

Usedwhennostrongbearingmaterialisavailableatshallow
depths&structuralloadisheavy

Haveveryhighcapacity especiallywhenSideshear&End
Bearingareaccountedpragmatically

Withsuitabledesign&constructionmethods,theygivevery
highUpliftcapacity
DFI2013India,IITBombay

CONCEPTOFROCKANDDEFININGROCK

RockDefinition
ToanEngineer,Rocksignifiesfirm,coherentorconsolidatedsubstances
thatcannotbenormallyexcavatedbymanualmeansalone(Jumikis,
1979)
Indesigningofsocketedpiles,engineersassumerockashomogeneous
andisotropicmedium
However,mostrocksarenotsound.Hencetheyareneither
homogeneousnorisotropic
Insitufeaturesofrockslikejointingpattern,fracturesstronglygovern
thebehaviour ofsocketedpiles,particularlyoflargediameter

DFI2013India,IITBombay

CONCEPTOFROCKANDDEFININGROCK
Tables2.ISCodeClassificationofRock
Table: Strength of Intact Rock Material (MPa) (IS: 13365 (Part 1) 1998.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Description
Compressive Strength
Point Load Strength
Rating
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exceptionally Strong
>250
>8
15
Very Strong
100-250
4-8
12
Strong
50-100
2-4
7
Average
25-50
1-2
4
Weak
10-25
Use of UCS preferred
2
Very Weak
2-10
-do1
Extremely weak
<2
-do0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Table: Terms for Strength of Rock Material (IS: 4464-1985)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Term
Compressive Strength (kg/cm2)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Very Weak
<12.50
Weak
12.50-50.0
Moderately weak
50 to 125
Moderately Strong
125 to 500
Strong
500 to 1000
Very Strong
1000 to 2000
Extremely Strong
>2000
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DFI2013India,IITBombay

CONCEPTOFROCKANDDEFININGROCK
Tables2.ISCodeGuidelinesonRock
Table: Rock Quality in Terms of Weathering Grades of Rock Mass (IS: 4464 1985)
Terms
Fresh
Slightly
Weathered
Moderately
weathered
Highly weathered

Completely
Weathered
Residual Soil

Description
No visible sign of rock material weathering; perhaps slight
Discoloration on major discontinuity surfaces
Discoloration indicates weathering of rock material and
discontinuity surfaces. Weathering may discolour all the rock
material
Less than half of the rock material is decomposed or
disintegrated to a soil. Fresh or discoloured rock is present
either as a continuous framework or as core stones.
More than half of the rock material is decomposed or
disintegrated to a soil. Fresh or discoloured rock is present
either as a discontinuous framework or as core stones.
All rock material is decomposed and/or disintegrated to soil.
The original mass structure is still largely intact.
All rock material is converted to soil. The mass structure and
material Fabric is destroyed. There is a large change in
volume, but the soil has not been significantly transported.

Grade
I

Interpretation
CR: >60%

II

CR: 40 60%

III

CR: 25 40%

IV

CR: 11 25%

CR: 0 10%

VI

CR=0; but N>50

DFI2013India,IITBombay

CONCEPTOFROCKANDDEFININGROCK
Tables2.ISCodeGuidelinesonRock
Rock Quality Designation (RQD) of Rock (IS: 13365 (Part 1) 1998.
Rock Quality Designation
( RQD )

Diagnostic Description of
Rock

Exceeding 90%

Excellent

90 % - 75 %

Good

75 % - 50 %

Fair

50 % - 25 %

Poor

Less Than 25 %

Very Poor

Rock Quality Designation : Sum of Length of Core Pieces greater than 100mm /
Length of Run

Table: Net Safe Bearing Pressure Based on RMR


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Classification No.
I
II
III
IV
V
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Description of Rock
Very Good
Good
Fair
Poor
Very Poor
RMR

100-81

80-61

60-41

40-21

20-0

qns (t/m2)
600-448
440-288
280-151
145-90-58
55-45-40
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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CONCEPTOFROCKANDDEFININGROCK
Upto Nvalueof60,StratamaybedefinedasSoil.Beyond
60orRefusal,StratamaybeconsideredasWeatheredor
Weakrock.
MEDIUM

WEAK

VERY WEAK

WEAK

1.4
VERYWEAK

0.5

1.0

WEAK

2.0

MOD WEAK

MODSTRONG

STRONG

10
40
4
MODWEAK
MODSTRONG

5.0

10

20

STRONG

VERY
STRONG

Kulhawy (1991)

EXTREAMLY

STRONG

Cole&Stroud
(1977)

STRONG

50

100

ProposedRevision
ToBS5930

200

500

UCS(MPa)
ClassificationofRockMaterialStrength (Kulhawy &Phoon,1993;Cole&Stroud,
1977)
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CONCEPTOFROCKANDDEFININGROCK
Shear
Strength
2
KN/m
40000

Approx.
N Value

Strength/
Consistency
*
Strong

Grade

Breakability

Difficult to break
against solid object
with hammer

Penetration

Cannot be
scratched with
knife

Scratch

Moderately
strong

Broken against
Solid object with
hammer

Can just be
scratched with
knife

Broken in hand by
hitting with hammer

Scratched with
knife. Can just be
scratched with
thumb-nail

Broken by leaning
on sample with
hammer

No penetration with
knife

Broken by hand

Penetration to abt.
2mm with knife

Easily broken by
hand

Penetration to abt.
5mm with knife

20000

Cole&StroudChart

600
10000
8000
6000
400

Manyconsultantsfeelthat
GradeC,D,EandFmaterial
cannotbeconsideredas
socket

4000
Moderately
weak
2000

200

Scratched with
thumb-nail

Weak
1000
800
100
600
80

Hard or
very weak

400

GradeCandabovewould
giveaveryhighendbearing

60
Very stiff
40

Penetrated by thumbnail to about 15mm


with knife

200
Stiff

Indented by thumb

Firm

Penetrated by thumb
with effort

soft

Easily penetrated
by thumb

100
20
80

IS:2911(Part1/Sec.2)2010
usesCole&StroudChartfor
Piledesign

60
10
40
8
6
20
4
10
2

N.B.

Very soft

* Geol. Soc. Working Party Report (1970) and CP 2004 (1972) except that the designation 'hard' for
soil materials has been given a separate identity which is analogous to very weak for materials
classifiable as rock.
Grades and shear strengths for rocks refer to intact specimen. The N value, however, is an in-situ
test and includes some effect of discontinuities. For cohesive soils the correlation between N
values and in-situ strength assumed is that given by Stroud (1974) for clays of low plasticity.

Fig. 2.4. Scale of Strengths and N Values for Weak Rocks and Soils
(Cole and Stroud, 1977).

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RELEVANTQUESTIONSONROCKSOCKETING

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RELEVANTQUESTIONSONROCKSOCKETING
HowdoyoudifferentiateWeatheredrock,WeakandHardrock?
Howmuchsocketingisrequired?

Whataretherockparametersthataffectthecapacityofrocksocketed
piles?

Isroughnessfactorofsocket,andmethodofrockdrillingquantifiedduring
capacityanalysis?
Howtoaddressfieldterminationforsocketedpiles?
IstherecommongroundofunderstandinginIndiabetweentheContractors,
DesignersandtheClientsonthematterofsocketingrequirements?
AreLoadtestsonrocksocketsreallyusedforsocketdepthoptimization?
Arethepaymentsforpileboringinvariousrockcategoriesstandardized?
WhatisaLargeDiameterandaSmallDiameterPile?
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BEHAVIOUROFROCKSOCKETEDPILES

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BEHAVIOUROFROCKSOCKETEDPILES
Linear/ElasticPhase:
Shearstrainsareelastic.
Majorloadsarecarriedinsidewallshear.
Pileexhibitselasticbehaviour underthisstage.
NonLinearPhase:
Slipstartsattherockconcreteinterface.
Increasingportionofloadtransferredtothepile
base.
Rockconcretebondisbroken,andconstant
frictionalresistanceisdeveloped.
Thestructuralpileexhibitselasticbehaviour even
underthisphaseunderhighpileloaden
DFI2013India,IITBombay

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BEHAVIOUROFROCKSOCKETEDPILES

Fullsideshearmobilizedat
relativelysmallpile
movements

Load
Qu

Largemovementsrequired
tomobilizeBaseResistance

QB

QS
Pilemovement
Behaviour ofSocketedPiles

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BEHAVIOUROFROCKSOCKETEDPILES
FactorsAffectingLoadCapacityofSocketedPile:
Socketgeometry.
Modulusofrockatthesideandthepilebase.
Strengthofrockatthesideandthepilebase.
Socketwallcondition&roughness.
Conditionatbottomofsocket.
Layeringofrock,presenceofclayseams.
Creeps.

DFI2013India,IITBombay

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DESIGNAPPROACHESFORROCKSOCKETEDPILES

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ROCKSOCKETEDPILES:DESIGNAPPROACHESININDIA

ElasticMethod
UsingRockStrengthofsocketmaterial
UsingprovisionsofIS:145931998
UsingIRC782000,Amendment54,dated28th May2009.
UsingIS:2911(Part1/Section2)2010

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ROCKSOCKETEDPILES:DESIGNAPPROACHES
ElasticAnalysis
ChartsbasedonoriginalFE
analysisofMattes&Poulos
(1969)
ExtendedbyPells &Turner
(1979)toaccommodate
practicalrangeofmodulus
ratioKandL/Dratioof
socket
PresentschartsforElastic
Settlements,andLoad
distributionalongpile.

Settlement of rock-sockets
with clean base
(Pells & Turner, 1979)

Load distribution in a socket


with a clean base
(Pells & Turner, 1979)

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ROCKSOCKETEDPILES:DESIGNAPPROACHES
ElasticAnalysis(Example,continued)

ElasticAnalysis(Example)

For12mmdisplacement,w,Load,Q=

Forpiledia.D=1m;Socketdepth,L=2.0m

L/D=2

w.Er.D/(2.Ip)=28845300N

Pileconcretegrade:M30

or2884.5MT

Avg.UCSofsocketmaterial,r:20MPa

Ep=5000.Sqrt(30) =27386.1MPa

Er=215.Sqrt(r) =961.51MPa

Ep/Er =28.48

ForL/D=2,&Ep/Er =28.48,

InfluencefactorfromChart,Ip=0.2

Safeload,2884.5/1.5=1923.00MT

Notes:1.Elasticsolutionstobeusedonlyas
guideline
2.AFactorofsafetyof3tobefurtherused
foraccountingnonlinearity,heterogeneity,
andvariationinworkmanship

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ROCKSOCKETEDPILES:DESIGNAPPROACHES
UsingRockStrengthofsocket
UCSofsocketmaterialisusedasabasis
CoreRecovery&RQDofrockmassmaybeusedtoarriveatfield
UCS
Sideshearandbaseresistanceofsocketempiricallyrelatedto
theUCSvalue
Example,
Max.Sideshear,fmax=0.4(c)0.5
Max.Baseresistance,qmax =3.0(c)0.5

(Zhang&Einstein,1999)
(Zhang&Einstein,1999)

Afactorofsafetyof3maybeusedforsafesideshearand2.5for
safebaseresistance
Exercisecaution,whilearrivingatsafecapacity.Capacitytobe
confirmedbyfieldloadtests
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ROCKSOCKETEDPILES:DESIGNAPPROACHES
IS:14593 1998

Thecodeattemptstogiveguidelineforsocketedpileofdiameter 1500mm

SuggestedMinimumSocketlengthaspertable:
SuggestedMinimumSocketLength
RockType

ls

Soundrelativelyhomogeneousrock
includinggranite,gneiss

1to2D

Moderatelyweathered,closelyjointed
includingschist,slate

2to3D

Softrocks,sedimentaryrocksincluding
hardshale,sandstones,siltstone,
mudstone

3to 4D

NOTEDisthediameterofpile.

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ROCKSOCKETEDPILES:DESIGNAPPROACHES
IS:14593 1998

BetteroptionfordesignisusingUCSvalues

SafePileLoad

Where,

qc
Nd
Ap
D
Is

Nj

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

safeloadcapacityofpile,inMT;
uniaxialcompressivestrengthofrock,T/ ;
depthfactor=O.8O.2ls/D,l 2;
areaofpiletoe,
/4;
diameterofpile,inm;
socketlengthintotherock,inm;
rocksocketslideresistancereductionfactor(Fig.1);
rocksocketcorrectionfactor(Fig.2);and
valuesasperFig.2ofIS12070areapplicable,

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ROCKSOCKETEDPILES:DESIGNAPPROACHES
IS:14593 1998

DFI2013India,IITBombay

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ROCKSOCKETEDPILES:DESIGNAPPROACHES
UsingIRC782000(latestamendment)
SpecifiestwomethodsforsocketedpilesandstatedinAppendix5ofIRC78(Clause
709.3.1)
AppliedwhencoresofrockcanbetakenandUCSestablishedbylaboratorytests

Where,
Qall
Re
Raf
Ksp

=
=
=
=
=

Ultimatesocketedpilecapacityinrock;
Allowablepilecapacity;
Ultimatebaseresistance;
Ultimatesideshear;
Empiricalcorrectionaspertablebelow;
Ksp maybelinearlyinterpolated

(CR+RQD)/2

Ksp

30%

0.3

100%

1.2

DFI2013India,IITBombay

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ROCKSOCKETEDPILES:DESIGNAPPROACHES
UsingIRC782000(latestamendment)
CR

CoreRecovery(%)

RQD

Rockqualitydesignation(%)

qc

AverageUCSofrockcorebelowpile

df

Depthfactor=(1+0.4lsoc/D) 1.2

As

Socketedsurfacearea

Cus

Ultimateshearstrengthofsocketmaterialalongsocketlength

0.225

3.0MPa forM35pileconcrete

(3.0x

)forothergradepileconcrete

DFI2013India,IITBombay

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ROCKSOCKETEDPILES:DESIGNAPPROACHES
UsingIRC782000(latestamendment) METHOD2
ApplicablewherestrataishighlyfragmentedwithverylowRQD&CRvalue,or
whereUCS<10MPa
UsesextrapolatedSPTvaluesasperTable

ShearStrength

ModeratelyWeak

Weak

VeryWeak

ApproximateNValue

300 200

200 100

100 60

Cohesion(MPa)

3.3 1.9

1.9 0.7

0.7 0.4

Where,

Nc

=
=
=

Averageultimateshearstrengthbelowpilebase
Ultimateshearstrengthalongsocket
9
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ROCKSOCKETEDPILES:DESIGNAPPROACHES
IS:2911(Part1/Section2)2010
AppendixB7&B8addressedtopilesinRock
B8Addressestosocketedpiledesigninweathered/SoftRock

UsesColeandStroud(1977)Chart

DecipheringproperNvalueofrockiskeyfactor
/

/F

Where,
F=3,
=0.9(Recommended)
ForN 60,stratumistreatedasweatheredrockratherthansoil

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FIELDTERMINATIONCRITERIAFORSOCKETEDPILES

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FIELDTERMNATIONCRITERIAFORSOCKETEDPILES
Appliedfortwocases:
PilingbyPercussionmethod(Chiseling)
PilingbyHydraulicrigswithTorquemeasurement

CHISELENERGYCRITERIA
E=(W.H.n)/A.d
E=ChiselenergyinT.m/m2/cmpenetration
W=ChiselweightinT
H=DropofChiselinm
n=Reductionfactorusuallyrangingfrom0.6to0.8.
A=CSAreaofpile(m2)
d=Averagechiselpenetrationperblow(Takenas
averageofnumberofblowsoveraperiodof
30minutes).

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FIELDTERMNATIONCRITERIAFORSOCKETEDPILES
GUIDELINESOFENERGYCRITERIA
Energyvalue,Eof40.0T.m/m2/cmcorrespondstostratumhaving
SPT=50.
ForarockrequiringaboutE=225T.m/m2/cm,
Datye (1990)suggestsrockpilefrictionof15T/m2 andEndBearing
Resistanceof450T/m2
FoundationstratumisassumedtostartwhenEnergy,Eof75
T.m/m2/cmpenetration

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FIELDTERMNATIONCRITERIAFORSOCKETEDPILES
TERMINATIONCRITERIAFORHYDRAULICRIGS
ConceptofPilePenetrationRatio(PPR),inT.m/m2/cmpenetrationis
used

PilePenetrationRatio(PPR)forRotarypiles=2NT.t
AP
t=timeinminutes
A=C.S.areaofpileinm2
P=penetrationincm
N=RPMofhydraulicmotor
T=TorqueinTm

Tcanbeknownfrom,equation
HPofhydraulicmotor,HP=2NT
4.5

HPistakenas30to40%ofratedHPoftherig.(forT=180kN.m,HP=
325)
DFI2013India,IITBombay

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ROCKSOCKETINGTECHNIQUES INDIANCONTEXT

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ROCKSOCKETINGTECHNIQUES INDIANCONTEXT

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A Heavy Duty Rig with Rock Auger,


Akola, near Mumbai, India

Piling through sandy overburden at


Noida, with 180kN.m torque rigs

DFI2013India,IITBombay

ROCKSOCKETINGTECHNIQUES INDIANCONTEXT

Boring & Socketing under constraints


Lo-drill rig in operation at Gangtok,
Sikkim, India

36

Boring through overburden soil at Noida,


near Delhi, India

DFI2013India,IITBombay

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ROCKSOCKETINGTECHNIQUES INDIANCONTEXT

37

Piling works with Tripod rigs using


Chiseling method at Gangtok, Sikkim

DFI2013India,IITBombay

ROCKSOCKETINGTECHNIQUES INDIANCONTEXT

38

Rock Auger : Ready for use at Akola,


Central India
Rock Bucket: ready for use at Akola,
Central India

DFI2013India,IITBombay

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ROCKSOCKETINGTECHNIQUES INDIANCONTEXT

Rock Auger

39

Cleaning Bucket

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CONCLUDINGREMARKS

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CONCLUDINGREMARKS
Rockasamaterialisadebatedareaandfrictioniscommonin
Contracts
DesignapproachesinIndiaareconservative,andthereisarare
agreementonthesocketingrequirements
Designapproachesforrocksocketedpilesareyettogainconfidence
duetovariability
ModernRigsandtoolsforsocketinghavebeenintroducedinIndia,but
stilltoestablishitsfootholdintermsofcostrecovery
TerminationcriteriawithPercussionmethodsarewellestablished
Terminationcriteriaforhydraulicrotaryrigsisyettogainwide
acceptance,andisstillamatterofresearch

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REFERENCES

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REFERENCES

43

Basarkar,S.S.(2004).AnalyticalandExperimentalStudiesonRockSocketedPilesin
MumbaiRegion,IITBombay,2004.
Datye,K.R.(1990).BoredpilinginBombayregion.Proc.IndianGeotechnical
Conference(IGC)1990,Bombay,571588.
Deere,D.U.,andMiller,R.P.(1966).EngineeringClassificationandIndexPropertiesof
IntactRock.TechnicalReportNo.AFWLTR65116,AirForceWeaponsLaboratory,
KirtlandAirForceBase,NewMexico.
IRC:782000. StandardSpecificationsandCodeofPracticeforRoadBridges.SectionVII
Foundations&Substructures(2ndRevision),Amendmentno.54,dated28/5/2009.
IS:2911(Part1/Section2). Design&ConstructionofPileFoundations CodeofPractice
Part1ConcretePiles,Section2,BoredCastInsituConcretePiles.
IS4464:1985(Revised2004). CodeOfPracticeForPresentationOfDrillingInformation
andCoreDescriptionInFoundationInvestigation.
IS133651(1998). Quantitativeclassificationsystemofrockmass Guidelines,Part1:
RMRforpredictingofengineeringproperties
IS:14593:1998. Design&ConstructionofBoredCastinSituPilesFoundedonRocks
Guidelines.

DFI2013India,IITBombay

REFERENCES

44

Jumikis,A.(1979).RockMechanics.TransTechPublications.
Kulhawy,F.H.(1978).Geomechanical modelforrockfoundationsettlement.Jr.of
Geotech.Engnr.Div.,Proc.ASCE,Vol.104(GT2),211227.
Mattes,N.S.andPoulos,H.G.(1969).Settlementofsinglecompressiblepile.Jr.ofSoil
Mech.andFound.Div.,ASCE,95(1),189207.
analysis
Pells,P.J.N.andTurner,R.M.(1979).Elasticsolutionsforthedesignand
ofrocksocketedpiles.Can.Geotech.Jr.,16,481487.
Rowe,R.K.andArmitage,H.H.(1987).Adesignmethodfordrilledpiersinsoftrock.
Can.Geotech.Jr.,24,126142.
Zhang,L.andEinstein,H.H.(1998).Endbearingcapacityofdrilledshaftsin rock.Jr.
ofGeotech.andGeoenvr.Engnr.,ASCE,Vol.124(7),574584.

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THANKYOU

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