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KLAUS-DIETER MATHES

A FINE BLEND OF

MAHA.MUDRA AND

MADHYAMAl<A

MaitrTpa's Collection of Texts on Non-conceptual Realization

(Amanasikara)

OSTERREICHISCHE A KADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAF TEN

PHILOSOPHISCH-HISTORISCHE KLASSE
SITZUNGS BERICHTE, 869. BAND
BEITRAGE ZUR KULTUR- UND
GEISTESGESCHICHTE ASIENS, NR. 90

A Fine Blend

of Mahamudra
and Madhyamaka
MaitrTpa's Collection of Texts
on Non-conceptual Realization

(Amanasikara)

Klaus-Dieter Mathes

II

VERLAG DER
OSTERREICHISCHEN
AKADEMIE DER
WISSENSCHAFTEN

Vorgelegt von w. M. ERNST STEINKELLNER in der Sitzung vom 24. Juli 2015

Gedruckt mit UnterstUtzung durch die Universitat Wien

miversitat
w1en

Diese Publikation wurde einem anonymen,


internationalen Peer-Review-Verfahren unterzogen.
This publication has undergone the process
of anonymous, international peer review.

Die verwendete Papiersorte ist aus chlorfrei


gebleichtem Zellstoff hergestellt, frei von saure
bildenden Bestandteilen und alterungsbestandig.

Alie Rechte vorbehalten.


ISBN 978-3-7001-7786-9
Copyright 2015 by
bsterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien
Druck und Bindung: Ferdinand Berger & Sohne Ges.m.b.H., 3580 Horn
Printed and bound in the EU
http://epub.oeaw.ac.at/7786-9
http://verlag.oeaw.ac.at

CONTENTS
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Preface
ix
Introduction
1
General Remarks
.
.
.
1
A Summary of the Amanasikara Cycle and the *Mahamudrakanakamala
.
7
Maitripa ' s Life Story in the 'Bri gung bKa ' brgyud chos mdzod 23
The Collection of Texts on Non-conceptual Realization (The Amanasikara Cycle)
.
41
1 . The Destruction of Wrong Views (Kudrtinirghatana) .
41
2. A Commentary on the [Initial] Statement of "The Destruction of Wrong Views" (Kudr?inirghatavakyatippinika) . 5 1
3. The Major Offences (Mulapattayal:z)
.
55
4. The Gross Offences (Sthulapattayaft)
.
.
57
5. A Jewel Garland of True Reality (Tattvaratnavali)
.
59
6. Explaining the Seals of the Five Tathagatas (PaiicatathagatamudravivaraJJa)
.
.
95
7. A Presentation of Empowerment (Sekanirdesa)
. .
1 07
8. The Succession of the Four Seals (Caturmudranvaya) . 1 1 9
9. A Summary of the Meaning of Empowerment
(Sekatatparyasarrzgraha)
.
. .
1 33
1 0. The Five Aspects [of Vajrasattva]
([ Vajrasattva-]Paiicakara)
..
. 1 47
1 1 . A Discourse on Illusion (Mayanirukti) .
. 155
1 2. A Discourse o n Dream (Svapnanirukti)
159
1 3. An Elucidation o f True Reality (Tattvaprakasa)
1 63
1 4. An Elucidation of Non-Abiding (Aprati{hanaprakaa)
1 69
1 5. An Elucidation of [the Term] "Indivisible union"
(Yuganaddhaprakaa)
.
.
..
1 75
1 6. The Manifestation of Great Bliss (Mahasukhaprakaa) .
181
1 7. The Twenty Verses on True Reality (Tattvavirrzsika)
1 87
1 8. The Twenty Verses on Mahayana (Mahayanavirrzsika)
1 93
1 9. The Five Verses on Penetrating Insight (Nirvedhapaiicaka) 1 99
20. The Six Verses on the Middle [Path] (Madhyamaatka)
203
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2 1 . The Five [Verses on Transcendent] Love (Premapaiicaka) 207


22. The Ten Verses on True Reality (Tattvadaaka) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 1
23 . A Justification of Non-conceptual Realization
(Amanasikaradhara) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 1
24. The Six Verses on the Co-emergent (Sahajaatka) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
25 . A Pith Instruction on Reality Called A Treasure of Do has
( *Dohanidhinamatattvopadeia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
26. A Pith Instruction on Settling the Mind Without Becoming
Engaged in the Thought Processes of Projecting and
Gathering-A Genuine Secret (Shes pa spro bsdu med
par 'jog pa 'i man ngag gsang ba dam pa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
27 . A Golden Garland of Mahamudra
(*Mahamudrakanakamala) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 5
Edition of the S anskrit and Tibetan Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 9
General Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 9
.
. .
. . . . 323
1 . Kudrtinirghatana .
.
.
.
.
.
333
2. Kudrtinirghatavakyatippinika
.. .
. .
. . . . . . . 3 37
3 . Mulapattayafl . . . . .
.
.
. . . 339
4. Sthalapattayafl .
..
. . .
. .. ...
. . 34 1
5. Tattvaratnavalf
.
. ....
. . 37 1
6 . Paiicatathagatamudravivarm:ta . .
. .
.
.
.
.
. . . . . . 385
7 . Sekanirdesa . . .
. . . .
.
. . 389
8 . Caturmudranvaya
.
. . .
.. .
9 . SekatatparyasaY(lgraha .
. . 403
.. . . . . .... . . .415
1 0 . [Vajrasattva-}Paiicakara .
. . . ..
.
.. . .
. . . . 427
1 1 . Mayanirukti . . . . .
.
. . . . .
. . . 433
1 2 . Svapnanirukti . . . . .
.
.
.
. . . . . . . . . 437
1 3 . Tattvaprakasa .
.
. .
. . . . . . . 443
14. Apratithanaprakasa . .
. .
.
.. .
. 447
1 5 . Yuganaddhaprakasa . . . . .
.
.
. . . . . . . . . 45 1
1 6 . Mahasukhaprakasa
. . . . . . . . 457
1 7 . TattvaviY(lsika . .
.
.
.
. . .
1 8 . MahayanaviY(lsika
465
. .
.
. . .
.
. . 473
1 9. Nirvedhapaiicaka
.
.
. .
. .
. . . 477
20. Madhyamaatka
.
.
..
48 1
2 1 . Premapaiicaka
.
.
22. Tattvadasaka
485
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
23 . Amanasikaradhara
.
. .489
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24. Sahajaarka
25. *Dohiinidhiniimatattvopadea
26. Shes pa spro bsdu med par 'jog pa 'i man ngag gsang ba

.......................................... ............... .................


..............................................

dam pa

..................................................................................

27. *Mahiimudriikanakamiilii
Bibliography
Primary S ources (Indian)
Primary S ources (Tibetan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References .. .................................................................................
Index

....................... . .............................

..... ........................................................ ........................


........ ................................. . . .................

................. ........................................................... . ....................

499
503
507
511
543
543
549
55 1
559

ABBREVIATIONS

B
D

fn
Ibid.
om.
Op. cit.
p
Skt.
Tib.
vol.

dPal spungs edition of the Phyag chen rgya gzhung


Derge bsTan ' gyur
footnote
ibidem
omittit/omittant
Opus citatum
Peking bsTan ' gyur
S anskrit
Tibetan
volume

For abbreviations of Sanskrit sutras , tantras and sastras see biblio


graphy.
For abbreviations used in the edition see page 322.

PREFACE

S agaramati, all phenomena are marked by the seal (mudra) of


liberation;
They do not exist as duality but are pure.

Sagaramatipariprcchasutra
Son of a noble family, all phenomena
Are marked by the seal of emptiness.

Maitreyaprasthanasutra
Given that it impresses its seal on the three [other] seals, it is
both great and a seal.
Ramapala, Sekanirdetapaiijika

Perhaps there is no better simile for the emptiness of all phenomena


than a ' seal of emptines s ' that is so great in scope that it leaves its mark
on each and everything in the universe. Taken in this way, explains
Karma bKra shis chos 'phel, a disciple of Kong sprul Blo gros mtha'
yas ( 1 8 1 3- 1 899) , the great seal is indeed found in the sutras, namely as
the seal of liberation or the seal of emptines s. This of course represents
one of many attempts to read into earlier exoteric Buddhist scriptures
an idea that had since taken on a life of its own in Buddhist tantric and
siddha discourses, namely, the possibility of a direct liberating access to
luminous emptiness even without formal tantric practice. Thus, with the
help of a qualified master, mahamudra' s all-pervading presence can
shine through anything at any moment. Kong sprul calls it essence
mahamudra, it being a direct, unmediated path, independent of the sil
tras and tantras. It can be combined with the latter two, the result being

x
what is called mantra-mahamudra and sutra-mahamudra. In the eyes of
bKra shis chos 'phel, Ramapala (one of the four heart disciples of Mai
trlpa) precisely intends this by stating that mahamudra impresses its
seal on the three seals of tantric practice on the completion stage (i.e. ,
karmamudra, dharmamudra, and samayamudra) . A combination with
the sutras can be discerned in Maitrlpa' s (986- 1 063) Sekanirdesa: ma
hamudra is related there to the Madhyamaka-view of non-abiding and,
according to Ramapala, to the practice of amanasikara, mainly as de
scribed in context of the AvikalpapraveadhiiraJ:tf (i.e., the abandonment
of hindering characteristic signs) . In his Amanasikaradhara, Maitrlpa
analyzes amanasikara also as "mental engagement (manasikara) for
which the letter a [in front of it] is the main [focus] . " When it is under
stood thus-that one directs one ' s attention (manasikara) to the letter a
as the main [focus]-"a" can no longer be the simple privative, but
must stand for a more profound negation, such as the one implied by
emptiness or non-origination (anutpada). In his conclusion of the Ama
nasikaradhara, Maitrlpa even equates the privative a, and thus non
arising and emptiness , with ' luminosity ' ; and manasikara with the tan
tric concept of ' self-empowerment ' . In final analysis, amanasikara not
only means to withdraw one ' s attention from the characteristic signs of
conceptually created duality, but the privative a also stands for 'non
arising ' and ' luminosity' ; and manasikara for ' self-empowerment
[within this luminosity] ' .
This blend of mahamudra and Madhyamaka can be already discerned in
(the tantric) Nagarjuna' s Caturmudranvaya, where two quotations from
the JfianalokalaJ?Ikiira on amanasikara and non-abiding are probably
inserted into the definition of mahamudra. This connection with Ma
dhyamaka elements is subsequently fully exploited in Maitrlpa ' s Seka
nirdesa, which is directly based on the Caturmudranvaya. Thus the
eight verses of the mahamudra section in the Sekanirdea are pure Ma
dhyamaka, namely the strand of it which was labelled Apratithana
("non-abiding") .
This raises the question whether such a Madhyamaka view and ama
nasikara practice presuppose a full-fledged empowerment or not. ' Gos
Lo tsa ba gZhon nu dpal ( 1 392- 1 48 1 ) , for example, points out with ref
erence to Jfianakirti ' s Tattvavatara that a diligent practitioner of a
matha and vipasyana can experience mahamudra in Paramitanaya al-

Xl

ready at the level of an ordinary being, and that Maitripa' s Tattvadaa


ka is best characterized as a teaching that is ( 1 ) Paramitanaya in es
sence, (2) in accordance with Mantranaya, and (3) called mahamudra.
It was mainly with the aim of investigating possible Indian precedents
of sutra-, or rather, paramita- based mahamudra that I first undertook,
in 2005 , the task of analyzing the works of Maitripa and his disciples in
the context of a DFG project at the University of Hamburg. My re
search resulted in some preliminary observations (see Mathes 20 1 1 &
20 1 3 ) and the translations of three key texts : the Tattvadaaka (Mathes
2006) , the Caturmudranvaya (Mathes 2009) and the Amanasikaradhara
(Mathes 20 1 0) . As the significance of Maitripa ' s works became increas
ingly apparent, I eventually decided to translate the *Advayavajra
saYJ1graha in its entirety, including in it revised translations of these
three texts. The result is the present monograph which makes available
for the first time in a Western language the complete cycle of Mai
tripa ' s amanasikara texts together with an edition of the Tibetan in the
light of a new edition of the S anskrit. There are two exceptions. One is
the Kudr${inirghatana of which I translated only the introduction, since
Glenn Wallis had already published a good and reliable English transla
tion. The second is the Sekanirdea. In view of the forthcoming mono
graph on this text by Harunaga Isaacson and Francesco Sferra, I have
translated only the verses which are relevant for my study (SN 26-36) .
It is my pleasure to acknowledge my profound debt to Thrangu
Rinpoche, Khenpo Losal (Namo Buddha) , and HH Chetsang Rinpoche,
who assisted me continuously and in many ways during my translation
work and research. Khenpo Phuntsok from the Lekshay Ling Institute
in Kathmandu helped me most competently in translating passages from
Maitripa ' s *Caturmudropadea and *Karopa's commentary on the Ca
turmudriinvaya. I also owe a debt of gratitude to Prof. Dr. Harunaga
Isaacson (Hamburg) for having opened the door to the philological
analysis of Indian mahiimudrii texts. I still fondly recall the long meet
ings in Hamburg during which Harunaga helped me to edit and analyze
difficult passages , especially in some parts of the Amanasikiiriidhiira. It
was also an " auspicious coincidence" (rten 'brel bzang po) that after
having returned from Dehra Dun to Hamburg where I had been translat
ing the Tibetan version of Ramapala ' s Sekanirdesapaiijikii under the
guidance of Chetsang Rinpoche, I could improve relevant parts of my

XU

translation with the help of Harunaga and Prof. Dr. Francesco Sferra,
who were teaching in class the original Sanskrit of the Sekanirdesa
panjika. Since Harunaga and Francesco are about to publish a critical
edition and translation of this commentary, I quote it only when abso
lutely necessary.
Many thanks also to the Pandits of the Nepal Research Centre in Kath
mandu, most of all Prof. Dr. Diwakar Acharya (now Univ . of Kyoto)
and Niraj an Kafle, who both helped me in various ways , especially in
deciphering difficult akaras and improving the Sanskrit texts repro
duced in the edition. I also express my gratitude to Philip Pierce (Kath
mandu) and Dr. David Higgins (Univ. of Vienna) for carefully reading
through the manuscript and improving the English. Thanks are also due
to Gabriele Coura for reformatting the entire manuscript. Finally I
would like to thank the German Research Council (Deutsche For
schungsgemeinschaft) for enabling me to conduct the present transla
tion and study in the first place by supporting me for four years in
Hamburg with a research project.

Vienna, May 20 1 5

Postscript: After my book was completed, Harunaga Isaacson ' s and


Francesco Sferra' s publication (The Sekanirdesa of Maitreyanatha
(Advayavajra) with the Sekanirdeapafijika of Ramapala. Critical Edi

tion of the Sanskrit and Tibetan Texts with English Translation and Re
productions of the MSS (Manuscripta Buddhica 2). Naples: Universita
degli Studi Napoli "L ' Orientale"), appeared. Since Francesco Sferra
had already kindly provided me with their Sanskrit edition of the Seka
nirdeapanjika in January 20 1 5 , I was able to quote it in my analysis of
the Sekanirdea.

INTRODUCTION

General Remarks

The collection of twenty-six 1 texts on non-conceptual realization (in the


following referred to as the amanasikara cycle) is the result of blending
the essence and tantric mahamudra teachings of S araha, Nagarjuna and
S avaripa with a particular form of Madhyamaka philosophy, called
'non-abiding ' (aprati[hana) , which aims at radically transcending any
conceptual assessment of true reality. This goal is achieved by "with
drawing one ' s attention" (amanasikara) from anything that involves the
duality of a perceived and perceiver. The result is a "luminous self
empowerment,'' Maitripa' s (986- 1 063) 2 final tantric analysis of ama
nasikara. In an attempt to reflect these two meanings, I translate ama
nasikara as "non-conceptual realization," but leave the term untranslat
ed when it is not certain, whether this double meaning is clearly intend
ed. Maitripa composed the amanasikara cycle after returning from
S avaripa to a monastic milieu of late Indian Mahayana Buddhism. He
thus considerably contributed to the integration of the new teachings
and practices of the Mahasiddhas into mainstream Buddhism. 3 These
texts of Maitripa are, together with Naropa ' s (956- 1 040) 4 teachings , the
main doctrinal source of the bKa ' brgyud lineages .

The exact number varies depending on whether the Caturmudriinvaya and other texts
(see below) are included or not.
2 Roerich ( 1 949-5 3 : 842) settled on 1007/10-1084/1087, while Tatz ( 1 994: 65) suggested
ca. 1 007 ca. 1085. Roberts (2014:4 & 2 1 2 (fn. 8)) rightly points out, however, that the
Blue Annals do not specify the year elements, and that the life stories of Maitripa ' s
disciples require their master already had t o have passed away before Vajrapai:ii reached
Nepal in 1 066.
3 Mathes 2006:208-09.
4 Roberts 20 14:4.
-

INTRODUCTION

The collection of Maitripa texts edited and translated here is one of the
three famous cycles of mahamudra works , the other two cycles being
the "Seven Sections on Accomplishment" (Grub pa sde bdun) and the
"Six Works on Essential [Meaning]" (sNying po skor drug). This Tibet
an classification already existed at the time of Bu ston Rin chen grub
( 1 290- 1 364) and constitutes, together with the Anavilatantra (D 404, P
58) and the commentary on it by Kumaracandra (D 1 204, P 2334), the
first volume of Karmapa VII Chos grags rgya mtsho ' s ( 1 454- 1 506)
"Indian Mahamudra Works" (phyag chen rgya gzhung). The Anavila
tantra associates mahamudra with the non-conceptual realization of
one ' s true nature of mind, 5 wherefore Mar pa Lo tsa ba Chos kyi blo
h
gros ( 1 1 t cent.) also refers to it. 6
The seven sections on accomplishment represent an extract of the es
sence of all Highest Yoga Tantras. 7 All seven works are contained in
the rgyud 'grel section of the bsTan ' gyur. 8 The 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud
chos mdzod, 9 in which the first four of the seven sections on accom5 See Jackson 2009.
6 In the Mar pa'i bka' ' bum (vol. ka, 225a ) the Anavilatantra is described as follows :
5
"What has never been established [as anything] is the natural mind. Not to think of
anything is mahamudra. Abide within this natural state which is not touched by any
phenomenon." Cl gdod nas ma grub gnyug ma 'i sems 11 cir yang mi rtog phyag rgya che I
I chos rnams kun gyis ma reg pa 11 ma bcos de nyid dad la zhog I)
7 Karma bKra shis chos 'phel: "rGya gzhung dkar chag" 2 l b 6 : rnal 'byor bla na med
pa 'i rgyud sde thams cad kyi don gyi snying po phyung ba grub pa sde bdun ni I
8 The Grub pa sde bdun in the Phyag chen rgya gzhung are: (1) the Gsang ha grub pa
(D 22 17, P 3061 ) ; (2) the Thabs dang shes rah rnam par gtan la dbab pa grub pa (D
22 1 8 , P 3062); (3) the Ye shes grub pa (D 22 19, P 3063); (4) the gNyis med grub pa (D
2220, P 3064); (5) the dPal u rgyan nas byung ha gsang ha de kho na nyid kyi man ngag
(D 222 1 , P 3065) ; (6) the dNgos po gsal ba 'i rjes su 'gro ba 'i de kho na nyid grub pa (D
2222, P 3066); and (7) the dPal lhan cig skyes pa grub pa (D 2223 , P 3067). See "rGya
gzhung dkar chag", 2lb 6 -22b 1 . The same titles are listed in a slightly different order in
the "Bu ston gsan yig" ( 1 1 5 4_7 ) .
9 During m y stay at the Srong btsan Library (Dehra Dun) in March 2006 I received
copies of first two volumes of the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad. There is no useful
information in the colophons of these two volumes, but according to the present
Chetsang Rinpoche, they were compiled under the direction of the 1 7'h 'Bri gung abbot
Kun dga' rin chen (1475- 1 527), and this is corroborated by the 'Bri gung gdan rahs
written by the Fourth Chetsang Rinpoche bsTan ' dzin padma'i rgyal mtshan (17221 778) . See the 'Bri gung gdan rahs 1 8 3 .

GENERAL REMARKS

plishment are identical with the ones in Chos grags rgya mtsho ' s collec
tion of Indian mahamudra works, contains the extra information that
this cycle of seven sections consists of mahamudra works by masters
from U<,i<,liyana.1 0
The six works on essential meaning are Saraha' s Dohakoagfti (D 2224,
p 3068) , Nagarjuna's11 Caturmudranvaya (D 2225 , P 3 069) , Aryadeva' s
*Cittavarw:zaviodhana (D 1 804, P 2669) , *Divakaracandra's12 *Prajiia
jiianaprakaa (D 2226, P 3070) , *Sahajavajra ' s *Sthitisamasa (D 2227 ,
P 307 1 ) and Kotali' s *Acintyakramopadea (D 2228, P 3072). Bu ston

lists the same texts in a slightly different order, 13 and the 'Bri gung bka '
brgyud chos mdzod includes Maitripa' s Sekanirdea (D 2252, P 3097)
instead of the *Prajiiajiianaprakaa. 1 4 All six works of this cycle are
also contained in the rgyud 'grel section of the bsTan ' gyur. To explain
briefly their different points of view, it was in his dohas that Saraha
launched what was later called mahamudra, describing unconventional
techniques (he was critical not only of traditional forms of Buddhism,
but also of the tantras) for experiencing the co-emergent nature of
mind. 15 The *Prajiiajiianaprakasa presents mahamudra in the context of
the four seals. While *Divakaracandra (one of the four heart disciples of
Maitripa)16 argues in his "Elucidation of Prajiia Wisdom" that maha
mudra must be preceded by a kind of preliminary wisdom attained with
the help of a tantric consort (i.e., a prajiia), Maitripa' s disciple *Sahaj a
vajra suggests in his *Tattvadasakatfka the possibility of an alternative
approach, 17 claiming that there is a mahamudra practice independent of

1 0 See Mathes 20 1 1 :92-94.


1 1 The attribution of the Caturmudrtinvaya to Nagarjuna was already controversial in the
1 1th century. Thus we find this text included in the collection of Maitripa's works, the
Advayavajrasaf!!g raha.
12 According to the Peking bsTan ' gyur (rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fol. 99a ) and the "Bu ston
4
gsan yig" ( 1 1 6 1 ). In the Blue Annals (Roerich 1 949 - 1953) we find "Devakaracandra",
and in the rGya gzhung dkar chag (fol. 22bb 2 ) "Deva-akarendra. "
1 3 "Bu ston gsan yig", 1 15 - 1 1 6 .
1
7
1 4 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos
mdzod, vol. ka, 4a3 _5 .
1 5 See Mathes 2006: 207-08.
1 6 Roerich 1949- 1953 : 842-43.
1 7 See my "Analysis of *Sahajavajra's *Tattvadaaka[lka" below.

INTRODUCTION

the sequence of the four seals.18 The works by the Mahasiddhas Arya
deva and Kotali do not support such a Paramitanaya-based mahtimudrii,
and in the last work, by *Sahajavajra, true reality is either approached
through Madhyamaka analysis or experienced directly according to the
tradition of Mantranaya.19
The amanasikara cycle is presented here in the same order as in Hara
prasad Shastri ' s *Advayavajrasarrigraha. 20 In addition, I include the Do
ha ti zhes hya ha de kho na nyid kyi man ngag (*Dohiinidhinamatattvo
padesa) and the Shes pa spro hsdu med par 'jog pa 'i man ngag gsang ha
dam pa, both of which are part of Chos grags rgya mtsho ' s amanasi
kiira cycle. In Chos grags rgya mtsho ' s collection of lndian mahamudrii
works, the Caturmudriinvaya forms part not of the amanasikara cycle
but of the cycle of the six works on essential meaning. Even though its
authorship remains controversial, I include it here on the basis of the
Indian manuscripts.21 It may not be by Maitripa, but its combination of
tantric mahiimudrii with the amanasikiira practice of the sutras provides
the amanasikiira cycle with a perfect doctrinal basis. My edition and
translation of the amanasikiira cycle is followed by Maitripa' s *Mahii
mudriikanakamiilii, which was translated by Mar pa Lo tsa ba Chos kyi
blo gros, who studied under Maitripa. The Phyag rgya chen po gser
phreng picks up on the themes of the amanasikiira cycle and shows that
all aspects of Maitripa' s mahiimudrii were indeed passed on to early
bKa' brgyud masters. Chos grags rgya mtsho included the *Mahiimu
driikanakamiila in his "Collection of Indian Mahiimudrii Works," but
outside of the three cycles. In the following chart, my list of amanasi
kiira texts is compared with the ones found in Bu ston' s gsan yig and
Chos grags rgya mtsho ' s "Collection of Indian Mahiimudrii Works" (the
1 8 Which means that mahamudrti can be practiced without the generation and comple
tion stages.
1 9 Mathes 2006:222-23 and Mathes 20 1 1 :94-95.
2 0 This title is not found in any of the available manuscripts and is probably an invention
of Shastri.
21 Even though contained in the *AdvayavajrasaY(tgraha, an author is not mentioned in
the colophon. Maitripa's disciple Ramapala attributes Caturmudrtinvaya to the (tantric)
Nagarjuna (Mathes 2009 :90-9 1 ) . This is corroborated by the colophon to it in the Tibe
tan translation and the "Bu ston gsan yig" ( 1 1 6 1 ).

GENERAL REMARKS

numbers in columns two and three stand for the position of a text in
respectively the list and collection) :

Texts edited and translated


1 . Kudr$tinirghatana
2. Kudr$tinirghatavakyatippinika
3. Mulapattayaf:i
4. Sthulapattayaf:i
5. Tattvaratniivall
6. Paiicatathiigatamudriivivarm;,a
7 . Sekanirdea
8. Caturmudriinvaya
9. Sekatiitparyasarrigraha
10. [Vajrasattva-]Paiiciikiira
1 1 . Mayanirukti
12. Svapnanirukti
1 3 . Tattvaprakasa
14. Aprati$?hiinaprakasa
1 5 . Yuganaddhaprakasa
16. Mahiisukhaprakiisa
17. Tattvavirrisika
1 8 . Mahayanavirrisika
1 9 . Nirvedhapaiicaka
20. Madhyama$atka
21 . Premapaiicaka
22. Tattvadaaka
23 . Amanasikiiriidhiira
24. Saha}a$atka
25. *Dohiinidhiniimatattvopadesa
26. Shes pa spro bsdu med par 'jog
pa 'i man ngag gsang ba dam pa

Bu ston' s gsan
yzg

Phyag chen
rgya gzhung

2
23
(by Vajrapal).i)

1
2

3
17
22

15
17
23

20
19
7
6
14
8
10
13
16
15
12
4
11
9
1
5

18
20
11
12
16
6
3
14
22
21
10
8
5
13
9
7
4
24

It should be noted that the compilers of the bsTan ' gyur did not recog
nize that the Thabs dang shes rah rtse ba lnga pa (D 2246, P 309 1 ) and
the dGa ' gcugs lnga pa (D 2237, P 3082) are simply two different Ti-

INTRODUCTION

betan translations of the same text, the Premapaiicaka. Moreover, the


!Ta ba ngan sel gyi 'dran pa is in fact the same text as the !Ta ba ngan
sel gyi bka ' 'grel, i.e. , the Kudrtinirghtitavtikyafippinikti. According to
Bu ston, it was written by Maitripa' s disciple Vajrapal_l.i ( 1 0 1 7-). 22

22 Roerich 1949-52:843 .

A Summary of the Amanasikiira Texts and the


*Mahiimudriikanakamiilii

1. The Destruction of Wrong Views (Kudrtinirghiitana)

The Kudrtinirghatana situates Maitripa' s blend of mahiimudrii and


Madhyamaka within the more general Mahayana context of the six per
fections (piiramitii) . It then elaborates in detail on the daily routine of a
good adept, such as taking refuge, observing the vows of not killing and
so forth, avoiding the ten unwholesome deeds, washing one ' s face with
clean water, recalling the three jewels, mantra recitations and medita
tion. The meditation includes the visualization, worship, and praise of a
mm:u/ala of the five Buddha families with Akobhya in the center. With
these many details, Maitripa shows the necessity of conventional
Dharma practice. The quintessence of the Kudrtinirghiitana is that
even though the first five perfections of generosity, discipline, patience,
diligence, and meditation (i.e., "initial activity") are performed auto
matically by those who are realized, they need to be intentionally per
formed by those who are still learning. In other words, if initial activity
does not unfold without effort, one is obviously still in need of learning
on the path of accumulating merit and wisdom. The sixth perfection,
i.e. , the perfection of insight (prajiiiipiiramitii), is inseparably linked
with first five perfections. This union results in an advanced practice of
initial activity, such as being generous (diina) by even offering one ' s
body. This i s how Maitripa defines the tantric concept o f "mad con
duct" (unmattavrata)-that is, conduct in which the adept appears to be
mad in order to test his own freedom from worldly concerns .
2. The Commentary on the [Initial] Statement of "The Destruction of
Wrong Views" (Kudrtinirghiitaviikyatippinikii)

The relatively short commentary on the Kudrtinirghiitana adds only a


few points of clarification. For example, it subdivides the state of no
more learning into the state of fruition and the state of working for oth-

INTRODUCTION

ers . Furthermore it elaborates on three aspects of initial activity, i.e.,


proper intention, the practice of conviction, and having gained power
over the following five concerns : defilements, appearances, karman,
means, and causing sentient beings to ripen. The practice of conviction
is here explained in terms of ten perfections generosity, discipline, pa
tience, diligence, meditation, insight, skill in means, aspiration, strength
and wisdom; and the attainment of bodhisattva-levels in terms of seven
perfections generosity, discipline, patience, diligence, meditation, in
sight and skill in means.
3.+4. The Major Offences (Mulapattaya) and The Gross Offences

(Sthulapattaya)

The next two texts which list major and gross offences are missing in
the Tibetan bsTan ' gyur, but are suited to the context of formal tantric
practice, such as keeping one ' s commitments (samaya). Not doing so is
considered a gross offence. In case of having committed any of the ma
jor or gross offences, one should perform puja and keep the enlightened
attitude (in the case of major offences) or worship one ' s teacher and
confess openly (in the case of gross offences).
5. A Jewel Garland of True Reality (Tattvaratnavalf)

The Tattvaratnavalf is one of Maitr1pa' s most important texts as it sys


tematically presents the four philosophical tenets : Vaibhaika, Sautra
ntika, Y ogacara, and Madhyamaka. This is followed by the famous
verse from the *Nayatrayapradfpa, which states the reasons for the
method of Mantra (mantranaya) being superior. For further information
about this method Maitripa refers the reader to his Presentation of Em
powerment (Sekanirdesa) . This comment is interesting since it builds a
bridge between the non-tantric method of perfections and the Sekanir
desa ' s explanation of the four seals (karma-, dharma-, maha-, and sa
maya-mudra),23 skipping the six vase empowerments and implicitly any
creation stage practice. It should be noticed that in his *Sthitisamasa,
2 3 For an explanation of the four seals, see below.

A SUMMARY OF THE AMANASIKARA TEXTS

*Sahajavajra24 follows the lead of his master' s Tattvaratniivalf and pre


sents the four seals and thus completion stage practice immediately
after the four tenets .25 In his *Guruparampariikramopadea,26 Vajrapai:ii
includes between the four tenets and the four-seal-based empowerments
the six vase empowerments, though. The Tattvaratniivalf follows the
common division into three vehicles (Sravakayana, Pratyekabuddha
yana, and Mahayana) and includes tantra into Mahayana, dividing the
latter into the method of Paramita and the method of Mantra. Notewor
thy are also the inclusion of Sautrantika within the method of Paramita,
and the statement that the method of Mantra can be only practiced on
the basis of the tenets of Y ogacara and/or Madhyamaka. At the peak of
Madhyamaka and thus all tenets is Maitripa' s favored Apratithana
("non-abiding"), which, according to Ramapala' s commentary on the
Sekanirdea, must be taken as amanasikara, which means that one must
refrain from any superimposition in order to realize true reality, which
does not provide any 'basis to stand on' (apratithana).
6. Explaining the Seals of the Five Tathagatas (Paiicatathiigatamudrii
vivarm:ia)

Maitripa explains in this text that the five psycho-physical aggregates


(skandhas) are in reality the five Tathagatas which means that sentient
beings have the nature of the five Tathagatas. The first four (Vairocana,
Ratnasambhava, Amitabha and Amoghasiddhi) are sealed with Ako
bhya, in order to show that they are mind only. The Akobhya seal thus
stands for the realisation of Yogacara-emptiness, namely the absence of
the subject-object-duality from the dependently arising mind. In order
to further refine one' s realization in Maitripa's system, it is necessary to
embrace Madhyamaka-emptiness, namely that the dependently arising
mind also lacks the independent existence of an own-being (svabhiiva).
24 One of the four main disciples of Maitripa, the other three being Ramapala, Vajrapa
i:ii, and *Karopa (see Roerich 1 949-53 : 842-847). See also Sanderson 2009 :233, fn. 536.
25 See Mathes 2006: 222-23.
26 In the colophon of Vajrapillfi's commentary on the Prajfiiipiiramitahrdaya (D 3 820
P52 1 9), it is stated that this disciple of Maitripa taught a special instruction on this siltra
to the translator Seng ge rgyal mtshan in Patan, Nepal (Lopez, Jr. 1 996:2 1 5 ) . It is poss i
ble that the *Guruparampariikramopadea was composed under similar circumstances.

10

INTRODUCTION

This is then symbolized by sealing the Akobhya seal with the seal of
Vajrasattva or Vajradhara. Of great interest here is also that Ratna
gotravibhaga II.6 1 b ("And the latter two the form-kayas )27 is quoted in
the context of explaining the Y ogacara meditation of Nirakaravada and
the resultant state attained afterwards. Worth mentioning is also the
statement in the prose after PTMV 1 3 that a Madhyamaka tenet is seen
to be superior, that is established on the basis of awareness (the Tibetan
has ' self-awareness ' ) . It should be noted that Maitripa still calls such a
self-awareness-based Madhyamaka Apratithana on the grounds that
self-awareness is not ascribed any privileged ontological status, but
simply dependent origination like anything else.
"

7. A Presentation of Empowerment (Sekanirdea)

In the introduction to his Sekanirdeapaiijika, Ramapala claims that the


Sekanirdea was composed in accordance with the Caturmudranvaya of
(the tantric) Nagarjuna.28 Maitripa thus presents tantric empowerment
on the basis of the four moments, i.e. , the moments of the manifold ac
tivity of embracing, kissing and so forth, the moment of maturation,
which is the enjoyment of blissful wisdom, the moment of freedom
from defining characteristics, and the moment of relaxation.29 The four
moments correspond to the four joys (i.e. , joy, supreme joy, co
emergent joy, and the [joy of] no-joy). As for his sequence of the four
moments and joys, Maitripa explains in his Caturmudropadea that in
treatises such as the Hevajratantra the correct sequence has not been
2 7 The full verse RGV II.6 1 is as follows : "Here, the first one is the dharmakaya, and the
latter two the form-kayas. [These latter appear on the basis of the former, j ust as visible
forms appear in space. (for the Sanskrit, see the English translation of PTMV below).
28 See Mathes 2009 :9 1 .
2 9 In the Hevajratantra (HT II. 3 .7-8, HT 156 1 _ ) we find the following explanation of the
4
four moments : " [The moment of the] manifold is called variety, since it involves em
bracing, kissing and so forth. [The moment of] maturation is the reverse of the [first
moment] in that it is the enjoyment of blissful wisdom. [The moment of] relaxation is
said to be the reflecting upon [the fact] . That one has experienced bliss. [The moment
of] vilakm:ia is something other than these three being free from both passion and ab
sence of passion." (vicitraf!Z vividhaf!l khyatam aliligacumbaniidikam I vipakaf!l tadvi
paryasaf!Z sukhajfiiinasya bhufijanam II vimardam iilocanaf!Z proktaytl sukhaf!l bhuktaytl
mayeti ca I vilakm:iaf!Z tribhyo 'nyatra riigariigavivarjitam II)

A SUMMARY OF THE AMANASIKARA TEXTS

11

made explicit, in order to confuse outsiders who do not rely on a guru.30


Maitripa clearly follows, like his teacher Ratnakarasanti, a tradition
which claims that the moment of freedom from defining characteristics
and co-emergent joy are marked or recognized in the third position. As
a further source for placing co-emergent joy before the joy of no-joy
Zhwa dmar IV Chos kyi grags pa ( 1 453- 1 524) mentions the pith in
structions of Maitripa's guru S avaripa.31 The majority of scholars
Kamalanatha, Abhayakaragupta, Ravisrijfiana, Vibhilticandra, and oth
ers, put them in the fourth position, however.32 Skt. virama ("the [joy
of] no-joy") is then understood as "intensification of joy". The moment
called vilak$a-t:ta is then not taken as "freedom from defining character
istics", but "other."
In Sekanirdesa, verse 3 8 , the four moments (and thus the four joys) are

also linked with the four mudras, the moment of enjoying manifold
appearances being related to the karmamudra, the moment of matura
tion to the dharmamudra, the moment of freedom from defining charac
teristics to mahamudra, and the moment of relaxation to the sama
yamudra. The four joys are first enjoyed physically with a karmamudra
(a technical term standing for a consort). This proceeds to the phase of
dharmamudra wherein the practitioner again realizes the four joys, but
this time on the basis of teachings such that the sights and sounds of the
manifold world are one ' s own mind. This leads to the realization of
mahamudra. The four joys of the samayamudra are experienced when
the yogin manifests as a Heruka in union with his consort for the sake
of benefiting others.
The Sekanirdea plays a central role among the amanasikara texts, for
mahamudrii is not only presented in the tantric context of the four seals,
but is also equated with the Madhyamaka view of non-abiding (aprati
$?hiina) . With reference to two quotations from Jfianalokalarrikara Ra3 CMU (B l lb 1 2 , D 2 1 3a6. , P 232b 6. ): de ni bla ma la ltos pa dang bral bab glegs bam
7
7
gyis mkhas par (cbyed pa ;cl gang zag gid chede du dkrugs nas bshad de I
" P bltos b P om. c D om. ct D gis e DP phyed
3 1 Zhwa dmar Chos kyi grags pa: "mKhas grub na ro mai tri dbang gi bzhed pa mthun
pa grub pa," 82620.21 : than skyes gsum par mdzad pa 'i khungs gzhan ni ri khrod zhabs
sha wa ri 'i man ngag las rnyed tshul go sla 'o I
32 See Kvaerne 1986:34-35.

12

INTRODUCTION

mapala equates in his Sekanirdeapaiijika on verse 29 non-abiding with


amanasikara and reassures us that this can be practiced because thanks
to the kindness of one ' s guru mahamudra can be directly made mani
fest. That amanasikara also includes meditation practice on the path can
be gathered from the first quotation from the Jiianalokalaf!Zkara that
amanasikara is virtuous, and from Ramapala' s commentary on SN 36,
where mahamudra is said to be found through the abandonment of
characteristic signs. In his commentary on verse 36, Ramapala nearly
quotes literally from the part of A vikalpapraveadharm:if in which char
acteristic signs are described as being abandoned in the act of "not di
recting one ' s attention [to them] " (amanasikara). All eight verses on
mahamudra in the Sekanirdea (SN 29-36) teach Apratithana-Madhya
maka, three of them being identical with Apratithana verses in the Ta
ttvaratnavalf. From the Amanasikaradhara we know that Maitripa does
not understand amanasikara only in the sense of 'becoming mentally
disengaged' , but also understands the term in the sense of ' luminous
self-empowerment'-terminology that suggests a tantric framework
(see below). In other words, in mahamudra the term amanasikara also
stands for a direct realization of luminosity or emptiness wherefore I
translate it in this context as 'non-conceptual realization' . To what ex
tent amanasikara practice can do without initial manasikara (i.e., inves
tigation) and also without the four seals, remains a controversial issue.
But in his Tattvavif!Zsika Maitripa claims that within Mantranaya ad
vanced practitioners have a direct access to mahamudra, and *Sahaja
vajra describes in his *Tattvadaa{fka a mahamudra practice, which
operates without the usual creation and completion stage practice (see
below).
8. The Succession of the Four Seals ( Caturmudranvaya)

The Caturmudranvaya served as a basis for the Sekanirdea, and thus


represents the most important source for Maitripa ' s blend of maha
mudra and Madhyamaka. In the sequence of the four seals it is ex
plained how something artificially created, such as the physical experi
ence of the four joys (i.e., the wisdom arisen from a karmamudra), can
initiate a process that leads to Buddhahood (mahamudra). The wisdom
which arises from a karmamudra or prajiia (i.e., the prajiia wisdom) is
only an imitation of the real wisdom, the prajiia wisdom of the third

A SUMMARY OF THE AMANASIKARA TEXTS

13

empowerment only being an exemplifying wisdom. Only in combina


tion with the teaching of the dharmamudrii does it become a cause for
mahamudrii. *Divakaracandra, a disciple of Maitripa, warns us in his
*Prajnajiianaprakasa that the related practice of karmamudrii must go
together with mahiimudrii. On the other hand *Divakaracandra insists
that without sexual union one does not realize true reality in its manifes
tation of bliss.33
In his introduction to the Sekanirdeapaiijikii, Ramapala attributes the

Caturmudriinvaya to (the tantric) Nagarjuna,34 which is corroborated by


the colophon to it in the Tibetan translation and the Bu ston gsan yig. 35
h
h
This attribution is contested, however, by Vibhuticandra ( 1 21 /l 3 t cen
tury) in his Amrtakm:iikoddyotanibandha. Whether taught by the tantric
Nagarjuna or not, the Caturmudriinvaya is of crucial importance to
Maitr1pa's amanasikara cycle, inasmuch as it combines the tantric ma
hiimudrii system of the four seals with the non-tantric teachings of the
Jniiniilokiilaf(lkiira and the Abhisamayiilaf(lkiira (or Ratnagotravibhii
ga ), and thus with the Maitreya works. On the basis of grammatical
considerations I suggest that the Jniiniilokiilaf(lkiira quotes in the defini
tion of mahiimudrii are insertions. Whether interpolations or not, the
quotes served to link mahiimudrii with the view of non-abiding and the
practice of amanasikara. As we have seen above, this blend of Sutras
and Tantras is elaborated in the Sekanirdea and the commentary on it
by Ramapala.
9. A Summary of the Meaning of Empowerment (Sekatiitparyasaf(lgra
ha)

The Sekatiitparyasaf(lgraha offers a complete explanation of the entire


procedure of tantric initiation that starts in a traditional way with the six
vase empowerments. The presentation of the six, in particular, contains
some unexpected and most valuable iconographic descriptions of the
vajra and bell. For example, the vajra is pictured as having five spokes
33 See Mathes 20 1 1 : 1 1 1- 12.
34 See Mathes 2009 : 9 1.
35 "Bu ston gsan yig" 1 1 6 1 : klu sgrub (text: grub) kyis mdzad pa 'i phyag rgya bzhi pa.

14

INTRODUCTION

emerging from the calyxes of lotuses which symbolize the five Tathaga
tas.
1 0. The Five Aspects [of Vajrasattva] ([Vajrasattva-]Panciikiira)

The Pancakara describes the maJJala of the five Tathagatas, with


Akobhya in the middle, Vairocana in the East, Ratnasambhava in the
South, Amitabha in the West, and Amoghasiddhi in the North. On
Akobhya' s crown is Vajrasattva, who symbolizes the sealing of every
thing (i.e., the five skandhas and thus the five Tathagatas) with his seal
of Madhyamaka emptiness. Interestingly, the five Tathagatas are not
only related to the five skandhas, but, expanded to a group of six (in
cluding Vajrasattva), are also correlated with the six seasons, six types
of taste, and groups of Sanskrit letters. In the intermediate directions are
the female Buddhas Locana (south-east) , MamakI (south-west) , Panda
ravasinI (north-west) and Tara (north-east) . The mistress of these four is
VajradhatvISvarI in the middle.
1 1 . A Discourse on Illusion (Miiyiinirukti)

In this text on tenets, Maitripa does not, like in similar texts of this kind,
explain the role illusion plays in each of the philosophical systems .
What the simile o f illusion refers to i s that the world lacks any own
being. The underlying view thus is Madhyamaka, probably its variety of
Mayopamadvaya ("non-duality in the sense [of everything being] like
an illusion") .
1 2. A Discourse on Dream (Svapnanirukti)

Maitripa discusses here the role the dream example plays in six differ
ent philosophial positions. Two of them (Vaibhaika and Sautrantika)

A SUMMARY OF THE AMANASIKARA TEXTS

15

have to be abandoned,36 and among the remaining four (i.e., the two
Yogacara and two Madhyamaka tenets), Apratithana-Madhyamaka is
consi dered to be supreme.
1 3 . An Elucidation of True Reality (Tattvaprakiisa)

True reality is here presented in terms of the Buddha' s threefold kiiya,


from which cyclic existence and nirviif!,a arise. Even though the three
kiiyas are thus taken as a primordial ground, they are explained along
the lines of Madhyamaka as non-arising, but at the same time de
pendently originated. In other words, we have to understand the three
kiiyas which underlie everything as a dynamic system of interrelated
ness which occurs without any ontological foundation or building
blocks, that exist in terms of an "own-being" (svabhiiva) or "other
being" (parabhiiva), as explained in chapter fifteen of the Mulamadhya
makakiirikiis.37 Phenomena are empty of an own-being and hence only
arise interdependently with other phenomena. When Maitripa insists
that as a Madhyamika one has to negate arising in order to stand out
from Vijfianavada, he thus means to negate arising in terms of an own
being.
14. An Elucidation of Non-Abiding (Aprati?hiina)

Maitripa chose the term apratithiina as a label for his strongly anti
foundationalist Madhyamaka, in which the true reality of all phenomena
not only "lacks any foundation,"38 but also, for this reason, cannot be
grasped conceptually. However well-refined one ' s model of reality may
be, the model inevitably distorts true reality by introducing wrong su
perimpositions or denials. In APP 8 "non-abiding" (aprati?hiina) is
3 6 This I conclude from Maitripa's statement in the Tattvaratniivalf that tantra can only
be practiced on the basis of Yogacara and Madhyamaka, and thus not Vaibhaika and
Sautrantika (see above).
37 MMK XV.3ab (Ye Shao Yong 20 1 1 : 236): "Where, in the absence of an own-being,
will there be an other-being?" kutal:z svabhiivasyiibhiive parabhiivo bhaviyati
3 8 I.e., taking prati?hiina in the sense of sthiti (APP 6b), as referring to the ' object-side ' ,
s o to say.

16

INTRODUCTION

thus directly opposed to mental fabrication. Maitrlpa informs us that the


arising of phenomena (i.e., dependent origination) even remains incon
ceivable for self-awareness which, so we are warned, should not be
reified as existent. Like in the text before, dependent origination is
again equated with the three kayas : the dharmakaya in terms of depend
ent origination' s emptiness, the sambhogakaya in terms of the fact that
dependent origination is mind, and the nirmaJJakaya in terms of de
pendent origination' s multitude.
1 5 . An Elucidation of [the Term] "Indivisible union" (Yuganaddha
prakasa)

The title of the text is a little misleading since Maitrlpa does not use
yuganaddha in its originally tantric context of 'indivisible union' of the
illusory body and luminosity (yuganaddha), which stands for the level
of the fruit. Rather, yuganaddha here stands for the more general
Madhyamaka concept of indivisible arising and non-arising, i.e. , de
pendent origination (or appearance) and emptiness. It is thus a thematic
continuation of the Apratifhanaprakasa and contains an interesting
Madhyamaka analysis of causality aimed at refuting the arising of any
phenomenon in terms of an own-being. Yuganaddha is then also ex
plained as the indivisible union of emptiness and compassion or clarity.
A yogin realizing this union is said to abide in great bliss.
16. The Manifestation of Great Bliss (Mahasukhaprakasa)

In this text, great bliss is taken as non-duality which is the true nature of
entities. Maitrlpa cautions against a 'false manifestation of bliss ' which
appears in the pure apparent truth of the yogin. It goes without saying,
that both forms of bliss are inseparable, just as the ultimate and pure
apparent truths are. It is important to note, that even though great bliss
is related to the ultimate, it is not reified as an entity, being nothing but
dependent origination. There are a few noteworthy tantric explanations,
such as taking the realization of emptiness as seed syllables from which
deities arise. The blissful mind thus assumes the form of the deity,
while one ' s consort (prajiia) is called emptiness. The union of bliss and
emptiness symbolized by this tantric couple is taken as the goal.

A SUMMARY OF THE AMANASIKARA TEXTS

17

1 7 . The Twenty Verses on True Reality (TattvaviY(lsika)

Prajiia is a polysemous term, two of its primary meanings being 'in


sight' and 'tantric consort' . In this text, prajiia is first interpreted on the
level of the four seals . Maitrlpa begins by implying-through the men
tion of the four moments-that true reality is realized from a prajiia as
consort. The four moments are also recognized on the level of dharma
mudra, so that prajiia could also be unterstood as 'insight' . Of particu
lar importance are verses TV 7 - 1 1 , which indicate that only inferior
practitioners rely on a karmamudra and the samayamudra, while a more
direct approach to mahamudra is open to those with sharp faculties .
Those o f average faculties rely o n the practice with a visualized consort
(jiianamudra) . TV 6 states, however, that the means of access to her
(i.e. , prajiia either as karmamudra or insight) are variegated in the trea
ties of Mantranaya, corresponding to persons of inferior, average and
superior [faculties] . Thus the direct mahamudra approach of the ad
vanced still falls into the category of Mantranaya.
1 8 . The Twenty Verses on Mahayana (MahayanaviY(lsika)

The seeing of the natural (nija-) kaya which is contained in the three
kayas (dharma- , sambhoga-, and nirma1:1akaya) as their true nature, is
here taken as the appropriate practice for the attainment of enlighten
ment, provided that it is performed without superimposing anything.
Maitrlpa then announces that this will be explained 'in accordance with
the Mantranaya' , a phrase also used by *Sahajavajra to characterize the
Paramitanaya-pith-instructions of the Tattvadaaka (see below). Since
nothing specifically tantric can be found in the whole of the remaining
text of the MahayanaviY(lsika, it could be argued, as already pointed out
in some of my earlier publications, that 'in accordance with the Man
tranaya' precisely refers to this non-conceptual or direct39 vision of the
nijakaya, a special vipasyana practice which enables direct realization
of the fruit of the path. In other words, we have here a path of fruition
in the same sense that Mantranaya is regarded as path of fruition as
39 These attributes follow from the fact that one ' s vision is supposed to be without s u
perimposition.

18

INTRODUCTION

distinct from a causal Paramitanaya. Yet, as ' Gos Lo tsa ba gZhon nu


dpal claims in his Blue Annals, Jfianakirti considers such a direct
mahiimudrii access possible from within Paramitanaya.40 Moreover,
*Sahajavajra in his *Tattvadaakatfkii claims that reality is directly ex
perienced as luminosity on the basis of a vipayanii practice performed
with direct perceptions right from the beginning. In support of this
claim, *Sahajavajra quotes Maitripa' s Mahiiyiinavif(lsikii, verse 1 2 .
1 9 . The Five Verses on Penetrating Insight (Nirvedhapaiicaka)

An unmediated vision of true reality without superimposition is the


focal point of the five verses on penetrating insight. In the first verse
this insight is identified with the realization of the Buddha within. Ac
cording to the commentary in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod,
Maitripa here teaches buddha nature. It should be noted, however, that
he does not make use of the terminology found in the Ratnagotra
vibhiiga. It is also noteworthy that even though wisdom is positively
described as having the nature of effortless compassion, it nonetheless
arises in dependence for Maitripa like everything else. This is similar to
the awareness, or self-awareness in the Tibetan translation, which ac
cording to the Paiicatathiigatamudriivivarm:ia is only dependent origina
tion, a recognition which marks the superiority of the Madhyamaka
view.
20. The Six Verses on the Middle [Path] (Madhyamaatka)

The two Yogacara tenets are summarized in one verse each, while two
verses each are dedicated to a summary of Mayopamadvaya- and Apra
tithana-Madhyamaka. It should be noted that the presentation of
Nirakara-Yogacara and Mayopamadvaya-Madhyamaka hardly differ, in
that the former upholds self-awareness without characteristic signs
while the latter maintains an awareness that is empty of entities . In
Apratithana, clarity, which is-to go by the Paiicatathiigatavivarw:ia
a variety of awareness or self-awareness, is taught to be non-dual bliss
40 See Mathes 2008 : 35.

A S UMMARY OF THE AMANASIKARA TEXTS

19

and mere dependent origination. A s noted above, it i s this view that


self-awareness is dependently arisen which is held to account for the
alleged superiority of Apratithana over Mayopamadvaya.
2 1 . The Five [Verses on Transcendent] Love (Premapaiicaka)

The five verses offer a poetic comparison of the union of dependently


arising appearances and emptiness to the union of a handsome suitor
and his lovely mistress. Maitripa also explains how the skillful guru
uses the natural pleasure of the couple to generate the transcendent love
of co-emergence.
22. The Ten Verses on True Reality (Tattvadaaka)
In his initial namaskara verse, Maitripa venerates suchness (as true
reality is referred to in the first three verses) which is not only negative
ly described as neither existent nor non-existent but also positively de
scribed as enlightenment (bodhi). This clearly reflects the doctrinal
background of the Ratnagotravibhaga wherein suchness or the ultimate
are similarly characterized.41 While the via negationis of the second
dharmacakra leaves no choice but to negate what true reality is not, the
third dharmacakra describes it positively. For Maitripa this second ap
proach is based on a meditative concentration which realizes true reality
4 1 See RGV 1.9 (RGVV 1 0 1 6 - 1 1 2): "Homage to You, Dharma Sun, which cannot be
thought of as non-existent, existent, both existent and non-existent together, and as
being different from both existent and non-existent together, To You which is beyond
explanation, and whose calmness must be directly realized by self-awareness. To your
brilliance of stainless wisdom light, To You who dispels the darkness of attachment and
aversion towards the entire basis of cognition." (yo nasan na san na capi sadasan
nanya sato casato" akyas tarkayituf!! niruktyapagata pratyiitmavedya iva I tasmai
dharmadivakaraya vimalajilanavabhasatvi:je sarvarambm.iaragado:jatimiravyaghataka
rtre nama II); and RGVV on 1.25 (RGVV 2 1 9 _ 1 0): "Suchness apart from stains is pre
cisely this [dhatu] which is called the dharmakaya of a Tathagata when it has the defin
ing characteristic of fundamental transformation on the level of a Buddha." (nirmala
tathata sa eva buddhabhuumav arayaparivrttilak:jano yas tathagatadharmakaya ity
ucyate I)
a Johnston nasato; see Schmithausen 197 1 : 136.

20

INTRODUCTION

as it is (yathabhutasamadhi) . In this immediate access to true reality


phenomena are experienced as being luminous. This samadhi is culti
vated by arousing bodhicitta on the basis of a vipasyana practice that
starts with direct cognitions. Beneficial concepts on the path, such as
the idea that the world is beyond duality, are realized to be luminous by
nature, too. In his commentry on the Tattvadaaka, *Sahajavajra calls
Maitripa's ten verses 'Paramita[naya] pith-instructions that accord with
Mantra[naya] ' . In the commentary on TD 7 , *Sahajavajra refers to these
pith-instructions as mahamudra. Based on that, ' Gos Lo tsa ba gZhon
nu dpal is then able to claim in his Blue Annals:
In essence it is Paramita[naya] ; it accords with the Mantra
[naya] ; and its name is mahamudra. 42
23 . A Justification of Non-conceptual Realization (Amanasikaradhara)
The first part of the title, which lends the amanasikara cycle its name,
is-as already mentioned above-somewhat misleading in that it does
not simply negate mental engagement, but it also refers to the cultiva
tion of realization, or self-empowerment (svadhi?hiina), to use Mai
tripa' s final interpretation of manasikara. According to Maitripa, the
initial a- does not only represent the simple negation of a privative a ,
but also stands for a profound Madhyamaka-type of negation, such as
non-arising or emptiness, which Maitripa also understands positively as
luminosity. The two levels of analysis-amanasikara as ( 1 ) the nega
tion of dualistic conceptual engagements that leads to and reinforces the
belief in subject and object and (2) luminous self-empowerment
reflect the same structure of a via negationis and a via eminentiae al
ready encountered in the Tattvadasaka. Such a blend of the negative
Madhyamaka approach and the positive descriptions of direct mahii
mudrii experience underlies the whole structure of the amanasikiira
cycle. In order to do justice to Maitripa' s two-layered interpretation of
amanasikiira, I use the translation 'non-conceptual realization' .

42 See my analysis of the Tattvadaaka below.

A SUMMARY OF THE AMANASIKARA TEXTS

21

24. The Six Verses on the Co-emergent (Sahajaa[ka)

In this short text on yet another important term for the ultimate, the "co
emergent" (sahaja), we find again the basic structure of the ama
nasikara cycle. True reality is first negatively described as being neither
existent nor non-existent, as there should be neither affirmation nor
exclusion, when it comes to 'naturally arisen phenomena' (S 1 ). The
latter phrase I take to stand for dependent origination and emptiness.
The co-emergent is also equated with the genuine bliss without attach
ment, that is experienced in realization.
25 . A Pith Instruction on Reality Called A Treasure of Dohas (*Doha
nidhinamatattvopadea)

This text is not contained in the *Advayavajrasmpgraha and not availa


ble in its original Sanskrit. However, Karmapa VII Chos grags rgya
mtsho included it in his cycle of amanasikara texts. It presents a sum
mary of the four tenets as found in the Tattvaratnavalf, with Apra
tithana-Madhyamaka at the summit. Contrary to the Tattvaratnavalf,
though, the last part of the text contains tantric teachings, i.e. a sum
mary of empowerment and/or completion stage practice on the basis of
the four seals as explained in the Caturmudranvaya and Sekanirdesa.
26. A Pith Instruction on Settling the Mind Without Becoming Engaged
in the Thought Processes of Projecting and Gathering-A Genuine Se
cret (Shes pa spro bsdu med par 'jog pa 'i man ngag gsang ba dam pa)

This short text is not contained in Advayavajrasa111g raha, but Chos


grags rgya mtsho includes it in his amanasikara cycle. Of particular
interest is its endorsement of a non-gradual path: even meditation is
realization once the flavour of emptiness is tasted. Moreover, the expe
rience of true reality is direct (Tib. thad kar) since the yogin of non
conceptual realization (amanasikara) has nothing to think about when it
comes to emptiness (SM 7cd). In other words, emptiness is irreducible
to the abstractions of conceptual thinking.

22

INTRODUCTION

27 . A Golden Garland of Mahamudrii (*Mahamudriikanakamala)

Maitr!pa's *Mahamudrakanakamalii which was translated into Tibetan


by Mar pa Lo tsa ba documents the mahiimudra teachings which were
transmitted in the so-called ' subsidary translation tradition' (zur 'gyur) .
Even though Mar pa was a disciple of Maitr!pa, other mahamudrii
transmissions, such as those stemming from Vajrapai:i.i, were initially
considered more important.43 One of the most noteworthy features of
Maitripa's mahamudra system is that he presents, within the sequence
of the four moments and four joys, the moment of freedom from defin
ing characteristics and co-emergent joy, in the third position. 44 This
differs from the mainstream scheme accepted by a number of famous
scholars such as Kamalanatha, Abhayakaragupta, Ravisr!jfiana, and
Vibhuticandra.45 Given that the correct sequence of the four joys was a
subject of considerable debate in late Indian Buddhism, it is noteworthy
that Mar pa faithfully renders Maitr!pa's position in his translation of
the *Mahiimudrakanakamala, verse II.5, even though this goes against
his root guru Nampa. The final colophon informs us that Maitr!pa had
combined the teachings of many accomplished yogins and paFJ-cj,itas
within a single text.

43 Roberts 20 14:5.
44 Mathes 2009 :99- 106.
45 Kvaeme 1986:34-35.

Maitripa ' s Life Story in the 'Bri Gung bKa ' brgyud
Chos mdzod

Maitripa (also known under his ordination name Maitrigupta and tantric
name Advayavajra) was born to Brahmin parents in Jhatakarai;ii near
Kapilavastu and given the name Damodara.46 He received a traditional
Sanskrit education, and at the age of eighteen was ordained as a Bud
dhist monk by Ratnakarasanti.47 Under the latter he studied for one year
the Yogacara system of Nirakaravada.48 Ratnakarasanti is known to
have read an idealist position into Nagarjuna' s Madhyamaka,49 Candra
kirti not having been viewed in high esteem in Ratnakarasanti' s circle.50
46 This is according to the Nepalese palm-leaf manuscript kept at the Kaisar Library in
Kathmandu with the title Yathiirutakrama (see NGMPP reel no. C 82/1). For editions
and translations see Tucci 1 97 1 and Levi 1930-32.
47 BrunnhOlzl 2007: 1 25-26.
48 Tucci 1 97 1 : 222 1 _2
49 This hermeneutic stance is demonstrated in Ratnakarasanti ' s commentary on Hevajra
tantra 1.1.10-12 (HP 10- 1 6), where he quotes Nagarjuna' s Yukti$a$[ika, verse 34, in
support of his idealist position: "Such things spoken of as the great elements are con
tained in consciousness and disappear in wisdom. They are falsely imagined indeed."
(mahabhUtadi vijiiane proktaf!i samavarudhyate I taj jiiane vigamaf!i yati nanu mithya
vikalpitam II). See Lindtner 1 990: 1 10- 1 1. The reading taj jiiane over tajjiiane represents
Ratnakarasanti' s idealist interpretation of Nagarjuna, as taj then takes up mahabhUtadi
(see Isaacson 20 1 3 : 1042).
In his commentary on HT II.8ab ("Then teach Yogacara followed by Madhyamaka";
yogacCiraf!i tata pacat tad anu madhyamakaf!i diset) , Ratnakarasanti (HP 223 5 _7) pro
vides the following definitions: "Yogacara means that all that [world] is mind only.
Even in the absence of an object the very mind itself arises with an object as its appear
ance through the power of mental imprints, just as in a dream. Madhyamaka means the
right middle path, in the sense that the mind does not exist in its form of duality, nor is
it non-existent, in its form of [something that is] empty of duality." (yogacaram iti citta
matram idaf!i visvam I asaty arthe 'rthapratibhiisaf!i cittam eva vasanabalad utpadyate
yathii svapna iti I madhyamakam iti madhyamCif!i pratipadam I tad api cittaf!?, na sad dva
yarupe1;a I nasad dvayaHmyena rupeJJefi I)
50 This is clear from the colophon of Ratnakarasanti' s Madhyamakalaf!ikCira- Upadesa
(D 23 l a2 _4 , P 266b3_5): " [Ratnakarasanti] was the greatest among the four gate-keepers

24

INTRODUCTION

According to the Tibetan sources Maitripa refuted Ratnakarasanti after


receiving mahiimudrii instructions from the legendary figure S avaripa
at the twin mountains Manobhailga and Cittavisrama and returning to
the monastic milieu of Buddhist scholasticism. It should be noted that
reports on Maitripa' s expulsion from VikramalasTia for having enjoyed
wine and women51 are absent in both the Nepalese Sanskrit manuscript
and the life story in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod. The earliest
sources for the expulsion story are probably the Atia biographies, of
which the earliest are from the middle of the 1 2th century.52
The section called "A History of the Twenty-Five Texts of the amanasi
kiira Cycle"53 starts off with a hitherto untranslated life story of Mai
tripa. It contains new material, such as a description of Maitripa' s pre
vious incarnation Jvalapati and the circumstances under which Maitripa
received empowerment from his guru Savaripa.
Translation of Maitripa's Life Story in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud

chos mdzod

In a former life, this venerable master Maitripa [was Nagarjuna' s disci


ple Jvalapati54] . [One] of the two students of the teacher Nagarjuna was
[of VikramasI!a] during his time, because he had faultlessly realized the true intent of
Arya Asailga and Nagarjunagarbha and clarified [their] teachings in a most excellent
way. The monk Candrakfrti and others had deviated from Nagarjuna's intent, and have
abandoned nihilism and composed commentaries on the profound tantras later in their
life." (dus mtshungs pa 'i sgo srung" chen po bzhi las kyang gtso bor gyur pa j 'phags pa
thogs med dang klu sgrub snying po 'i thugs kyi dgongs pa ma nor bar rtogs shing bstan
pa 'i gsal byed mchog tu gyur pa 'i phyir dang I btsun pa zla grags la sogs pa klu sgrub
kyi dgongs pa las 'chal bar gyur na (read nas?) rang slad kyis tshe smad la med par
smra ba dor nas rgyud zab mo 'i 'grel pa byed par 'gyur la j)
" P srungs
5 1 For the details of the story, see Chattopadhyaya 198 1 : 1 35 .
5 2 Tatz 1988 :474.
5 3 For detailed description of this cycle see Mathes 20 14: 368-37 1 .
54 Tib. 'Bar ba ' i gtso bo. The name Jvalapati (' Chief Blazer') appears to be used in
reference to Krr,tacarya as an honorific term reflecting the high degree of yogic prac
tice he had attained in mahamudra. Maitripa was thus a reincarnation of Krr,tacarya

MAITRIPA ' S LIFE S TORY

25

N ag ab odhi.55 Belonging to the Brahmin caste, he was stronger in medi


tati on and thus instructed to meditate. [The other student] Jvalapati was
of Ksatriya caste and thus instructed to explain [the Dharma] that tames
sentint beings.56 Jvalapati then taught the Dharma, and through his
practice a special power arose [in him] . Since there were heretics on an
island in the ocean, he thought to tame them and made a request to his
teacher [Nagarjuna] . The teacher replied:
Bring a vase full of water from the river Ganga57 !
He brought it, and [Nagarjuna] took a drop from this water just once
and said:5 8
Generally speaking, the entire Buddhist Dharma is like the river
Ganga. What I know resembles a vase full [of it] . What you
know is like a drop of water. The time to tame the heretics has
not come. Do not go !
Not listening, [Jvalapati] and three servants left. They reached the shore
of the ocean and Jvalapati moved floating over the water just like that.59
Dhanarati thou.ght: Now, if l [simply] follow the teacher [moving] over
(Templeman 1989 : 8 3). Templeman ( 1 997 : 2 1 3) identifies Km1acarya also with Jvalana
tha.
55 Tucci 1 97 1 :2 12.
5 6 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. ka, 173b 6 - 1 74a 1 : I rje mnga ' bdag mai tri pa
de nyid sku skye ba snga ma la I I slob dpon klu sgrub kyi slob ma gnyis yod pa las 11
klu 'i byang chub bram ze 'i rigs yin pas bsgom pa 'i snying rus che bas sgom cig par
gdams 11 'bar ba 'i gtso bo rgyal rigs yin pas 'gro ba thul bas shod cig par gdams so I
5 7 I.e., taking gha gha as a corrupt form of galigii.
5 8 Op. cit. , 174a 1 _ : de nas 'bar ba 'i gtso bos chos bshad cing nyams su blangs bas nus pa
3
khyad par can skyes te 11 rgya mtsho 'i gling la mu stegs pa yod pas 'du! snyam nas slob
dpon la zhu ba phul bas 11 slob dpon gyi zhal nas chu bo gha gha las (text: la) chu bum
pa gang long la shag dang gsungs 11 blangs nas byung ba dang I chu de 'i nang nas rtsa
cig gis chu thigs pa cig blangs nas 'di skad gsungs so I
5 9 Op. cit. , 174a _ : I spyir sangs rgyas pa 'i chos thams cad chu bo gha gha dang 'dra 11
34
de la ngas shes pa ni bum pa gang po dang 'dra 11 de la khyod kyis shes pa chu 'i thigs pa
'di dang 'dra bas 11 da rung stegs 'dul ba la ma bab pas ma 'gro byas pa la 11 ma nyan
par g.yog po gsum dang chas te phyin pa dang I rgya mtsho 'i 'gram du sleb pa ste 11 'bar
ba 'i gtso bos chu 'i steng na 'p har te (text: phar da) rang song ngo I

INTRODUCTION

26

[the water] , I will fall behind. He whispered the mantra of [his] chosen
deity (yidam) on [a handful of] soil and threw it onto the water. [In do
ing so] he parted the water60 and walked on the dry [ocean] ground. The
teacher said:
You are a siddha. Since it is not proper to keep you as my serv
ant, you must return!61
The disciple requested:
My siddhis, indeed, have arisen from [you] the teacher. May I
therefore be [your] servant! "
[Jvalapati] replied:
Do not proceed by all means and return!
And sent [him] back. Then [Jvalapati] took the two [servants] Dha-nga
and Sing-dha pa-li and left. They reached the island of the heretics and
when it was time to eat they took fruit.62 A yoginf'3 said:
Are you not yogins? Perform the practice of making [the fruit]
fall [on its own] !
6 0 Lit. ,,into an upper and lower part."
6 1 Op. cit. , 1 74a _ : dha na ra tis bsam pa slob dpon gyi phyi na yar phyin na rjes la
46
'gongs te 'gro snyam nas 11 yi dam lha 'i sngags sa la btab ste 11 de chu la btab nas chu
stod smad du bead nas gram pa skya khro lo (=khrol le?) song ba la phyin pas 11 slob
dpon gyi zhal nas khyod sgrub thob cig 'dug pa nga 'i g.yog po byar mi rung bas log la
song cig gsungs I
62 Op. cit. , 1 74a -b 1 : slob mas nga 'i dngos grub kyang slob dpon las byung ba yin pas
6
bdag g.yog la mchi 'o zhes zhus pas 11 cis kyang ma 'gro bar log cig gsung nas bzlog go I
I de nas dha nga dang sing dha pa li gnyis khrid nas phyin pa dang I mu stegs kyi gling
du sleb pa des I gro 'i dus la bab ste shing thog blangs pa dang I
6 3 According to Taranatha' s life story of KrJ:.lacarya (i.e., Jvalapati) this was the mali
cious cj,iikinf Visvarupi, who had five hundred riik:fasf attendants. Each day they were
said to devour hundred thousand men and animals in Jambudvipa and the small islands.
In order to subdue them, KrJ:.lacarya crossed the ocean by magical means. (Templeman
1989:21)

MAITRIPA ' S LIFE STORY

27

Jvalapati brought down the fruit with a fixed gaze. When she caused
[the fruit] to move up [the tree again] , floating, and descending her
mother came and said:
Do not mistreat him, this noble being and offer him [the fruit] !
At this time, many pm:uj,itas, who were engaged in studying, had loaded
many books on an elephant, and the yogin! sang the [following] song:64
What is the use for you of carrying many texts? It is like in the
example of the noble fruit [and] the bees. Attached to the exter
nal, you [only] find an image of what is essential. Now, what do
you know at all?
Then she offered him [the fruit] with the words:
My fruit is this noble fruit: [its] three eyes are the three kayas;
[its] three edges are the three realms; and three sides [indicate]
the withdrawal of one ' s attention from the three times .
Jvalapati got angry and did not take the fruit.65 The yogin! got angry at
him:
Being a male you will win, so let us perform the practice of kill
ing. I will [first] protect [my] body, and [then it will be my tum
to] perform the practice of killing you. You must protect then
your own body.
64 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. ka, 1 74b 1 _ : I rnal 'byor ma cig na re 11 rnal
2
'byor ma yin nam dbab pa 'i sbyor ba gyis zer nas 11 'bar ba 'i gtso bos lta stangs kyis
shing thog phab pas 11 mos par sbyar yar sbyar yar lding mar ling byed yod tsa na I mo 'i
a ma byung nas kho skyes bu dam pa la brnyas pa ma byed shing thogs drongs zer nas 11
de 'i dus su slob gnyer byed pa 'i pm:ujita mang pos glang po che dpe cha mang po bkal
byung ba rnal 'byor ma des glu blangs pa I
6 5 Op. cit. , 174b _ : po ti mang po khur na ni 11 de 'i khyod la dgos pa ci 11 dper na dpal
24
'bras bung ba bzhin 11phyir chags snying po 'i ri mo rnyed 11 da ni khyod kyis cang shes
sam 11 zer nas nga 'i shing thog dpal 'bras 'di 11 mig gsum ni sku gsum 11 zur gsum ni
khams gsum logs gsum ni dus gsum yid la mi byed pa 'o zer nas drangs pas I 'bar ba 'i
gtso bo 'khros nas shing thog ma blangs so I

28

INTRODUCTION

Jvalapati started and nothing happened to her.66 [Then,] when she per
formed the practice of killing, he was suddenly raised from meditative
concentration. [His] lungs, heart, and so forth came out of his mouth
and he died.67 [Jvalapati] told his two disciples there, that having broken
the command of the teacher, [this] was the result. [Then] he said:
Protect this [my] corpse from being burned for seven days from
now so that I [can] confess to the teacher with my mind.68
This yogini over there went to the local king and said:
In our place there is the corpse of a big dead Yaka. If it is not
burned, it will turn into a zombie after seven days and spread
disease among the people all over the country.
The king came, and [Jvalapati ' s] disciples could not even protect [the
corpse] from being burned. Upon his return to this [island] , Jvalapati
[found himself] without a body; without a chance of finding [another]
body he prayed to enjoy [and practice] what is essential his next life. It
is said that as a consequence of this the teacher Maitripa was born.69
66 Op. cit. , 1 74b _ : I der rnal 'byor ma de 'khros te khyod skye ba rgyal bas gsad pa 'i
45
sbyor ba gyis shing 1 1 ngas lus srung pa 'i sbyor bar (text: ba) bya 'o 1 1 de nas ngas khyod
la gsad pa 'i sbyor bar (text: ba) bya 'o 1 1 khyod rang lus srung ba 'i sbyor ba gyis cig zer
ro 1 1 der 'bar ba 'i gtso bos byas pas mo la ci yang ma byung ngo I
6 7 In his life story of Krl).acarya, Taranatha reports, however, that Visvariipi and her
attendents were successfully tamed. (Templeman 1 989:22).
68 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. ka, 1 74b -a1 : I mos gsad pa 'i sbyor ba byas pa
5
dang I kho tin nge 'dzin las bzhengs pa 'dzam nas 1 1 glo snying la sogs pa kha nas yar
phyur gyis byung ste grongs I der slob ma gnyis la ngas slob dpon gyi bka ' bcag pas Zan
pa yin pas I nga 'i sems kyis (text: kyi) slob dpon la bshags (text: gshags) pa byas la 'ong
gis zhag bdun du ro 'di ma bsreg par srungs cig zer ro II
6 9 Op. cit. , 175a 1 _ : der rnal 'byor ma de yul gyi rgyal po 'i drung du phyin te 1 1 'o skol gyi
3
pha ki na gnod sbyin chen po cig shi ba 'i ro cig yod 1 1 de ma sregs na zhag bdun nas ro
langs byung nas yul thams cad mi nad kyi 'gengs so byas pa dang 1 1 rgyal po 'ong ste
slob mas srungs kyang ma thub par bsregs so I der 'bar ba 'i gtso bos log tsam na lus
med pas 1 1 da ni lus blangs pa 'i skal ba med pas tshe phyi ma la snying po 'i don la spyod
par shog par smon lam btab pas 1 1 slob dpon mai tri pa sku 'khrungs pa yin gsungs so I

MAITRlPA S LIFE S TORY


'

29

In the Middle Country there was a town called Jhat ak:araIJl. In it [dwelt]
the brahmin father Nanilka70 with his wife Savitrl.71 [Maitripa] was born
as their son. He was handsome, excellent, liked by all, and naturally
endowed with qualities such as insight and endeavour. When he was
eleven years old, he rejoiced in the system of Brahmin with a single
staff, and became well learned in the entire heretical textual tradition
inclu ding the four great Vedas.72
In particular, at a place [called] Bha-rin-te (?), he studied the Paninian
grammar of Liilgadeva for one year. Next, he debated with the venera
ble Nampa at the Northern gate of Nalanda. Nampa won, so [Maitripa]
followed Naropa and thoroughly learned Madhyamaka, PramaIJa, and
Prajiiaparamita. He was given an empowerment of the secret Man
tra[naya] and the secret name Ragavajra. He studied the tantras and pith
instructions. 73

Afterwards he studied for one year and mastered the tenets of the Mind
Only School under Ratnakarasanti, who protected the Eastern gate of
Nalanda. Moreover he studied both non-Buddhist and Buddhist Dharma
under Jiianasrimitra. Then he requested the teacher Santipa (i.e.,
7 For Na-bu (see next footnote).
7 1 For Tse-dhe? In the Sanskrit life story edited by Tucci ( 1 97 1 : 2 1 9 1 6 _ 1 ) the father' s
7
name i s Trivikrama and the mother i s called SavitrI (briihma/Jasya kule janma pita
ciisya trivikramaf:t I miitii siivitr! niimiisya vyakrtiidaparaytz matam 11). Further down
(22 1 1 7- 1 8) we find: . .. briihma/Jajiitimiiniikii niima briihma/yX ca siivit'i niima prativasati
sma l
72 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. ka, 175a3 _4 : de yang yul ni dbus kyi grong
khyer dza ka ni ka (=Jhatakara/Jf} zhes bya bar 1 1 yab bram ze na bu zhes bya ba dang I
yum tse dhe zhes bya gnyis kyi sras su sku 'khrungs 1 1 de yang gzugs bzang shing mdzes
pa kun gyis yid du 'ong ba 1 1 shes rab dang brtson 'grus la sogs pa rang bzhin gyis yon
tan dang ldan pa dgung lo bcu cig lon pa bram ze dbyu gu cig pa zhes bya ba 'i dpyod pa
la mgu (text: dgu) mdzad cing 1 1 rig byed chen po bzhi la sogs pa mu stegs gzhung lugs
thams cad la mkhas par sbyangs I
73 Op. cit. , vol. ka, 175a4_6 : I khyad par du bha rin te 'i yul du ling ga de (text: dhe) wa
zhes bya ba 'i sgra pa ni pa (text: sgras ni ka) ni ka zhes bya ba lo cig la gsan I de nas na
Zen tra 'i byang sgor dpal na ro pa 'i spyan sngar rtsod pa byas pas I nil ro pa rgyal bas
na ro pa 'i rjes su zhugs I I dbu tshad dang phar phyin la mkhas par bslabs I I gsang
sngags kyi dbang bskur 1 1 gsang mtshan 'dod chags rdo rje zhes bya bar btags I rgyud
dang man ngag mams kyang gsan I

30

INTRODUCTION

Ratnakarasanti) [to function] as the preceptor, took higher ordination,


and studied the Vinayapifaka for six years.74
Thus he became a great and fully accomplished pal).c,iita. Inclined to
[teachings of] what is essential, he had internalized neither the Pafi,ca
krama, which is a [commentary on] the father tantras, nor the Catur
mudra[nvaya] which is a [commentary] on the mother tantras, (both
were composed by the [tantric] Nagarjuna),75 [Maitripa] recited the ten
syllable-mantra of Khasarpal).a (i.e., a form of Avalokitesvara), who has
the essence of liberation;76 he circumambulated [the statue of
Khasarpal).a] , and made a prayer. Thereupon Avalokitesvara prophesied
to him in a dream:

74 Op. cit. , 175a6 -b 1 : I de nas na Zen dra 'i shar sgo 'i sgo srungs rad na a ka ra
(=Ratnakaraanti) la sems tsam gyi grub mtha ' lo cig gsan pas mkhas par gyur 1 1 gzhan
yang pa fJi ta dznya na shri (=Jiianasrimitra) la phyi nang gnyis kyi chos la gnyis gsan I
I de nas slob dpon sha nti pa la mkhan po zhus nas bsnyen rdzags mdzad nas 1 1 'dul ba 'i
sde snod lo drug gsan I
According to the Sanskrit manuscript, Maitripa surprisingly took full ordination only at
Vikramapura in the Sarmafiya order receiving the name Maitrigupta. (see Tucci
1 97 1 :2222 _4 : pasciid vikramaflarri gatvii . . . tato vikramapurarri gatvii sarrimatfyanikiiye
maitriguptaniima bhikur babhuva I)
a According to this account, he went from Nalanda to VikramalaIla and from there to
Vikramapura.
75 It should be noted that according to the Sanskrit life story, Maitripa had studied for
five years under the tantric master Ragavajra before studying Nirakaravada under
Ratnakarasanti (at Nalanda) for one year. (see Tucci 197 1 :221 2 3 _24 : tad anu mantranaya
siistrajfiena ragavaJretJa sahavasthitafl pancavaraparyantam I pascat mahapatJita
ratnakarasantigurubhattarapadanarri piirsve niriikiiravyavasthiim frutvii varam ekal!i
yiivat). It is possible, however, that at the time of Maitripa, the Highest Yoga Tantras
were not taught at monastic establishments.
7 6 Brunnholzl (2007 : 1 26) reports on the basis of the Sanskrit manuscript, however, that
Maitripa "practiced the meditation and recitation of Tara. Finally at the age fifty, he was
told by Tara in a dream to go east in order to receive a prophecy from A valokitesvara at
Khasarpa11a. Accordingly, he quit Vikramapura and stayed in Khasarpa11a for one year.
Then, again in a dream, Avalokitevara encouraged him to proceed to the southern twin
mountains Manobhailga and Cittavisrama." In a footnote, Brunnholzl (2007 :5 1 1) re
marks that no Tibetan source speaks about Vikramapura. Rather, all (except the one in
the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad) say that Maitripa was expelled from
VikramaIla for being involved with alcohol and women during tantric practice.

MAITRIPA ' S LIFE STORY

31

Hey par.ic;lita, you do not have a peaceful, [but] wrathful nature.


Go to the South, to Sri Parvata ! You will be looked after by the
glorious Savaresvara (i.e. , Savaripa), and [your] doubts of con
fusion will be dispelled. 77
Having met Sagara on the way, they travelled [together] . In the land of
Udradea78 they searched for half a month, but did not find [Savaripa] .
[H aving stayed] for a year at a stupa called Dhanyakataka, they were
to ld by Tara:
Go from here for five days in the Northwestern direction! The
guru you are looking for will be there.
They went [there] and searched for ten days while living on fruits.
Thinking that they do not meet this noble being, because they had not
abandoned food, they stayed on a flat stone and fasted for seven days.79
Even though he met him in a dream, he searched but did not find [him] .
He despaired and thought:
I will meet him in the next life. What is the use of this present
existence?

77 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. ka, 175b 1 _3 : I de nas yangs su rdzags pa 'i pa
'.lt!-i ta (text: pa nti) chen por gyur kyang 1 1 snying po 'i don la !hag par mos pa la 1 1 klu
sgrub (text: grub) kyis mdzad pa 'i pha rgyud rim Inga dang 1 1 ma rgyud phyag rgya
bzhi 'i don thugs su ma (delete ma?) chud pas 1 1 kha sar pa ni sgrol ba 'i snying po yi ge
bcu pa bye ha cig bzlas shing phyag dang bskor ha byas nas gsol ha gdab pas rmi lam
du spyan ras gzigs kyis lung bstan pas 1 1 kyai pa '.!4i ta khyod sha nti pa 'i rigs ma yin pas
1 1 Zho dar ba 'i rigs yin pas lho dpal (text: bal) gyi ri la song cig 1 1 dpal sha ha ri dbang
phyug gis rjes su bzung nas 'khrul pa 'i the tshom (text: tsom) mchod par 'gyur ro I
78 For 0-te-sha? See Tucci 197 1 :222 12 _ 1 3 : pacad gate sati sagare'.la militaJ:t I u<J,radesa
paryantena manobhaligacittaviramayor varttam na rutavan I
79 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. ka, 175b3 _5 : I de nas lam du rgyal bu sa ka ra
(=Sagara) dang phrad nas song song ha las I o te sha 'i yul du zla ha phyed btsal bas ma
rnyed 1 1 pu ti na na tra (=Dhanyakataka?) zhes bya ba 'i mchod rten lo cig la sgrol (text:
bsgrol) mas 'di nas nub byang 'tshams su zhag Inga song shig dang 1 1 khyod 'dod pa 'i
bla ma yod zer ro 1 1 de nas phyin dang zhag bcu shing thog za zhing btsal bas ma rnyed I
I skyes bu de dang ma phrad pa ni kha zas dang ma bra! bas Zan snyam nas 1 1 rdo Zeb cig
gi rteng du zhag bdun bsnyung bar gnas so I

INTRODUCTION

32

When he was about to jump off [a cliff] engulfed by clouds, he was held
[back] by the prince [Sagara] :
You are not a heretic; committing [suicide] is wrong.
They went in search of [him again] and met him face to face at the place
of encounter. [Savaripa] said the following:
Seeing [me] , you will be liberated. Even if you do not see me,
you will be liberated. Seeing me, you will be bound [in
saJ?1sara] . Even if you do not see me, you will be bound. Do not
be obsessed by [the desire] to see [me] . Even if you see me,
don't think you have.
Then he disappeared. 80
Then he searched again. At the place of symbolic teaching there was a
yogini killing lice. The yogini shot an arrow at a pig which came out of
a thick forest, killed [the pig] and ate [its] flesh. The yogini sang the
following song:
From the thick forest which is the saJ?1silra of the three realms
Came the wild pig of ignorance.
I shot the arrow of clear insight and killed the wild pig of igno
rance.
I devoured the flesh [in an experience of] non-duality,
And experienced its taste as great bliss.
I did not see any real flesh. 81
80 Op. cit., 175b - l 76a2 : de rmi lam btang pas mjal ba zhig rmis kyang 1 1 btsal bas ni ma
5
rnyes yi chad nas tshe phyi ma la mjal bar bya I srog gi dbang po 'dis dgos pa ci yod
snyam nas sprin phung nas Zeeb bar brtsams pa la rgyal bus (text: pos) bzung nas 1 1
khyed mu stegs pa ni ma lags de !tar mdzad pa 'chug (text: cug) lags zer ro 1 1 der tshol
du phyin pa dang zhal mjal ba 'i gling du mngon sum du zhal mjal ste 1 1 'di skad gsungs I
mthong ba ni grol gyur te 1 1 nga ma mthong bas kyang grol bar 'gyur 1 1 nga mthong ba
ni 'ching 'gyur te I I nga ma mthong kyang 'ching bar 'gyur I I mthong yang mthong
snyam ma sems cig 1 1 zhes gsungs nas mi snang bar gyur to I
81 This vajra-song is normally attributed to Savaripa himself (Mathes 2008b:247).

MAITRIPA ' S LIFE STORY

33

Then she killed a deer and sang: 82


Born in the forest, which is the sarrisiira of the three realms,
The deer of subject-object duality roams.
I shot the arrow of mahiimudrii
And killed the deer of ignorance.
[Then the yoginI] disappeared. Still not convinced, S avaripa sang the
following song:
What has never been born
Will not die;
Nobody is bound by existence
Or liberated [from it] .
The novice monk Sagarasirha was without doubt and became a Bud
dha without remainder. Savaripa disappeared. 83 Again he searched for
[the guru] and at the place of [testing] the basis [he found] a yoginI giv
ing [Savaripa] a foot massage. Maitripa became jealous, and S avaripa
said:
I have the Buddha' s intention, which is like the sky, and I will
teach it to you.
The yoginI said:
82 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. ka, 176a2 _ : I de nas yang btsal bas brda bstan
4
pa 'i gling du rnal 'byor ma cig shig srog gsod cing 'dug 1 1 rnal 'byor ma cig gis nags
seb nas phag cig byung ba la mda ' rgyab te bsad nas sha zos pa dang 1 1 rnal 'byor mas
'gur bzhengs pa khams gsum 'khor ba 'i nags tshal 'thibs po nas 1 1 ma rig pa 'i phag rgod
rgyu ba la 1 1 shes rab gsal ba 'i mda ' cig brgyab 1 1 ma rig phag rgod ngas bsad do 1 1 sha
ni (text: na) gnyis su med par zas 1 1 ro ni bde ba chen por myong 1 1 sha 'i dngos po ngas
ma mthong ces pa dang I yang sha ba bsad nas 'gur bzhengs pa 1 1
83 Op. cit. , 176a _ : I khams gsum 'khor ba 'i nags tshal skyed na 1 1 bzung 'dzin ri dwags
46
sha ba rgyu ba la 1 1 phyag rgya chen po 'i mda ' cig rgyab 1 1 ma rig sha ba ngas bsad do
I log 'das (text: 'des) so 1 1 des kyang yid ma ches pa la ri khrod pas 'gur bzhengs pa I
gang yang mi skye gang yang mi 'chi ste 1 1 gang yang srid pas beings dang grol ba med
ces gsungs pas 1 1 dge tshul a ka ra sid te the tshom med par phung po lhag med du sangs
rgyas so 1 1 ri khrod pa yang mi snang bar gyur to II

34

INTRODUCTION

Sir, I am not sure whether he is a proper recipient. Do not teach


[him] yet!
She hit Maitripa's head, pressed him down, and [Savaripa] disap
peared.84 Then, at the place of giving empowerment, [Savaripa] held a
golden vase in his hand and gave [Maitripa] an empowerment. Bal po
[Asu]85 said that after the empowerment, [Savaripa] gave instructions
on the four seals, [but] according to Ti pu [pa] 86 [Savaripa] sang [the
following] song [of] commitment (samaya) :
When the natural mind has been purified,
The guru' s qualities enter your heart.
Realizing this, Saraha sang this song
Though he had not seen a single tantra, a single mantra.
When the guru' s words have entered your heart,
It is like seeing a treasure on the palm of your hand. 87
On the path of non-conceptual realization (amanasikiira)
mahiimudriiDo not entertain any hopes for any fruition whatsoever.
If you realize the true nature of mind by yourself, this 1s
mahiimudrii.
What appears in this way is nothing outside your own mind. 88
84 Op. cit. , 1 76a6-b 1 : II yang btsal bas gzhi'i gling du rnal 'byor ma cig gis (text: gi)
zhabs la sku mnye byed cing 'dug pa la 1 1 mai tris phrag dog byas pas 1 1 ri khrod pa 'i
zhal nas nga la sangs rgyas kyi dgongs pa nam mkha ' 'dra cig yod khyod la bstan par
bya 'o gsungs pa la 1 1 ma! 'byor ma cig na re rje btsun 'di snod ldan yin nam ma yin cha
med pas da rung ma bstan (text: ba .. na) cig gsungs nas mai tri pa 'i mgo 'o rdog pas
mnan nas mi snang bar gyur I
85 Bal po Asu was a Nepalese disciple of Vajrapar.ii See Schaeffer 2005 :63.
86 Ti pu pa was a direct disciple of both Naropa and Maitripa (Roerich 1 949- 1953 :437).
87 The first six verses are identical with Saraha' s Dohakoag!ti (Shahidullah 1 928: 139 _
9
12 ) : "(liamm;a sabbe sohia jabbe gurugu"(la hiyae paisai" tabbe I eba ama"(le mu"(li sarahe
gahiu tanta manta !faii ekka bi cahiu II; and ibid. , 1 3 1 26 _27 : jar gurubuttabo hiahi paisai"
nihia hatthatthia bia u d!sar.
8s It should b e noted that Savaripa's song is fully in line with the tradition of Saraha' s
dohas. In fact, the first six verses are found i n Saraha' s Dohakoag!ti, while the verses
no. 7 and 8 are nearly identical with the following passage in Saraha' s
*Mahamudropadea (DKMU 79b 1 ) :

MAITRIPA ' S LIFE STORY

35

The emp owerment having been bestowed in such a way, Maitripa did
not believe [in it] and harboured doubts . Sagarasirha believed immedi
ate ly and sang the following song: 89
The victorious Savaripa, who abides on SrI Parvata,
The bow, the deer and the pig are not [real] , but emanations.
Like the full moon, they are beautiful in [eyes of] the world.
I rejoice in all [these] beings in the form of emanations.
With regard to what is wholesome and what are misdeeds,
As to [the path on which] you should not beome mentally engaged
mahamudraDo not entertain any hopes for any fruition whatsoever.
(yid la byar med phyag rgya chen po ni 1 1 'bras bu gang du 'ang re bar ma byed
cig) .
Saraha continues (Ibid. , fol. 79b 1 2 ) :
A mental state of hope has never arisen,
What is the use then of things abandoned and attained?
If there was something to be attained through anything
Enough of [these] four seals on which [yogins] depend!
(re ba 'i sems ni gdod nas ma skyes pas 1 1 spang dang thob pa 'i dngos po ci
zhig yod 1 1 gal te gang gis thob pa 'i dngos yod na 1 1 bsten pa 'i phyag rgya
rnam bzhis ci zhig byed I)
While Bal po Asu' s version of the story requires a more tantric context, Ti pu pa's
account suggests that in his empowerment, Savaripa merely pointed out the true nature
of mind. This depends on the guru' s qualities and the purity of the disciple' s mind and
not necessarily on the four seals. The fact that two contradictory versions of Savaripa's
empowerment are reported in the History of the Twenty-Five Texts of the Amanasikara
Cycle convincingly suggests that in India, there was already a mahamudra tradition that
was not specifically tantric (first published in Mathes 20 14:375).
89 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. ka, 176b - : de nas dbang bskur ba 'i gling du
14
gser gyi bum pa phyag du bsnams (text: snams) nas 1 1 dbang bskur ste de yang bal po 'i
bzhed pas dbang bskur ba 'i rjes la phyag rgya bzhi 'i gdams ngag bstan zer 1 1 ti (text: te)
pu'i bzhed pas dam tshig mgur (text: 'gur) du bzhengs pa 1 1 gnyug ma 'i sems ni gang
tshe thams cad sbyang gyur pa 'i 1 1 de tshe bla ma 'i yon tan snying la jug par 'gyur 1 1 'di
!tar rtogs nas mda ' bsnun glu Zen te 1 1 sngags dang rgyu gnyis kyang ma mthong ngo 1 1
bla mas smras pa gang gi snying zhugs pas I I lag pa 'i mthil (text: 'thil) du gnas pa 'i gter
mthong 'dra 1 1 yid la mi byed phyag rgya chen po 'i lam 1 1 'bras bu gang la yang re ba
ma byed cig I rang gis sems nyid rtogs na phyag rgya chen po ste 1 1 'di !tar snang ba 'di
yang rang gi sems las logs na med 1 1 ces dbang bskur bas mai tri pas yid ma ches ste the
tshom (text: tsom) skyes pa dang I a ka ra si ngha glo (text: blo) bur du byung nas 'gur
bzhengs pa I

INTRODUCTION

36

Do not rely on [notions such as] remedy and what is opposed [to
remedy] .
[Your] wisdom of self-awareness is [powerful] like a lion.90
Still, Maitripa did not believe, and at the place for explaining the Dhar
ma [Savaripa] explained [to him] the Dharma. He spoke a few words
about the Aniivilatantra, which is like the sky, the Guhyasamiijatantra,
which is like the ocean, the Hevajratantra, which is like wisdom, and
the Cakrasamvaratantra, which is like a blessing. [Then] he explained
the Dharma of the dohiis and so forth, and said:
Since you do not believe me and harbour doubts, you will not be
a Buddha in this life. You will be a Buddha in accordance with a
[future] prophecy by Vajrayogini.91
Maitripa then left the three mountains, went for a mile, got tired, and
fell asleep at the base of a rock. As a consequence of this he did not
remember anything [of what had happened at Sri Parvata] and prepared
himself to commit suicide. Savaripa came in the sky in front of him and
asked:
Maitripa, what is wrong?
[He answered:]
I forgot everything

and thought of committing suicide.

[Savaripa] said:
9 0 Op. cit. , 176b4_6 : ri 'i mchog la bzhugs pa 'i rgyal ba ri khrod pa 1 1 gzhu dang ri dwags
phag pa ma yin sprul pa ste I zla ba gang ba bzhin du 'jig rten na ni mchog tu mdzes 1 1
sprul pa 'i gzugs kyi skye bo thams cad mgu byed pa 1 1 dge dang sdig pa gang la yang 1 1
mi mthun gnyen po khyod ma brten 1 1 rang rig ye shes seng ge bzhin I
9 1 Op. cit. , 1 76b6 - l 77a2 : zhes pas kyang yid ma ches pa la 1 1 chos bshad pa 'i gling du
chos bshad pa la nam mkha ' lta bu 'i rgyud rnyog pa med pa 1 1 rgya mtsho lta bu 'i rgyud
gsang ba 'dus pa dang 1 1 ye shes lta bu 'i rgyud gyes pa rdo rje dang 1 1 byin brlabs lta
bu 'i rgyud 'khor lo sdom pa rnams tshig cig dang gnyis su bka ' stsal 1 1 do ha la sogs pa 'i
chos bshad nas khyod nga la ma dad cing the tshom (text: tsom) skyes pas tshe 'di nyid
la sangs mi rgya bar rdo rje rnal 'byor mas lung bstan nas sangs rgya 'o gsungs II

MAITRIPA ' S LIFE STORY

37

Advayavajra, Avadhufipa,
how is it possible to forget
things which have not arisen?
How is it possible to forget
Things which have not passed out of existence?
The primordial liberation of the three realms
Is obstructed by ignorance.
[Ultimate] Cakrasarvara, great bliss,
Is the nature of non-arising.
Thus Maitripa found realization.92 He reached an understanding of all
outer and inner phenomena including the three mountains, and de
scribed his view [to the guru for his assessment] :
All phenomena are empty.
Emptiness and compassion
Are not two, and this is the teacher.
Appearances of relative truth are the teacher.
Having investigated the meaning of the yoginI[' s symbolic in
structions]
I will be liberated in any case.
Moreover, he said:
I realize that [the true state] is natural, without mental engage
ment,
Without even a speck of recollection.
Now, I will not ask anybody anymore.93
9 2 Op. cit. , 177a2_ : de nas mai tri ri gsum dang bral nas dpag tshad phyin pa dang chad
4
nas brag rtsa (text: tsa) cig du gnyid log pas chos thams cad dung phyis pa bzhin du
brjes nas Zeeb pa (text: lee bar) bzo ba dang 1 1 ri khrod pa mdun gyi (text: gyis) nam
mkha ' la byon nas mai tri pa khyod ci nyes gsung chos brjed pas lcebs par (text: lee bas
bas) mno byas pa 1 1 gnyis med rdo rje a ba 'du ti pa (=Avadhiitfpa) I ma skyes pa 'i chos
rnams la 1 1 brjed ces bya ba ga la srid 1 1 ma 'gags pa 'i chos rnams la 1 1 brjed ces bya ba
ga la srid 1 1 khams gsum ye nas grol ba la 1 1 ma rig pas (text: pa 'i) bsgrib pa yin I 'khor
lo bde mchog bde ba 'i mchog 1 1 ma skyes pa 'i rang bzhin nyid 1 1 ces gsungs pas 1 1 mai tri
pas rtogs pa rnyed de I

38

INTRODUCTION

Then he returned home and his fame spread everywhere, and he became
known as the teacher Maitripa who went to SrI Parvata in the south, met
the glorious Savaripa, and is [now] in possession of an amazing tenet
[based] on non-abiding as view [and] non-conceptual realization as
meditation.94
At this time there was a heterodox teacher called Ma-tra-ru-dra who
was surrounded by a following of great heterodox teachers and two
thousand heterodox [disciples] . He defeated Buddhist par:i<;litas, one
after the other, and took over their monasteries, and having come to
Nalanda, he said to Maitripa:
If it is true that you have met Savaripa, I will not prevail and [so
shall] embrace your teaching. If I win, you shall not claim to
have met Savare[svara] , and together with your following you
must bow to me.95
For each of them a huge throne was erected. On each side, there were
thirteen [men] holding parasols . A great assembly [consisting of] the
king, ministers and the people gathered to [witness] the spectacle. To
the non-Buddhist and Buddhist par:i<;litas who served as witness, Mai
tripa presented four great propositions. Even though each of [the great
93 Op. cit. , 1 77a4_6 : I ri gsum dang bcas pa phyi nang chos thams cad kyi go ba rnyed nas
lta ba phul ba I chos rnams thams cad stong pa nyid I stong pa nyid dang rnying rje nyid I
I gnyis su med pa slob dpon yin 1 1 kun rdzob snang ba slob dpon yin 1 1 rnal 'byor ma 'i
don la rnam dpyad nas 1 1 gang ltar byas kyang grol bar 'gyur I zhes pa dang I bcos ma
yin pa 1 1 yid la mi byed pa I dran pa rdul tsam yang med pa ngas rtogs 1 1 da su la yang
dri bar mi byed ces zer ro I
94 Op. cit. , 177a6 -b 1 : I de nas yul du phyin pas slob dpon mai tri pa lho dpal gyi ri la byon
nas dpal sha wa ri dbang phyug dang mjal 1 1 Zta ba rab tu mi (text om. mi) gnas pa dang
1 1 bsgom pa yid la mi byed pa la sogs grub mtha ' ngo mtshar can 'dug go zhes bsnyan
pa 'i grags pa phyogs thams cad du khyab bo I
95 Op. cit. , 1 77b 1 _ 3 : I de 'i tshe mu stegs gi (text: gis) ston pa ma tra ru tra bya ba cig
'khor mu stegs gi ston pa chen po rnams dang 1 1 mu stegs nyis stong yangs su bskor nas I
I nang pa sangs rgyas pa 'i pa r4i ta rnams rims kyis (text: kyi) pham par byas nas gtsug
lag khang rnams phog nas na Zen tra 'ongs nas mai tri pa la khyod sha ba ri dbang
phyug (text: ri phug) dang mjal ba bden na ngas mi thub pas nga yang khyod kyis bstan
pa la 'jug 1 1 nga rgyal na khyod sha ba ri dang mjal ma zer cig 1 1 khyod 'khor dang bcas
pa yang nga la 'dud dgos zer nas I

MAITRIPA ' S LIFE S TORY

39

teachers] who were headed by the heterodox teacher Na-ti-ka-pa ( *S a


hajavajra?)96 challenged him, they found no way to confute him. The
heterodox teachers were fully convinced [by Maitripa] and said:
You may think the Buddha [was great] , but [Maitripa] here def
initely is.
The heterodox Na-ti-ka-pa offered up his retinue of two thousand [fol
lowers] including [those holding] parasols and [all of them] followed
Maitripa.97
Then, at the time of the anniversary commemoration of the Buddha,
Santipa posted an announcement of a disagreement [with Maitripa] .
Thinking that it was not appropriate to have a dispute with [his former]
teacher [Santipa] , [Maitripa] did not debate, and many rumours spread
that the tenet of Savari[pa] did not match the reasoning of Santipa. The
following day [Maitripa thought] he would be allowed to debate and
[so] posted an announcement stating that he (i.e., Santipa) should come
[to debate] . Everybody discussed [this] and thrones were erected. Even
though invited thirteen times, [Santipa] did not tum up. Everybody said
that Maitripa was the winner, and half of the offering to Bodhgaya was
given to him. Thus he became known as a sovereign master.98 At this
9 6 For Na-te-ka-ra? In his Blue Annals ' Gos Lo tsa ba gZhon nu dpal reports, that one of
Maitripa' s four great disciples named *Sahajavajra first was the heretic Na-te-ka-ra.
(Roerich 1 949-53 :842). BrunnhOlzl (2007: 1 30) refers to this former heretic as Natikara.
97 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. ka, l 77b _ : khri chen po re so sor brtsigs 1 1
35
gdugs bcu gsum bcu gsum phan tshun du bzung 1 1 rgyal po dang blon po skye bo 'i tshogs
chen po !tad mo la 'dus 1 1 phyi pa dang nang pa 'i pa 1:1i ta rnams kyi dpang po byed pa
la mai tri pas dam bca ' chen po bzhi bzhag pa la 1 1 mu stegs kyi ston pa na ti (text: ting)
ka pas gtso byas rnams kyi re re nas brtsad kyang I glags ma rnyed de 1 1 mu stegs kyi
ston pa rnams shin tu dad nas sangs rgyas byas kyang 'di ka yin zer nas 1 1 mu stegs na ti
ka pa 'khor nyi stong gdugs dang bcas pa phul nas rje mai tri pa 'i rjes su 'brang ngo I
9 8 Op. cit. , 177b - 178a 1 : I yang sangs rgyas kyi dus mchod la 1 1 shan ti pas brtsod pa 'i
5
sgo yig sbyar bas 1 1 slob dpon rtsod pas mi 'ong snyam nas ma brtsad pas 1 1 sha ba ri
grub mtha ' shan ti pa 'i rigs pas mi thub pa yin zer ba 'i gtam chen po byung 1 1 sang de
rtsod pas chog gis 1 1 byon cig byas pa 'i sgo yig sbyar bas thams cad bsgros ste khri
bshams nas 1 1 gdan 'dren Zen bcu gsum btang ma byung nas thams cad kyis (text: kyi)
mai tri pas rgyal ba yina zer nas rdo rje gdan gyi mchod pa phyed phul nas mnga ' bdag
du grags 1 1 a The text reads ma yin instead of yin

40

INTRODUCTION

time the students requested the teacher, whose view was that of
Apratithana-Madhyamaka, to [compose] a treatise which teach the
special subtleties of [his] tenet, which is at the peak of all tenets. There
upon he composed the [Tattva]ratniivalf. 99
Then, in a similar way, [Maitripa] enjoyed without obstruction the infi
nite sky of knowable objects. Surrounded by a hundred thousand sun
rays of scripture and reasoning, he drove the owls of bad views far
away, and at this time the sun of the teaching alone was shining. It rose
on the snow mountain of omniscient mind. Realization, wisdom and
energy-[all] three-were complete in [his] body. He spread the roar of
essencelessness [and] emptiness in the ten directions. This is what the
supreme lion of speech taught:
The lion who conquers the elephant of
Knowledge that arises through causes-this is my treatise.
The answer to the question of the reason for that is self-evident. 100

99 Op. cit. , 178a 1 _2 : I de 'i ts he slob ma rnams kyis slob dpon !ta ba dbu ma rah tu mi gnas
pas 1 1 grub mtha ' thams cad kyi rtser gyur pa grub mtha 'i khyad par phra mo ston pa 'i
gzhung cig zhus pas rin chen phreng ba 'di mdzad do I
1 00 Op. cit. , 178a _ : I de yang 'di !tar rah 'byam shes bya 'i mkha ' la thogs med spyod 1 1
24
lung rigs tsha zer 'bum gyis yongs su bskor I !ta ngan 'byung po 'i bya tshogs ring du
bskrang 1 1 bstan (text: bsten) pa 'i nyi ma cig pu dus der shar 1 1 kun mkhyen dgongs pa 'i
gangs kyi ri la skyes 1 1 rtogs pa ye shes rtsal gsum lus la rdzogs 1 1 bdag med stong pa 'i
nga ro phyogs bcur sgrog 1 1 smra ba 'i seng ge mchog des 'di skad lo 1 1 rgyus skyes ye
shes glang po che (text: ches) I I ')oms byed seng ge bdag gi (text: gis) gzhung zhes
gsungs 1 1 de 'i rgyu mtshan zhus pa 'i Zan rang grol yod de I

THE C OLLECTION OF TEXTS ON NON-CONCEPTUAL REAL


IZATION (THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE )

1 . The Destruction of Wrong Views


(Kudrtinirghatana)

not stated otherwise, my translation is from the Sanskrit. Deviations


of the Tibetan are only reported when considered important for the con
text.
If

Translation of the Kudrfinirghatana (the text consists of verses and


prose):

Homage to the youthful Mafijusri! 101


Homage to the Buddha!
I will explain the destruction of wrong views
As the performance of initial activity.
The level [of a Buddha] 102 is thereby attained,
[Either] without effort103 [or] with effort. (KDN 1 )
Here, there are two types of sentient beings : those who are [still] learn
ing and those who no longer [need to] learn. For those, then, who are
learning and [thus] in a causal state, there are proper intention, 104 the
1 0 1 This first homage is missing in the Sanskrit.
1 02 Tib . : rgyal ba 'i go 'p hang.
1 03 The Tibetans seem to have misunderstood viharena.
1 04 Tib . : lhag pa 'i bsam pas mos pa 'i sbyor b a impli s that "proper intention" i s integral
to the following "practice of conviction" (reading: "practice of conviction on the basis
of proper intention"), but the Kudrfinirghatana[fka treats asaya as a different stage.

42

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

practice of conviction, the practice following the attainment of [bodhi


sattva] -levels, and finally, having gained power over the following [five
concerns: defilements, appearances, karman, means, and causing sen
tient beings to ripen] . 105 Perfect enlightenment is fully attained [only]
after accumulating the two accumulations by performing very pure ini
tial activity. For those who no longer [need to] learn, who have aban
doned [all] notions about remedy, reality and fruit, initial activity un
folds through the power of the impetus of [former] prayers, as in the
case of Sakyamuni. It is uninterrupted and has the defining characteris
tic of fulfilling the needs of sentient beings by the effortless practice
[resulting in a state called] "indivisible union" (yuganaddha). This is
settled. It is as taught [in the following] :
Protector, you [know] neither vain imagining,
Nor thoughts, nor wavering.
[Still] your buddha-activity unfolds
Without effort in the world. (KDN 2)
It is particularly the perfection of benefiting others
Which is taken as the fruit of Buddhas .
Buddhahood and the like-[everything] elseAre taken as fruit on the basis of this purpose. 106 (KDN 3)
Just like a wish-fulfilling jewel, it (i.e., the perfection of benefit
ing others)
Is not stirred by the [fierce] 107 wind of every volition;
Still, it fulfils without exception
The wishes of all sentient beings. (KDN 4 = TRA 43)
Having abandoned [all practice of] affirmation and exclusion
With regard to the fruit, reality and what is opposed [to libera
tion] ,
1 05 See KDNT 40 - : tatra vasital:t pafica I tadyatha kleopapattikarmopiiyasattvapari
10 1 1
pakavastha.
1 0 6 The Tibetan is incomplete. This verse is also found in Jfianakirti' s Tattvavatara (B
325a6 -b 1 ).
1 07 Supplied from the Tibetan.

THE DESTRUCTION OF WRONG VIEWS

43

The wise one awakens towards supreme full enlightenment,


But even after that, [he will be engaged] in initial activity. 108
(KDN 5)

Objection: The performance of initial activity may indeed be what is


acceptable for those who are learning, but how [to understand] the exer
tion of initial activity for those who no longer [need to] learn and have
[realized perfection through] meditation on essencelessness? This [ini
tial activity] , too, is only a golden chain. 109 [Response:] True. For [it is
like a golden chain] in being separated from the realization of the per
fection of insight. The perfection of insight[, however,] is the essence of
the five perfections. It is for this reason [that the illustrious one] said [in
the Satasiihasrikii Prajniipiiramitii] :
Emptiness endowed with all supreme aspects"0 is taught.
(KDN 6)

Moreover, the illustrious one said: "The five perfections without the
perfection of insight do not [even] deserve to be given the name of per
fection. " This is also taught in the Aryavimalakfrtinirdea[sutra]:
Means without insight is bondage;
So is insight without means.
Means supported by insight is liberation;
So is insight supported by means. (KDN 7)
The identity of these two is understood thanks to the pith-instruction of
the genuine guru. It is established as the co-emergence [of means and
insight] , like a lamp and [its] light. Therefore, it is said:
All yogins should perform
The initial activity as taught above;
Wisdom which is inseparable from emptiness and compassion
1 08 Tib . : "And must make an effort [with regard to] initial activity."
1 09 Tib . : "like a golden chain"
1 1 0 Lit. "the excellence of all aspects." What is meant are the first five perfections.

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

44

Is taken to be [present] in the state of enlightenment.


(KDN 8 = MV 1 6)
Initial activity [is taken as follows] :
The [above-]mentioned five perfections [are known]
Under the name of "initial activity."
The perfection of insight
Is taken as their nature, [their] origin. 1 1 1 (KDN 9)
Likewise,
If an intelligent man practises- attentively and continuously
Generosity, discipline, patience,
Diligence, meditation and insight,
He will be happy and also wise. (KDN 1 0)
Three [of these perfections]-generosity, discipline and pa
tienceAre taken [collectively] as a cause of the sarrzbhoga[kaya] and
nirma1:1-a[kaya},
[And two]-meditation and insight-[as a cause] of the dha
rma[kaya],
While diligence [is a cause] of both [the form-kayas and the
dharmakaya] . (KDN 1 1 )
Therefore, the Bodhisattva must rely on very pure initial activity. The
reverse would entail the undesired consequence of nihilism. This is
taught [in the following] :
Even if what is wholesome and unwholesome lack an own
being,
Still, wholesome [actions] must be performed and unwholesome
ones not.
1 1 1 Tib. (B): "Should b e determined as being their nature." Tib. (DP) : "Their nature is
not analyzable."

THE DESTRUCTION OF WRONG VIEWS

45

In the world of apparent truth which is like [the reflection of]


the moon in the water,
Bliss is pleasant and suffering perpetually not. (KDN 1 2)
How, then, should the initial activity be carried out among those who,
in a state of learning, adopt a yogic conduct [that appears to be] crazy
and who are bent on [realizing] the non-conceptual? Response: By en
gaging in this [yogic] conduct through the gift of one ' s body. This is
because it is said [in Hevajratantra I.6. 1 9ab] :
Having given one ' s body as a gift,
[Yogic] conduct is adopted. (KDN 1 3)
Generosity is [attained by] giving even to the limit of [one ' s] body;
discipline by controlling one ' s body, speech, and mind for the sake of
sentient beings; patience by enduring the death of being sawn up in the
"extremely hot" (kruratapta) [hell] ; diligence by enduring harm from
the eight worldly dharmas ; meditation by an effortless flow in one ' s
own sphere in harmony with the nature of everything; and insight by
means of a realization characterized by the non-perception of all phe
nomena.
For him who has penetrated the [single] taste [of everything]
without effort
All supreme perfections unfold without hindrance.112 (KDN 14)
Therefore, initial activity is certain to unfold even in the case of those
who adopt yogic conduct. The words of the immature Carvakas (i.e. ,
hedonist philosophers) that there is no next world are not endorsed [by
us] , given their complete illogicality. Here [it should be recalled] that in
the Hevajra[tantra] [the Buddha] taught [the following] to a bodhi
sattva who, as a [disciple who is still] learning, manifests yogic con
duct: 113
112 Tib. (not metrical): "The effortless realisation of everything in the sphere of the
single taste is the best of all perfections for the one who desires the single taste. "
1 1 3 The translation of this sentence follows the Tibetan.

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

46

First, confession (poadha) must be made;


Then training instructions must be given.
(KDN 15=HT II.8 .9ab)
[In the remaining eighty per cent of the text, Maitrlpa elaborates various
precepts and instructions relevant in the daily life of a practitioner. The
adept thus starts the day by taking refuge, observing the vows of not
killing, stealing, and so forth, avoiding the ten unwholesome deeds,
washing his face with clean water, and recalling the three jewels. The
day continues with mantra recitations, meditation, and study, the high
point of which entails the visualization, worship, and praise of a mm:uj,a
la of the five Buddha families with Akobhya in the center. There are
also instructions on how to worship painted statues and books and how
to make a caitya. Finally, there are instructions on how to dedicate, and
rejoice in merit.114]
The Kudrtinirghatana is ended. 115
E n d of t h e Translation

Concluding Remarks
The first text in the collection deals with one of the greatest dangers of
mahamudra practice: the possible cultivation of bad views such as that
one does not need to engage in generosity and the other first five per
fections, which in this text go under the name of "initial activity" (adi
karman). 1 16 The annotated list of amanasikara texts from the 'Bri gung
bka ' brgyud chos mdzod contains the short note that Maitrlpa composed
the Kudrtinirghatana in order to show that a conventional Dharma

1 1 4 For those interested in an English translation of the remaining text about the daily
life of a practitioner, see Wallis 2003 :212-20.
1 1 5 Tib . : "The Kudrfinirghatana composed b y the great learned master Advayavajra is
ended. Translated, corrected and finalized by the Tibetan translator mTshur ston Ye
shes ' byung gnas as taught by the Indian learned master and guru Vajrapai:ii. "
1 16 See KDN 9ab.

THE DESTRUCTION OF WRONG VIEWS

47

practice must not be neglected.117 From the extensive biography of


Atifa 118 we know that Maitrlpa composed the Kudrtinirghatana togeth
er with the Svapnanirukti and the Mayanirukti in the monastery of Vi
kramalasila in order to atone for a transgression he was accused of by
Santip a, Maitripa having been seen secretly carrying alcohol for a yo
ginI practice. 119
The quintessence of the Kudrtinirghiitana is that the first five perfec
tions of generosity, discipline, patience, diligence, and meditation (i.e.,
"initial activity") must be performed by those who are still learning,
while they are performed automatically by those who have nothing
more to learn. In other words, once a yoginI or a yogin rises to the level
of a Buddha their "initial activity" unfolds without effort. If this does
not happen, they are obviously still in need of learning on the path of
accumulating merit and wisdom. Moreover, the initial activity of the
first five perfections is nothing more than the burden of a golden chain
when it is performed without the realization of the perfection of insight
(prajnaparamita) . The combination of the first five perfections with
prajnaparamita is thus taken as the optimal form of initial activity.
the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod we find the following intro
duction to the Kudrtinirghiitana:

In

Everybody [thought] that having exclusively requested pith in


structions from the venerable S avaripa in a one-sided way, the
sovereign master only taught the view of non-abiding. At this
time some said that even though Maitripa' s view was lofty, he
did not teach Dharma conduct based on scripture, and so
seemed to be particularly disrespectful of [skilful] means. He
was thus abused for having a nihilistic and so a base view. A
former heterodox [teacher] called Zhi ba bya las zlog pa, had at
that time taken rebirth as a Brahmin in Bodhgaya. Known as
1 1 7 "Yid la mi byed tho yig", kha, 79b : tha snyad chos spyod yod pa bstan pa 'i phyir 1 1
2
lta ba ngan sel rtsa 'grel bya ba bsdus I
1 1 8 I.e., the Jo bo rje dpal ldan mar me mdzad ye shes kyi rnam thar rgyas . For a German
translation see Eimer 1979 (vol. 1 ) .
1 1 9 See Eimer 1 979 (vol. 2) : 1 39.

48

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Pai:ic;lita Akaagarbha he [became] an expert in Madhyamaka


and resided at Vikramasila. He visited the sovereign master
[Maitripa] and said:
Friend, your view is said to be base. In order to repel
this slander, I request you to compose a review manual
on initial activity.
Thus he composed the Kudr?inirghatana for him, and the auto
commentary on it, the "Review [on Initial Activity] . " 1 20
The concluding remarks in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod are as
follows :
Once [Maitripa] had presented path and fruit in accordance with
the Kudr?inirghiitana ' s classification into those who are [still]
learning and those not learning [anymore] , he explained [in] a
presentation how one works for the benefit of sentient beings
through the non-conceptual kiiyas and wisdom. One may have
actualized [the level of] no more learning, which is [the level of]
fruition, but the corresponding path is the emptiness endowed
with the excellence of all aspects; further, a path involving nei
ther means (i.e. , the first five piiramitas) nor wisdom binds,
while the path of combining [them] liberates . It is necessary to

12 0 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. ka, 203b _ : I de nas thams cad kyis (text: kyi)
14
mtha ' cig du dpal ri khrod pa 'i man ngag 'ba ' zhig zhus 1 1 mnga ' bdag gis yang lta ba
rab tu mi gnas pa kho nas gsungs 1 1 de 'i tshe la la na (text: na re) ba mai tri pa lta ba
mtho zer yang I I lung gis chos spyod mi ston pas thabs khyad du bsad pa 'dra 1 1 de ltar
du gyur na ni chad lta ba yin pas 1 1 Zta ba ngan zer ba 'i skur (text: bkur) ba 'byung 1 1
de 'i tshe dang po mu stegs zhi ba bya las zlog pa 1 1 rdo rje gdan du 'khrungs pa 'i bram
ze 'i rigs kyis pa r:ufi ta nam mkha 'i snying rje bya ba dbu ma la mkhas pa (text: pas) zhig
vi kra ma l lar (text: bi ma la shri Zar) gnas pa las 1 1 mnga ' bdag gi (text: gis) drung du
'ong nas 'di skad ces 1 1 grogs po khyod kyi lta ba ngan zer zhing 'dug pas skur (text:
bkur) pa de sel ba 'i don du I I las dang po pa 'i bya ba mdor bsdus pa 'i bstos cig mdzad
par zhu zhus pas 1 1 de 'i ngor lta ba ngan sel mdzad 1 1 rang 'grel dran pa mdzad 1 1 bya ba
mdor bsdus mdzad I

THE DESTRUCTION OF WRONG VIEWS

49

have time [to cultivate] conduct based on [these] means. The


conduct of initial activity is precisely these means. 121

12 1
Op. cit. , 2 1 4b 1 _3 : j de ltar lta ba ngan pa sel ba las ni j slob pa dang mi slob pa 'i dbye
bas lam dang 'bras bu bzhag nas rnam par mi rtog pa 'i sku dang ye shes kyis (text: kyi)
sems can gyi don mdzad pa 'i I mdzad tshul rnam par bzhag pa bshad I 'bras bu 'i mi slob
pa de mngon du byed pa lags yang j de nyid dang rnam pa mthun pa 'i (text: pa) lam
rnam mchog ldan gyi (text: gyis) stong pa nyid la j thabs shes ya bral gyi lam gyis 'ching
ba dang j zung 'brel gyi lam gyis grol ba dang j thabs la yang spyod pa dus tshod dang
'brel ba dgos pa dang j las dang po pa 'i spyod pa ni 'di dag yin no I zhes 'chad par byed
do I

2 . A Commentary on the [Initial] Statement of


"The Destruction of Wrong Views "
(Kudrtinirghatavakyatippinika)

Translation of the Kudrfinirghatavakyafippinika (the text consists


of verses and prose):

Homage to Vajradhara! 122


There are three states : the causal state, the state of fruition, and the state
of working for the benefit of sentient beings. Those who are [still]
learning are in the causal state. The remaining two states are the ones of
the Tathagata. 123 The causal state starts from the [generation of] 124 bo
dhicitta and goes up to the sitting down on the seat of enlightenment.
The state of fruition is [the state] in which the wisdom of perfect en
lightenment has arisen, all defilements are abandoned and [all] qualities
attained. The state of working for the benefit of sentient beings starts
from the first turning of the wheel of Dharma and lasts till the teaching
disappears.
The causal state here is [further] divided into three [states] : the states of
intention, practice, and having attained power. Of these, the state of
intention is the wish that all sentient beings will be definitively liberat
ed. Its four pillars are as follows: the awareness that the suffering of
others [must] be removed; the awareness of [its] necessity, the aware
ness [of actually providing] assistance [to fellow wayfarers] , and the
awareness of enjoying [the Dharma with others] . These becoming the

122 Missing in the Sanskrit.


123 Completed on the basis of the Tibetan.
124 Supplied from the Tibetan.

52

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

means, there is the wish [for everybody to attain] enlightenment.125 This


is because its four causes126 are as follows :
The causes: the potential, a genuine spiritual friend,
Having compassion, and the abiding lack of fear of suffering;
Under these four conditions
Is bodhicitta generated.127 (KDNT 1 )
The state o f intention [has also been presented] under ten points. 128
Practice129 is here twofold: [the ten perfections of the practice of convic
tion on the path of preparation; and] 130 the seven perfections associated
with having attained a [bodhisattva] level. The ten perfections of con
viction are as follows :
Generosity, discipline, patience,
Diligence, meditation, insight,
Skill in means, aspiration, strength and wisdom:
These are the ten perfections. (KDNT 2 = MAV V.5)
The generosity associated with having attained a [bodhisattva] level is
accomplished through four accomplishments, these being intention,
practice, providing assistance and what is given. The seven perfections
[of this level] are: generosity, discipline, patience, diligence, medita
tion, insight and skill in means. These surpass the perfections practiced
on [the path] of the practice of conviction. These two [sets of perfec
tions] constitute the state of practice.
Power is five[fold] : [power over] 131 defilements, rebirths, karman,
means, and the state132 of bringing sentient beings to maturation.
12 5 These two sentences (starting with "Its four pillars . . . ") are missing in the Sanskrit.
126 KDNT (AICSB) 38 : taddhetava catviiraf:i I
9
12 7 The Tibetan translation
of this verse is not metrical.
128 Tib. "under ten terms"
12 9 Tib. " state"
1 3 0 Supplied from the Tibetan.
1 3 1 Supplied from the Tibetan.
1 3 2 Skt. avasthii has not been translated into Tibetan.

A COMMENTARY ON "THE DESTRUCTION OF WRONG VIEWS "

53

Initial activity must be performed entirely by those in a causal state. For


those who are, [as a consequence of this activity] , 1 33 in the state of the
fruit and the state of working for the benefit of sentient beings, initial
activity unfolds without effort, just as [it does] in the case of S akyamu
ni. This can be learned in detail in the Kudr$tinirghiitana.
The commentary on-or the recollection (Tib. dran pa) of-the Ku
drstinirghiitana, composed by the pai;u;iita and renunciant, the venerable
Ad ayavajra, is ended. Translated and finalized by the learned Indian
master Vajrapar.ii and the Tibetan translator mTshur ston Ye shes
' byung gnas.
End of the Translation

Concluding Remarks
The second text is a short commentary on the Kudr$tinirghiitana at
tributed by bKra shis chos 'phel to Maitripa. Apart from the lTa ba
ngan sel gyi bka ' 'grel (this, the Tibetan translation of the title in the
Derge bsTan ' gyur and the dPal spungs edition) bKra shis chos 'phel
mentions at the end of his list Vajrapar.ii' s !Ta ba ngan sel gyi 'dran pa
as one of the four texts which are closely related to the amanasikiira
cycle. To add to this confusion, in the Peking bsTan ' gyur (no. 3075)
our tippinikii again has the title !Ta ba ngan sel gyi 'dran pa. To be sure,
there is no commentary on the !Ta ba ngan sel apart from the !Ta ba
ngan sel gyi 'dran pa in any bsTan ' gyur, or in the dPal spungs edition
of the "Indian Mahiimudrii Works" either. The commentary on the
Kudr$tinirghiitana distinguishes three states: a causal state, the state of
fruition and the state of working for others . In the root text there is only
mention of a causal state, but the last two are easily seen to correlate
with those who no longer have anything to learn.

133 Supplied from the Tibetan.

3 . The Maj or Offences


(Mulapattayafl)

Translation of the Mulapattaya"ft :

Having bowed to Mafijusri,


The non-abiding nirvii7:1a,
And agreeable joy in the world,
I will explain the fourteen major offences. (MA 1 )
In the case of disrespect for teachers,
Not following the orders of the Sugata,
Talking out of hatred about the peculiarities of [one ' s] family,
Abandoning great love, (MA 2)
Forsaking an enlightened attitude,
Blaming the three vehicles,
Revealing secrets to common people,
Dishonouring the skandhas of the Jina, (MA 3)
Doubting the pure Dharma,
Being passionless through lack of love,
Superimposing on phenomena what is opposed to non-duality,
Dishonouring a faithful mind, (MA 4)
Not following one ' s commitments,
And when not having [such a woman] , belittling women of in
sightThese are major offences,
By which the commitments of a mantra practitioner are des
troyed. (MA 5)
[The result of] having committed them will be an absence of ac
complishments.
There will be death and a multitude of suffering.

THE AMANAS/KARA CYCLE

56

One will suffer in hell


With various sorts of severe pain. (MA 6)
Therefore, one should perform pujti
In the malJrj,ala, according to [instructions] obtained from the
guru.
One must keep an enlightened attitude,
And the rules of the Three Jewels and so forth. (MA 7)
The [text on the] Major Offences (Multipattayal:z) is ended.
End of the Translation

Concluding Remarks
There is no Tibetan translation of this text, nor is an author mentioned
in the colophon.

4 . The Gross Offences


( Sthulapattayafl)

Translation of the Sthullipattaya'/:i:

In the case of using a consort (vidya) [only] for pleasure,


Non-conformity134 with the commitments (samaya),
Quarrelling during tantric feasts (gm:wcakra),
Disclosure of secret teachings, (SA 1 )
Perverting the genuine teaching
In the presence of the faithful,
Living for seven day s
In the company of Sravakas in large numbers, (SA 2)
Teaching secrets to unworthy yogins,
Not being determined [to practice] yoga
These are the gross offences
By which the vows of a yogin are destroyed. (SA 3)
In the case of having committed these [offences] ,

The ascetic should worship [his] great teacher,


Taking the approach of doing what he can
And confessing openly. (SA 4)
[The text on the] Gross Offences is ended.
End of the Translation

134 This causal ablative is not literally translated, nor are the following ones in the enu
meration.

58

THE AMANASIK4RA CYCLE

Concluding Remarks
Of this text which lists eight gross offences, there is no Tibetan transla
tion, nor is there any reference to an author in the colophon.

5 . A Jewel Garland of True Reality


( Tattvaratnavalf)

Trans lation of the Tattvaratnavalf (the text consists of verses and


prose):

Homage to the Venerable Vajrasattva!


Having bowed to the pair of lotuses,
The feet of Vajrasattva,
He whose brightness is like the stainless autumn moon,
We teach "A Jewel Garland of True Reality" (the Tattva
ratniivalf). (TRA 1 )
For those who have fallen away from genuine tradition
And whose sight is obscured,
The Tattvaratniivalf
Will perfectly illuminate true reality. 135 (TRA 2)
Here, there are three vehicles, the Sravakayana, Pratyeka[buddha]yana
and Mahayana. There are four tenets, based on the division into Vaibha
sika, Sautrantika, Yogacara, and Madhyamika. In this regard, it is ac
ording to the tenet of the Vaibhaikas that the Sravakayana and Praty
eka[buddha]yana are explained. Mahayana is twofold, the so-called
tradition of piiramitas and that of mantras. 1 3 6 Here, the tradition of pii
ramitas137 is explained138 according to the doctrinal positions of the Sau
trantikas, Y ogacaras and Madhyamikas. The tradition of mantras is
explained according to139 the doctrinal positions of the Yogacaras and
135 Tib. : "We will explain [it in this] perfect Tattvaratnavalf. "
1 36 Tib. : "the vehicle of paramitas and the one of mantras."
1 37 Tib. "In Paramitanaya, there are three"
1 3 8 Tib.: "analyzed"
1 39 Tib.: "is based on"

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

60

Madhyamikas. Y ogacara is twofold. It is divided into Sakara and Nir


akara. Likewise, the Madhyamikas are divided into two, based on the
division into the "proponents of non-duality in the sense [of everything
being] like an illusion" (Mayopamadvayavada) and the "proponents of
not abiding in any phenomena" (Sarvadharmapratithanavada) .
[Sravakayana]
Of these, [the vehicle of the] Sravakas is threefold, according to the
division into inferior, average, and superior. The inferior and average
are the Vaibhaikas from the west, and the superior ones are the
Vaibhaikas from Kashmir.
[Inferior Sravakas]
Of these, the inferior Sravakas are examined [first] . Having made the
prior assertion that there are outer objects such as blue or yellow things,
they maintain that there is a person (pudgala), free from permanence
and impermanence. This is their explanation, stated [here] :
For the extremely (i.e. , intellectually) stupid,
Who is possessed by the demon of clinging to entities
And who thus fears the tradition of the profound [teachings] ,
[The following is valid: External objects] certainly exist and the
world [consists of things which] are blue and the like. 140
(TRA 3)
Persons carrying a load exist. I neither call them permanent, nor do I
call them impermanent. Persons with attachment wander [in swnsara] .
Therefore, in order to abandon attachment, the meditation is the cultiva
tion of the repulsive. This cultivation of the repulsive is the examination
1 40 This verse is quoted in the Subhaitasarrigraha (Bendall 1903 : 3 8 8 22_2 ) . Bendall
3
seems not to have understood jatj,fyase as the dative of the superlative of jaefa and re
marks : "The verbal form jatj,fye ( 'talk like an idiot') is new. " The Tibetan translation of
jatj,fyase Cl 'gro ba shin tu rmongs pa la ' o I) is in the last line of the stanza and thus diffi
cult to construe.

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

61

of the b ody as having the nature of a collection of faeces, urine, semen,


blood, phlegm, mucus, intestines, joints, 141 lungs, sticky matter from the
eyes, 142 kidneys, 143 spleen, liver144 and so forth. This is stated [in Bodhi
ca ryiivatiira V.62-63] :
First of all, mentally separate
The sack-like skin [from your body] ,
And then with the scalpel of insight
Separate the flesh from the skeleton! (TRA 4 = BCA V.62)
And having split open even the bones
Look right down into the marrow !
Examine precisely your own [body]
[To see] whether there is an essence [to it] !
(TRA 5 = BCA V.63)
The stain of their meditative stabilization is attachment which is pre
ceded by the view of the permanence of the person. 145 Their view is as
follows : As long as I live, I shall take refuge in the Buddha, Dharma,
and Sangha.
I venerate the Sugata and the two elder ones.146 (TRA 6)
Through whatever root of merit there is, I will displine myself alone,
calm myself alone, bring myself alone to complete nirviil}a !
[Average Sravakas]
The view and explanation of the average [Sravakas] are as in the previ
ous case. They like working to a certain extent for the sake of others.
Concentrating on exhaling and inhaling, they perform a form of medita1 4 1 Tib. : "fat. "
1 42 Tib. "heart"
1 43 Skt. : "weariness"
1 44 Tib.: "stomach."
1 45 Even though they claim that it is neither impermanent nor permanent (see above).
1 46 I.e. , Sariputra and Maudgalyayana.

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

62

tion that is [based on] the view that a person [exists but] is free from
permanence and impermanence. The stain of their meditative stabiliza
tion is that they become senseless through breath retention, since [such
retention] invites lifelessness.
[Superior Sravakas]
The explanation of the superior Sravakas, who [also] postulate external
objects, is based on the noself of the body. They thoroughly know the
four noble truths, and their meditation is the view of emptiness with
regard to the person (pudgala) . Suffering is here the nature of the five
skandhas, which must be known. The arising [of this suffering] is a
mental construct, which must be abandoned. Cessation is deep insight,
it must be actualized. The path is emptiness, it must be meditated upon.
The stain of their meditation is to superimpose upon emptiness a form
of continuous quiescence. With regard to their view, again, they excel
[other Sravakas] in benefitting others. In this matter, some claim that
the inferior Sravakas attain the awakening only of a Sravaka, because
they have a fixed potential and lack compassion.
Others say, however, that even the inferior Sravakas among sentient
beings147 will become perfect Buddhas, as it has been said:
All will be Buddhas.
One does not find anybody on earth who is not suitable;
Therefore, one should not be disheartened
In the pursuit of perfect enlightenment. 148 (TRA 7)
They think that even those with the fixed potential [of an inferior Srava
ka] depend a little upon the Buddha. The average [Sravakas] are future
Pratyekabuddhas, and the superior [Sravakas] will be Buddhas after
four immeasurable eons.

1 47 "Among sentient beings" is missing in the Tibetan.


1 4 8 In the Tibetan, lines three and four are not taken as a part of the verse.

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

63

[The Pratyekabuddhayana]
The expl anation of the vehicle of Pratyekabuddhas is precisely that of
the superior Sravakas. They have realized the emptiness of a person; the
defining characteristic of the inconceivable; the naturally arisen wis
dom 149 even though they have no teacher; deep insight; and calm abid
ing.15 0 As to deep insight here, it is the cessation of [the operation of]
the sense faculties on account of the non-apprehension of a person.
Calm abiding is the control of body, speech, and mind. This is their
meditation. The stains of meditative stabilization are here the blissful
meditation of a mind close to being asleep, and a meditation of a mind
th at is fast asleep.151 In the former case, one enters the system of
B haskara.152 This [mistaken meditation] is stated [in the following] :
One should cultivate with effort
That mental state which manifests
When, on the verge of sleep,
External objects have disappeared.153 (TRA 8)
In the latter case, one enters the system of the Vaiseika. This is what
the venerable Nagarjuna said:

Non-cognizing wisdom is established


Through the example of sleep,
1 49 Mostly translated as "self-arisen wisdom."
1 50 Tib.: "A person who has taken this [way realizes] emptiness; the defining character
istic of the inconceivable; has no teacher; naturally arisen wisdom; deep insight; and
calm abiding."
1 5 1 Tib.: " . . . and a state in which mental factors have completely stopped. "
1 5 2 A follower of Vedanta who lived around A.D. 800 (see Tatz 1 994: 1 02, fn. 25) .
1 53 The first two lines of this verse accord with Vijfiiinabhairava 75ab; the second part in
the Vijfiiinabhairava 65 3_4) is as follows: "This state must be realized by one' s mind.
[Then] the supreme goddess shines forth. " (siivasthii manasii gamyii para devf prakii
fate). Sferra (2003: 64-65) charges Maitripa for having changed the second part of the
verse from the Vijfiiinabhairava with the intention to conceal the unfolding of the su
preme reality in its active, female principle. I do not see why Maitripa should have done
so. Maitripa simply quotes this verse to show that the faults of a Pratyekabuddha' s
meditation are similar to those of a heterodox system.

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

64

Just as the knowledge with blocked senses is


[As] maintained by the Vaiseika. (TRA 9)
Even in the teachings of the Buddha, it is said:
I happily become a j ackal
In the beautiful Jetavana Grove,
But it is not acceptable to become [like] a cow,
[Attaining] the liberation of a Vaiseika. 154 (TRA 1 O)
The view [of the Pratyekabuddhas] resembles the previous one (i.e.,
that of the superior Sravakas) . They will be Buddhas after four innu
merable eons have passed. The compassion of both Sravakas and Pra
tyekabuddhas is directed towards sentient beings . Every day they focus
on sentient beings, in terms of [their] suffering of suffering and suffer
ing of change. The compassion created [in this way] is directed towards
sentient beings. The teachings of the Sravakas are based on speech, and
those of the Pratyekabuddhas on what is physical. 155 This is stated as:
[Even] when perfect Buddhas
Have not appeared, and the Sravakas, for their part, have gone,
The wisdom of the Pratyekabuddhas
Unfolds, [even] lacking contact [with a Buddha] . 156 (TRA 1 1 )
[The Mahayana, Paramitanaya]
[Sautrantika]
Now, we will talk about the yogins in the tradition of the paramitas.
Here the inferior [tenet] is [that of] the Sautrantika. Their [understand
ing of an external] object is something that by its nature is an accumula
tion of subtle atoms, that produces cognition consisting in a [mental]
1 54 Tib . : "But I, the Gautama, never seek the liberation of the Vaisqika."
1 55 I.e. , on symbols, gestures, and the like.
1 5 6 Tib . : "the [physical] basis [of a Buddha being present] . "

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

65

form [o f the object] . This is their analysis157-that [an object] produces


co gnition consisting in a [mental] form [of it] . This is what [Dharmaki
rti] taught in [Pramii!Javarttika IIl.158247] :
How can a [momentary thing] be perceived when [the cognition
of it occurs]
At a different time? The wise [say that] it is perceptible.
Those who understand reasoning [take it] as a [cause] capable of
imposing
A [mental] form [of itself] upon cognition.
(TRA 12 = PV III.247)
This is their analysis.159 The inconceivable state of someone whose
sense faculties have been turned away from the village of experiential
objects160 is [their understanding of] meditation. This is stated [in the
following] : "Moreover, this is [said to happen] at the time of practice,
and not at the time of direct actualization." Therefore one must engage
in practice.161 And practice [is described in the following] :
When practice is performed
After the mind has been ascertained through realization, 162
Then I do not see the mind,
Wherever it [may] be [or] have gone.163 (TRA 1 3)
Even a householder should stabilize
[His mind] in every moment
1 57 The Tibetan translation of tasya ceyam eva pratyavekm:1a cannot be construed.
1 5 8 I.e. , the chapter on pratyaka (the numbering of chapters and verses follows Stein
kellner's ( 1977) Verse Index.
1 59 Skt. : "explanation." The Tibetan fits better the context as ' analysis ' means that they
have deeply thought about it.
160 Skt. : "whose village of sense faculties have been turned away from the experiential
objects"
161 The context requires taking paricaya in the sense of abhyilsa.
162 Tib.: "By means of a mind that realizes no-mind,"
163 This verse in contained in Munidatta' s commentary on the Caryilgiti (song no. 29 by
Luipada). See Kvaerne 1986: 1 92.

66

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

And meditate in a cross-legged position,


The wavering mind focused one-pointedly. 164 (TRA 1 4)
The stains of their meditative stabilization are like the previous ones. 165
Not conceptualizing the triad [of actor, action, and object] , they [adopt]
the conduct of the [first] five perfections in a state of perfect insight
(prajiiaparamita), while furthering sentient beings without hoping for a
reward, is their view.
[Y ogacara, S akaravada]
The average [practitioners of the Paramitanaya] are the Yogacaras . The
S akaravijfianavadins ("those who maintain [that everything is] con
sciousness accompanied by [mental] forms") do not accept 166 even sub
tle atoms , following as they do arguments such as the one found [in
Vasubandhu ' s Vimsatika, verse 1 2ab] :
The instantaneous union of a subtle atom
With six [others shows that] it has six parts .
(TRA 1 5 = Virps 1 2ab)
Thus they realize that these [subtle atoms] are mind only. [The mind on
its own] bears mental forms, 167 is free from [any] relation of perceived
object and perceiving subject, and clearly displays [everything] . This is
also stated [in the Dasabhumikasiltra] : "Oh, you sons of the victorious
one ! This threefold world is mind only. " Likewise, Dharmakirti says [in
PramiiT:tavarttika, Ill.432] :

164 Lit. "on the tip of the nose. "


165 I.e. , the ones of the Pratyekabuddhas.
166 Tib . : "do not apprehend."
167 The compound cittiikiiradhari has not been translated into Tibetan. The meaning in
this system is that there are images of external objects without any external correlate at
all.

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

67

If the mind has forms of something blue or the like,


What is then the justification for an external object? 168
If the mind does not have forms of something blue or the like,
What is then the justification for an external object? 169
(TRA 16 = PV III.432)
Somewhere else (i.e. , in the Vajrapaiijariitantra 170) , too, it is said:
The objects of the sense faculties
Do not exist on their own outside of the mind.
It is rather the mind itself which displays
The appearances of forms and the like. (TRA 1 7)
Therefore, the mind itself, which contains the forms of manifold [ap
pearances] , clearly displays [those forms] without depending on any
thing else (i.e., an external object) . This is the explanation of the Yoga
caras insofar as they are Sakaravijfianavadins .
[Yogacara, Nirakaravada]
The Yogacaras who maintain that [mind] is devoid of [truly existing
mental] forms (i.e. , the Nirakaravadins) think, too, that this [entire
world] is mind itself, its nature being self-awareness devoid of [truly
existing mental] forms . Their explanation is taught in the following :
An external object
As imagined by immature beings is not to be found;
Agitated by mental imprints ,
The mind appears as an object. (TRA 1 8 = LAS X. 1 54c- 1 55b)
168 Lit. "What does an external object have as justification?" If there was an external
object, there would be two forms, the one in the mind, and the one of the external ob
ject.
169 Cf. PV III.433 (=III.432) : "If the mind has forms of something blue and the like,
what is the reason for an external object? If the mind does not have forms of something
blue and the like, how can there be an experience of it (i.e., the outer object)?" (dhiyo
nfliidirupatve bahyo 'rthaf:i kif!1prama1Jakaf:i I dhiyo 'nfliidirupatve sa tasyanubhavaf:i ka
tham 11).
170 See Lhalungpa 1 993:9 and Tatz 1994: 105.

68

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Insofar as something appears ,


It appears as an illusion only;
In reality, [the nature of mind] 171 is devoid of appearance, 172
Like the pure limitless sky. (TRA 1 9)
The dharmakiiya of the great sage
Is free from mental fabrication and from appearances .
The two form-kiiyas have arisen from it,
And thereafter abide as illusion. (TRA 20 = PTMV 4)
The meditation of the S akaravadins is to actualize directly the [mind]
beyond the duality [of perceived and perceiver] together with its mani
fold [forms] , 173 [a state] free from all concepts. This is taught [in Jiiiina
siirasamuccaya, 174 verse 35] :
To whatever object of knowledge
The mind goes , it [first] directs [its attention] to it.
Towards whatever it will go after becoming stirred up,
All this, indeed, is its nature. (TRA 2 1 )
The meditation of the Nirakaravadins i s to actualize wisdom 175 directly,
without appearances-which is non-dual inconceivable bliss free from
mental fabrication. This is as [stated] in the following :
Its (i. e . , mind ' s) nature is taken to be clear:
Without [mental] forms, and spotless;
And it can, in fact, never be realized
By one who is not adept. (TRA 22 = AM 53)
1 7 1 The masculine endings of the compounds in this line suggest that the subject has
already changed here from "mind" to "dharmakiiya." This is no problem, because for
Maitripa the dharmakiiya is the true nature of mind.
1 72 Tib . : "reality devoid o f appearances."
1 73 This means that the manifold appearances or aspects of mind are real, but beyond the
duality of a perceived object and a perceiving subject.
1 74 Ascribed to Aryadeva, but probably composed by a Madhyamika later than Bhavya
(see Nakamura 1989:245).
1 75 The Tibetan has ye shes for citta.

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

69

When one sets something in front of oneself as an object of ref


erenceEven with the thought that it is mind-only
One is not really abiding
In [the realization of mind-]only. (TRA 23 = Tri"f(lsikii 27)
But when wisdom does not apprehend
Any object of reference, then it is established in mind-only;
For in the absence of a perceived object
There is no apprehending [on the part of a perceiving subject ei
ther] . (TRA 24 = Tri"f(lsikii 28)
With regard to the meditative stabilization of [clinging] to an ultimately
existing, permanent consciousness which [displays real] mental
forms 176-[the S akaravadins are in danger of] following the tenet main
tained by the proponents of Vedanta, namely Bhagavatsiddhanta, 177
[which means] taking the world as a transformation, and [thus] as not
different from, brahman, in the form of the ultimate and permanent
mind of one ' s own. [Such a position] is stated in the following:
Whatever is seen, however tiny it may be,
[Can] be understood as brahman.
Therefore, the mind is not anything else;
It abides in brahman alone. (TRA 25 = SN 1 5 )
This i s the stain o f the meditative stabilization o f the S akaravadins .
Likewise, with regard to the meditation of the Nirakaravadins, too, who
cultivate a permanent, self-aware consciousness which is devoid of both
appearances and mental fabrication, there is the undesired consequence
of following [another] tenet of the proponents of Vedanta, namely the
textual tradition of Bhaskara. 178 They maintain that [such a permanent
1 76 Tib. : "As for the stain of the meditative stabilization of the Sakaravadins, it is the
clinging to an ultimate permanence."
1 77 This is the form the term commonly takes. The Sanskrit has bhagavata/:t smristhita-.
1 78 Tib.: "Likewise, the stain of meditative stabilization of the Nirakaravadins, is [to
cling to] a permanent, self-aware consciousness devoid of both appearances and mental

70

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

consciousness] is brahman, which is entirely free from all names and


forms ; in it the confusion of mental fabrication is completely purified; it
is clear, without limit, uninterrupted and permanent. This is as [stated]
in the following :
The empty water bubbles of the manifold [appearances]
Clearly [manifest] to me in the celestial waters of realization;
They either arise or dissolve,
Yet nothing is conceptually produced. (TRA 26)
This is the stain of the meditative stabilization of the Nirakaravadins .
The view of both (i.e., the Sakaravadins and Nirakaravadins) 179 resem
bles the previous one.
[Madhyamaka, Mayopamadvayavada]
The superior [practitioners of Paramitanaya] are the Madhyamikas .
Among them, there are [first] the Mayopamadvayavadins ("those who
maintain non-duality [in the sense of everything being] like an illu
sion") . Their explanation [follows Jiiiinasiirasamuccaya, 18 0 verse 28] :
The Madhyamikas know true reality
As being free from four positions, that is to say,
[True reality] is neither existent, nor is it not existent, nor is it a
combination
Of existence and non-existence, nor [can it be that] neither is the
case. (TRA 27)
The meaning of this is as follows: [True reality] is not existent, this
being impossible on logical grounds. 181 Nor does it not exist, given the
fabrication. This has the undesired consequence of following [another] tenet of the
proponents of Vedanta, namely the textual tradition of Bhaskara."
1 7 9 Tib . : "Its view . . . "
180 See also Mimaki 1982: 1 94. DvivedI & Vajracarya ( 1 986:86) claim that this stanza is
by Sarahapada.
181 Tib. sbyor ba. "Rin chen 'phreng ba'i bshad pa," 194a : sbyor ba ni gtan tshigs kyi
5
sbyor ba ste I

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

71

182
p ower of appearance . Moreover, because of the [same] two defects a
combination [of existence and non-existence] is not [possible] either.
Nor [can it be that] neither is the case, for that would be incomprehen
sible. Furthermore, on the basis of an [ other] analysis different from the
previous one, [it is stated] : " [The extreme of existence has] the unde
sired consequence that there is true force to matter-that the manifold
world is just as it appears, [namely, as] a manifestation. " 183 This is the
exp lanation of the Mayopamadvaya[vadins] .
The mental cultivation of non-duality [in this sense of everything being]
like an illusion is [their form of] meditation. 184 Attachment to nihilism is
here the stain of meditation. To complete the six perfections in the con
viction that non-duality [in the sense of everything being] like an illu
sion is [their] view.
[Apratithanavada]
The following is an examination of the proponents of not abiding in any
phenomena (i.e. , the Apratithanavadins) :
The manifold [world] is not taken to be eternal
Or said to be entirely annihilate [either] ;
Nor is it a combination of both eternal and annihilate,
Nor can it be that neither is the case. (TRA 28 = MV 4)
The wise know the true reality of things
As the non-abiding in anything. 185
Now, this is not just conceptual [analysis] , for a [conceptualiz
ing] mind
Does not know the nature of mind. (TRA 29)
t32 Tib.: "through the power of mental imprints. "
t33 Tib . : "Moreover, without analyzing past and present, Uust taking] the manifold
[world] as it appears-could it have a material reality? Where is [then] the undesired
consequence [of my position] ?" Ui treats this quotation as verse 26.
t34 Tib . : "This is the meditation on non-duality [taken in the sense that everything] is
like an illusion."
185 Ui reads sarvasminn aprati!hane (which is supported by the Tibetan) : "While not
abiding in anything."

72

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


All superimposition, whatever there is
All this does not exist in any respect;
The meaning of Madhyamaka is thus the absence of superimpo
sition;
Where is, then, the denial or establishing [of anything] ?
(TRA 3 0 = S N 32)
This effortless wisdom
Is called inconceivable;
Something ' inconceivable ' that one has [been able to] conceive
Cannot truly be inconceivable. (TRA 3 1 = SN 30)
The mind [of him] , by whom the world is [directly] realized as
not arisen,
Is purified because of [his] realization.
For him, the wise, [this is realized] without effort:
[Being his] original state the world is true. (TRA 32 = SN 34)

This is [also] stated in the following:


When free from all superimpositions,
True reality appears of its own accord.
Expressions such as emptiness,
Remove superimpositions from it. (TRA 33)
To actualize without attachment this meaning which has come under
analysis-whose nature is to be free from superimposition- 186 is [their
form of] meditation. To deny everything or become senseless [in a state
of dull nothingness] are the stains of meditative stabilization. To com
plete the six perfections without [becoming engaged in] superimpo
sition is the [related] view.
Here [in Paramitanaya] , the compassion of those with inferior and aver
age faculties (i.e . , the Sautrantikas and Yogacaras) has phenomena as
its objects of reference. [Compassion,] that has phenomena as its ob186 Tib . : "As to the object of this investigation, to actualize it by avoiding becoming
attached to a superimposed nature of things . . .
"

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

73

jects of reference, must be understood as that which arises after all phe
nomena are focused on as being stirred by the wind of impermanence.
But for those with superior faculties (i. e . , the Madhyamikas), compas
sion, for which essencelessness is the focus , is without a focus , phe
nomena being understood by directing [one ' s] attention [towards their
.
187
emptmess ] .
188
[In this respect,] there is a presentation of the three kiiyas , taught by
Maitreyanatha [in his Abhisamayiilarrikara] :
That by which he impartially carries out
Diverse benefits for the world
For as long as the world exists
Is the uninterrupted nirmiiJJa[kiiya] of [ S akya]muni.
(TRA 34 = AA VIII.33)
That body (kiiya) of [ S akya]muni
Which consists of thirty-two marks and eighty signs
Is regarded as the body of enj oyment (i.e . , the sambhogakiiya)
Because he enjoys the Mahayana [through it] .
(TRA 35 = AA VIII. 1 2)
187 This in accordance with Vajraparii ' s commentary (GPKU B 299a2 , D 1 69b , P
5
190b5 ) : " [Their] compassion is without a focus, since they concentrate their mind by not
focusing on any phenomenon whatsoever." (chos thams cad cir yang mi dmigs par yid
la byed pas na (B ni) mi dmigs pa 'i snying rje 'o I). It would be also possible to read
amanaskara- instead of manaskiira. If the reading adhigamo of N and T (which is
supported by the Tibetan) was followed, and ciilambanii changed into ciiniilambano
(i.e. , as depending on adhigamo) , the context would require to read naisvabhiivya- or
nisvabhiivatii- instead of nisvabhiivii in compound. According to the Amanasikiirii
dhiira the concentration (manaskiira or manasikiira) on essencelessness is one possible
meaning of amanasikiira, the privative a standing for anutpiida and thus emptiness.
Such a reading would result in "And for those with superior faculties compassion is
without a focus, [their] realization of phenomena through concentrating on essenceless
ness being without a focus." (adhimiitrasya ciiniilambano naisvabhiivyamanaskiiradha
rmiidhigamo 'niilambanii karw:zii I).
Tib. : "But for those with superior faculties (i.e., the Madhyamikas) , there is no object of
reference. The realization [attained] by directing one' s attention to phenomena as lack
ing an own-being is compassion without an object of reference. "
1 88 Supplied from the Tibetan.

74

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The uncontaminated qualities (dharmas)


Attained as purity in every aspectThe natural body (svabhavikakaya) of [ S akya]muni
Has the defining characteristic of their nature.
(TRA 3 6 = AA VIII. I )

[Mahayana, Mantranaya]
The tradition of mantras is not explained by us here for the following
reasons : it is very profound and a subject [only] for persons who have
confidence in [this] profound tradition, and the presentation of [the
means of] accomplishment-the four seals and the like-is extensive.
Thus [it is stated in the *Nayatrayapradfpa] :
It has the same goal [as Paramitanaya] , but is free from confu
s10n,
Rich in [skillful] means and without difficulties .
Moreover, it is [only] fit for those with sharp faculties .
The treatises o f Mantra[naya] are thus superior. (TRA 37)
A text named Sekanin:iaya (i.e . , the Sekanirdea) has been composed by
us concerning this matter.

[Mahayana Hermeneutics]
If that, which is to be practised as the ultimate, is only ascertained
through Mahayana, why did the illustrious one then teach the vehicles
of the S ravakas and Pratyekabuddhas? It is not [as one might think] , for
the two staircases of the S ravaka- and Pratyekabuddhayana have been
provided only for the sake of realizing Mahayana, which is the [only]
appropriate goal. 189 This is taught [in Alokamala, verse 1 76] :

18 9 Tib . : "They are [for] those of inferior intellect. In order that they might realize
Mahayana, which is the [only] appropriate goal, he taught [the lower vehicles in pro
gressive order, arranging them] like the steps of a staircase. "

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

75

The perfect Buddhas taught these means


[In progressive order arranged] like the steps of a staircase,
In order to introduce the beginner
To the ultimate meaning. (TRA 38 = AM 1 76)
In

the Saddharmapu7:1arfka, too, it is stated:


The leaders have a single vehicle,
A single tradition, and a single teaching.
It is due to my (i.e. , the Buddha ' s) true skill in means
That I teach the three vehicles . (TRA 39)

Venerable Nagarjuna, too, says [in his Niraupamyastava, verse 2 1 ] :


Master, since there i s no differentiation in the dharmadhatu,
There is no [real] difference between the vehicles , either.
You have taught the three vehicles
For introducing sentient beings . (TRA 40 = NS 2 1 )
In other [treatises] , too, [e.g . , in Pramii7:1aviirttika II.253cd] it i s stated:
Liberation is through 190 the view of emptiness. 191
The remaining forms of meditation have this [view] as their
goal. (TRA 4 1 = PV II.253cd)
This light of the three vehicles is [our] emptiness, which is being inves
tigated [here] . It should be understood in accordance with the illustrious
one. 192 This is as [stated in Niraupamyastava, verse 7] :
Master ! You did not teach anything,
Not even a single word, 193

i 9o Skt: "from the view of emptiness."


t 9 t The Tibetan has an extra line: "Not knowing it, one is bound. "
t 92 Tib.: "Because the illustrious one has analyzed it for the sake of the sentient beings
through distinguishing general and specific thoughts. "
t 93 Tib.: "Master! In [one] teaching o f yours you did not speak a single word,"

76

THE AMANAS/KARA CYCLE

Yet you satisfied all disciples who need to be trained


With the rain of Dharma. (TRA 42 = NS 7)
Like a wish-fulfilling jewel, it (i.e., the perfection of benefitting
others)
Is not stirred by the fierce wind of every volition,
In this way it fulfills without exception
The wishes of all sentient beings . (TRA 43 = KDN 4)
With the dynamic of a turning wheel
The teaching of the protector goes on
Even without [his giving any] thought [to it] , according to the
capacity
[Of his disciples] , as reflected in their different degrees of ac
cumulation. (TRA 44)
As long as the [ordinary] mind continues
There is no ending of the vehicles .
But once the mind is transformed,
There is neither a vehicle nor a wayfaring.
(TRA 45 = LAS X.458)
Stainless speech has here been strung together
Out of jewels from the genuine Dharma.
0 wise ones ! [This] jewel garland of true reality
Should be kept in your heart for the sake of your delight !
(TRA 46)
I, who am fond of concise summaries
And hate weighty tomes, [composed this work] ;
You learned ones who are fond of weighty tomes ! Pardon me
That I did not speak extensively on this [subject] ! (TRA 47)
Requested by fortunate ones, I composed with effort
This [text of] unsurpassable meaning.
May future sentient beings attain [nearly] unattainable bud
dha[hood]
Through the merit thus accumulated by me ! (TRA 48)

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

77

The Ta ttvaratniivalf is ended. This work is by a pm;i9-ita and renunciant,


the venerable Advayavajra.
Translated and finalized by the Indian par.i9-ita Vajrapar.ii and the Tibet
an translator monk Tshul khrims rgyal ba.
End of the Translation

An Analysis of Maitripa ' s Madhyamaka of Non-Abiding 194


Maitripa begins his Tattvaratniivalf by pointing out that there are three
vehicles ( S ravakayana, Pratyekabuddhayana, and Mahayana) and four
tenets (Vaibhaika, S autrantika, Yogacara, and Madhyamaka) . The Ma
hayana is further divided into the tradition (naya) of piiramitiis and the
tradition of mantras. While the tradition of piiramitiis can be pursued
either on the basis of S autrantika, Y ogacara, or Madhyamaka, the tradi
tion of mantras is in line only with the tenets of Y ogacara and/or
Madhyamaka. The latter is further subdivided into the tenets of Mayo
pamadvaya ("non-duality in the sense [of everything being] like an illu
sion") and the one of Apratithana ("non-abiding") . It is clear that
Apratithana Madhyamaka is considered the highest tenet within the
tradition of mantras. The latter is not considered to be a vehicle differ
ent from Mahayana, but rather in conformity with Y ogacara and/or
Madhyamaka. It should be noted, however, that Vajrapar.ii, one of the
four main disciples of Maitripa, 195 summarizes this part of the Tattva
ratniivalf with the interesting comment that the distinction among three
vehicles and four tenets is only made for the benefit of gradualists , who
are considered inferior:
In order that sentient beings of inferior intellect may realize
[true reality] , I shall summarize all [tenets on] true reality, writ
ing down just a little. [But] first of all, there are two types of
persons , the monkey-like and the crow-like . The monkey-like
enters upon [true reality] gradually, whereas the crow-like ent 94 The basis of this analysis has been Mathes 2007:55 1 -62.
1 95 See Roerich 1949-5 3 : 842.

78

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

ters upon it instantaneously. Thinking of those who enter upon


[true reality] gradually, the three vehicles [are presented] . They
are the S ravakayana, Pratyekabuddhayana, and Mahayana. 196
In other words , there is only one reality, and it can be realized instanta
neously. Everything else is a provisional presentation that offers rungs
for those who need a ladder. This passage from Vajrapal_li ' s commen
tary provides perfect doctrinal support for Kong sprul ' s and Karma
bKra shis chos 'phel ' s essence mahamudra. It should be further noted
that Vajrapal_li divides Mahayana-from well within a gradualist sys
tem-into a causal vehicle of defining characteristics and the Vajrayana
of fruition. 197
In our systematic descriptions of Indian Madhyamaka, most follow the
Tibetan doxographical distinction between Svatantrika and Prasa:rigika
which was not only not made in India, but also remained a controversial
issue in Tibet. While Tsong kha pa ( 1 357- 1 41 9) made much of this dis
tinction, arguing that contrary to the Prasa:rigikas the Svatantrika admit
ted that "factors of existence" (dharma) exist in terms of actualities
(svalakw:ia) on the level of apparent truth, Go rams pa bSod nams seng
ge ( 1 429- 1489) for one denied such ontological differences , claiming
that it is only the Svatantrika' s use of "autonomous logical reasons"
(svatantrahetu) in proving emptiness that differs from the Prasa:rigika
approach. 198 During the first propagation of Buddhism in Tibet, Ma
dhyamaka was divided into mDo sde pa 'i dbu ma (Sautrantika-Madhya
maka) and rNal 'byor spyod pa 'i dbu ma (Yogacara-Madhyamaka) ,
depending on whether on a relative level the existence of external ob
jects was accepted or not. This at least follows from Ye shes sde ' s !Ta
1 9 6 GPKU (B 290b _ , D 1 64b , P 1 84b _ ) : blo dman skye bos rtogs bya 'i phyir 1 1 de
35
57
46
nyid thams cad mdor bsdus nas 1 1 cung zad tsam zhig bri bar bya 1 1 re zhig gang zag ni
gnyis te I spre 'u !ta bu dang I khwa ta lta bu 'o 1 1 spre 'u !ta bu ni rim gyis 'jug pa 'o 1 1
khwa ta !ta bu ni cig car 'jug pa 'o 1 1 rim gyis 'jug pa 'i dbang du byas na theg pa ni
gsum ste I nyan thos kyi theg pa dang I rang sangs rgyas gyi theg pa dang I theg pa chen
po 'o I
a B car du
1 97 GPKU (B 29 l a , D 1 64b , P 1 85a _ ) : theg pa chen po la 'ang gnyis te I rgyu mtshan
12
3
7
nyid kyi theg pa dang I 'bras bu rdo rje 'i theg pa ' o I
1 9 8 See Dreyfus and McClintock 2003.

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

79

ba 'i khyad par. Ye shes sde was a famous translator and scholar work
ing towards the end of the first phase of propagation (around 800 AD) .

Later, during the second propagation, these two Madhyamaka positions


were subsumed under Svatantrika within the division into Svatantrika
199
and Pras ailgika.
In eleventh century India we then had something similar to the Svatan
trika/Prasailgika divide, namely Maitripa' s division of Madhyamaka
into Mayopamadvayavada and Apratithanavada. This classification of
Madhyamaka is also found in the *Paramiirthabodhicittabhiivaniikrama
as crib ed to a certain Asvaghoa or S ura, Candraharipada ' s Ratnamii
la, 200 and as Almogi (2010: 1 37) observes , in Jfianavajra ' s *Tattvamii
rgadarana. Almogi also identified a passage in Atia ' s Bka ' gdams bu
chos in which our two tenets are called "Madhyamaka in which [phe
nomena] are mere appearance" (snang ba tsam gyi dbu ma) and "Ma
dhyamaka of Apratithana" (in the sense that the dharmatii of phenom
ena has never abided) .
The understanding of Mayopamadvaya and Apratithana in India was in
no way homogeneous, but one could say that the former positively de
termines the nature of phenomena as illusion-like, while the latter re
jects such attempts , not taking a position about the ultimate at all. 20 1 A
number of Tibetan master, such as bCom ldan rig pa ' i ral gri ( 1 2271305), sTag tshang Lo tsa ba, mKhas grub rje ( 1 385- 1438) and ' Ju Mi
pham rnam rgyal rgya mtsho ( 1 846- 1 9 1 2) thus equated Mayopa
madvaya to Svatantrika, and Apratithana to Prasailgika. Klong chen pa
(1 308- 1 3 64), on the other hand, subsumed both under Svatantrika. 202 In
her study on Rong zom Chos kyi bzang po ' s conception of Buddha
hood, Almogi comes to the conclusion, that Rong zom pa endorses
Apratithanavada in taking the stage of a Buddha as being the purified
dharmadhiitu only. Conceptions of Buddhahood which include constit
uents other than the purified dharmadhiitu are Mayopamadvayavada as

1 99 Seyfort Ruegg 1 9 8 1 :59.


200 Seyfort Ruegg 2000: 34 (according to Almogi 20 10: 1 37).
20 1 Almogi 20 10: 1 8 3 .
202 Almogi 20 10: 170.

80

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

23
they include elements of Yogacara-Madhyamaka. 0 rNgog Blo ldan
shes rab ( 1 059- 1 1 09) and Tsong kha pa ( 1 357- 1 4 1 9) rejected Mayo
pamadvaya and Apratithana as inappropriate descriptions of the two
branches of Madhyamaka. 204
The term "non-abiding" (apratithana) is attested early on, however, in
such texts as the Saptasatika Prajnaparamita, where it is equated with
meditation on the perfection of insight:
The illustrious one asked: "When you, MafijusrI, cultivate (i.e.,
meditate on) the perfection of insight, on what do you rely?"
MafijusrI answered: "Illustrious one, when I cultivate the per
fection of insight, I do this without being fixed [on anything] . "
The illustrious one asked: "MafijusrI, what is the cultivation of
the perfection of insight for you who are not fixed [on any
thing] ?" MafijusrI answered: "Illustrious one, this precisely is
the cultivation of the perfection of insight, i.e . , the non-abiding
in anything. "205
Maitrip a ' s disciple Ramapala quotes this passage in his commentary on
the Sekanirdea (SN 36) in order to illustrate the close relation between
apratithana and the mahamudra practice of amanasikara. As we will
see in the Amanasikaradhara, this does also involve self-empowerment
within, or realization of, luminous emptiness. In his commentary on the
Tattvadaaka, Maitripa's disciple *Sahajavajra explains luminosity as
self-awareness.
As a preparation for such a direct insight it is essential not to fabricate
any superimposition or wrong denial, and it is in this context that Mai2 03 Almogi 2009 :4 1 .
2 04 Seyfort Ruegg 198 1 :59.
2 05 SNP 197 _ 1 : tad uktaY(l saptaatikayam - bhagavan aha I yasmin samaye tvaY(l ma
8 4
iijufrfl:t prajiiaparamitaY(l bhavayasi tada kutra prafi:fthaya prajiiaparamitaY(l bhavayasi I
maiijurfr aha I yasminn ahaY(l bhagavan samaye prajiiaparamitaY(l bhavayami I aprati
:fthito 'ham tasmin samaye prajiiaparamitaY(l bhavayami I bhagavan aha I aprati:fthitasya
te maiijufrfl:t ka prajnaparamitabhavana I maiijufrfr aha I saiva bhagavan prajiiapara
mitabhavana yan na kvacitprati:fthanam I. My English translation is taken from Mathes
20 1 3 :287.

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

81

tripa favours the Madhyamaka "tenet of not abiding in any phenomena"


over the inferior Madhyamaka "tenet of non-duality [in the sense of
ev erything being] like an illusion" . Not to abide in any phenomena
means that there is no ground in any phenomenon upon which the latter
can be superimposed in any conceivable way. This is very clear from
the Sekanirdeapaiijikti of Ramapala (one of the four main disciples of
Maitripa) , 206 who glosses apratithana as "not to superimpose [any
thing] " and amanasiktira.207 In the corresponding root text, Sekanirdea,
verse 29ab, Maitripa informs us that mahtimudrti is known as " [the
practice of] not abiding (apratithtina) in anything . " In other words , the
yogin simply refrains from projecting wrong notions (such as an inde
pendent existence or characteristic signs) onto anything arisen in de
pendence , whether skandhas, dhtitus or tiyatanas.208 Philosophically,
this amounts to the Prasailgika attitude of not postulating any position
of one ' s own, and in fact, for ' B a ' ra ba rGyal mtshan dpal bzang
( 1 3 1 0- 1 3 9 1 ) , the Madhyamaka of non-abiding is identical with Pra
sailgika. 209
The presentation of the Madhyamaka of non-abiding in the Tattva
ratntivalf starts with an examination (victira) of this tenet in six verses .
This is followed by a warning about the possible danger of the related
samtidhi (described as adopting the view that nothing exists at all, being
in a state of dull nothingness) and a presentation of the fruit, namely the
three ktiyas. In the following we shall take a closer look at the first three
of these six verses . The first one is identical with Mahtiytinavif(lsikti,
verse 4, the second is similar to Sekanirdea, verse 29, and the third is
identical with Sekanirdesa, verse 32. 21 0
The Tibetan commentary on the Tattvaratntivalf in the 'Bri gung bka '
brgyud chos mdzod (namely the Rin chen phreng ba 'i bshad pa, proba

bly by Ti pi ' bum la ' bar21 1 ) starts its elucidation of these six verses on

206 See Roerich 1 949-53 : 842.


207 See Mathes 2007 :547.
208 See Mathes 2007 :547.
209 Mimaki 1982:34.
210 As already pointed out by Tatz ( 1 994: 1 09, fn. 57).
211 The "Rin chen phreng ba'i bshad pa" is contained in vol. ka of the 'Bri gung bka '
brgyud chos mdzod.

82

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Apratithana by first explaining the introductory sentence in the Tattva

ratniivalf:
The goal of comprehension is the [two] inseparable truth[s] . As
for true reality, it is appearances in their entirety-[namely] the
mind-and what is simply beyond all mental fabrication. The
appearance aspect of it is what is called "apparent [truth]" and
the aspect of it that is free from [mental] fabrication is called
"ultimate [truth] ". And these two are connected [with one an
other] to the point of [constituting] an identity, just as what is
created and what is impermanent are. 212
In other words , the main stance of this Madhyamaka tenet is that the
apparent and ultimate must be taken as aspects of the same true reality,
and thus as sharing an identity . This finds support in Maitripa ' s Aprati
$?hiinaprakaa, verse 7 :
The very arising o f phenomena i s inconceivable
[Even] through original awareness .
This very [arising] is called emptiness
Without falling into [the extreme of] nihilism. (APP 7)
The last line "without falling into [the extreme of] nihilism" excludes
the possibility that the arising of phenomena is simply being negated
here. Calling it emptiness allows it, rather, to be admitted as dependent
arising. 213 In other words, the equation of the apparent (i. e . , dependent
arising) with emptiness is taken as implying that any superimposition or
denial of the members of dependent arising, that is , the mere appear
ances-which are not abandoned in Apratithanavada (see below)
result in sa:qisaric experiences of the apparent (the "mere arising" of
phenomena in line 7a) , whereas the absence of superimposition and
212 "Rin chen phreng ba'i bshad pa," 1 95b _ : gzhal bya ni bden pa dbyer med do 1 1 de
12
kho na nyid ni snang ba thams cad sems yin la I sems kyis spros pa thams cad las 'das pa
tsam zhig ste I snang ba 'i cha nas kun rdzob zhes bya zhing 1 spros pa dang bra! ba 'i cha
nas don dam zhes bya ste I de gnyis kyang byas pa dang mi rtag pa ltar bdag cig pa 'i
'brel pa 'o II
21 3 See MMK XXIV. 1 8ab: yal:z pratftyasamutpadal:z itnyatarri tarri pracakmahe I

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

83

denial-or "non-abiding"-reveals dependent arising for what i t i s ,


namely emptines s .
In

the first verse o f the section o n the Madhyamaka o f non-abiding


(TRA 28), Maitripa thus denies the four ontological possibilities of rei
fying or denying the phenomenal world on the basis of a tetralemma
formed with the pair "eternal" (avata) and "annihilated" (ucchedin).
The ' Bri gung commentary does not go into all the four, but simply
explains that "eternal" does not apply, for nothing is established in its
own right, whereas nihilism is ruled out on the grounds that the appear
ances of the apparent truth have not been abandoned. 214 The refutation
of the third and fourth possibilities is not commented upon, but the third
(i.e., something is existent and non-existent at the same time) can be
ruled out on the grounds that the combination of two impossible posi
tions is likewise impossible. The fourth extreme, namely a negation of
this combination ("nor can it be that neither is the case") must be sus
pended because the manifold world cannot be posited as something
indeterminate, 215 namely as something in between the extremes , for this
would be a mental fabrication, from which type of construction true
reality is considered to be free. B eing a result fabricated by analytical
activity, this fourth extreme should not be confounded with the realiza
tion of true reality beyond the four extremes of mental fabrication. This
is clear from the Mahiiyanavirrzsika, in which Maitripa introduces his
Mahayana presentation of the fruit or the indivisible union (yuganad
dha) by repeating the first verse from the section on non-abiding. In the
verse which follows in the Mahayanavirrzsika (in lines 5ab) Maitripa
adds the following explanation:
Knowers of reality know true reality
Which is free from the four extremes . (MV 5ab)

21 4 "Rin chen phreng ba'i bshad pa," 195b : '"ucchedin ' should not be taken as the mere
3
interruption of existence, but as a synonym of utter non-existence. 'Is not said' [means :]
the appearances of the apparent [truth] have not been abandoned. " (chad pa ni yod pa
rgyun chad pa tsam la mi bya 'i II med pa tsam gyi (text: gyis) rnam grangs du bya 'o II
khas mi Zen ces pa ni II kun rdzob kyi snang ba mi spangs pa 'o II).
2 1 5 See Seyfort Ruegg 198 1 :39.

84

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

What this true reality precisely relates to, is explained in the three in
troductory verses of the Mahayanavif(lsika. The first two define the goal
as the original/natural kaya (nijakaya), which is the nature of the three
kayas (sometimes equated with the svabhavikakaya) , and in the third
verse Maitripa declares:
The seeing of this [nijakaya] is deep insight ( vipasyana),
Given that no [ thing] is superimposed.
This will be explained now
In accordance with the Mantrayana (i.e., Mantranaya) . (MV 3)

In other words , to see (without superimposition) the original kaya is


equated in MV 4a-5b with knowing a reality which is beyond the onto
logical possibilities expressed in the tetralemma. As already pointed out
above, the third introductory verse is particularly noteworthy, for the
only thing tantric about this general exposition of the Mahayana goal is
a vipasyana practice of seeing without superimposition, that is, seeking
to realize the possibility of attaining direct perceptions of true reality,
mind ' s true nature. One could argue that this coincides with ' Gos Lo tsa
ba gZhon nu dpal ' s and Kong sprul Blo gros mtha' yas ' s sutra-based
mahamudra, which is also regarded as being in accord with Mantra
naya.
In the second verse of the section on non-abiding (TRA 29) , Maitripa
claims that the true reality of things can only be known by avoiding not
falling into the extremes of the tetralemma formulated in the preceding
verse 28, and this is not achieved by only thinking about doing it. That
realization of true reality depends upon holding back from all extremes
recalls Sekanirdea, verse 29, where such a practice (i.e., apratithana)
is called mahamudra:
Not to abide in anything
Is known as mahamudra.
Because self-awareness [i.e . , mahamudra] is stainless,
[The moments of enjoying] manifold [appearances] and so forth
do not arise. (SN 29)
In his commentary on this verse, Ramapala quotes two passages from
the Jnanalokalaf(lkara, in which amanasikara is taken to be virtous, and

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

85

the B uddha praised as someone who mastered amanasikara.2 16 This is


then followed by the remarkable statement that this (i.e. , amanasikara)
is a possible practice, because through the kindness of the guru,
mahamudra can be made directly manifest. 217
The third verse of the section on non-abiding (TRA 30) is the same as
verse 32 in the Sekanirdea. In his commentary on the latter, Ramapala
explains that only Apratithana-Madhyamaka fully denies any form of
sup erimposition, while Vijfianavada still has a trace of superimposition
in that the real existence of consciousness [is maintained] . 218 The ' Bri
gung commentary provides the additional information that it is the ap
p earance as such which is taken to be free from superimposition for
Maitripa and his followers, whereas the proponents of Cittamatra, be
they S akara or Nirakara, equate superimposition with the imagined na
ture. 219
The differences vis-a-vis Cittamatra and Mayopamadvayavada are also
delineated in Maitripa ' s Pancatathagatamudravivarm;,a, where the five
skandhas (equated with the five Tathagatas) are said to be sealed with
Akobhya in order to make one realize that all skandhas are only mind.
Akobhya, in turn, is sealed with Vajrasattva in order to exclude the
ultimate existence of non-dual mind. Freed from the thorn of ultimate
existence, the result, namely Madhyamaka of non-abiding, is pro
claimed to be superior. Maitripa quickly proceeds to rule out the possi
ble objection that this is not the Madhyamaka of non-abiding, because
Mayopamadvaya awareness is still maintained. In other words , aware
ness may be taken as non-dual (Cittamatra) , or even as not existent
(Mayopamadvayavada) on the ultimate level; in the Madhyamaka of
non-abiding it holds no privileged status at all. Arising in dependence, it
is not grounded, any more than anything else is .
2 16 The verse is part of the interpolation in the definition of mahamudrii in the Caturmu
driinvaya (see below).
2 1 7 See Mathes 2007:554-56.
2 18 See Mathes 2007:556-57.
2 1 9 "Rin chen phreng ba'i bshad pa," 195b _ : kho bo cag !tar na dbu ma 'i don ni snang
56
ba sgro btags dang bral ba zhig la bya 'o 1 1 gal te de !ta na rnam bcas dang rnam med
pa 'i sems tsam pa dag na re I sgro btags ni kun btags yin pas de med par kho bo cag
'dod ces rtsod pa dang I . . . .

86

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The last line of the third verse in the section on non-abiding ("Where is
then denial or the establishing [of anything] ?") is consequently taken in
the following way :
Appearances not having been abandoned, there i s n o denial, and
given the absence of superimposition there is no establishing of
anything either. 220
This raises the question whether such statements are not already super
impositions on their own, and the answer in the ' Bri gung commentary
is:
This [state of] intellect which is free from superimposition must
be realized by an inconceivable intellect. 221
In other words , a mind which does not superimpose cannot be totally
understood through analytical thought processes, but only by some in
conceivable intellect, or as the fourth verse of our section on non
abiding (TRA 3 1 ) puts it, through effortless wisdom. In this fourth
verse, which is also verse 30 of the Sekanirdea (see below), Maitripa
stresses the inconceivable nature of wisdom. According to the topical
outline which was noted down by Ti pi ' bum la 'bar, it refers to the
"freedom from the extreme of characteristic signs . " 222 Maitripa clearly
anticipates the possible objection that thinking about the inconceivable
is in itself an obstacle. An answer is not given in the root text, but
Ramapala explains, that inconceivable wisdom does not arise from
analysis , but occurs within its own sphere. 223 In his *Tattvadasatfka
*S ahaj avajra quotes this verse as a summary of quotations from the
Samadhirajasiltra (SRS XXXII.92-97b & 98- 1 05), which follow his
statement that mahamudra in Sekanirdesa 36 stands for the pith
instructions on the reality of mahamudra.
220 Op. cit. , 1 96a _ : de ltar na snang ba mi spangs pas dgag du med pa la I sgro mi 'dogs
34
pas bsgrubs du yang med do I
221 Op. cit. , 196a : sgro btags dang bral ba 'i blo de bsam gyis mi khyab pa 'i blos rtogs
4
par bya ba yin la I
222 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, 82a _ : mtshan ma 'i mtha ' dang bral ba I
23
223 See Mathes 2007 :556.

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

87

The fifth verse on non-abiding is identical with Sekanirdea, verse 34.


In it, Maitripa maintains an access to the true original state through
one ' s realization of mind ' s purity . According to the topical outline
whi ch was noted down by Ti pi ' bum la ' bar, the verse is about teaching
one ' s own realization to others (see below) . The sixth and last verse on
non-abiding nicely summarizes the Madhyamaka meaning of non
arising in stressing the fact that true reality only manifests in its own
accord when entirely free from from all superimpositions.
In his *Guruparampariikramopadea,224 Vajrapai:ii comments only the
first three verses on non-abiding. He starts out by quoting one of the
most famous verses in Mahayana literature :
There is nothing to be removed from it225 and nothing to be add
ed.
The real should be seen as real, and seeing the real, one be
comes liberated. 226
Based on this, Vajrapai:ii advises readers to neither superimpose nor
deny true existence by asserting non-existence. 227 The question is , of
course, what it is precisely from which nothing needs to be removed
and to what nothing should be added, or rather what it is that should not
be superimposed as existent or denied as non-existent. The standard
Madhyamaka answer is "phenomena, " which are neither superimposed
as something possessing an independent existence nor denied as some224 The *Guruparamparakrama- Upadea is only available in its Tibetan translation
performed by the Indian PaJ.lcJita Dharijfiana and the Tibetan translator 'Brog mi Jo sras.
225 Tib. 'di la should be corrected into 'di las on the basis of the Sanskrit.
226 GPKU (B 298a , D 1 69a , P 1 90a ) : 'di la bsal bya ci yang med 1 1 gzhag par bya ba
1
2
3
gang yang med 1 1 yang dag nyid la yang dag blta 1 1 yang dag mthong na mam par grol I
The verse in the Ratnagotravibhagavyakhya (RGVV 76 1 _2 ) is as follows : napaneyam
ataf:i kiY(lcid upaneyaY(l na kiY(lcana I dra!ftavyaY(l bhutato bhataY(l bhatadarfr vimucyate II
In the AbhisamayalaY(lkara ( AA 32 1 _ 1 6 ) the reading is as follows : napaneyam ataf:i
5
kiyticit prak!feptavyaY(l na kiY(lcana I dra!ftavyaY(l bhutato bhutaY(l bhutadarsf vimucyate II
227 GPKU (B 298a - o D 1 69a , P 1 90a _ ) : "Therefore one abides neither in the reifica
12
23
3
tion of [something as truly] existent nor in the denial of [something as if it were] non
existent." (zhes bya bas I yod pa 'i sgro 'dogs pa" dang I med pa 'i skur pa 'debs pa la mi
gnas (bpa stebl j)
' DP om. b DP te

88

THE AMANA SIKARA CYCLE

thing that has arisen in dependence on the level of apparent truth. The
second answer, representative of the teachings of the third dharma
cakra, is "the ultimate reality of a buddha nature," to which no qualities
need to be added and from which no adventitious stains (which consti
tute the phenomenal world) need to be removed, for the latter do not
impair the buddha element. It is these adventitious stains which are not
superimposed here, while the buddha nature is not denied. In the first
case, one would think of Abhisamayalarrikara, verse V.2 1 , and in the
second of Ratnagotravibhaga, verse I. 1 54. Vajrapfu).i ' s commentary is
in fact closer to Haribhadra ' s Abhisamayalarrikaravrtti on V.2 1 , which
is as follows:
Since liberation is not possible, then, [in combination] with an
obstinate clinging to entities , one needs to ascertain that forms
and the other [skandhas] are things dependently arisen, exist in
fact, [only] conventionally, lack an own-being and so forth. In
doing so, one has not, with regard to any phenomenon, either
removed or added anything by way of [wrong] denial or super
imposition. 228
In line with this understanding, Vajrapai;ii first takes the manifold ap
pearances of dependent arising and their emptiness as being inseparably
linked, just as the "non-existence of water" and the "appearance of wa
ter" in a mirage :
The appearance of water in a mirage contains no water; it is
empty of water. It is the non-existence of water which appears
as water. The appearance of water and its non-existence are not
separate. 229

228 AAV Sphutartha 72 1 _ : yasmad evaYf1 bhavabhiniveena mukter anupapattir ato apa
3
vadasamaropariipam apanayanaprak!fepaYf1 kasyacid dharmasyakrtva idam eva pratf
tyasamutpanna1?7 saYf1vrtya tathyanlpaYf1 rupadi nif:tsvabhavadiriipato ninlpa1:1yam I
229 GPKU (B 298a , D 1 69a5 , P 1 90a ) : smig rgyu la chur snang ba nyid la <achu med
5
4
de chusl stong la I chu med pa nyid chur snang ste I chur snang ha dang chu med pa
gnyis <btha dad pa mabl yin noc I
" D chu yis b B tha mi dad pa c D la
. . .

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

89

S uch a presentation harbours the danger of superimposing emptines s .


Vaj rapar.ii warns u s that the latter does not subsist independently o f the
appe arance, just as there is no longer any fire once the fuel has been
exhauste d:
An appearance and [its] emptiness in terms of an own-being are
not separate. When various [logs] of firewood are burning, for
example, they [all] are one in partaking in the nature of fire.
Eventually the firewood will be exhausted, but no "fire-ness"
will remain. Likewise, once the state of manifold appearances
has been established as emptiness by reasoning, [the appearanc
es] are neither established as entities , nor does emptiness re
main. 23 0
Appearances are thus only provisionally called empty. In terms of de
finitive meaning they do not abide, any more then emptiness does. Va
jrapar.ii summarizes his analysis of Apratithanavada in the following
way:
In order to refute the conceptual adherence of [followers of]
other [tenets] , or [in other words] terminate superimposition and
denial, [appearances] are called empty, unarisen and non-dual in
a provisional sense. But these [attributions] do not remain [val
id] in a definitive sense for those who are expert. 23 1
In

his analysis , Vajrapar.ii fails to address the second part of the above
celebrated Mahayana verse proclaiming that nothing is added or re
moved (i.e., the real should be seen as real, and seeing the real, one
230 GPKU (B 298a6 -b 1 , D 1 69a6 _ , P 1 90a _6 ) : snang ba rang bzhin med pa 'i a stong pa
5
7
nyid ni tha mi dad dab I dper na bud shing du ma mes bsregs na me 'i ngo bor gcig ste I de
nas bud shing zad pa dang me nyid mi gnas so I de bzhin du sna tshogs su snang ba nyid
rigsc pas stong pa nyid du byas nasd dngos pore ma grub pa dang I stong pa nyid kyang
mi gnas so I
a DP pa b P de c B rig d B na e DP po
23 1 GPKU (B 298b ; D 1 69arb , P 190a ) : gzhan gyi zhen pa bzlog pa 'am I sgro skur
1
2
7
gcad pa 'am I drang ba 'i don du stong pa dang skye ba med pa Cgnyis su med pal zhes
brjod kyi I mkhas pas gzhalb pa 'am I nges pa 'i don du de nyid mi gnas te I
" DP om. b D btsal P gcal
..

90

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

becomes liberated) , but in his explanation of the view (defined as work


ing for the sake of sentient beings after purifying the first five piira
mitiis with the help of prajiiiipiiramitii, which is free from superimposi
tion and denial232) it is the non-abiding in any superimposition or denial
which is taken as the knowledge of true reality:
Given that it is the nature of all phenomena not to have arisen in
terms of an own-being, they do not abide in either [extreme of]
existence or non-existence. Therefore, not to abide in any super
imposition and denial [of them as] existent or non-existent is the
know ledge of true reality. 233
Vajrapai;ii does not say anything about true reality itself. This would be
counter-productive when describing a practice which strictly avoids
superimposition and denial. Still, when Maitripa maintains in Mahii
yiinavif!Lsikii, verse 3 , that the original nature of the three kiiyas (i.e., the
nijakiiya) is seen in vipasyanii by avoiding any superimposition, an in
terpretation along the lines of the Ratnagotravibhiiga (i.e., the third
dharmacakra) is required. The buddha element together with its insepa
rable qualities constitute true reality, corresponding to the nijakiiya, and
to deny or superimpose the experience of any aspect of this latter would
lead the yogin astray, just as denying or reifying the appearances of the
ordinary world would. Vajrapai;ii does in fact follow such an interpreta
tion when he explains in his presentation of mahiimudrii that the latter is
not different from conceptual thought, just as a rope and its wrong ap
pearance as a snake:
As long as one fails to realize that it is a rope, it appears to be a
snake, but once one realizes [the truth, it is clear] that its nature
of appearing to be a snake is [shared with that of being] a rope.
2 32 GPKU (B 298b _ , D 1 69an P 1 90b 1 _ ) : sgro skur med pa dang zhen pa med pa 'i
2
45
shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pas pha rol tu phyin pa Inga mi dmigs pa gsum gyis 'khor
gs um poa yon gs su dag (bpar byas nasb) I sems can gyi don byed pa ni lta ba 'o I
a DP om. b DP dag pas
2 33 GPKU (B 298b -299a 1 , D 1 69b , P 1 90b _ ) : chos thams cad rang bzhin gyisa ma
6
4
34
skyes pa 'i ngo bo nyid kyis yod med gang yang mi gnas pas I yod med kyi sgro skur gang
du 'ang mi gnas pa ni de kho na nyid kyi shes pa 'o I
a DP du
..

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

91

The very rope is the snake . The snake does not need to re
moved, nor does anything of the rope need to be added. Like
wise, as long as one fails to realize mahamudra, which is the na
ture of the indivisible pair, it appears to be a conceptual varie
ty. 234 Once it is properly realized, its nature of [appearing to be]
a host of concepts is united into a pair with its nature of [being]
the non-conceptual. It is the non-conceptual (i. e . , mahamudra)
which appears to be a host of concepts . No thought whatsoever
needs to be removed here, nor does anything non-conceptual
need to be added. 235

Mahamudra is here taken as the true nature of mind, which is non


conceptual. Until one realizes this original state, mind appears to be an
endless flow of concepts . In terms of these two categories , the verse that
calls for neither removing nor adding anything can be regarded as being
in line with the Ratnagotravibhaga (verse 1. 1 54) , and just as the rope is
devoid of its mistaken appearance as a snake, or the original mind of the
stream of thought, so too the buddha element can be taken to be devoid
of adventitious stains . This is clear from Ratnagotravibhaga, verse
1. 1 5 5 , against the background of which verse 1. 1 54 must be understood:
The [buddha] element is empty of adventitious [stains] ,
Which have the defining characteristic of being separable;
But it is not empty of unsurpassable qualities ,
Which have the defining characteristic o f not being separable. 236
The Ratnagotravibhagavyakhya on verses 1. 1 54 and 1. 1 55 is as follows :
234 I.e., the manifold appearances of the world produced by false imagining.
235 GPKU (B 3 1 5b -3 1 6a , D 1 80a _ , P 203a _ ) : . . (athag parl ma rtogs nasb sbrul du
1
24
35
5
snang gi I rtogs na sbrul du snang ba 'i rang bzhin nyid (athag paal yin la I (athag paal nyid
sbrul lo I sbrul bsalc bar bya 'am I (thag paal gzhag par bya ba ci 'ang med do I de bzhin
du phyag rgya chen po zung du 'jug pa 'i rang bzhin ma rtogs nasd <ertog pael sna tshogs
su snang ste I yang dag par rtogs na rtol pad sna tshogs kyi rang bzhin nyid mi rtogg
pa 'i rang bzhin duh zung du 'jug pa yin la I mi rtogg pa nyid rtog pa sna tshogs su snang
ste I 'dir rtog pa bsal bar bya 'am I mi rtogg pa gzhag par bya ba ci 'ang med do I
' DP tha gur b DP par c D gsal d D na e DP om. f DP rtogs g D rtogs h D om.
236 RGVV 76 _ : siinya agantukair dhatuft savinirbhagalak:faJJ,aift I asiinyo 'nuttarair
34
dharmair avinirbhagalak:fm:iaift II
.

92

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

What is taught by that? There is no characteristic sign of any of


the defilements (sarriklea) whatsoever to be removed from this
naturally pure buddha element, for it is naturally devoid of ad
ventitious stains . Nor does anything need to be added to it in the
way of a characteristic sign (nimitta) of purification, for it is of
[such] a nature as to have pure properties which are inseparable
[from it] . . . . Thus one truly sees that something is empty of that
which does not exist in it, and one truly realizes that that which
remains in place is present, [and] hence exists there. Having
[thus] abandoned the extremes of superimposition and denial,
these two verses (RGV I. 1 54-55)) correctly elucidate the defin
ing characteristic of emptiness. 237
To sum up, one could argue that the second and third dharmacakras are
both definitive and do not contradict each other. When engaged in ana
lytical activities , one has to follow the second dharmacakra thereby
avoiding any extreme of superimposition and denial. With a direct ac
cess through the samadhi of knowing reality for what it is the yogin has
a genuine experience of reality as taught in the third dharmacakra. A
quotation of a part of verse II.6 1 from the Ratnagotravibhaga in Mai
tr!pa ' s Paiicakara proves that the Ratnagotravibhaga was indeed known
to Maitripa and as we have seen, the positive description of true reality
as luminosity requires to interpret the verse "There is nothing to be
removed from it and nothing to be added . . . " in the sense of the Ratna
gotravibhaga. Moreover, the Sekanirdeapaiijika and the *Tattvadasa
ka?fka clearly establish a doctrinal link between Maitrip a ' s mahamudra
of non-abiding with the AvikalpapraveadharalJf and thus, according to
' Gos Lo tsa ba gZhon nu dpal, the Dharmadharmatavibhaga and
Ratnagotravibhaga. 238
2 37 RGVV 76 _ : kim anena paridfpitam I yato na ki1J1cid apaneyam asty ataf:i prakrti
5 11
parisuddhiit tathiigatadhiitof:i sa1J1kleanimittam iigantukamalasunyatiiprakrtitviid asya I
niipy atra ki1ricid upaneyam asti vyavadiinanimittam avinirbhiigasuddhadharma
tiiaprakrtitviit I . . . evaYf1 yad yatra niisti tat tena sanyam iti samanupasyati I yat punar
atriivasi:ftaYf1 bhavati tat sad ihiistfti yathiibhata1J1 prajiiniiti I samaropiipaviidiinta
parivarjaniid aviparftaYj1b sunyatiilak:ja!}Gln anena slokadvayena paridfpitam I
a See RGVV (A) 19a4 and RGVV (B) 3% 3 . Johnston omits, probably inadvertently, tii-. b Corrected according to RGVV (A) 19a4 and RGVV (B) 39b 5 .
2 3 8 See my analysis of the Sekanirdea further down.

A JEWEL GARLAND OF TRUE REALITY

93

It is clear now why, after centuries of oblivion, the Ratnagotravibhaga


became so important for Maitripa. What had been problematic for
mainstream Buddhism in India, namely buddha nature taken as lumi
nosity and covered by a phenomenal world which consists of merely
adventitious stains, proved to be the perfect doctrinal foundation for
Maitripa' s mahamudra. Thus *S ahajavajra quotes the verse that calls
for neither removing nor adding anything 239 when explaining with re
gard to Tattvadaaka 3d ("Confusion is taken to be without a basis")
that confusion does not need to be removed like thorns . It should be
note d, that the Ratnagotravibhaga also endorses a non-analytical ap
24
pro ach to the luminous nature behind everything adventitious . 0
Besides Maitripa ' s positive understanding of emptiness as luminousity
it is at least noteworthy, that in the final paragraph of the Tattvaratna
valf Nagarjuna ' s Niraupamyastava, verse 2 1 , is quoted in order to en
dorse the view that there is ultimately only a single vehicle for all sen
tient beings to reach enlightenment. This follows for Nagarjuna because
the dharmadhatu lacks any differentiation. A closer look at the follow
ing verse shows Nagarjuna ' s positive understanding of the ultimate:
Your body made out of dharma (i.e . , the dharmakaya)
Is eternal, imperishable, peaceful, and victorious .
But, for the sake of people who need to be trained,
Cessation has been taught by you. 241 (NS 22)
Like Maitripa, Nagarjuna falls short in calling this buddha nature, but
the proximity to the four perfections of the dharmakaya (i.e. , the perfec
tions of self, permanence, purity, and bliss) taught for example in the
239 RGVV 76 1 : nilpaneyam atab kif!1cid upaneyaf!1 na kif!1cana I
240 In the introduction to RGVV on 1. 1 5 3 -55 this approach is defined as dharmatilyukti:
"Everywhere it is precisely the true nature of phenomena which is what is relied on
the reasoning-for an "accurate realization" (nges par rtogs pa) of the mind [and] for a
"correct knowledge" (yang dag par shes pa) of it. The true nature of phenomena is
inconceivable and unthinkable; it must [rather] be believed in." (RGVV 73 1 4_ 16 : sarvatra
dharmataiva pratiarm:zam I dharmataiva yukti cittanidhyilpanilya cittasaf!1jiiilpanilya I
sit na cintayitavyil na vikalpayitavyildhimoktavyeti I).
24 1 NS 22: nityo dhruvab sivab kiiyas tava dharmamayo jinab I vineyajanahetos ca
darsitil nirvrtis tvayil II

94

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

S rfmiiliidevfsiltra and elaborated in the Ratnagotravibhiiga and its


commentary is obvious . Drasko Mitrikeski sees these similarities , and
concludes that Nagarjuna must have been close to or acquainted with
the tathiigatagarbha teachings . B ased on formal considerations-such
as the frequent use of the vipulii exceptions in the anu$tubh metre typi
cal of the author of the Millamadhyamakakiirikiis-Mitrikeski also ar
gues for an attribution of the Niraupamyastava to Nagarjuna. 242

242 Mitrikeski 2009: 152-55.

6 . Explaining the Seals of the Five Tathagatas


(Paiicatathagatamudravivarw:za)

Translation of the Paiicatathiigatamudriivivara1,:ia (the text consists


of verses and prose):

Homage to the glorious Vajrasattva!


[The five skandhas] which arise in dependence are empty of the
imagined. 243
Empty of an own-being, they do not exist as something real. Not
being nothingness
They have the nature of the one (non-dual) mind with its mani
fold [aspects] .
[The skandhas of] matter and the rest are victorious in the form
of the five victorious ones. (PTMV 1 )
The five psycho-physical aggregates (skandhas) are the five Tathagatas .
The [first] four of them are sealed with Akobhya in order to estab
lish244 that they are consciousness only. Since exterior forms are thus
only mind, a perceived object does not exist, in which case the empti
ness of the perceiving subject also obtains . In view of this, conscious
ness alone abides as an ultimately existing mere awareness 245 per se,
which is free from perceived and perceiver. This is precisely the goal of
the Nirakaravadins-the wisdom of their main [practice ]-like the
stainless stretch of a midday-sky in autumn. 246 This is stated [in the fol
lowing] :
243 In accordance with the Tibetan (kun brtags), I take parikalpa in the sense of
parikalpita.
244 Tib.: " . . . so that one realizes . . "
245 Tib. : "experience."
246 Tib.: "The Nirakaravadins maintain [the existence of the] consciousness of [their]
main practice. It is like the stainless . . . . "
.

96

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

That which is empty of the imagined


Has neither appearance nor form.
It is but truly existing awareness 247 and bliss;
It is [also] the confusion of accumulating forms after [medita
tion] . (PTMV 2)
This is [also] stated [in Ratnagotravibhaga II. 6 1 b] :
[Here, the first one is the dharmakaya,]
And the latter two the form-kayas.
[These latter appear on the basis of the former,
Just as visible forms appear in space.] 248 (PTMV 3)
As well as [in the following] :
The dharmakaya of the great sage
Is free from mental fabrication and appearances .
The two form-kayas arise from it,
And thereafter abide as illusion. (PTMV 4=TRA 20)
[Objection: ] Since [emptiness] is [already] established by the seal of
Akobhya, what is then the use of the canonical passage : "Akobhya is
sealed with V ajrasattva"? To put it plainly, [this second sealing] serves
[the same] purpose of establishing the emptiness of imagined forms .
[Answer: ] It is not so, for [it is only the emptiness of the imagined
which] is established by the former seal (i.e., Akobhya' s) . Therefore,
just as wisdom249 is the main [practice and] the other (i. e . , conscious
ness) the [state attained] afterwards through the seal of Akobhya, so
consciousness, too, becomes the [state attained] afterwards through the

247 Tib . : "self-awareness. "


24 8 RGVV 88 1 - 1 : prathamo dharmakayo 'tra rupakayau tu pacimau I vyomni rapagata
3 4
syeva prathame 'ntyasya vartanam II
2 49 Tib . : "self-awareness. "

EXPLAINING THE SEALS OF THE FIVE TATHAGATAS

97

seal of Vajrasattva, [but] the vajra [of emptiness] is [now] the main
25
[practice] . 0 This is also stated in the Vajraekhara:
Emptiness is called the vajra,
Which is of a steadfast essence, not hollow,
Incombustible and indestructible,
And whose defining characteristics is to be indivisible and im
penetrable. (PTMV 5)
If one was [again] matter and the rest during [the state attained]
afterwards [arising]
From the wisdom of the main [practice performed] through the
seal of Akobhya,
Why, alas , is it not maintained that one would be [again] a hero
being (Vajrasattva)
During [the state attained] afterwards [arising from the practice
performed] through the seal of Vajra[sattva] ? (PTMV 6)
[Objection:] But if one was a hero-being during [the state attained] af
terwards, there would be the undesired consequence of proclaiming
annihilation because the [hero-being ' s] compassion would not exist
[during the next session of the main practice] . 251
[Reply: ] [The inseparable nature of emptiness and compassion, or vajra
and sattva] is maintained [in the following verses] :
Through vajra emptiness is taught.
Through sattva the state of wisdom only.
The identity of both is established
On the basis of Vajrasattva ' s true nature. (PTMV 7)

250 Tib . : "Therefore, just a s the seal o f Akobhya has the wisdom a s its main [practice
and] the other (i.e., consciousness) as the state attained afterwards [as a result] of [this]
self-awareness, so too is the consciousness [related to] the seal of Vajrasattva the state
attained afterwards, but [now] vajra[-emptiness] as the main [practice] ."
25 1 If vajra and sattva are not experienced as being inseparable, then emptiness (i.e.,
vajra) would be a mere nothingness disconnected from compassion.

98

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


The difference between emptiness and compassion
Is like that between a lamp and its light.
Emptiness and compassion are one,
Just as a lamp and its light are. (PTMV 8)
Emptiness is not different from entities .
And there i s n o entity without it.
This follows from252 the determination of [them] not being
without [emptiness] .
It is similar to [the one] that it is produced and impermanent.
(PTMV 9)
Just as the apparent [truth] is not annihilated253
When true reality is taught,
So too true reality is not apprehended
Without the apparent. (PTMV 1 0)

And more in detail. One may wonder: Are then Akobhya and Vajra
sattva the same? If they were, the "proponents of a non-dual [mind
with] manifold [aspects] " (Citradvaitavada, i.e. , Sakaravada) would be
superior, since consciousness, matter, and the like, are not abandoned.
This is what is stated [in the following] :
For me the S akara-system is propounded in the following terms:
Mind-only together with its manifold [aspects] is empty of all
thought;
It is like touching grass while walking.
Others teach it as having the meaning of the Middle [Way].
(PTMV 1 1)
For the Citradvaitavadin [mind] exists ultimately, but [to claim the ul
timate existence of] such a [form of] consciousness is not shrewd. This

252 The Tibetan did not render the causal ablative. The line is repeated in the verse that
follows, but this time with a causal phyir in the end.
25 3 The extra line (med na mi 'byung nges phyir ro) at the beginning of the Tibetan trans
lation of this verse correponds to avinabhavaniyamat in the verse above (PTMV 9).

EXPLAINING THE SEALS OF THE FIVE TATHAGATAS

99

is for the following reason: 254 Once [sealed with] the seal of Vajrasattva,
it [can] be ruled out that a [form] of consciousness 255 whose nature is
[th at of] Akobhya, that is, the non-dual [mind] with its manifold [as
p ects] , which is empty of a perceived and a perceiver, really exists in
terms of an entity. This is stated [in the following] :
If one says that [the skandha of] matter and the rest, while emp
ty of thought,
Are [still] wisdom (i.e., consciousness?), in virtue of Ako
bhya ' s seal,
Then in virtue of Vajrasattva ' s seal it [must] be ruled out
That [this wisdom] exists as an entity. (PTMV 1 2)
Through [the realization of] cognition-only
One does not become Vajrasattva.
Not being there from the beginning
Everything imagined is emptiness. 256 (PTMV 1 3 )
Once the thorn that it (i. e . , consciousness o r wisdom) exists ultimately
in such a way is removed, a Madhyamika tenet is [seen to be] superior,
one established on the basis of awareness, 257 which is continuous in its
flow of effortless non-dual "union" (yuganaddha) and is characterized
by not abiding in anything. 258 This is realized through the kindness of a
genuine guru. One may wonder, whether awareness 259 is established
254 The causal relation expressed by the Sanskrit compound ending in -tviit has not been
reflected in the Tibetan.
255 According to the Tibetan from the dPal spungs edition (B). The Sanskrit has jfiiina
here, but above, the mind which is empty of thought is refered to as vijfiiina. Derge and
Peking have "self-awareness."
25 6 The Sanskrit does not give a satisfying meaning: " The emptiness of cognition-only
from imagined forms is not fabricated by the [seal of] Vajrasattva, for that [emptiness]
was there before, but not [its realization] . " Vajrasattva's seal is expressive of Madhya
maka-emptiness, while Yogacara-emptiness described in this verse is related to Ako
bhya' s emptiness .
257 Tib . : "self-awareness."
25 8 The Tibetan translator probably read -svasaf!! vedanasiddhir miidhyamikasiddhiinta
freyiin and understood: "The establishment as self-awareness . . . is a supreme Madhya
mika tenet. "
259 Tib . : "self-awareness."

1 00

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

here, whether, being [thus faced by] the undesired consequence [en
tailed by] Mayopamadvayavada, there is no Apratithanavada. This is
not the case [for the reason stated in Yuktiatikii, verse 1 9 : ]
That which has arisen dependently
Has not arisen in terms of its own-being.
How can that which has not arisen in terms of an own-being,
Truly be called ' arisen ' ? (PTMV 1 4 = Y 1 9)
Awareness , 260 too, has arisen in dependence. Therefore [even] aware
ness itself is not grounded [in anything] , but rather reflects the level of
non-arising. This is as [stated in the following: ]
Indeed, awareness has not arisen.
The being of real entities , too, is like that.
The sage said that the world
Has the nature of Vajrasattva. (PTMV 1 5)
Moreover, the Tathagata asked Mafijusri: "What is this inconceivable
element? " Mafijusri replied: "The element that is inconceivable, not to
be understood by the mind, not to be fathomed by the mind, and not to
be realized through any volition of the mind, is what I call the inconcei
vable element. But again, illustrious one, it is precisely no-mind261
which is the inconceivable element. What is the reason for this? Mind is
not found in no-mind. 262 As to the element which is without mind, 263 it
is mind for [through it] mind is realized as it is . 264 Again, all forms , il
lustrious one, are the inconceivable element. " Elsewhere (i. e . , in the
Jniiniilokalmrzkii ra) it is said [in this regard] :
Homage to You, who is without imagined thoughts ,
Whose intellect is not based [on anything] ,

26 0 Tib . : "experience."
261 Missing in the Tibetan.
262 Tib . : "There is no volition in the inconceivable element. "
2 6 3 Having a masculine ending, niscitto must depend on dhatufl.
26 4 Tib . : "Therefore, mind i s [here] the mind which realizes the inconceivable a s i t is. "

EXPLAINING THE SEALS OF THE FIVE TATHAGATAS

101

Who i s without recollection, whose realization i s non-concep


tual,
And who is without any cognitive object. (PTMV 1 6)
In

the Candrapradfpa265 it is stated:


Whatever arises from conditions has not [truly] arisen,
[For] it does not arise in terms of own-being.
What depends on conditions is said to be empty,
And whoever knows emptiness, is not mad. (PTMV 1 7)

In the Aryalankiivatiira[sutra] [II. 1 69] [it is further said] :


If characteristic signs [still] arise
After all error has been abandoned,
This will be his error,
Like the impure darkness of the eyes . (PTMV 1 8)
Moreover, [it is stated in Kambalambara' s Alokamiilii, verse 248] :
For precisely this reason the sage was afraid
Lest you should remain fixed in your [everyday] consciousness .
Thus his teaching, repeatedly said to b e essentially about empti
ness ,
Distinguishes the Dharma [for various disciples] . 266 (PTMV 1 9)
And in Hevajra[tantra II. 3 . 3 6ab] it is stated:
No [object] has ever arising in terms of its own-being
[Wherefore] it is neither true nor false. (PTMV 20)
Moreover, [we find in Alokamiilii, verse 27 4] :

265 I.e. , the Samiidhiriijasutra. But the verse cannot b e found there. Brunnholzl
(2007: 525 , fn. 553) identified this verse in the Anavataptaniigariijapariprcchasutra
(Derge bKa' ' gyur no. 156, 230b 2 _3 ) . See La Vallee Poussin 1 903- 1 3 :239.
266 See Lindtner 2003 :96-97.

1 02

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

When analyzed by a mind capable of subtle seeing,


All this, it [can] be determined, is the same [doctrine] ,
Were it not for a single [point] which separates
Buddhists and non-Buddhists , namely emptiness. (PTMV 2 1 )
In order to avoid a [form o f] emptiness [that i s equivalent] o f nihilism,
[I said in Sekanirdea 3 1 ] : 267
Those who see suchness
In accordance with Madhyamaka
Are fortunate, indeed, in that they realize true reality,
Provided that they are aware [of it] in a direct way.

(PTMV

22)
In the pakinfvajrapaiijara it is stated:
Wherever a mind of inseparably united
Emptiness and compassion is cultivated
This indeed is the teaching of
The Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. (PTMV 23 = PA 3)
Since the five skandhas 268 which arise in dependence have the nature of
the five Tathagatas , and since [this] nature in turn is inseparable from
emptiness and compassion, it is established that the beings of the world
are inseparable from emptiness and compassion. 269 This, indeed, is un
interrupted meditation [performed] on the basis of the pith-instructions
of the genuine guru.
By following the reality of mantras
One will acquire [proficiency in] continuous meditation, 27 0

26 7 Tib . : "Avoiding a [form of] emptiness [that i s equivalent] of nihilism I explained: "
268 The Skt. has "five aspects."
26 9 Skt. jagat can mean both, beings and the world. The plural in the Tibetan supports
the translation "beings."
2 70 This line is missing in the Sanskrit.

EXPLAINING THE SEALS OF THE FIVE TATHAGATAS

1 03

[As continuous] as the flow of a river271


Or the steadiness of a flame. (PTMV 24)
Likewise, the venerable Nagarjuna says [in his Caturmudriinvaya] :
This is a divine palace, not the threefold world. These are not
sentient beings but victorious ones .
I am the lord of the maJ!-t;f,a la, not an [ordinary] man. [These are
not] experiential objects-eyes, the earth and so forth-nor are
they matter and the other [skandhas] .
Given that they have the nature of dharmatii, these [sentient be
ings] are the deities of the ma7J-t;f,a la.
How can one, knowing as one does the manifold [world] to be
the circle of the ma7J-t;f,ala, be confused [about this] ? 272
(PTMV 25)
[Elsewhere it is stated: ]
Having arisen in mere dependence,
[Things] manifest like the city of the Gandharvas . 273
The manifold [world] is not established in terms of an own
being
[But] it is not like a lotus in the sky [either] . 274 (PTMV 26)
Moreover, it has been said in Hevajra[tantra II.4.34ab] :
These phenomena are [essentially] released
[But] because of delusion they have assumed the form of
salflsil ra 275 (PTMV 27)
.

27 1 gZhung does not have an equivalent in the Sanskrit and is difficult to construe.
272 This verse is quoted in Munisribhadra's Paiicakramatippmy,f Yogfmanoharii, 24a _
45
See Zhongxin Jiang & Torn Tomabechi 1 996: 34.
273 Tib. (reading pratftyasambhavii devil?) : "Deities which have arisen in dependence
manifest like the city of the Gandharvas. "
274 Tib . : " [But] i t is not utter nothingness like a lotus i n the sky, [either] ."
275 HT 179 : amf dharmiis tu nirviiry,alJ1 mohiit sa1J1siirarupiry,af:i I
5

1 04

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The Paiicatathagatavivarar:ia, composed by the great learned master


Advayavajra, 276 is ended. Translated, corrected and finalized by the
Tibetan translator rMa ban chos 'bar as taught by the Indian learned
master Vajrapaifi. 277
End of the Translation

Concluding Remarks
The term "five seals of the Tathagatas" stands for the sealing of the five
psycho-physical aggregates (skandhas) by the five Tathagatas , which
means that the skandhas have the nature of the Tathagatas . This is best
described in Vajrapaifi ' s *Guruparamparakrama- Upadesa:
The skandha of matter is Vairocana, the skandha of sensation
Ratnasambhava, the skandha of discrimination Amitabha, the
skandha of [karmic] formation Amoghasiddhi, and the skandha
of consciousness Akobhya. In order to overcome attachment to
the skandhas , the five skandhas which are the imagined nature,
are sealed with the five Tathagatas , who are the dependent na
ture. This (i.e., the meaning of being sealed) is explained [in the
Sekanirdesapaiijika on verse 1 9] :
What [x] is sealed with what [y] , that [x] comes to have
the nature of that [y] . 278

2 7 6 The author is not mentioned in the Sanskrit.


277 P: "Translated by the learned master Vajrapai:ii and the translator rMa ban chos
'bar. "
27 8 GPKU (B303a -b , D 172b 1 _ , P 1 93b - 1 94a ) : de la gzugs kyi phung po ni mam par
2
2
6 2
8
snang mdzad do 1 1 tshor ba 'i phung po ni rin chen 'byung ldan no 1 1 'du shes kyi phung
po ni 'od dpag" med pa 'o 1 1 'du byed kyi phung po ni don yod grub pa 'o I mam par shes
pa 'i phung po ni mi bskyod pa zhes bya ste I phung po la sogs Copar 'dzinbl pa 'i zhen pa
spang ba 'i phyir kun brtags phung po lnga la gzhan dbang de bzhin gshegs pa lngasc
rgyas gdab ste I de 'ang I gang la gang gisct rgyas btab pa 1 1 de yange de yi ngo bor 'gro 'o1
I zhes bya bas I
B dpag tu b D om. B lnga 'i ct B gi e DP dang 1 D grags
c

EXPLAINING THE SEALS OF THE FIVE TATHAGATAS

1 05

In other words , the nature of the skandha of matter is Vairocana and so


on for the other skandhas. The seals of the five Tathagatas can be fur
ther sealed with the seals of Akobhya279 and Vajradhara (or, in our text
with the seals of the five Tathagatas, Akobhya and Vajrasattva) , which
means that the deeper levels of their true nature-that they are non-dual
mind and finally emptiness-are recognized. In an appendix to the Pa
ncatathiigatamudriivivaraa in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod,
'Bum la ' bar writes :
It is said that after refuting the textual traditions of others , the
glorious Maitreyanatha (i.e., Maitri:pa) taught only his own tra
dition of accomplishing the seal of Vajradhara (i.e . , Vajrasatt
va) . This is when he composed the Panca[tathiigata]mudrii
[vivaraa]. [Here] the five Tathagatas are fixed upon, with enti
ties (i.e. , the five skandhas) being meditated upon as the deities .
[This means that] appearances are established as the mind . . . .
That appearances are contained in the mind is the seal of a
Tathagata. The non-conceptual, namely the mind empty of the
duality of perceived and perceiver, is the seal of Akobhya. This
non-conceptual mind, [but one that in addition accords with] the
Madhyamaka view of freedom from extremes and is endowed
with manifest bliss , is the seal of Vajradhara. 28 0
The seals of the Tathagata, Akobhya and Vajradhara are then related
respectively the j oy, supreme joy, and co-emergent joy :

279 This implies that a distinction i s made between an Akobhya seal as one o f the five
Tathagata seals, and the Akobhya seal of the non-dual mind.
280 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. kha, 17a -b : dpal byams pa mgon pos gzhan
5 6
gyi (text: gyis) gzhung bkag nas I rang gis rdo rje 'chang gi (text: gis) phyag rgya 'i
bsgrub lugs kho na bstan par bzhed nas phyag rgya Inga mdzad de 1 1 de bzhin gshegs pa
lnga ni dngos po lhar bsgom pa 'i ngos brtag ste I snang ba sems su bsgrub pa 'o I [ ]
snang ba sems su 'jug pa de bzhin gshegs pa 'i rgya I sems bzung 'dzin gnyis kyis (text:
kyi) stong pa 'i rtog med mi bskyod (text: skyod) pa 'i rgya I sems rtog med de yang mu
las grol ba dbu ma 'i !ta ba de yang rnam pa bde ba dang ldan pa ni rdo rje 'chang gi
rgya 'o I
. . .

1 06

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Moreover, j oy [relates] to being sealed by the seal of the Tatha


gata; supreme j oy to being sealed by the seal of Akobhya; and
co-emergent j oy to being sealed by the seal of Vajradhara. 281
In other words, the realization that appearances are contained in the
mind is j oy; the realization of the non-conceptual mind empty of duali
ty, supreme j oy; and the Madhyamaka realization of bliss free from
extremes , co-emergent joy.

281 Op. cit. , 18a 1 : de yang dga ' ba de bzhin gshegs pa 'i rgya mtshon la I mchog dga ' mi
bskyod (text: skyed) pa 'i rgya mtshon la I lhan cig skyes pa 'i dga ' ba rdo rje 'chang gis
rgya mtshon pa ' o I

7 . A Presentation of Empowerment, Verses 26-3 6


(Sekanirdesa)

Translation of the Sekanirde.a, verses 26-36

[The Sequence of the Four Seals]


Having approached a karmamudrti,
One should meditate on the dharmamudra.
Hereafter [comes] mahamudra,
From which the samaya[mudra] arises . (SN 26)
The [four] joys can be [maintained]
With regard to each of the seals , except mahamudrti.
This [can be known] through scriptures , self-awareness,
And the pith-instructions of the genuine guru. (SN 27)

[Dharmamudrti]
The manifold is [realized] through the karmamudra;
Maturation is the nature of the world.
Steadfastness in that is freedom from defining characteristics ;
And relaxation is the gazing at the world. (SN 28)

[Mahamudrti]
Not to abide in anything
Is known as mahamudra.
As self-awareness (i.e., mahamudra) is stainless ,
[The moments of enj oying] manifold [appearances] and so forth
do not arise. (SN 29)
Effortless wisdom
[Can] be taken as inconceivable.

1 08

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

S omething ' inconceivable ' that one has [been able to] conceive
Cannot truly be inconceivable. (SN 30 = TRA 3 1)
Those who see suchness
In accordance with Madhyamaka
Are fortunate, in that they realize true reality,
Provided that they are aware [of it] in a direct way.
(SN 3 1 = PTMV 22)
All superimposition, whatever there is
All this does not exist in any respect;
As to the meaning of Madhyamaka, it is the absence of super
imposition;
Where is, then, the denial or the establishing [of anything] ?
(SN 32 = TRA 30)
The thought that [the world] is without the superimposition of
knowledge
And objects of knowledge is not different [from superimposi
tion itself] . 282
Everything is as it ever has been,
[But] it is not the way it was [before when there was still a con
ceptual] mind. (SN 33)
The mind [of him] , by whom the world is [directly] realized as
not arisen,
Is purified because of [his] realization.
For him, the wise, [this is realized] without effort:
[Being his] original state the world is true. (SN 34 = TRA 32)
The thought whose connection [with nirvaa]
Has not been uncovered283 arises in dependence;
282 My translation follows the Tibetan here. The Sanskrit has "With regard to that which
lacks the superimposition of knowledge and object of knowledge, thinking is not differ
ent."
283 Lit. "been caused to arise/appear. " I follow here ' Gos Lo tsa ba gZhon nu dpal who
has in his quotation of SN 35 'byed pa instead of bsgom pa (DRSM 463 1 ) .
7

A PRESENTATION OF EMPOWERMENT

1 09

This very [thought] is nirviilJ-a.


Do not create confusion, o mind ! (SN 35)
He who does not abide in the domain of the remedy,
Is not attached to true reality,
And who does even not desire the fruit,
Finds mahamudra. (SN 36)
En d of the Translation

An Analysis of the Sekanirdea, Verses 26-36284


In his Sekanirdea, Maitripa does not start as usual with the vase em
powerments (as , for example, in Maitrlpa ' s Sekatatparyayasarrigraha) ,
but directly turns to the topic o f karmamudra, which comprises the
p rajna wisdom empowerment. 285 In Maitrip a ' s system the twofold divi
sion into the creation (utpattikrama) and completion stages (utpanna
krama) of the Hevajratantra28 6 (a YoginI Tantra) undergoes further di
vision in order to relate the system of the four seals in the Y oginI Tan
tras to the five stages of the Yoga Tantras (i. e . , the Arya tradition of the
Guhyasamajatantra). The creation stage thus fans out into an outer and
inner one, and the completion stage into a simple completion stage, a
perfect [completion] stage (parini$pannakrama) , and a natural [ comple
tion] stage (svabhavikakrama) . In the Sekanirdeapanjika on verse 3 8 ,
the two stages o f creation and completion in the Hevajratantra are re
lated to the fivefold division of the Arya tradition. 287

2 84 The significance of these verses was already discussed in Mathes 2007 :555-56;
201 1 : 1 1 3-20 and 20 1 3 :280-87.
2 85 For a good overview of the historical development of the ritual of empowerment see
Isaacson 20 10:26 1 -79.
2 86 See verses I.8.24cd-25ab (HT 8 1 and HT 87 ) : "The dharma teachings of the ada
1
8
mantine one are based on two stages, the utpattikrama and the utpannakrama. " (kramam
utpattika1J1 caiva utpannakramam eva ca I kramadvaya1J1 samafritya vajrifta dharma
deana II).
287 See Mathes 2009 :92.

1 10

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Maitripa presents prajfiii wisdom empowerment within the system of


four seals , which involves the tantric yoga practice of karmamudrii,
namely the union with a consort in order to gain a glimpse of the goal
of co-emergent joy, an intimation of which manifests briefly when the
sequence of four moments (i.e. , the moments of manifold appearances,
maturation, freedom from defining characteristics, and relaxation) 288
and four j oys (i.e . , j oy, supreme joy, co-emergent joy, and the [joy of]
no-joy) are experienced on a physical level. In his commentary on verse
24 of the Sekanirdea, Ramapala says that of the four seals the karma
mudrii is to be taken as the master empowerment congruent with the
perfect completion stage. 289
The four moments and joys are experienced again on the level of the
dharmamudrii which Ramapala explains in terms of the purification of
phenomena by means of the fivefold enlightenment. 29 0 This means that
the dharmamudrii is here related to a central practice of the outer crea
tion phase. In other words , the way dharmamudrii is presented here
suggests not so much a progressive succession after starting with
karmamudrii empowerment as rather the possibility of an alternative
path which starts with the outer creation phase, or the causal sama
yamudrii (and so virtually without a karmamudrii). According to
*Karopa, a disciple of Maitripa, the four moments and j oys can also
arise directly on the level of dharmamudrii. Only if this is not possible
one must rely on a karmamudrii.291 Whether this is intended by Maitripa
or not, true reality (or emptiness) , so he repeatedly claims , must be real
ized through pith instructions . 292 This leads to mahiimudrii, the realiza-

288 For an explanation of the four moments, see my summary of the Sekanirdea in the
introduction.
289 SNP 1 8 8 1 _ 1 : "But (ca) in the case of the four seals, it is the karmamudra which
4 5
should be known as the master [empowerment] , in accordance with the perfect [comple
tion stage] ." caturmudrapak:fe ca parini:fpannenacaryatvena karmamudra boddhavya I
2 9 0 See SNP 1 90 _ : "Then [the seal] of the dharmas such as blue and yellow, which have
78
been purified [by realizing them] as deities through the fivefold enlightenment. . . " (tato
dharma1:1ii1J1 nllapftadfnil1J1 paiicakarabhisambodhya prathama1J1 devataviodhitanil1J1. . . )
2 9 1 Mathes 2009:94.
2 9 2 Mathes 2009: 104.

A PRESENTATION OF EMPOWERMENT

111

293
ti on that bliss and emptiness are inseparable . On this level, however,
there is only the true co-emergent joy, and not the other three (impure)
joys . In this respect, i.e. , embedded in the sequence of the seals,
mahiimudra corresponds to the level of the fruit, but as Maitrlpa equates
it with the view non-abiding, it also includes, according to Ramapala
and *Karopa, amanasikara.
Verses 29-36 present mahiimudra in line with the Madhyamaka view of
non-abiding and amanasikara. This is clear from the first verse on
mahamudra and Ramapala ' s commentary on it:
Not to abide in anything
Is known as mahamudra.
As self-awareness (i.e., mahamudra) is stainless,
[The moments of enjoying] manifold [appearances] and so forth
do not arise. (SN 29)
Ramapala explains :
"In anything" means in the dependently arisen skandhas, dhatus,
ayatanas and so forth. "Not to abide" means not t o reify, not to
become mentally engaged. This is also stated [in the Jiiana
lokiila1J1,kiira] :
The mental factors of not becoming mentally engaged
are virtuous . Those of becoming mentally engaged are
not virtuous .

293 This is clear from the following passage of *Karopa' s commentary on the Caturmu
dranvaya: " [Realization which] occurs by way of the co-emergent as cause, non
origination as the path, and great bliss as fruit, is not different. In this sense it occurs
'easily' . 'Realizing the meaning of the four seals ' means that [the meaning of] karma
mudrii is [realized] at the time of empowerment, [that of] dharmamudrii when reality
(don) appears as a general image, [that of] mahiimudrii when reality [appears] according
to its specific characteristic, and [that of] samayamudrii at the time of actualization and
maturation. As to 'that they [easily] realize, ' the first [mudrii] makes them realize bliss;
the second, empti[ness]; and the third, that [these two] are inseparable. " (See Mathes
2009 :99).

1 12

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Likewise it has been said [in the Jnaniilokiilamkiira] :


Homage to You, who is without imagined thoughts ,
Whose intellect is not based [on anything] ,
Who is without recollection, who does not become men
tally engaged,
And who is without any cognitive object.
One should not think that this cannot be practised because
thanks to the kindness of [one ' s] venerable guru, mahiimudrii,
which has the defining characteristic of being endowed with all
supreme qualities, can certainly be made directly manifest. Does
[mahiimudrii] not have the nature of the four moments then? [In
29c] it is stated: "Because self-awareness [i. e . , mahiimudrii] is
stainless." Being stainless, the three [impure] moments of the
manifold and so forth, including [their] stains , do not occur in it.
Therefore the three [impure] joys do not arise in it either. 294
As the fruit of completion stage practice, mahamudrii is here described
as being beyond the impure moments and joys. It could be argued,
however, that its equation with non-abiding and amanasikiira does not
only refer to Buddhahood, but also that mahamudra can be found
through the practice described in the A vikalpapraveadhiirm;,z. In it the
four sets of hindering characteristic signs are abandoned through ama
nasikiira. 295 That amanasikiira can also refer to meditation practice is
clear from the first Jniiniilokalarrikara quote that amanasikara is virtu
ous and from *Kampa ' s commentary on the above quoted verse from
the Jniiniilokalarrikara:
The [lines of this praise] should be understood as [presenting]
view, meditation, and conduct as three inseparable [aspects].
Freedom from duality, [which is] conceptual analysis , is the
conduct. Not to abide in bliss or emptiness, the freedom from
the duality, [which is] attachment, is the body of great bliss . It is
the view. Amanasikiira and being without recollection in terms
2 94 Quoted from Mathes 2007:555.
2 9 5 For a translation of the relevant passages see Mathes 2005 : 1 9-20.

A PRESENTATION OF EMPOWERMENT

1 13

of the sequence of preparation, main part, and conclusion is


meditation. Not to separate through the imagination of three
[distinct cognitive aspects] means to be without a cognitive ob
ject. Making oneself familiar with them (view, etc .) means to
pay homage. This should be understood as mahamudra. 296
It should be noted, however, that for Maitripa the term amanasikara
does not only stand for mental non-engagement, but also ' luminous
self-empowerment' .297 This correlates with the Tattvadaaka where
Maitripa defines true reality not only along the lines of the via nega
tionis of Madhyamaka, but phenomena are also said to be directly expe
rienced as being luminous (see below) . In other words, in a mahamudra
context, amanasikara most of all means 'non-conceptual realization ' .
To which extent this needs empowerment and formal tantric practice
remains a controversial issue. For *Sahajavajra this is possible outside
of the sequence of the four seals, and in his Tattvavi1?1sika, Maitripa
claims that within tantra the advanced have a direct access to
mahamudra (see below) .
In his second verse on mahamdra, Maitripa discusses the inconceivable
nature of wisdom. This establishes, according to the topical outline not
ed down by Ti pi ' bum la ' bar, "freedom from the extreme of character
istic signs "29 8 :
Effortless wisdom
[Can] be taken as inconceivable.
S omething ' inconceivable ' that one has [been able to] conceive
Cannot truly be inconceivable. (SN 30 = TRA 3 1 )
Maitripa anticipates the possible objection that thinking about the in
conceivable is in itself an obstacle . An answer is not given in the root
text, but Ramapala explains that this non-abiding is inconceivable wis
dom. It does not come from investigation, but is effortless , occurring
296 Quoted from Mathes 2009 : 1 16.
297 This at least is Maitripa's final analysis of the term amanasikiira in the Amanasi
kiiriidhiira (see below).
29 8 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, 82an: mtshan ma 'i mtha ' dang bra! ba.

1 14

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

within its own sphere. 299 SN 30 is quoted in *S ahaj avajra ' s commentary
on Tattvadaa, verse 7cd, in which, according to *Sahajavajra, Maitripa
replies to the possible objection that his Tattvadasaka makes use of the
concepts of a remedy, reality and attainment and is thus in contradiction
to the Avikalpapraveadhtira"(lf, that "even vain clinging to a state free
of duality is taken, in like manner, to be luminous . " (TD 7cd) . In his
commentary to this reply, *Sahaj avajra quotes Sekanirdea, verse 36,
and adds that "here, mahtimudra refers to the pith instructions on the
true reality of mahamudra. Two longer quotations from the Samadhi
rajasiltra (SRS XXXII.92-97b and SRS XXXII 98- 1 05), obviously ad
duced to illustrate mahamudra pith instructions , show that such instruc
tion does not necessarily need to be tantric. 3 00
Maitripa next insists that seeing suchness or true reality in a direct way,
through (to use Ramapala' s words) inconceivable wisdom that does not
come from investigation, is wholly compatible with Madhyamaka:
Those who see suchness
In accordance with Madhyamaka
Are fortunate, in that they realize true reality,
Provided that they are aware [of it] in a direct way.
(SN 3 1 = PTMV 22)
From Ramapala ' s commentary it becomes clear that ability to realize
emptiness directly is gained through the kindness of the guru. As I have
already noted in Mathes 20 1 1 : 1 20, we have here, in fact, an Indian
precedent for what is well known in Tibetan mahamudra as experiential
introduction to the nature of one ' s mind through "pointing-out instruc
tion. " 3 0 1 It should be noted that a direct way to true reality does not ex
clude investigation (by which, according to Ramapala, the state of non
abiding is reached3 02) . According to Thrangu Rinpoche it is possible to
ascertain phenomena (such as mental events) by investigating their col2 99 See Mathes 2007 :556.
30 For a translation of this part see Mathes 2005 :24-27, and Brunnhi.ilzl 2007 : 177-8 1 ,
who identified the verse after the Samadhirajasutra quotes as S N 30.
3 0 1 See Mathes 20 1 1 : 1 20.
3 02 See Mathes 2007:556.

A PRESENTATION OF EMPOWERMENT

1 15

our, shape etc . with the help of direct cognitions within one ' s introvert
ed mental consciousness during vipasyana.
Maitr!pa then defines the meaning of Madhyamaka
Apratithanavada as the absence of all superimposition:

line with

All superimposition, whatever there is


All this does not exist in any respect;
As to the meaning of Madhyamaka, it is the absence of super
imposition;
Where is, then, the denial or the establishing [of anything] ?
(SN 3 2 = TRA 30)
This is the third verse of the Apratithana section in the Tattvaratnavalf,
and has already been discussed in detail in my analysis of that section.
Maitripa proceeds to address the question how the usual entities every
where accepted in the world should be understood:
The thought that [the world] is without the superimposition of
knowledge
And objects of knowledge is not different [from superimposi
tion itself] .
Everything is as it ever has been,
[But] it is not the way it was [before when there was still con
ceptual] mind. (SN 33)
Even the thought that the world is empty of superimpositions does not
really change anything, true reality simply remains as it ever was .
Whether discovered or not, it never changes . In support of this, Rama
p ala adduces a famous Mahayana verse that could be either Abhisama
yalaf(lkara V . 2 1 (representative for the second dharmacakra), or Ratna
gotravibhaga I. 1 54 (third dharmacakra) :3 03

303 To be sure, this verse is found in numerous Mahayana texts (see Takasaki 1 966:300).

1 16

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

There is nothing to be removed from it and nothing to be added;


The real should be seen as real, and seeing the real, one be
comes liberated. 3 04
Of particular interest is the last of the eight verses on mahiimudrii, in
which Maitripa emphasizes a practice, outlined in the Avikalpaprave
sadhiiraJJf, of not becoming tangled up in remedies , true reality or the
fruit, and thus alludes to an essential link between mahiimudrii and the
abandoning of characteristic signs (nimitta) through non-conceptual
realization:
He who does not abide in the domain of the remedy,
Is not attached to true reality,
And who does even not desire the fruit,
Finds mahiimudrii. (SN 36)
In his commentary on SN 29, Ramapala had already pointed out a con
nection between the Iiiiiniilokiilaf(lkiira and mahiimudrii, there linking
the mahiimudrii view of non abiding to the practice of amanasikiira, and
in his commentary on verse 36, he nearly quotes literally from the part
of Avikalpapraveadhiira!Jf in which four sets characteristic signs (i.e.,
those of dualistic appearances, the remedy, reality and attainment) are
described as being abandoned in the act of "not directing one ' s attention
[to them] " (amanasikiira).3 05 This establishes the relation the mahii
mudrii practice of non-conceptual realization (amanasikiira) has not
only to the Avikalpapraveadhiira!Jf but, if we follow ' Gos Lo tsa ba
gZhon nu dpal, also to the Dharmadharmatiivibhiiga,3 06 according to
which non-conceptual wisdom is cultivated by abandoning the same
four sets of characteristic signs . Moreover, since gZhon nu dpal main
tains that the last part of the Dharmadharmatiivibhiiga which describes
how fundamental transformation ( iifrayaparivrtti) is achieved through
3 04 The verse in the Ratnagotravibhiigavyakhya (RGVV 76 1 2 ) is as follows : napaneyam
ata kifJ1cid upaneyafJ1 na kifJ1cana I dratavyafJ1 bhatato bhutafJ1 bhutadarf vimucyate 11
In the Abhisamayala1J1kara (AA 32 1 5 _ 1 6 ) the reading is as follows : napaneyam ata kiiicit
prakeptavyafJ1 na kificana I dratavyafJ1 bhitta to bhutafJ1 bhutadarf vimucyate II
3 05 For details see Mathes 20 1 3 : 283-86.
3 06 For a discussion of amanasikara in the Dharmadharmatavibhaga, see Mathes
20 10:8-9.

A PRESENTATION OF EMPOWERMENT

1 17

the abandoning of the four sets of characteristic signs and the cultiva
tion of non-conceptual wisdom, is a commentary on the chapter on en
lightenment of the Ratnagotravibhiiga, we have here also a bridge be
37
tween mahiimudrii and the standard Indian treatise on buddha nature. 0

307 Mathes 2005 : 3 .

8 . The Succession of the Four Seals


( Caturmudranvaya)

Tran slation of the Caturmudranvaya (the text consists of verses and


prose):3os

Homage to Vajrasattva!
Evaf!l .

3 09
Having first bowed to Vajrasattva,
Whose nature is pure wisdom,
I write in brief "A Succession of Seals"
To improve my understanding. (CMA 1 )

Here, [it i s implied that] those whose minds are confused drift about
distressed in the ocean of cyclic existence because they are confused
about the succession of seals . It is in order that they may easily realize
the meaning of the four seals that the means of [swiftly] 3 1 0 accomplish
ing great bliss is presented in accordance with the tantras . The four
seals are the karmamudrii, dharmamudrii, mahiimudrii, and samaya

mudrii.
Among these, [first] the nature of the karmamudrii shall be analyzed.
Action (karma-) is intention as it relates to body, speech and mind. It is
the main thing. Seal (mudrii) refers [then] to its nature of imagination. 3 1 1
[It i s as stated in Hevajratantra 11. 3 .5] :
308 An earlier version of this translation is contained in Mathes 2009 :97- 1 1 9 .
309 Missing i n the Tibetan.
3 1 0 Supplied from the Tibetan.
3 1 1 This translation is based on the reading of T, which is supported by the Tibetan.
Following E8N, one has to take tatpradhiinii as a bahuvrfhi depending on mudrii: "The
seal (mudrii), of which the main thing is this [action] , has the nature of imagination. "

1 20

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

In this { karmamudra }3 1 2 the [four] joys arise


Divided according to the [four] moments . 313
It is from knowing the moments that blissful wisdom,
Which is based in the syllable evarri, [arises] . (CMA 2)
The four j oys [are : ] j oy, supreme j oy, co-emergent joy, and the [joy of]
no-j oy . Otherwise this passage would not make sense:
Between supreme [joy] and the [joy of] no-joy
See the goal and stabilize [it] ! 314 (CMA 3)
The four moments are: [the moments of] the manifold, maturation,
freedom from defining characteristics, and relaxation. The placement of
freedom from defining characteristics between [maturation and relaxa
tion] needs to be understood in [the context of] empowerment. In force
ful yoga (hathayoga) , however, freedom from defining characteristics
and co-emergent j oy are put at the end. The illustrious one taught this
(i. e . , the four j oys and the four moments) extensively in [the context of]
empowerment and forceful yoga.
All that [appears as] co-emergent is called co-emergent because it du
plicates the image of the [real] co-emergent. [This] image of the co
emergent leads [the adept] to realize [a type of] wisdom that is similar
to the co-emergent. The co-emergent is thus [only in this limited sense]
the wisdom based on a prajiia.3 1 5 Therefore, there is no arising of the
co-emergent in316 the wisdom based on a prajiia. For inasmuch as the
3 12 Tib . : " From this { karmamudra } . . .
3 1 3 This sentence was HT 11.3.5.ab, karmamudrayam having originally been a gloss or
an oral commentary by the author.
3 1 4 A passage from an attested but unrecovered tantra. This recognition of sahaja during
the third moment was also maintained by Maitripa's teacher Ratnakarasanti. Abhayaka
ragupta and Kamalanatha took sahaja as the fourth (see also Kvaerne 1986: 34-35). This
latter view, i.e., virama ("the Lioy of] no-joy ") in the third position, goes back to a
tradition which takes virama as "intensification of joy" and not its cessation (the uoy of]
no-joy ) . In the Sekoddesatfka (SUTs 106 1 4_ 1 5 ) for example, virama is in the third posi
tion and also understood this way as can be seen from the Tibetan translation khyad par
dga ' ba (SUTr 272 1 3 _ 1 4 ) . For a reliable Italian translation see Gnoli & Orofino 1 994:204.
3 1 5 Prajfia must be taken here as referring to a karmamudra, i.e., a tantric partner.
3 16 Tib . : "from"
"

THE SUCCESSION OF THE FOUR SEALS

121

true nature of all phenomena, 3 17 namely what is called the co-emergent,


is the "actual reality" (svalakm:za)3 1 8 of the uncontrived, a fruit similar
[to the real co-emergent] is produced by relying on a karmamudra.
A similar flow (i.e . , the same liquid) is an outflow . 319 Just as a reflection
of a face cast from the mirror is similar, [but] not the [real] face-it did
not exist before, nor does it exist now-uust as] this [mirror] creates a
reflection of the face-one only resembling it-and nevertheless in
their delusion people are satisfied with the thought that they have seen
their own face [rather than merely a reflection] , 320 so too masters of
inferior intellect accomplish the wisdom that is based on a prajna, and
are satisfied thinking that they have experienced the [real] co-emergent.
Being satisfied [with what they have found] they have not even heard of
the dharmamudra.
How [can] the uncontrived [wisdom] called co-emergent arise for those
who have not even heard of the dharmamudra[, that is ,] only through
the contrived [practice of uniting with a] karmamudra? [Only] from a
cause of a specific kind does a fruit of this same specific kind arise, and
not from another kind. Just as the sprout of a salf[-tree] and not a ko
drava [-plant] arises from a siilf-seed, the uncontrived co-emergent aris
es from the presence of the uncontrived dharmamudra. Therefore, it is
only the dharmamudra that is the cause of mahamudra (to figuratively
apply a distinction [between a cause and an effect] to what [in fact ad
mits of] no [such] distinction) . 321

3 1 7 In the Tibetan "all phenomena" depends on "uncontrived. "


3 1 8 I.e. , taking svalak:fana in a way similar to Dignaga as a bare particular, i.e., a given
actuality as such (see Arnold 2003: 142) .
3 1 9 Tib . : "As to being similar, since it comes about as something similar to [its] cause, it
is similar." 'Similar' is the literal translation of Tib. 'dra ba. The corresponding San
skrit, ni:fyanda, means ' outflow ' .
320 Tib . : "Just as a reflection arises on the basis o f a mirror and a face, [but] not the real
face, because it did not exist before, nor does it exist now. Only [something] similar is
seen, and they are satisfied, in their delusion . . . . "
321 Tib . : "Therefore the fruit, i.e., mahamudra, occurs when one practises without mak
ing distinctions [thanks to the same taste of indivisible bliss and emptiness] on [the level
of] the dharmamudra [as a cause] . "

1 22

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Why, then, did the illustrious one teach [the following in Hevajratantra
II.3 .4] ?
The divine reality, which has the form of the letter e
And is ornamented with the letter vaf!l in [its] middle,
Is the basis of everything blissfulThe box of the buddha-jewel. (CMA 4)
As to the box of the buddha-jewel, because it duplicates the image of
the Buddha, the box is a basis , a foundation. Therefore [there is] a lotus
which is the source of abundant jewels, [namely] the j oy [obtainable]
from a woman as a karma[mudra}.322 When the relative bodhicitta has
entered from [their] avadhiltf into the [respective?] jewel through the
friction323 of the penis and the vagina in union, then the wisdom called
the lower (i. e . , the image of the) co-emergent-[also] called the mo
mentary [co-emergent]-arises . 324 But this is not the [real] co-emergent;
it is [only] similar325 [to it] . By its nature it is endowed with the wisdom
based on a prajiia, the three joys and the four moments . In [the context
of] empowerment and forceful yoga, it is called the similar fruit of the
karmamudra. [This concludes] the first [chapter] , the presentation of the
karmamudra as a fruit that is [only] similar [to the real one] .

Of!l dharmamudra. It has the nature of the dharmadhatu, is free from


mental fabrications ; it is non-conceptual, uncontrived and without aris
ing. It is compassionate by nature, and owing to the supreme joy [asso
ciated with it] , it has turned into a means of unique beauty. In the per
manence of its continuous flow and given its co-emergent nature, it is
not different from the prajiia (i.e. , the karmamudra), because of the rise
of the co-emergent. [All] this is called dharmamudra.
Another defining characteristic of the [dharmamudra] needs to be
known: it is like sunrays in the darkness of dense ignorance. One gets
purged of the affliction of delusion-mere straw chaff-on account of
3 22 Tib . : "Therefore there i s the joy . . . through the source . . . and the lotus. "
3 2 3 Skt. manthamanthiina literally means "rubbing stick and rubbing block''.
3 24 The Tibetan skad cig tsam has no equivalent in the Sanskrit.
3 2 5 Lit. "an outflow" (see above).

THE SUCCESSION OF THE FOUR SEALS

1 23

the [dharmamudrii also] being the guru ' s pith-instructions . The [dhar
mamudrii] is the unique nature of the threefold world, which consists of
the great elements , namely all earth, water, wind and fire [elements] . It
should be known to be without [any] waves [of affliction] , inseparable
from emptiness and compassion.
Moreover, the illustrious one said [in Hevajratantra I. 1 . 1 4] :
The lalanii [channel] has the nature of prajiiii,
And the rasanii [channel the nature] of means .
In the middle is the avadhutf [channel] ,
Devoid of [the duality of] a perceived and perceiver. (CMA 5)
By being skillful in this , the path should be understood to have the form
of suchness as its immediate cause. Knowing the path one attentively
and constantly practices it; thereby cessation, which has the nature of
the co-emergent, is actualized.
In like manner, [the following dharmamudrii] has been taught [in
Ratnagotravibhiiga I. 1 54, for example326] :
There is nothing to be removed from it
And nothing to be added.
The real should be seen as real,
And seeing the real, one becomes liberated. (CMA 6)
The avadhatf dwells in the middle of the [other] two, the lalanii and the
rasanii. This is realized through one-pointed meditation on everything
as having the nature of the co-emergent, and through the pith
instructions of a genuine guru. Far from being different from it, the
dharmamudrii is the cause of mahiimudrii. [This concludes] the second
[chapter] , the presentation of the dharmamudrii as the fruit of matura
tion.
AJ:i mahiimudrii. It is both great (mahii-), and a seal (mudrii); hence a
"great seal" (mahiimudrii). It is devoid of an own-being, free from the
32 6 For a list of Mahayana works, in which this stanza occurs, see Takasaki 1 966:300.

1 24

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

hindrances of the knowable, and so forth. It it is like an immaculate


daytime-sky in the middle of autumn and the basis of everything per
fect. It has the identity of [cyclic] existence and nirval!-a as its nature,
consists of universal compassion, and has the unique form of great
bliss.
Moreover, we have [in the Jiianalokalamkara?] :327
The mental factors of amanasikara are virtuous .
Those of manasikara are not virtuous .
In the [same] text (i.e., the Jiianalokala1J1kara), it has been said:
Homage to You, who is without imagined thoughts ,
Whose intellect is not based [on anything] , who is without rec
ollection,
Whose realization is non-conceptual,
And who is without any cognitive object. 328 (CMA 7)
This[, too,] is called mahamudra.329 Through this mahamudra, which is
inconceivable by nature, the fruit called samayamudra arises . [This
concludes] the third [chapter] , the presentation of mahamudra as the
fruit which is stainlessness.

Huf!1 samayamudra. The manifestation of Vajradhara in the form of


Heruka for the sake of sentient beings is taught to be the samayamudra.
[This manifestation] is by its nature the aspect of the sambhoga- and
nirmal!-akayas and [appears] clearly. Once they have adopted [this] sa-

3 2 7 I could not locate this quotation in the ffifmiilokiilii171kiira itself, but the same passage
is also quoted in Ramapala's Sekanirdeapafijikii (Mathes 2007: 555), and MaitrTpa's
Amanas ikiiriidhiira.
3 2 8 See L.\A 1 46 1 _2
32 9 After the two quotations from the Jfiiiniilokiilarrikara, the construction yii sii is no
longer suitable. Its presence implies, as in the description of dharmamudrii earlier, the
directly preceding feminine attributes at the beginning of the definition. In other words,
the original text did not contain the siitra quotations.

THE SUCCESSION OF THE FOUR SEALS

1 25

mayamudra,33 0 once they have [started to] practice the fivefold wisdom

331
in the form of a circle by way of the fivefold ritual, the masters medi
tate on [this] circle of the samayamudra in terms of the mirror-like
[wisdom] , [the wisdom of] equality, [the wisdom of] discrimination,
[the wisdom of] activity, and [the wisdom which is] the pure dharma
dhiitu. [They do this] through the initial yoga, [the yoga of] the supreme
king of the ma1Jala (i.e., ati yoga) , [the yoga of] the supreme king of
activity (i.e., great ati yoga) , the yoga of drops, and the subtle yoga. 332
By [doing] this they accumulate merit.
Through that [alone] , however, they do not attain the fruit of the dhar

mamudra, for it has been said:

From a specific cause a specific fruit [of the same kind] aris
es. 333 (CMA 8)
Therefore, having broken through to the co-emergent, with the taste of
having realized it, things such as the immovable and movable that are
330 I.e., the vajracarya empowerment (CMAT B 29 lb _ 6 , D 309a , P 349a ) : dam tshig gi
3
4
5
phyag rgya rdo rje slob dpon gyi dbang blangs te I).
33 1 This second pancavidharrz is taken in the sense of paficavidhina. *Karopa (CMA T B
293b4 , D 3 10b2 , P 350a7 ) equates cha ga Ingar btags pa ( *paficavidhiparikalpa) with
mngon par byang chub pa Inga. The fivefold ritual performance is identified in the Bod
rgya tshig mdzod chen mo (s.v.) as : "chanting the ritual melodies, visualizing during the
mantra recitation, assuming different hand gestures, playing the drum, dancing. "
332 *Karopa specifies the "initial yoga" a s "yoga" and "yoga attained after [meditation] ";
the "supreme king of the mm:u/ala" as "ati yoga"; the "supreme king of activity" as
Great ati yoga; the "drop" as the "semen of bodhicitta"; and the "subtle" as the "wind"
and "channel." See (CMAT B 294a2_6 , D 3 10b5 -3 1 la 1 , P 350b 3 _6 ) : de 'ang sbyor ba dang
po ni ma! 'byor dang I rjes thob kyi rnal 'byor ro 1 1 dkyil 'khor rgyal po mchog ni shin tu
rnal 'byor ro I I las rgyal po mchog ni shin tu mal 'byor chen po 'o 1 . . . I thig le ni byang
chub kyi sems kyi khu ba ste I . . . I phra mo ni rlung dang rtsa 'o II
' D yang
333 The commentary ( CMAT B 294b _ , D 3 1 l a , P 35 l a 1 _2 ) informs us that "the sama
34
4
yamudrii is a manifold fabrication (i.e., visualization), the experiential object of the
conceptual accompanied by clinging, the cause of sarrzsara and contrived" (dam tshig gi
phyag rgya spros pa sna tshogs pa I rtog pa can gyi spyod yul I zhen pa dang bcas pa I
'khor ba 'i rgyu <bste lb) bcos ma 'o).
DP rtogs 2 D de

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

1 26

imagined by immature beings become the cause 334 of perfect enlight


enment. 335 Through this [realization] the threefold world is perfectly
cultivated in the form of the circle. This has been stated by the illustri
ous one [in Hevajratantra I. 1 0 .43] :
[There] is neither recitation of mantras, nor [prescribed] obser
vances, nor fire offering,
Neither the retinue of the ma7Jala nor the ma7Jala [itself] .
[The enlightened mind is] the recitation of mantras, [prescribed]
observances ,
The fire offering, the retinue of the ma7Jala, and the ma7Jala
[itself] . (CMA 9)
[The illustrious one further said in Hevajratantra I. 1 0.44] :
In brief, the [enlightened] mind possesses [all] the forms of the
assembly. (CMA 1 0)
"In short" refers to the unique form of all phenomena, that is to say, the
form of great bliss . "Mind" is [here] the enlightened mind (bodhicitta).
As to "possesses the forms of the assembly," the wisdom whose nature
is the empowerment of the dhannamudra and mahamudra33 6 is called
the true assembly. [This] concludes the fourth [chapter] , the presenta
tion of the samayamudra as a fruit made by man [for the sake of oth
ers] . 337

334 Tib . : "gold"


335 Tib . : " . . . become the gold of bodhicitta, which emerges together with these [things] ."
336 I.e., the fourth empowerment. See CMAT (B 3 1 6a2 , D 325b 6 , P 367a2 ) : 'dus pa 'i
bdag nyid ni" chos kyi phyag rgya dang I phyag rgya chen (bpo nib) dbang bzhi pa 'i dus
kyi ye shes sue 'dus pas so I
DP om. b DP po 'i BDP gsum
337 CMAT (B 3 1 6a , D 325b , P 367a ) : 'bras bu ni gzhan gyi don no I
3
4
7
c

THE SUCCESSION OF THE FOUR SEALS

1 27

This concludes the teaching on the four seals, a manual in four steps, as
taught by the master Nagarjuna. 338
End of the Translation

An Analysis of the Caturmudranvaya


As already stated in the introduction, the Caturmudranvaya is contained
in Maitripa ' s *Advayavajrasarrigraha, but the authorship of this im
p ortant work on the four seals has remained a controversial issue. In a
way similar to the Sekanirdea, the four seals (i.e . , the karma- , dharma,
maha-, and samayamudras) describe the ground, path, and fruit in the
Yoginl (or Mother) Tantras , and are equivalent to the five stages in the
Yoga Tantras . 339 Mahamudra corresponds to the level of the fruit, and
the dharmamudra to the ultimate (i.e., dharmadhatu or the like) , which
is meditated upon or cultivated on the path. This path fully accords with
Mahayana Buddhism and can be effectively initiated by means of a
karmamudra, which involves the union with an actual consort in order
to identify the goal, namely co-emergent joy. This occurs in the form of
an image of co-emergent joy, which manifests for an instant when the
practitioner is experiencing on the physical level the sequence of the
four moments-manifold appearances, maturation, freedom from defin
ing characteristics (vilakm:ia), and relaxation-and the four joys: joy,
supreme joy, co-emergent joy, and the joy in the cessation of j oy.
For Maitrlpa the identified goal must be truly free from defining char
acteristics , and such a non-dual experience of co-emergent j oy can only
occur during the third moment, that is , between the moments of matura
tion and relaxation. Mahamudra impresses itself on the other mudras,
that is to say, they are reflections of mahamudra. The wisdom (jiiana)
that arises from a consort, usually referred to as prajiia, (i. e . , the prajiia
wisdom) is only a momentary and contrived reflection of the real wis
dom. It is only in the presence of the uncontrived dharmamudra338 This sentence is not found in the Sanskrit, and is supplied from the Tibetan transla
tion.
339 See the analysis of the Sekanirdea above.

1 28

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

special pith instructions on how to identify the goal during the third in
the sequence of four moments-that the real wisdom can arise from
such a practice. This is also what the Fourth 'Brug chen Padma dkar po
( 1 527-96) replied in his Phyag chen rgyal ba 'i gan mdzod to Sa skya
Par:ic,iita ' s ( 1 1 82- 1 25 1 ) statement:
Moreover, [Sa par:i said in his sDdom gsum rah dbye] : "In his
Caturmudrii[nvaya}, Noble Nagarjuna said this :
If, through not having known the karmamudrii,
One is also ignorant of the dharmamudrii,
It is impossible that one might understand
Even the name of mahiimudrii.3 40 (III. 1 78)
Here, [S a par:i] said something else than [what we find in the
Caturmudriinvaya which reads as follows] : "Being satisfied
[with what they found] they even do not know the discourses of
the dharmamudrii. How does the uncontrived co-emergent na
ture arise for those who do not know the [teachings of] the
dharmamudrii[, that is,] only through the contrived [practice of
uniting with a] karmamudrii? [Only] from a cause of a specific
kind does a fruit of this [same] specific kind arise, and not from
another kind. Just as the sprout of a siilf[-tree] and not a kodra
va[-plant] arises from a siilf-seed, the co-emergent arises from
the uncontrived dharmamudrii. From the cause, which is the
dharmamudrii thus arises the mahiimudrii which is not divisible
[from its cause] . "341

340 See Rhoton 2002:304.


34 1 Padma dkar po: Phyag chen rgyal ba 'i gan mdzod, 62-63: yang I 'phags pa klu sgrub
nyid kyis kyang I phyag rgya bzhi par 'di skad gsungs I las lyi phyag rgya mi shes pas 1 1
chos kyi phyag rgya 'ang mi shes na 1 1 phyag rgya chen po 'i ming tsam yang 1 1 rtogs pa
nyid ni mi srid gsungs 1 1 der ni de las logs pa zhig gsungs te I de la dga ' zhing mgu bas
chos kyi phyag rgya 'i gtam tsam yang mi shes so 1 1 chos kyi phyag rgya mi shes pas las
kyi phyag rgya bcos ma 'ba ' zhig las ma bcos pa 'i lhan cig skyes pa 'i rang bzhin 'byung
zhing skye bar ga la 'gyur I rigs mthun pa 'i rgyu las rigs mthun pa 'i 'bras skye bar 'gyur
gyi I rigs mi mthun pa las ni ma yin no I l ji ltar sii lu 'i sa ban las sii lu 'i myu gu skye bar
'gyur gyi I ko ta pa las ni ma yin no 1 1 de bzhin du ma bcos pa 'i chos kyi phyag rgya 'i

THE SUCCESSION OF THE FOUR SEALS

1 29

A preliminary summary of this issue was published by Broido ( 1 987)


which led to strong reactions by David Jackson ( 1 990 & 1 994) . A com
parison with the S anskrit texts and their Tibetan translation in the bsTan
' gyur shows, however, that the Padma dkar po quotation perfectly ac
cords with the S anskrit by meaning, namely that the uncontrived dhar
mamudra is the cause of mahamudra, and not the contrived karma

mudra. 342
As already explained above, the four moments and the four j oys can be
also experienced on the level of the dharmamudra. Whether karma
mudra is practiced or not, it is the uncontrived dharmamudra that is the
de cisive element leading to mahamudra. Here, however, there is only
the true co-emergent joy and not the other three (impure) joys. The path
can be further supported by the causal samayamudra343 of visualizing
deities , mm:uj,alas and the like. The samayamudra proper is the display
of form kayas for the sake of others as a result of having attained maha

mudra.
A closer look at the definition of mahamudra (built around the quote
from the Jiianalokalaf(lkara ending in iti), reveals a problem in the form
of the feminine relative pronoun (ya) and correlative (sa) construction.
To go by the Tibetan translation, the quotation should be taken up by
something like iti yad uktaf(l tad . . . . If the passage containing the quota
tions starting with tatha ca was removed, however, ya sa perfectly falls
into place with the feminine attributes of mahamudra at the beginning. I
thus suggest that after the insertion of the Jiianalokalaf(lkara quotes the
author or compiler failed to adjust the ya sa. Moreover, the original
definition of mahamudra without the passage from the Jiianalokalaf(lka
ra has exactly the same structure as the preceding one concerning the

dharmamudra.
Whether an insertion or not, the Jiianalokalaf(lkara passage links maha
mudra with the view of non-abiding and with the practice of amarang bzhin las lhan cig skyes pa 'byung ngo I de 'i phyir chos kyi phyag rgya 'i rgyu las
mi phyed pa 'i phyag rgya chen po skye bar 'gyur ro 1 1 zhes 'byung bas so I
342 See Mathes 20 1 3 :269-70.
343 See Mathes 2009:90.

1 30

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

nasikara. As we have seen above, this blend of Sutras and Tantras is


fully elaborated in the Sekanirdea and the commentary on it by Rama
pala. It could be argued that the sequence of the four seals does not im
ply a strict causal relationship in the sense of the first seal (i.e. , karma
mudra) being an absolutely necessary precondition for the following
seals . This is also clear from *Karopa' s initial explanations of evaY(l as
the acoustic reality of dharmamudrii: "Those persons who cannot com
prehend such a dharmamudra must rely on a karmamudrii. "344 Accord
ing to Maitripa ' s TattvaviY(lsika, this is also true of the (causal) sama
yamudra: Practices based on the karma- and samayamudras are only
meant for those with inferior capacities . 345 It could be argued that mark
ing the goal during union with a consort, and the tantric practices of
visualizing deities, ma7Jalas and the like are only optional procedures,
and not prerequisites, for attaining mahiimudra. It should be noted,
however, that according to TV 6, the advanced parctitioner ' s direct
access to mahiimudrii still falls into the category of Mantranaya. In oth
er words, Maitripa' s blend of Sutras and Tantras clearly is tantric .
In this context, i t i s worthy noting that in the chapter o n dharmamudra,
the path is described as the immediate cause in the form of suchness,
which means that suchness must be meditated upon by overcoming
duality. This is achieved by the means of tantra, as indicated by the
quoted stanza on the right, left, and central channels from the Hevajra
tantra I. 1 . 1 4 . The immediately following quotation of the famous for
mula found in the Ratnagotravibhaga I. 1 54 or other Mahayana texts)
could also hint at *Sahajavajra ' s phrase 'Paramita[naya] pith instruc
tions and accord with Mantranaya. ' But most likely, the relation be
tween the Hevajratantra and the formula found in the Ratnagotra
vibhaga must be seen against the backdrop of Nagarjuna ' s (or Mai
tripa' s?) effort to integrate the new teachings and practices of the
344 CMAT (B 258b6 , D 286a , P 3 2 l a6 ) : de lta bu 'i chos kyi phyag rgya la 'jug pa 'i nus
4
pa med pa dag gi gang zag gis I las kyi phyag rgya la 'jug par bya ste I
P orn.
345 See TV 7 and 1 1 : Those with inferior capacities have perfectly cultivated the circle
with the help of the karma- and samayamudrii. [With a mind] directed to the external in
the matter of pure reality, they meditate on enlightenment. (TV 7) The yogin who has
seen true reality, however, is wholly devoted to mahiimudrii; his faculty being unsur
passable he abides with [the realization of the] nature of all entities. (TV 1 1)

THE SUCCESSION OF THE FOUR SEALS

131

maha siddhas into mainstream Buddhism by showing that the latter are
in line with the view, conduct, and practice of traditional Mahayana. In
the process, tantric terms are explained in a broad Mahayana context,
with the purpose of demonstrating that their meaning was already latent
in more traditional forms of Buddhism.

9 . A Summary of the Meaning of Empowerment


(SekatatparyasaJ?1graha)

Translation of the Sekatiitparyasa1Jlgraha (the text consists of verses


and prose):

Homage to the Buddha !


A certain superior one called spiritual friend
Who has greatness and is unfathomable
Holds inexpressible true reality
As if in the palms of his hands . 346 (STS 1 )
With the knowledge of [such] a supreme vajra master,
We compose a summary of the meaning of empowerment
[Gathered] from the many treatises on empowerment
And in accordance with canonical scripture. 347 (STS 2)
The first is the vase empowerment,
[And] the second, the excellent secret [empowerment] ;
The third is the prajna wisdom [empowerment] ,
And the fourth one is just like that. 348 (STS 3)

346 Tib . : "Since the words of a spiritual friend are difficult to realize, may any great
being be victorious, who holds inexpressible true reality as if in the palms of his hands."
347 Tib . : "in accordance with realization."
348 This is similar to a verse in the 1 8th chapter of the Guhyasamajatantra (GST 1 60 12 _ 1 :
3
kalaabhiekayti prathamayti dvitfyayti guhyabhiekatal:z I prajfiajfianarri trtyaf(l tu catu
rthaf(l tat punas tatha II)

1 34

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

[The Six Vase Empowerments]


The meaning of this is as follows : As to [the line] "The first is the vase
empowerment," the six [empowerments] whose distinctive features are
water, crown, vajra, bell, name, and master are vase empowerments .
Empowerment (lit. "besprinkling") [means] that one is "besprinkled" in
order to wash away the stains of ignorance, just as external stains [are
washed away] by external water. Because all these [empowerments] are
performed with a vase, they are called "vase empowerments . " [The
six] 349 are also [called] irreversible empowerments , since they have the
nature of the six Tathagatas . Furthermore, the water empowerment par
takes of the nature of Akobhya, who embodies mirror-like wisdom.
The crown empowerment partakes of the nature of Ratnasambhava,
who embodies the wisdom of equality. The vajra empowerment par
takes of the nature of Amitabha, who embodies discriminating wisdom.
The lord (i.e., the bell) 35 0 empowerment partakes of the nature of Amo
ghasiddhi who embodies the wisdom of activity. The name empower
ment partakes of the nature of Vairocana who embodies the wisdom of
the very pure dharmadhatu, [such wisdom] conforming to a [form of]
awareness which is the result of having put an end to ignorance. The
master empowerment partakes of the nature of Vajrasattva. The [first]
five of these empowerments are empowerments of the awareness
consorts (vidyii), for the action during them [is performed by] Locana
and the other awareness-consorts .

[The Water Empowerment]


Among these: In order to wash away the stains of ignorance, the vajra
master [who is visualized by the disciple] as having the form of Ako
bhya must bestow the water empowerment upon the disciple, who de
pends on the form of Vairocana. 351 There is such a [vajra] pride at all
times .
349 Supplied from the Tibetan.
350 Sanskrit adhipati and ghaf!tii are used interchangeably (oral information from Ha
runaga Isaacson).
3 5 1 I.e., the disciple is visualized by the master as having the form of Vairocana.

A SUMMARY OF THE MEANING OF EMPOWERMENT

1 35

[ The Crown Empowerment]


The crown empowerment is the seed of the thick excrescence on the
head (u:p:tfa) appropriate352 for being the future Buddha. 353

[The Vajra Empowerment]


In

terms of the purification of the twelve factors of dependent arising, a


vajra twelve fingers ' breath in length [is shown] . In its middle part
there is the syllable hilrrt, which expresses the unsurpassable true nature
of phenomena. Its meaning is as follows : [The letter] ha [in hurrt] stands
for being uncaused, [the vowel] a for being without [conceptual] under
standing, 354 and arrt (i.e. , the anusviira) for phenomena which are not
based [on anything] . 355
[This hurrt is the place] where the [five] sages emerge-in the
form of
The five spokes [of the vajra] from the calyxes of the lotuses of
cyclic existence.
They come forth in bodies of [cyclic] existence as a result of
The purity (i.e. , purification) of the five skandhas . (STS 4)
Now, it is made clear here, through the fact that the spokes at the side
face the spoke in the middle, that all forms and the other-[the first
four-skandhas] have the nature of [the fifth skandha,] consciousness.
In order to signal that everything has the nature of everything 356 [the tip
of the vajra] is quandrangular throughout [its length] .
Now, these [five] sages of the Dharma, whose nature
Is represented by the roaring sound of hu111 ,

352 The Tibetan has no equivalent of Skt. -ucita-.


353 My translation follows the Tibetan here. I suggest to read agiimibuddhO!flJ,l!fa354 Tib . : "thought."
355 Tib . : " . . . the fact that all phenomena are without foundation."
356 I.e., that everything arises in dependence (Thrangu Rinpoche).

136

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The five embodiments of liberation


Have sprung forth at their respective side. 357 (STS 5)
[Each of them has] three flowers , meant to express emptiness, signless
ness , and wishlessness . According to the instruction of the guru, it
should be known that they (i.e., the five Buddhas) embody the five
[types of] wisdom, whose defining characteristics are [likeness to] a
mirror, [realization of] equality, discrimination, activity, and [being] the
pure dharmadhiitu. The [following] characterization [in the Vajrasekha
ra] of indivisible wisdom is a [good] summary:
Emptiness is called the vajra,
Which is of a steadfast essence, not hollow;
Incombustible and indestructible,
And whose defining characteristics is to be indivisible and im
penetrable. (STS 6)

In Hevajra[tantra I. 1 .4a] , too, it is said: "The vajra is indivisible. "


This performance o f the vajra empowerment i s a s it were, the planting
of the seed for the arising indivisible wisdom.

[The Bell Empowerment]


Likewise, the vajra bell has , given its purpose for the previous one (i.e.,
the vajra), the length of twelve fingers ' breath. It is an upside down
lotus. 358 [Its ringing sound stands for] 359 the union with the vajra-this
in order to make one realize that it is the nature of all phenomena to
lack an own-being. In order to demonstrate that the source of phenome
na (dharmodayii) is the basis of indivisible wisdom, it is adorned with
two bands of vajra, [one] on its upper and [another] on its lower part. In

35 7 Lit. "at the side, but different ones."


358 Tib . : "Being a lotus, it is upside down."
3 5 9 The addition in brackets is supplied from the Tibetan.

A SUMMARY OF THE MEANING OF EMPOWERMENT

1 37

order to express its 360 nature as a [divine] palace-the [same] nature as


that of the threefold world-there is a fringed network with chains and
loops [in between] . Therefore it is also marked by the [seed syllables of
the] five Tathagatas . In order to indicate, that [the bell] is the cause of
the wisdom of inseparably united emptiness and compassion, it displays
on [its] top the face of the consort (prajiiii).
In order to show that dharmadhiitu wisdom361 consists of the five Tatha
gatas , beginning with Vairocana, that it has the nature of the five
skandhas , beginning with matter, and the nature as well of the five ele
ments beginning with earth, [the bell ' s] top [is adorned with] 362 five
spokes . The connection of [the four spokes] facing the central spoke [of
the bell] and so forth is as [explained] before. May empowerment be
conferred by this ringing vajra bell. It will produce awakening towards
the entire unsurpassable [true nature of] 363 phenomena. In order to
demonstrate [its] preeminence, and to show that it is the [main] cause,
the vajra empowerment is given first, that is, the vajra bell empower
ment is [first] passed over, even though it is the instrumental cause.

[The Name Empowerment]


The name empowerment [is given] in order to demonstrate the name
lessness of all phenomena and to acquire a basis for a proper name
when the level of a Buddha [is reached] in the future. [The empower
ment is given] by removing the old name and [bestowing a new name]
in accord with one ' s family and clan deity.

36 0 The masculine endings of the demonstrative pronoun ( asya) and the past participle (
alikitaf:i) refer to the bell (ghalJ(il), in-as-much as it is the dharmodayii.
361 Lit. "wisdom, whose nature is [that of] the dharmadhiitu. "
362 Supplied from the Tibetan.
36 3 Supllied from the Tibetan.

138

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

[The Master Empowerment]


The master empowerment has the defining characteristics of the vajra
commitment, the bell commitment, [and] the seal commitment; suita
bleness; permission; [vajra] conduct; prediction; and reassurance. The
vajra commitment makes [the disciple] realize: "Form now on, you
have the [requisite] commitment to realize the continuous flow of the
unconditioned indivisibility and indivisible union. 364 The bell commit
ment makes [the disciple] understand: " [Now] you are a holder of the
group of eighty-four thousand Dharma [teachings] . " 365 The seal com
mitment makes [the disciples] understand: "You have the nature of your
chosen deity (itadevatii) ." 366 The reality of the mat:tefala, the defining
characteristic of the mat:tefala ' s purity, the reality of the deity, the defin
ing characteristic of the deity ' s purity, the performance of the master,
the knowledge of the means of accomplishing the mat:tefala, the five
lamps, and the food of five nectars, [all this] constitutes suitableness.
And true reality [here] is that they (i.e., the mat:tefala, deities , and so
forth) lack an own-being, [as is realized and cultivated] during the com
pletion phase. Permission [is given] to set the wheel of the Dharma in
motion. Vajra-conduct is prescribed in order for outer conduct to be
abandoned. A prophecy [is made] in order to reveal that one will have
the nature of earth and the other [elements when one attains enlighten
ment] . For-to explain-this is the meaning of [the mantra] bhur bhu
vaf:i svaJ:i : 367 bhur means "may you be"; bhuvaJ:i "of earth and the other
[elements] "; and svaf:i "nature" (i.e., "May you have the nature of earth
and the other [elements] ! ") . 368 [It is declared:] "One is free from all hin-

3 64 Tib . : "Your commitment is to perfectly realize the continuous flow of the indivisibil
ity and indivisible union (i.e., the true nature) of [everything] , starting from this condi
tioned body up to the unconditioned." That this must be realized is the vajra commit
ment.
3 6 5 Tib . : "You must make the group of eighty-four thousand Dharma [teachings] known.
That this must be realized is the bell commitment."
3 66 Tib.: ""You have the nature of your chosen deity (itadevata)." That this must be
realized is the seal commitment."
3 67 An old Vedic mantra (oral information from Harunaga Isaacson).
3 6 8 The Tibetan translation of this explanation differs and is difficult to construe.

A SUMMARY OF THE MEANING OF EMPOWERMENT

1 39

drances , equal to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas . "369 [This] reassurance


[is given] from now on for the sake of awakening.

[The S ecret Empowerment]


The bestowing [of the two essences] of bodhicitta-which is performed
by both [the guru and his consort] simultaneously-is the secret em
powerment. It is [conferred] in order to transform [the adept] into a
[suitable] cultivator of insight and faith, and in order to protect his
commitments . [The secret empowerment] is given by means of [these]
two secret [essences] of means and insight. 370 This is the word for
mation [of guhya] .
[The Prajiiii Wisdom Empowerment]
[The compound] prajiiii wisdom admits of two word formations here:
"the wisdom from prajiiii," and "the wisdom which is prajiiii." [As to
the first] of these, the intellect, which [still] retains the [two] aspects of
[cognition, namely] a perceived object and perceiving subj ect, is the
prajiiii which by its nature is a woman with well-rounded limbs [and]
consisting of the four elements , five skandhas, and the six [cognitive]
objects starting with matter. 371 The [aspect of] bodhicitta [arisen] from
this [form of prajiiii] as cause is wisdom. This is the first word forma
tion. Precisely this [prajiiii] , in its emptiness of the two aspects (i.e., the
perceived and perceiver) , is [also] wisdom. 372 This is the other word
formation.
36 9 Tib. : "All Buddhas and bodhisattvas assert to you that you assuredly will be free
from all hindrances."
370 Tib . : " [These] two secret [essences] of means and insight must be given."
37 1 In order to establish the equation of prajna with "woman," Maitripa proposes here
the bridging link of the intellect which creates all perceived objects (including women).
In fact, the yoga involving a karmamudra mainly works on the level of imagination,
whence it can also be performed with a visualized consort (jnanamudra). See the defini
tion of karmamudra in the Caturmudranvaya above, where karmamudra is said to have
the nature of imagination.
372 The context requires to read jnana instead of vijnana.

1 40

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

[The Fourth Empowerment]


S ome say that the goal characterized by prajiia wisdom and endowed
with the seven constituents 373 is the meaning of the fourth [empower
ment] . Others say that that which is like the stainless autumn sky while
becoming familiar with this very prajiia wisdom, is the meaning of the
fourth [empowerment] . Others say that it is prajiia wisdom itself; 374 or
the form of its true nature; or the forms of its deviation from the natural
state, namely natural arising; 375 [or] the pure nature of non-dual conti
nuity in which [emptiness and compassion are] united as a pair is the
meaning of the fourth [empowerment] . Other positions are not men
tioned [here] for reasons of space.
Through the fame376 and related merit which I have produced
By [this] summarized description of the very secret empower
ment,
May the whole world have faith to acquire the endurance
Of the stainless and clear words well spoken by the Sugata.
(STS 7)
This SekatatparyasaY(lgraha is ended. This is a work by the pai;i<;lita and
renunciant, the venerable Advayavajra. Translated, corrected, and final
ized by the Indian pai;i<;lita Vajrapai;ii and the Tibetan translator Tshul
khrims rgyal ba. 377
End of the Translation

373 I.e., enjoyment, union, great bliss , devoid of own-being, full of compassion, uninter
rupted, without cessation (oral information from Harunaga Isaacson).
374 Tib . : "the nature of prajiiil wisdom"
375 Tib . : "which consist of dependent arising"
376 I.e., taking loka in its meaning of 'fame. '
377 P : mTshur ston [Ye shes 'byung gnas] .

A SUMMARY OF THE MEANING OF EMPOWERMENT

141

Concluding Remarks
Besides the Sekanirdea, the amanasikara cycle contains two more texts
on empowerment, the Sekatatparyasaf!Lgraha, and the *Saf!lkipta
sekaprakriya, which is available only in Tibetan translation. In a short
appendix to the Sekanirdea in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod,
we are told that along with these Maitripa gave a teaching on how em
powerment is performed and composed a text called Pure Empower
ment (dBang rnam dag) :
Students asked the master [Maitripa] how empowerment is [ex
plained] in terms of pith instructions . Thus he composed the
Saf!lkiptasekaprakriya. Since they [also] asked for the meaning
of empowerment, he composed the Sekatatparyasaf!Lgraha.
Asked [further] about [its] performance, he gave a detailed
teaching on the performance [of empowerment] . Distinguishing
between a good and bad [prajna wisdom empowerment] , he
composed the Sekanirdea. 378 Asked about the purity of empow
erment, he composed the Pure Empowerment. Other texts are
not found. 379
In his Sekatatparyasaf!Lgraha, Maitripa explains the meaning (tatparya)
or purpose38 0 of the four empowerments usually referred to as vase,
secret, prajna wisdom (i.e. , the wisdom that arises from the union with
a consort) , and the fourth empowerment. Particular emphasis is placed
upon the six empowerments of the vase empowerment. The four em
powerments are closely related to the four seals scheme, which requires
a fivefold division spread over the creation and completion stages. A
good systematic introduction to this topic is found in the *Guruparam-

37 8 The Tibetan has here dBang rnam nges which can only be the dBang nges par bstan
pa (see below).
379 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. ka, 2 1 6b 6 -217a 1 : yang slob ma rnams kyis
slob dpon la man ngag dang 'brel bas dbang ci ltar zhus pas I dbang mdor bstan mdzad I
dbang gi (text: gis) dgongs pa zhus pas dgongs pa mdor bsdus mdzad I dbang gi lag Zen
zhus pas lag Zen pra khrid mdzad I dbang bzang ngan shan 'byed pas dbang rnam nges
mdzad I dbang gi (text: gis) dag pa zhus pas dbang rnam dag mdzad zhes so I gzhan
rnams yig cha ma rnyes la I
3 80 This is according to the Tibetan translation of tiitparya as dgongs pa or dgos pa.

1 42

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

parakrama- Upadesa by Vajrapai:ii, one of Maitripa ' s four main disci


ples :
There are two creation stages, an outer one and an inner, pro
found one. Of the completion stage there are three [divisions] :
the completion stage [proper] , the perfect completion stage, and
the natural [completion] stage.
Likewise, there are two types of empowerment: artificial,
worldly empowerment, and natural, supramundane empower
ment. Of the artificial type, there are three [subtypes] : the mas
ter empowerment, the secret empowerment, and the empower
ment of prajna wisdom. Of the natural type, there are two: the
dharmamudra and mahamudra, which [together] constitute the
fourth. This is as stated [in Sekatatparyasarrzgraha, verse 3] :
The first is the master381 empowerment,
And the second, the excellent secret [empowerment] ;
The third is the prajna wisdom [empowerment] ,
And the fourth one is just like that. 382
The master empowerment purifies the body; the secret empow
erment, speech; prajna wisdom empowerment, the mind, and
the fourth is a pith instruction, the seed of bodhicitta.
Empowerments can be further categorized as supreme, average
or inferior ones. Inferior empowerment [corresponds to] the
outer creation stage (that is , the [causal] samayamudra), the
master empowerment, and the creation stage, that is , deity yoga.
Average empowerment is the karmamudra, of which there are
two [types] : the reassurance that one is the Tathagatas and the
reassurance that one is Vajradhara. The secret empowerment
and the reassurance that one is the Tathagatas constitute the pro3 8 1 STS : "vase".
3 8 2 I.e., a cultivation of what is experienced during the third empowerment.

A SUMMARY OF THE MEANING OF EMPOWERMENT

143

found creation stage . The reassurance that one is Vajradhara re


presents the completion stage [proper] . 383
Supreme empowerment is the perfect completion stage, that is,
the dhannamudra. The suprememost empowerment is the natu
ral [completion] stage, that is, mahamudra.384
The master empowerment, which is the last of the six vase empower
ments, purifies the body and enables the visualization of one ' s skandhas
as the five Tathagatas (Vairocana and so forth) ; it is here subsumed
under the outer creation phase and the seal of abundance (samaya
mudra) within the system of the four seals. The seal of abundance is
usually equated with one ' s tantric sambhoga- and nirma"(lakayas , which
manifest after one has become a Vajradhara. But here it stands for the
mentally created deities and ma"(lef,alas, which only resemble the en
lightened or effortless manifestations of the kayas. In his commentary

3 83 The texts repeats: "The reassurance that one is the Tathagata and the reassurance that
one is Vajradhara constitute the karmamudri'i."
384 GPKU (B 299b -300a6 , D l70a -b p 1 9 l a -b ) : bsked pa 'i rim pa laa gnyis te I phyi
4
4 3
5 5
bskyed pa 'i rim pa dang I nang zab mo bskyed pa 'i rim pa 'o 1 1 rdzogs pa 'i rim pa la 'angb
gsum ste I rdzogs pa 'i rim pa dang I yangs su rdzogs pa 'i rim pa dang I ngo bo nyid kyi
rim pa 'o 1 1 de bzhin du dbang la 'ang gnyis te I 'jig rten pa 'i dbang bcos ma dang I 'jig
rten las 'das pa 'i dbang ma bcos pa ' o I bcos ma lac gsum ste I slob dpon gyi dbang dang I
gsang ba 'i dbang dang I shes rab ye shes kyi dbang ngo 1 1 ma bcos pa lac gnyis te I chos
kyi phyag rgya dang I phyag rgya chen po bzhi pa 'o 1 1 de 'ang 'di skad du I slob dpon
dbang ni dang po ste 1 1 gsang ba mchog ni gnyis pa yin 1 1 gsum pa shes rab ye shes te 1 1
bzhi pa de yang de bzhin no 1 1 zhes gsungs te I slob dpon gyi dbang ni lus dag par byed
pa 'o 1 1 gsang ba 'i dbang ni ngag dag par byed pa 'o 1 1 shes rab ye shes kyi dbang ni yid
dag par byed pa 'o 1 1 bzhi pa ni man ngag ste I byang chub sems kyi sa ban no 1 1 de la
dbang po rab 'bring tha ma 'i dbang du byas nad I phyi bskyed pa 'i rim pa ni dam tshig gi
phyag rgya ste I slob dpon gyi dbang dang I bskyed pa 'i rim pa lha 'i rnal 'byor tee I
dbang po tha ma 'or I las kyi phyag rgya la gnyis te I de bzhin gshegs pa 'i dbugs dbyung
ba dang I rdo rje 'chang gi dbugs dbyung ba 'o I I gsangg ba 'i dbang dang de bzhin
gshegs pa 'i dbugs dbyung ba ni nang zab mo bskyed pa 'i rim pa 'o 1 1 rdo rje 'chang gi
dbugs dbyung ba ni rdzogs pa 'i rim pa 'o 1 1 de bzhin gshegs pa 'i dbugs dbyung ba dang
rdo rje 'chang gi dbugs dbyung ba ni las kyi phyag rgya ste I dbang po 'bring po 'o 1 1
yangs su rdzogs pa 'i rim pa ni chos kyi phyag rgya ste I dbang po rab bo 1 1 ngo bo nyid
kyi rim pa ni phyag rgya chen po ste I dbang po rab kyi yang rab bo I
' P om. b DP om. C B la 'ang d P nas e B ro f DP ma 'i g P gsung

1 44

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

on the Caturmudriinvaya, *Karopa calls it "the causal samayamudrii".385


The master empowerment is classified as an inferior type of artifici al,
worldly empowerment.
The secret empowerment purifies speech by receiving the bodhicitta
(i.e., the sexual fluids) of the guru and the guru ' s consort. In his *Guru
parampariikrama- Upadea, Vajrapi:il)i explains :
As to the secret empowerment of the venerable master, the bo
dhicitta must be taken with the tongue from [his] vajra. As to
the secret empowerment of the venerable lady, the bodhicitta
must be taken with the tongue from [her] lotus. 386
The secret empowerment is taken as corresponding to the profound
creation stage and as included within the action seal (karmamudrii).
*Karopa explains that action is one ' s intention relative to one ' s body,
speech, and mind, while the seal of this action is one ' s imagination.
From the union with a karmamudrii the four joys arise; *Karopa, fur
thermore, equates action with bliss , and the seal with recognition of this
bliss the very moment it appears. 387 The reassurance that one is the
Tathagatas means that one ascertains that the skandhas are the five
Tathagatas . Once it is realized in a preliminary way that the skandhas
are only one ' s mind, they are sealed with the seal of Akobhya. This is
as explained in the previous chapter on the Paiicatathiigatamudrii
vivarm:ia. The secret empowerment is considered to be artificial, world
ly, and average.
The third empowerment is the wisdom that arises from a consort, also
referred to as prajiiii or karmamudrii. This prajiiii wisdom empower
ment is only an imitation of real wisdom, but it does enable the practi
tioner to identify the goal of co-emergent joy. It purifies the mind and
385 See Mathes 2009 :92.
38 6 GPKU (B 304b6 -305a 1 , D l 73a6 , P 195an) : rje btsun gyi gsang ba 'i dbang ni byang
chub kyi sems rdo rje las lees blang bar bya 'o 1 1 rje btsun ma 'i gsang ba 'i dbang ni
byang chub kyi sems padma las" lees blang bar bya 'o I
a DP nas
387 See Mathes 2009 :90 and 99.

A SUMMARY OF THE MEANING OF EMPOWERMENT

1 45

offers the reassurance that one is Vajradhara-a realization which cor


responds to the seal of Vajrasattva in the Pancatathagatamudraviva
rmy,a. This depends on a correct recognition of the four joys during un
ion with a karmamudra. The Caturmudriinvaya emphasizes the pres
ence of the uncontrived dharmamudrii at this point, otherwise the un
contrived co-emergent cannot arise. 388 The third empowerment is also
considered to be worldly, artificial and average.
The fourth empowerment is here equated with pith instructions and the
seed of bodhicitta. The four joys, which were first experienced on a
mainly physical level during the third empowerment, must now be fur
ther elicited on the level of dharmamudrii with the help of pith instruc
tions . In his *Caturmudropadesa, Maitripa explains that dharmamudrii
includes phenomena (dharma) as well as the true nature of manifold
appearances , 389 which nature is the seal (mudrii) of phenomena. This
eliciting of the four joys on the level of dharmamudrii is a supreme
form of empowerment, corresponding to the perfect completion stage.
Together with the suprememost empowerment of mahiimudrii on the
level of the natural completion stage, it constitutes the fourth-the natu
ral, supramundane empowerment.

388 See Mathes 2009 : 1 04.


38 9 See also Mathes 2009: 1 12.

1 0. The Five Aspects [of Vajrasattva]


([Vajrasattva-]Paiicakara)

Translation of the Paiicakiira (the text consists of verses and prose):

Homage to the Buddha! 39 0


Having venerated Vajrasattva,
Who is unsurpassable in his freedom from mental fabrications,
I will explain in brief, for the [better] understanding [of disci
ples] 391
[His] five aspects . 392 (PA 1 )
Once one has protected the abode, oneself, and the practice by [saying]
OlJZ af:t h111JZ, offerings should be made to the five Tathagatas and five
Y oginis in the middle of a quadrangular or other ma1J4ala in a place
suffused with fragrant smells and so forth.

[Akobhya]
In the middle of it is the multicoloured syllable pa1J2, which turns into a
multi[coloured] , eight-petalled, blossoming lotus. On its stamen is the
red letter ra1J2 , 393 which turns into a sun disk. From a blue syllable ha1JZ
situated on [this sun disk, arises] A kobhya, 394 blue and with one face
and two arms . He performs the earth-touching mudra and sits in the
390 Tib: "Homage to Vajrasattva! "
39 1 The addition in brackets i s based on the Tibetan.
39 2 The Tibetan has " [The deities of the] five aspects. " It is most likely, though, that the
Tibetan translation first read something like rnam pa lnga ni bdag nyid bshad. In other
words the bdag nyid was simply a translation of aham.
393 According to the Tibetan; the Sanskrit reads -repha-.
394 According to the Tibetan; akobhya is missing in the Sanskrit.

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

1 48

cross-legged vajra posture. His body is adorned with the thirty-two


maj or marks and the eighty excellent minor marks [of a buddha] . He is
the unique abode of a multitude of qualities , such as the ten strengths
and the [four] fearlessnesses , and is without porosity, flesh, or bones-a
mere appearance like a reflection in a mirror-and neither true nor
false. Embodying great kindness he is of a dark-blue colour and his sign
is a dark-blue vajra. He has the nature of the skandha of consciousness,
which is the very pure dharmadhiitu. His head and beard are shaven,
and his body is covered with religious robes . 395 The crown of his head
displays a Vajrasattva, [for] he has the nature of Vajrasattva, being in
separable from emptiness and compassion.
Therefore, he has the nature of cause and effect and the defining charac
teristic of emptiness, which is endowed with all supreme forms. Being
unconditioned and having the nature of suchness , he is [also] the dhar
makiiya. Being a mere reflection, he is the sambhogakiiya. Given that he
has the nature of imagined consciousness, he is the nirmiiJJakiiya. Pos
sessing the single taste of all three kiiyas, he is the sviibhiivikakiiya. 3 96
This is stated [in Mahiiyiinavif!1sikii, verse 1 9] :
The unconditioned mind is the dharma[kiiya];
Realization is the defining characteristics of the saf!1bhoga[kii

ya};3 97

[Then there is] that: A variegated [body] has been emanated


(i.e., the nirmiiJJakiiya) .
The natural one (i.e., the nijakiiya) i s the nature o f all [three].
(PA 2 = MV 1 9)
Untouched by thoughts and the like, he belongs to the vajra-family.
And this vajra-family is not reached by worldly people. Anger, vajra
water, the cool season, noon, a sharp taste, hearing, sky, sound, and the
series [of palatal consonants starting with] ca-these purities [emblem
atic] of Akobhya are a presentation of outer and inner [features] . The

39 5 Lit. : "brown-red cloth," but Akobhya is normally depicted with blue robes.
39 6 This sentence is missing in the Tibetan.
397 Based on the Tibetan, I suggest reading bodhal:z sambhogalakm:zam.

THE FIVE ASPECTS [OF VAJRASATTVA ]

1 49

p resentation of the four kayas here is as before. His mantra of recitation


i s : Of!l aJ:i vajradhrk haf!l.

[Vajrasattva]
Now, Vajrasattva [on Akobhya' s crown] has arisen from a white 398
a
hum.
. He has one f ce and two arms, and holds a vajra and a vajra-bell.
He has the nature of mental consciousness , sealed with empti[ness] . 399
He embodies the astringent taste and the purified autumn season. He
has the nature of [the letters] ya, ra, la, va, and so forth. [His time is]
from midnight until dawn. Another term [for him] is dharmadhatu.

[Vairocana]
On the eastern petal [of the lotus] , white Vairocana has arisen on a
moon disk from a white400 Of!l. His sign is a white wheel, and he dis
p lays the mudra of supreme enlightenment. He has the nature of the
skandha of matter and embodies bewilderment. He is of the purity of
excrement, belongs to the tathagata-family, and abides as mirror-like
wisdom. He is the p urified winter season, and embodies a sweet taste.
[He is related to] the series [of velar consonants starting with] ka, and
his time is the morning. He has the nature of the body. His mantra is :

Of!l aJ:i jinajik hilf!l.


[Ratnasambhava]
On the southern p etal [of the lotus] , yellow Ratnasambhava has arisen
on a sun disk from a yellow40 1 traf!I. His sign is a jewel, and he displays
the mudra of generosity. He has the nature of the skandha of sensation,

39 8 According to Tib (B).


399 Added according to the Tibetan (B) : stong pa 'i rgyas btab pa.
400 According to Tib (B).
40 1 According to Tib (B).

1 50

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

embodies slander,402 has the nature of ova, belongs to the ratna-family,


and has the wisdom of equality. He has the character of the spring sea
son, and embodies a salty taste. [He is related to] the series [of retroflex
consonants starting with] {a, and his time is the afternoon. His mantra
is : Of(l iifz ratnadhrk hilf!l.

[Amitabha]
On the western petal [of the lotus] , red Amitabha has arisen on a sun
disk from a red hrzfz. His sign is a lotus, and he displays the mudra of
meditative stabilization. He has the nature of the skandha of discrimina
tion, and embodies attachment. He has the nature of semen, belongs to
the padma-family, and has discriminative wisdom as a defining charac
teristic. His season is the summer, and he embodies a sour taste. [He is
related to] the series [of dental consonants starting with] ta, and his time
is the first part of evening. His mantra of recitation is : Of(l iifz iirolik
hum.

[Amoghasiddhi]
On the northern petal [of the lotus] , green Amoghasiddhi has arisen on
a sun disk from a green khaf(l. He has the nature of flesh. His sign is a
sword, and he displays the mudra of fearlessness. He has the nature of
the skandha of karmic formations and belongs to the karman-family. He
has the character of jealousy, and the nature of the wisdom of activity.
His season is the rainy season. [He embodies] a bitter taste. [He is relat
ed to] the purified series [of labial consonants starting with] pa. His
time is midnight and his mantra of recitation is : Of(l iifz prajiiiidhrk hilf!l.

[The Five Tathagatas]


All of them sit in the cross-legged vajra-posture and have one face, two
arms, and a protuberance on the head (uJJfa) . Their heads and beards
402 According to Tib (P). Skt. pisunaforfro.

THE FIVE ASPECTS [OF VAJRASATTVA]

151

are shaven. They wear religious robes , are adorned with the thirty-two
m ajor marks and the eighty excellent minor marks [of a Buddha] , and
are the unique abode of the multitude of qualities-the ten strengths, the
four fearlessnesses and the rest. They are without porosity, flesh or
bones, like a reflection in a mirror. They have sambhogakiiya-forms,
which are mere appearances without stains , beyond all concepts of true,
false, and the like. Grounded in [their] sviibhiivikakiiya, which is the
single taste of the three kiiyas, they are inseparable from the dhar
makiiya, whose nature is unconditioned suchness, as well as the kiiya of
imagined consciousness (i. e . , the nirmii!Jakiiya). 403
In order to realize that they are consciousness-only, Vairocana, Ratna
sambhava, Amitabha and Amogasiddhi, who have the nature of [respec
tively] the skandhas of matter, sensation, discrimination, and karmic
formation, are sealed with Akobhya, for which their heads are adorned
with Akobhya. Now in order to realize the essencelessness of con
sciousness and the identity of emptiness and compassion, even Ako
bhya [must] be sealed with Vajrasattva. Through this 404 it is realized
that the world, whose nature partakes of cause and effect, merely has
this single taste [of emptiness] , cyclic existence and nirvii!Ja [alike] .
This is as stated [in the l)iikinfvajrapaiijara] :
Wherever a mind of inseparable
Emptiness and compassion is cultivated
[There] is indeed the teaching of
The Buddha, Dharma and S argha. (PA 3 = PTMV 23)
[And in the Bodhicittavivara!Ja it is said :]
I claim that the nature (prakrti)
Of all phenomena is emptiness,

403 Tib . : "They are mere appearances without stains-the sambhogakayas . They [have]
the svabhavikakaya, which is the single taste of the three kayas, and the dharmakaya,
whose nature is unconditioned suchness. They are inseparable from the kaya of imag
ined consciousness. "
404 Tib . : "through these two [seals]"

THE AMANASJKARA. CYCLE

1 52
In the

same way as sweetness


Is the nature of molasses and hotness that of fire.
(PA 4 = BV 57)

Likewise, [Nagarjuna says in his Yuktiatika] :


Thorough knowledge of cyclic existence
This is called nirvti"fJ,a. 405 (PA 5 = Y 6cd)

[Locana]
On the petal in the south-eastern direction, white Locana has arisen on a
moon disk from a white larri. 406 Her sign is an eye. 407 She has the nature
of the earth element, belongs to the tathagata-family, and is fond of
bewilderment. Her seed [syllables] and mantra are: 408 Orrt ti/:l larri hurri

svaha.

[Mamaki]
On the petal in the south-western direction, dark-blue Mamaki has aris
en on a moon disk from the dark-blue seed [syllable] marri. Her sign is a
dark-blue vajra. She has the nature of the water element, belongs to the
vajra-family, and is fond of hatred. Her seed [syllables] and mantra are:

Orri a/:l marri hurri svaha.


[Pfu).c,laravasinI]
On the petal in the north-western direction, red Pfu).c,laravasinI has arisen
on a moon disk from the [red] seed [syllable] parri. Her sign is a red
405 The two lines in Lindtner' s edition ( 1 990: 104) differ only slightly: parijiiiinaf(l bha
vasyaiva nirvii!Jam iti kathyate II
406 Tib . : lal'fl.
407 According to the Tibetan.
40 8 My translation follows the Tibetan: 'di 'i sa bon dang sngags ni (et passim).

THE FIVE ASPECTS [OF VAJRASATTV A]

153

lotus . She has the nature o f the fire element, belongs to the padma
family, and is fond of attachment. Her seed [syllables] and mantra are:

Ol?l aft pa1J1 hul?l svaha.


[T ara]

On the petal in the north-eastern direction, green Tara409 has arisen on a


moon disk from the green seed [syllable] taytl. Her sign is a blue lotus.
[B 249a] She has the nature of the wind element, belongs to the kar
man-family, and is fond of jealousy. Her seed [syllables] and mantra
are: 01J1 aft tal?l hu1J1 svaha.

[Vajradhatvisvari]
These four [goddesses] are [each] sixteen years old, of extraordinary
beauty, well-formed and youthful, 41 0 as if shaped in their beauty. They
have the nature of the four kayas, just as [explained] above. They are
pleasant, the support of all the qualities of the victorious ones , and have
the nature of the five Tathagatas . In their middle is [their] mistress, Va
jradhatvisvari, who has the nature of vowels and the nature of Vajra
sattva. She is said to be Bhagavati, suchness, emptiness, the perfection
of insight, the extreme of true reality, and essencelessness . 41 1
My intention412 [here] is not to demonstrate
My skilfulness in composing treatises;
What [is it] then? In short,
[That] I may make my students understand. 413 (PA 6)
The entire virtue (i. e . , merit) attained [by me]
For having duly set forth, for the sake of sentient beings ,
409 Lit. tarii:zz.
41 0 See Tib . : gzugs dang Zang tsho dang ldan pa I
4 1 1 This sentence is missing in the Tibetan.
4 12 Lit. "effort."
4 1 3 The Tibetan translation of this verse is unmetrical and incomplete.

1 54

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

That which accords with all scriptures of the victorious one and
with reasoningMay all sentient beings 414 become Vajrasattva through it ! 415
(PA 7)
The [Vajrasattva-]Paiiciikara, composed by Advayavajra416 is ended. 417
End of the Translation

4 1 4 Lit. "these people. "


4 1 5 The Tibetan differs and is not metrical.
4 16 The author is not mentioned in the Sanskrit.
4 1 7 The colophons of the Derge and Peking bsTan 'gyur; and the dPal spungs edition
mention neither an Indian Pai:i<:Iita nor a Tibetan translator.

1 1 . A Discourse on Illusion
(Miiyiinirukti)

Translation of the Mayanirukti:

Homage to the Buddha! 418


If the learned ones realize
That the world, like an illusion, lacks an own-being
Why are [people] 419 then deluded?
Even though they know and are seeking bliss . (MN 1 )
A magician creates the illusion
Of the radiance of a burning house;
And to some it appears to be real,
Those knowing [the trick take] the illusion as an illusion. 420
(MN 2)
Seeing [it] as an illusion421
Everything one wishes comes without effort.
One enjoys it as illusion,
So that everything is realized as illusion. 422 (MN 3)
Alas , if you do not [realize that they are] 423 false,
You will have to assert the permanence of illusions.

4 1 8 Tib . : "Homage t o the youthful MafijusrI! "


4 1 9 Added in accordance with the Tibetan.
420 Tib . : " [But] the learned ones know [the trick] , like a magician."
421 Skt. : "For him who sees [it] as an illusion. "
422 Lit. : "illusion is understood with regard to everything."
423 Supplied from the Tibetan.

1 56

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

[But] since the dharmadhiitu has not arisen,


There is not the undesired consequence of [its] destruction ei
ther. (MN 4)
Since phenomena424 neither arise nor cease,
They [can]not turn into the stiffness [of matter either] . 425
Phenomena arise from empti[ness] ,
[But] the true nature of phenomena is not different from these
[phenomena] . 426 (MN 5)
Therefore, the omniscience
Of the Buddha is not impaired. 427
With his power to avoid superimposition428
He sets the dharmacakra completely in motion. (MN 6)
Not [even] stretching his legs any more,
And abandoning pride and the like
The yogin adopts [such proper] conduct,
And [so] is well established in the practice of non-abiding.
(MN 7)
Whoever does not adopt [proper] conduct
[Even] after obtaining the best food and drink,
And having proclaimed [what is] pure,
Is not a fit vessel for perfect enlightenment. (MN 8)
People talk about true reality
And approve [proper] conduct,
But it is difficult to find a person
Accomplished in the practice of awareness . (MN 9)

424 Taking the singular to stand for the set of all phenomena.
42 5 Tib . : " . . . turn into matter."
42 6 Tib . : " . . . from the empty."
427 Tib . : "Through omniscience one is not led away from Buddhahood."
428 Tib . : "Entirely without effort. "

A DISCOURSE ON ILLUSION

1 57

Earth is the bed, the directions (i.e . , nakedness) are the clothes ,
Food i s the rice obtained in alm.
One endures the true nature of non-arising
And is engaged in effortless compassion. (MN 1 0)
The very phenomena which conquer people
Are conquered by conduct;
The fruit of this is observable in this lifeThe unsurpassable [fruit] to the same extent. (MN 1 1 )
The merit which I have gathered,
From having explained illusion with good intent,
May people reach the state of non-duality
And become established in the supramundane through it !
(MN 1 2)
The Mayanirukti, composed by the learned master Advayavajra, 429 is
ended. Translated and finalized by the Indian pa:r:ic,lita Vajrapa:r:ii and the
Tibetan translator and monk Tshul khrims rgyal ba.
End of the Translation

Concluding Remarks
The annotated list of amanasikara texts from the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud
chos mdzod contains the short note that Maitripa composed the Maya
nirukti and the Svapnanirukti in order to illustrate the sequence of views
with examples . 43 0 The Mayanirukti is followed by a short commentary,
probably also by 'Bum la ' bar:
What is intended by these verses, again, is the abiding nature of
all phenomena. They are like an illusion. Those who cling [to
them] as truly existent, are bound. Those who realize the truth,
42 9 The author is not mentioned in the Sanskrit.
430 "Yid la mi byed tho yig'', vol. kha, 79b45: lta ba 'i go rim (text: rims) dpe dang sbyar
ba 'i phyir rmi lam nges bstan [dang] sgyu ma nges bstan mdzad I

158

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


are liberated, just like a magician. Freedom from permanence
and destruction, for example, is not something made up by the
intellect; it is not temporary. If one realizes the emptiness which
is endowed with all supreme aspects [only] once, one will be
unwavering, thanks to the unwavering power within the abiding
nature. Once found, it will not be forgotten, because whatever
one sees on the path, one sees as true reality, and knowing all
phenomena in a single moment on the level of the fruit, there
are even no mental imprints of negative tendencies [caused by]
superimposition. Therefore-and this is because the level of a
Buddha does not fade away-one will set the wheel of the
Dharma in motion without effort. For those of you who strive
for such a goal, there are pith instructions and the like so that
one [can] accomplish it in one lifetime, once one has abandoned
idleness and worldly satisfaction. Those of you who seek [this]
fruit may look into the commentary. 43 1

The mention of a commentary arouses curiosity but the 'Bri gung bka'
brgyud chos mdzod itself does not contain any commentary on the
Mayanirukti.

43 1 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha 37a 1 _ : de dag gi (text: gis) don yang
5
chos thams cad kyi (text: kyis) gnas lugs sgyu ma lta bu de I bden par 'dzin pa mams mi
(delete mi) 'ching ba 'o 11 sgyu ma mkhan bzhin bden rtogs pa rnams ni grol ba 'o 11 dper
(text: dpe) na rtag (text: rtags) chad dang brat ba blos byas pa ma yin pa I nyi tshe ba
ma yin la I rnam kun mchog ldan gyi (text: gyis) stong nyid de tan cig rtogs na mi 'gyur
ba ni gnas lugs la 'gyur ba med pa 'i stobs kyis (text: kyi) yin la I de lan cig myed nas
brjed pa mi mnga ' ba ni I lam gyi (text: gyis) skabs su gang gang mthong ba de de nyid
du mthong ba 'i phyir dang I 'bras bu 'i skabs su chos thams cad cig char du mkhyen pa
las I sgro byed gnas ngan Zen gyi (text: gyis) bag chags tsam yang med pa 'i phyir ro 11 des
na sangs rgyas kyi go 'p hang (text: 'p hangs) la nyams pa med pas na I 'bad pa med par
chos kyi (text: kyis) 'khor lo bskor ba I de lta bu 'i don du gnyer ba rnams (add la) ni
snyom las dang 'jig rten gyi (text: gyis) phun sum tshogs spangs nas rtse cig du bsgrub
pa la gdams pa la sogs pa 'o I 'bras bu don du gnyer ba ni {fkii la gzigs II

1 2. A Discourse on Dream
(Svapnanirukti)

Translation of the Svapnanirukti:

Homage to the Omniscient One ! 432


In the Vinaya, Abhidharma and the Sutras
Phenomena are said to be like a dream
By the victorious one and the eminent masters .
This is clearly proclaimed. (SvN 1 )
Is the dream true or not?
Does it [illustrate the tenet that] the manifold forms of the
mind433 [are true] or [the one that] only the mind itself [is
true] ? 434
Or [the one of non-duality in the sense that everything is like] an
illusion? Or [the one of] non-abiding?
What is here maintained on behalf of the noble ones? (SvN 2)
[You may say:] When not realized [for what it is] , the dream is
true.
When realized, it acquires the status of falsehood.
[Response: ] In the first case it would be [wrongly] known as
permanent;
In the second as nonexistent. (SvN 3)
While what is [wrongly] imagined is removed as a result of
awakening,
Experience is not removed.
43 2 Tib . : Homage to the Buddha!
433 Tib . : "manifold mind" or "mind of the manifold."
434 Tib . : " . . . or the mind without aspects?"

1 60

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

That whose nature is the manifestation of the truly existing man


ifold forms of mind, 435
Is a sublime experience. (SvN 4)
[Its] instantaneous perishing is due to the ground consciousness;
And [its] manifoldness, to the active [consciousnesses arising]
from [this] root.
Here, they (i.e. , the consciousnesses) possess it (i.e . , the mani
foldness) as aspects . 436
It has [indeed] been claimed that this [manifoldness] is only
mind. (SvN 5)
When a dream [arises] from a dream,
Then the manifoldness of the mind is [seen to be] false.
It is neither true, 437 given the false perception [of it] ,
Nor absolutely nothing, given [its] clarity. (SvN 6)
Why [should] the nameless be given a name?
Or is the name called an illusion?
B ut a name for a name is not proper,
And there is no basis in the nameless [for a name] . 438 (SvN 7)
Of the six [positions] here, two must be abandoned;
Four are taken [to lead] to enlightenment.
The supreme Buddhas say thus:
All this here439 is like a dream. (SvN 8)
Know then, moreover, that the position of non-abiding
Is the supreme wealth among Buddhists .
[Know this] in particular through [self] -440 awareness-

435 The Tibetan has read saciccitra- . . . : " . . . of mind with its manifold forms. "
43 6 Tib . : "They are imputed as this and that."
437 Tib . : "existent."
43 8 Tib . : "A name is non-abidingness itself. "
439 Tib . : "This manifoldness [of the world] . . . "
440 Supplied from the Tibetan.

A DISCOURSE ON DREAM

161

[Attained] thanks to the genuine guru ' s efforts-and through


proper conduct. 441 (SvN 9)
The Svapnanirukti taught by the learned master and renunciant
Advayavajra, is ended. Translated and finalized by the Indian pal).<;lita
Vajrapiil).i and the Tibetan translator Tshul khrims rgyal ba.
End of the Translation

44 1 Tib . : "This is known through the special [circumstances] of self-awareness and the
guru' s teaching."

1 3 . An Elucidation of True Reality


( Tattvaprakasa)

Translation of the Tattvaprakasa:

Homage to the Buddha442 !


I pay homage to the embodiment of the Buddha' s threefold

kiiya,
Which has the nature of insight and skillful means .
From its power the most supreme
Cyclic existence and nirviilJa are born. (TP 1 )
Just a s somebody who i s partially blind
Thinks that there are net-like apparitions in the sky,
S o too the extremely foolish, those hindered
By the darkness of ignorance, [have a false impression of] the
world. (TP 2)
For somebody with a pure view the [net-like] hairs [which ap
pear]
Because of delusion are recognized as nothing but the sky;
For a yogin with pure vision
All states of existence appear in such a way . 443 (TP 3)
Alas ! Look into the sky !
I do see net-like apparitions !

442 Tib . : "Homage to the youthful MafijusrI! "


443 Tib. : "Healthy eyes see that the [net-like] hairs [which appear] because of delusion
are nothing but the sky. A yogin of pure vision realizes that all states of existence are
such."

1 64

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Then somebody with a pure view444 would say:


"It is not so, your mind is confused. " (TP 4)
In order to abandon the confusion of those who are partially
blind,
He says that in the future [confusion] will not [exist any
more] . 445
Because the manifestation is empty of being anything else446
There is in reality neither denial nor assertion. 447 (TP 5)
Likewise, [activity] for the sake of sentient beings
Unfolds from the undefiled dharma[kiiya]
Through the [saf!t]bhoga- and nirmii!Jakiiya
Owing to dependent [arising] , i.e., [former] prayers . (TP 6)
The two [form-kiiyas] are not different from the [dharmakiiya] ,
Because the two have [the dharmakiiya] as their nature;
[Their] identity is established as the natural [kiiya].
The distinction [made between them] is for the sake of dispel
ling the narrowness of the mind. (TP 7)
If [their] non-arising were not maintained,
[The kiiyas] would be different under the constraint of the ex
cluded opposite.
How would the meaning of Madhyamaka
Then be different from Y ogacara thought? (TP 8)
If the meaning of Madhyamaka [only] stood out
By reason of its abandonment of the four extremes ,
There would b e the undesired consequence that this also applies
to Vijfiana[vada] ,
For in this [tenet] , too, they (i. e . , the four extremes) are aban
doned. (TP 9)
444 Tib . : "Somebody with healthy eyes"
445 Tib . : "He says that in the future [confusion] will not [exist anymore] ."
446 Tib . : "But given the emptiness of [its] manifestation as well as non-manifestation"
447 Following the Tibetan, I do not take vidhi and apoha in their technical sense.

AN ELUCIDATION OF TRUE REALITY

1 65

The followers of Vijfianavada know


A form of wisdom that is free from the four extremes ,
Which exists a s something real and i s non-dual,
Empty of thought and without cognitive object. 448 (TP 1 0)
From the extreme limit of reality
The manifold [world] arises in dependence;
It is empty of real things , unborn,
Distinct [from independent being] and a name only. (TP 1 1 )
The omniscient one taught making a distinction
Between self-empowerment and luminosity;
Teaching either of them,
The [view of] nihilism is abandoned. (TP 1 2)
In whomever there is no attachment
To the fruit, true reality or remedy,
For that one the level of a Buddha is completed
Through a practice which is effortless. (TP 1 3 )
The true reality o f phenomena i s [their] non-arising.
This accords with the Dharma of the Buddha
And is maintained by the noble Nagarjuna
Who was prophesied by the Tathagata. (TP 1 4)
Whatever merit I have accumulated
From having composed the Tattvaprakiisa,
May the entire world be[come] a [worthy] recipient
Of [the teaching on] indivisible union (yuganaddha) through it.
(TP 1 5 )

448 Skt. antilambaf!! has not been translated into Tibetan.

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

1 66

The Tattvaprakiisa, composed by the learned master Advayavajra, 449 in


ended. Translated and corrected by the Indian Pa9c;Iita Vajrapa9i and the
Tibetan translator monk Tshul khrims rgyal ba. 45 0
End of the Translation

Concluding Remarks
The 'Bri gung list (with annotations) of the amanasikiira cycle contains
the short note that Maitripa composed the Tattvaprakiisa and the
Tattvadaaka in order to summarize the profound meaning in a few
verses . 451 In its introduction to the Tattvaprakiisa, the 'Bri gung bka '
brgyud chos mdzod informs us that this elucidation of true reality deals
with the different objects of negation treated in the two Madhyamaka
doctrinal schools . 452 This introduction is followed by a short account of
how the text came to be written:
S omebody with a wrong view had the following dream, which
gave rise to some doubt: the one called Maitripa was at first a
very learned man from a pure family. Then he went to S ri Par
vata, met the harmful spirit S avaripa, and thus became pos
sessed by a demon. [Now] he was mad. [Maitripa] said:
[This dreamer] might as well have had wrong thoughts
about the perfect Buddha. I will see to it that the doubts
raised by such a foolish character with ulterior motives
do not arise again.

449 Tib . : "The learned master, pai:i<;lita, and renunciant Advayavajra." The author is not
mentioned in the Sanskrit.
450 Peking bsTan ' gyur: "Translated by Pai:i<;lita Vajrapai:ii and the translator rMa ban
chos 'bar."
45 1 "Yid la mi byed tho yig" 79b : zab don nyung du 'i tshul du 'du ba 'i phyir I de nyid
5
bcu dang de nyid gsal ba mdzad I
45 2 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, 62aH: dbu ma yang sgyu ma lta bu dang
I rab tu mi gnas gzhung gis mthar thug gnyis I dgag bya 'i khyad par phra mo yod gzigs
nas I de 'i don du de nyid gsal ba mdzad I

AN ELUCIDATION OF TRUE REALITY

1 67

Seeking with great effort, he found [a solution] while on the


cremation ground Rinata453 and having prayed, he composed the

Tattvaprakasa.454
This story goes on to state that in his Tattvaprakaa, Maitripa mainly
tried to justify his mahiimudrii practice by showing that it is in line with
Nagarjuna ' s Madhyamaka. This is made particularly clear in verse 14.

453 This cremation ground could not b e identified.


454 Ibid., fol. 62b2 _ : mai tri pa zhe bya ba dang po gtsang ma 'i rigs la rab tu mkhas pa
4
zhig yod pa yin la I dpal gyi (text: gyis) ri la song bas na gnod sbyin sha ba ri dang
phrad nas bdud kyis byin brlab par gyur to I smyon (text: snyon) par gnas so I zhes pa
dang the tsom skyes pa 'i rmi lam ni I log par lta ba 'i gang zag ni I rdzogs sangs rgyas
la 'ang log rtog 'byung I rtog can byis pa 'i ngang tshul 'di I the tsom ma skye 'bad par
gyis I zhes nas I 'bad pas btsal bas ri na ta 'i dur (text: du) khrod na myed nas gsol ba
btab pas I de kho na nyid gsal ba 'di mdzad do I

1 4. An Elucidation of Non-Abiding
(Apratithanaprakasa)

Translation of the Apratithanaprakasa:

Homage to the Buddha ! 455


The entire wealth of a Buddhist [can] be taken to be
The non-abiding of awareness ,
But only when [such a realization] is cultivated for the sake of
sentient beings456
Through a yoga [practice] which is without effort. (APP 1 )
Once [knowledge based on] exclusion and affirmation has aris
en,
There are the positions of nihilism and affirmation.
But there never is [any such thing as] arising and passing out of
existence,
So that [all talk of] production and termination is ignorant talk.
(APP 2)

If self-awareness is a valid form of cognition,


The existence457 of awareness [can be falsely] maintained.
But since all fabrications 458 have been abandoned,
[Such an] existence is not agreeable . (APP 3)
455 Tib. : Homage to the youthful MaiijusrI!
45 6 The use of the term sattva in the Apratithiinaprakaa is ambiguous. The context of
the verses 3 and 4 requires to take sattva as existence, still the Tibetan continues to
render sattva as "sentient being" (sems can).
457 Even though the context requires "existence", sattval'{l is translated into Tibetan as
"sentient being" (sems can) . It should be noted, however, that the existence of aware
ness is the main characteristic of a sentient being.
45 8 Lit. : "carved manifestions"

1 70

THE AMANAS/KARA CYCLE


If [its] existence is accepted in post- [rneditation] ,
Then certainly not as a [mental] substance.
In this case it is called without fabrications which means
That [any wrong] assertion has been annulled [or] invalidated. 459
(APP 4)
[Even] in actual [meditation practice] there is awareness,
B ecause it becomes manifest [this way] 460 during post
rneditation.
First it is non-conceptual,
And then this wisdom becomes a perceiving knower. (APP 5)
Since the mental factors of the past,
Future and [present] do not abide,
They have the nature of essencelessness .
This is what the lord of the worlds taught. 461 (APP 6)
The very arising of phenomena is inconceivable
[Even] through natural self-awareness.
This very [arising] is called emptiness
Without falling into [the extreme of] nihilism. (APP 7)
From the seed of non-abiding
Cornes a non-abiding fruit:
The supreme reality of the protectorsThe way fabricated [comes] from fabricated. (APP 8)
Thus we do not tell those whose conduct is non-attachment
That meditation does not exist;
For in terms of dependent arising
It constantly arises in accord with its natural flow. 462 (APP 9)

459 Did the Tibetan read *anuvitarkitaY(l (rjes su btags pa) instead of anullekhaY(l?
4 6 0 Supplied from the Tibetan.
461 Tib . : "taught the world. "
462 Tib . : "For i t always arises the way dependently arisen factors are experienced."

AN ELUCIDATION OF NON-ABIDING

171

Whatever arises in dependence,


Is the mind, mulitiplicity, [and] non-duality.
[Accordingly] there is a division into empti[ness] , mind, and
multiplicity,
[That is to say,] the dharma- , sarribhoga-, and nirmiiJJakaya.
(APP 1 0)
Whatever virtue (i.e . , merit) I have accumulated
From having taught non-abidingMay people attain, thanks to it,
The state of non-abiding in all they experience. (APP 1 1 )
The Aprati${hanaprakasa, composed by the learned master Advayava
jra, is ended. Translated by the Indian paJJita Vajrapal)i and the Tibet
an translator Tshul khrims rgyal ba. 463
End of the Translation

Concluding Remarks
The 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod introduces this short text of
eleven verses with a short summary of its view and meditation practice:
Since non-abiding is the view,
All superimposition and denial are abandoned by it.
Since amanasikara is the meditation [practice] ,
The original nature of mind is realized by it. 464
The circumstances under which Maitripa taught the Aprati${hanapra

kasa are related in the same introduction as follows :

46 3 Peking bsTan ' gyur: "Nag tsho."


464 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, 60b _ : lta ba rab tu mi gnas pas 1 1 sgro
45
skur thams cad de yis spongs 1 1 bsgom pa yid la mi byed pas 1 1 gnas lugs gnyug ma des
rtogs 'gyur I

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

1 72

The great master of the Dharma from the southern marshes


Maitrlpa arrived for meditation. [At this time] two yoginis
bTsun ta ra and Sing ga la, came and took a seat without bowing
down. The venerable one said: "ladies, it is a good custom to
bow down." The yoginis replied:
0,

bright man, if you are [so] arrogantly proud just be


cause you are the well-known Brahmin Maitripa,
learned in the five sciences , then scholars who occupy
themselves with tenets constantly comment on pride for
[obviously] having adopted a [corresponding form of]
conduct. Therefore they will certainly suffer for a long
time in sar[lsiira.
The venerable [Maitrlpa then] ate from a decomposed and rot
ten human corpse, full of maggots and flies, threw up and trans
formed it into pure food. Then he stripped down naked, went to
town and other places, and returned. As he was approaching the
two yoginis , both of them said:
He is blessed by rjakinfs and yakas . Y oginis do not
abide in a body. And when consciousness does not
abide, it is supreme yoga.
The venerable [Maitrlpa] replied:
In a cloudless sky there can be no rain, without a father
a child is not born, a fruit does not arise without [there
first being] a seed, and without knowing through realiza
tion what is free from the two extremes , conduct free
from destruction and harm will not occur. Why do you
think in a deluded way, fabricating differences?
The two yoginis replied:
We are brought under control only when encouraged by
a aka. Lord of non-arising, glorious master of great
bliss, who knows how to enjoy whatever appears (for all

AN ELUCIDATION OF NON-ABIDING

173

appearances and sounds are the dharmakaya), may the


lord of beings explain to us [the view of] non-abiding !
Therupon [Maitripa] taught the Aprati$thanaprakasa in the
[Kha] sarpa temple for the two yoginis , the king , monks, Dha
rma-kings and the like. 465
In the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod we find the concluding re
mark:
Non-abiding is here a [form of] knowledge which does not
abide in one extreme. It is a realization free from extremes . The
proponents of other tenets have extremes of etemalism or nihil
ism. The Vijfiapti[vadins] abide in [the extreme] that [every-

46 5 Op. cit. , 60b -6 l b 1 : lho phyogs 'dam bu 'i chos du slob dpon chen po mai tri pas
5
mnyam gzhag la byon pa dang rnal 'byor ma btsun ta ra dang sing ga la ma gnyis 'ongs
nas 'dud pa mi byed par 'dug pas rje btsun gyis smras pa I kye bzang mo 'dud pa ni ya
rah kyis tshul yin no zhes pa dang I rnal 'byor mas smras pa I kye blo bzang po rig pa
lnga la mkhas gyur pa 'i 1 1 bram ze mai tri yin zhes grags pa las 1 1 'di la yang dregs pa 'i
nga rgyal 'di yod na I grub mtha 'i gdon gyis zin pa 'i mkhas pa rnams I rtag tu nga rgyal
'grel pas spyod byed phyir I 'khor bar yun ring sdug bsngal gdon mi za 1 1 zhes pa dang I
rje btsun gyis mi ro myag zhing rul ba 'bud dang sbrang ma dang bcas cig zas nas I ngan
skyug gi don du phyin te bza ' ba dang byug pa dag kyang byas so I I de nas gcer bur
byung ste grong khyer la sags pa 'i ngos su phyin nas slar log ste I rnal 'byor ma gnyis
kyi (text: kyis) drung du phyin pa dang I rnal 'byor ma gnyis kyis smras pa I de ni nam
mkha ' 'gro ma dang gnod sbyin gyis 1 1 byin gyis brlabs pa la yang 'byung ba dang I rnal
'byor ma rnams kyis lus nyid mi gnas pa yin I shes pa mi gnas yod na rnal 'byor mchog I
zhes pa dang I rje btsun gyis smras pa I sprin med nam mkha ' 'char pa yod mi srid I pha
med ma la bu dag 'byung ba min I sa hon med pa 'i 'bras bu mi 'byung ste I rtogs pas
mtha ' gnyis bral ba ma shes na 1 1 'jig dang 'tshe ba bral ba 'i smyong mi 'byung I thar pa
byed pa khyod ci rmongs bsam zhes pa dang I rnal 'byor ma gnyis kyis smras pa I kyai
dpa ' bo tsam gyis (text: tsas kyis) skul mnga ' brnyed pa I snang grag thams cad chos kyi
sku yin pas I cir snang rnams la longs spyod mnga ' mdzad pa 'i I skye med bdag po bden
chen mnga ' bdag dpal I mi gnas 'gro ba 'i mgon gyis bshad du gsol I zhes pa dang I gtsug
lag khang sar pa ni rnal 'byor ma gnyis kyi (text: kyis) I zhal ngor dang I rgyal po dang I
dge slang chos kyi rgyal po la sags pa rnams kyi ched du ni (text: mi) rah tu mi gnas pa
gsal ba 'di mdzad do I

1 74

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


thing is] mind [or] self-awareness only, while the Mayopam[a
dvayavadins] abide [in the extreme] of illusion-like aspects . 466

466 Op. cit. , 62a2 _ : de la rab tu mi gnas pa ni I shes pa mtha ' cig la rab tu mi gnas pa ste I
3
mtha ' dang brat bar rtogs pa 'o II gzhan grub mtha ' smra ba mams ni rtag chad kyi (text:
kyis) mtha ' dang bcas pa ste I mam rig mams kyang sems rang rig tsam du gnas pa dang
I sgyu ma lta bu mams kyang mam pa sgyu ma lta bur rab tu gnas pa ' o 11

1 5 . An Elucidation of [the Term] "Indivisible union"


( Yuganaddhaprakasa)

Translation of the Yuganaddhaprakata:

Homage to the youthful MafijusrI! 467


Whatever the appearance, it is pure.
Once [that] is realized, there is no [more] change.
Change [means] to have arisen from conditions , but these [con
ditions] in turn [arise] from [preceeding conditions] 468 ; hence
non-arising [applies] . (YNP 1 )
The form i s not found in the form [itself] ,
Nor is it found in the eye,
Or in the consciousness that arises in association with it.
It is as in the discussion of the rubbing sticks and the fire.
(YNP 2)
At the beginning, fire exists neither in the rubbing sticks
Nor in the block
Nor in the person ' s hands ,
It arises as something in dependence. (YNP 3)
Is mental darkness born before its own sons 469
Or after [the sons] have been born? 470
If the sons were not born first,
Then it is not real. (YNP 4)
46 7 Missing in the Sanskrit.
468 The Tibetan has rkyen las.
46 9 I.e., hatred and so forth.
470 I.e., reading sute as an abbreviation of the absolute locative sute sate.

176

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Given that they are thus only conditions ,


Phenomena lack an own-being. (YNP 5ab)
A yogin who abides in this [view] ,
Does not fall out of supreme bliss . (YNP 5cd)
Even though there is nothing to abandon or adopt at all,
The conventional unfolds . 471
Once dependent arising is understood,
[One realizes that the conventional] , like an illusion, lacks an
own-being. (YNP 6)
Lacking an own-being, it has not [truly] arisen, 472
And due to conditions (i.e. , dependent arising) , there is no ter
mination [of it either] .
Thus, there is neither existence nor non-existence,
But their indivisible union (yuganaddha) nonetheless manifests .
(YNP 7)
The unity of emptiness and compassion
Is not producible by one ' s own thought.
It is the natural indivisible union (yuganaddha)
Of emptiness and clarity. (YNP 8)
The good yogin directly realizes
The profound inborn emptiness
Endowed with all supreme aspects .
May he [thereby] pay homage to the Buddhas . (YNP 9)
Once the wise man is always steeped [in this realization]
With body, speech and mind,
Whether he follows the [prescribed] conduct or not;
He will still be called an observer of [proper] conduct.
(YNP 1 0)

47 1 Tib . : " [Such things still] occur on a conventional [level] ."


472 Tib. "Not having [truly] arisen they lack an own-being."

AN ELUCIDATION OF [ THE TERM] "INDIVISIBLE UNION"

1 77

The Yuganaddhaprakaa composed by the renunciant Advayavajra, is


ended. Translated and corrected by the Indian pal).ita Vajrapfu).i and the
Tibetan translator Tshul khrims rgyal ba. 473
End of the Translation

Concluding Remarks
' Indivisible union ' (yuganaddha) is originally a tantric concept and
stands for the level of the fruit, being similarly the designation for the
final level in the Paiicakrama, which is attributed to the tantric Naga
rjuna. On this final level, sa-rsara and nirvli1Ja, insight and compassion,
and similar pairs are experienced as an indivisible union, namely to be
essentially one. 474 Maitripa presents yuganaddha here in a Madhyamaka
context. In the short commentary on the Yuganaddhaprakaa which
follows the root text of the latter in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos
mdzod, it is stated that there are two ways yuganaddha appears, depend
ing on whether or not it is experienced in connection with an empow
erment. 475
Maitripa establishes his view in the first four verses and the first half of
the fifth one. While he admits that phenomena arise from conditions ,
their non-arising is maintained on the grounds of their ultimate purity.
The root text of the Yuganaddhaprakaa is followed by a short com
mentary in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod. Its unknown author
explains the first verse in the following way:
Once one realizes that all phenomena-whatever appears-are
naturally pure throughout beginningless time-for a wisdom
which realizes [things] in such a way there is no change. Since
the phenomena of the apparent [truth] which have arisen from
47 3 According to the Peking BsTan ' gyur the Tibetan translator was Nag tsho.
474 See Mimaki & Tomabechi 1 994:49-55.
475 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, 34b 6 : zung 'jug gi (text: gis) don la
dbang dang 'brel ma 'brel gyis 'char tshul gnyis shes dgos so I

178

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

conditions [then] appear in union with [what is unchangeable]


they too are called unarisen. 476
What this comes down to is the dependent arising of phenomena and
their non-arising (or emptiness) , namely apparent and ultimate truths , in
indivisible union. Once the indivisible union of the arisen and unarisen
is admitted as reality, the latter is seen to be not only non-arising. 477
With regard to the remaining three and a half verses in which the view
is ascertained (YNP 2a-5b) , the commentary in the 'Bri gung bka '
brgyud chos mdzod simply informs us that non-arising is established by
arguing from dependent arising. 478 According to the topical outline (sa
bead) , verses Sc to 9d describe the practice after the view has been as
certained. The first point in this paragraph (verses 5c-7d) is a descrip
tion of the actual meditative concentration (samiidhi) one enters when
engaged in such a practice. 479 The commentary on 5cd in the 'Bri gung
bka ' brgyud chos mdzod informs us that such a realization (which must
mean "of yuganaddha on the basis of Madhyamaka reasoning presented
in the YNP up to now") is the cause of pure bliss . 48 0 The 'Bri gung
commentary opines that the first two lines of verse 6 exclude the possi
bility of apparent truth succumbing to contradiction, while the follow
ing six lines (6c-7d) present yuganaddha in terms of dependent aris
ing. 481 Verse no. 8 stresses another aspect of yuganaddha, the natural
union of emptiness and compassion or clarity, and verse no. 9 is said to

47 6 Op. cit., 34b2 _ : gang snang ba 'i chos thams cad gdod nas rang bzhin gyis rnam par
3
dag par rtogs na I de ltar rtogs pa 'i ye shes de la 'gyur ba med pa yin te I gang rkyen
(text: skyon) las skyes pa 'i kun rdzob kyi (text: kyis) chos rnams zung 'jug du shar bas de
yang ma skyes pa zhes bya 'o I
477 See also TDT (B l lb , D 1 67a2 , P 1 82b ) : skyes pa dang ma skyes pa dag gi zung du
3
5
'jug pa nyid ni de kho na nyid du rtogs par bya ste I ma skyes pa tsam ni ma yin no I
47 8 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, fol. 34b : ma skyes pa rten 'brel gyi
3
(text: gyis) rigs pas grub pa ni I
479 Op.cit., 8 6b : [gtan la] pheb nas nyams su Zen pa 'i (text: pa) gnas skabs la gsum ste I
5
ting nge 'dzin dngos dang . . . .
480 Op.cit., 34b _ : de nas rkang p a gnyis kyis de ltar rtogs pa de zag med bde ba 'i rgyu
34
ru bstan I
48 1 Op. cit., 34b : de nas rkang pa gnyis kyis 'jig rten tha snyad de dang mi 'gal bar bstan
4
I de nas tshig bcas phyed gnyis kyis rten 'brel gyis don zung 'jug du bstan I

AN ELUCIDATION OF [THE TERM] "INDIVISIBLE UNION"

1 79

teach how one pays homage by attaining realization. 482 The last verse
(YNP 1 0) shows how to enhance conduct by this practice. 483

4 82 Op. cit., 86b 5_ 6 : bsgrub pa 'i sgo nas mchod pa bstan pa 'o I
4 83 Op. cit., 86b 5 : spyod pa bog 'don pa 'i gnas skabs I

1 6 . The Manifestation of Great Bliss


(lvfahasukhaprakasa)

Translation of the Mahasukhapraklisa:

Homage to youthful Mafijusr1! 484


Having venerated Vajrasattva,
Whose nature is insight and means,
I will now explain in brief the non-duality of great bliss,
Which is the true reality of entities . (MSP 1 )
The meditation of the creation [phase] i s one [form o f medita
tion] ,
And the meditation of the completion [phase] a second;
Therefore, the meditation of both together
Is here called identity. (MSP 2)
It is settled that phenomena do not possess
[Any such property as] not arising in dependence.
Since [all of them] have arisen in dependence by their nature,
Is it not likewise so for that which has arisen from [the sylla
bles] hurri and marri? (MSP 3)
From the awakening towards emptiness, a seed [syllable] arises .
From it, an image [of a deity and so forth] .
And for [such] an image there are projection and dissolution
[phases] . 485
Therefore, everything arises in dependence. (MSP 4)
484 Missing in the Sanskrit.
485 I take vinyiisa as the opposite of nyiisa. The Tibetan translation rnam par of the pre
fix vi- is misleading.

1 82

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

What was taught by [ S akya]muni


As the outer union of the couple, 486
[All] that [should] be clearly known in the tantras ,
To be for the sake of realizing something different. 487 (MSP 5)
Without bliss there is no enlightenment,
Since [the latter] is considered to have the nature of bliss .
But [if bliss actually] existed, there would be great attachment,
Which would be the cause of sarpsara arising. (MSP 6)
The bliss which has arisen in dependence
Realize it as the bliss of primordial quiescence !
It does not represent an entity[, though] .
Therefore we say that bliss neither exists nor does not exist. 488
(MSP 7)
True reality is , first of all, the non-arising
Of phenomena on the level of ultimate truth.
The pure apparent [truth] should be known
To be something in which there is a false manifestation of
bliss. 489 (MSP 8)
These two truths are pure:
Emptiness [and] the apparent [truth] of the yogin;
Their non-duality must be established,
Once what is worthless is abandoned. (MSP 9)
The gifted one, whose character is formed by the practice
Of mantras and [visualized] forms, becomes submerged in bliss.

486 I.e., the physical union of a yoginI and a yogin.


48 7 Tib . : "for the sake of interior realization"
488 Tib . : "Therefore w e say that i t does not represent an entity. Bliss neither exists nor
does not exist."
48 9 Tib. mi gsal ba is difficult to construe. In the Caturmudrlinvaya the bliss or co
emergent arisen from a karmamudrli is an imitation of an image of the real co-emergent
bliss . (see Mathes 2009 : 1 07) .

THE MANIFESTATION OF GREAT BLISS

1 83

Then he sees in such a manner [of practice] the manifold


[world]
To be like an illusion and non-dual. (MSP 1 0)
By then, he will have penetrated to the extreme summit of true
reality
And reached the level of the indivisible union.
A yogin abiding on this level
Strives solely for the sake of sentient beings. (MSP 1 1 )
The blissful mind [assumes] the form of the [chosen] deity
The "circle of the manifold" ( visvacakra ) 490 being the means.
The consort (prajfiii) is called emptiness;
[Their] identity is taken as the goal. (MSP 1 2)
True reality has the nature of insight and means
For491 its purity is [both] outer and inner.
Once it is realized, the mantra practitioner is, in short, 492
Delighted through the practice of non-abiding. (MSP 1 3)
Being mere dependent arising,
[Bliss] is neither existence nor emptiness (i. e . , nothing at all) ;
And [its] manifestation in the form of deities
Naturally lacks an own-being. (MSP 1 4)
No matter how [bliss] appears,
It will always have the nature of emptiness;
Whether [bliss] be taken as duality or notHere, [in tantric practice,] it is the fruit of mental imprints .
(MSP 1 5)

490 According to Kuladatta' s Kriyasal'(lgrahapafijika, chapter 6 (6.6.6.), prose after verse


14, the term is listed as the last of four cakras: vajracakral'(l ratnacakral'(l padmacakral'(l
vivacakral'(l.
49 1 There is no causal relation in the Tibetan.
492 Samasato could also mean: "through [their] union." I prefer to follow the Tibetan
translation, however.

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

1 84

The yogin is proud of [becoming] Heruka;


He strives to [become] Heruka.
Once he has transformed the factors of existence into gurus ,
The divine [yogin] wanders about like a lion. (MSP 1 6)
For the victorious ones the multitude of the world appears in its
natural purity, always and everywhere.
It did never arise, nor will it be terminated, and it is free from
reckoning in terms of self and other throughout ten million
eons .
It is indeed something in which there is the false manifestation
of bliss, and whose nature is one of non-duality, that is , the
equality of cyclic existence and peace.
The lord of the circle[, to whom all this appears] , who has the
qualities of a victorious one as a base and is a vajra sky-goer
and a Buddha, made ( cakre) 493 it. (MSP 1 7)
The Mahasukhaprakaa, composed by the glorious renunciant master
Advayavajra, 494 is completed. Translated by Guru Vajrapalfi and rMa
ban.
End of t h e Translation

Concluding Remarks
Immediately after the Mahasukhaprakaa in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud
chos mdzod, we find the following summary of our text:
It is only through the realization that dependent arising is emp
tiness, and the gradual meditative stabilizations (samadhi) of the
49 3 The Tibetan did not render cakre, probably taking it as a locative ("in the circle") and
thus as a redundant modifier. For the concept, that the lord of the circle, i.e., Heruka,
"made" the world, see HT I.8.41 (HT 94 3 -4) : "This entire world arises from me. The
three parts of the world arise from me. Everything is pervaded by me; the visible world
consists of nothing else." (madbhava1Ji hi jagat sarvalJi madbhava1J1 bhuvanatrayam I
madvyapitam ida1J1 sarva1J1 nanyamaya1J1 dr!fta1J1 jagat II)
494 The author is not mentioned in the Sanskrit.

THE MANIFESTATION OF GREAT BLISS

1 85

creation and completion phases within that [realization] , that


there [can be said] to be cause and effect of great bliss. There
fore, since one connects with emptiness as it is gradually real
ized through [insight into] dependent arising on the path of the
creation stage, this is called the manifestation of great bliss . 495

495 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. kha, 32b _ : rten 'brel stong pa nyid du rtogs
34
pa dang I de 'i ngang nas bskyed pa dang rdzogs pa 'i rim pa 'i ting nge 'dzin mams rim
gyis (text: rims kyis) bde ba chen po 'i rgyu 'bras 'ba ' zhig pas na I 'dir bskyed rim gyis
lam la rten 'brel gyis rim pas rtogs pa 'i stong pa nyid [add la] sbyar bas bde chen gsal
ba zhes bya 'o I

1 7 . The Twenty Verses on True Reality


(Tattvavirrzsikii)

Translation of the Tattvavi1{lsika:

Homage to the omniscient one ! 496

Prajiia [in the form of karmamudra] is [related to the moments


of] the manifold,
Maturation, relaxation and freedom from defining characteris
tics. 497
Therefore, you must realize true reality from her,
S o that you will be the supreme ruler pervading the world.
(TV 1 )

Prajiia, [as dharmamudra,] i s the same as cyclic existence . 498


She is the three kayas and the three vehicles .
[As samayamudra] she i s the circle (i. e . , the maftef.ala), the
means of bliss,
And the yoginI. [All] this is myself and the other. (TV 2)
[She can appear as] Mafijuvajra, Mahamaya,
And a vajra sky-goer (vajraef.aka), and [as] other [deities] as
well.
It is the prajiia itself, [though,] appearing individually.
[As mahamudra] she is liberation, having the nature of the vic
torious one. (TV 3)

49 6 Tib: "Homage to the venerable Buddha! "


497 It i s noteworthy that the sequence of the third and fourth moments here does not
accord with Maitrlpa' s system. It may have been inverted, though, for metrical reasons.
49 8 Tib . : "by nature is the same as cyclic existence."

188

THE AMANAS/KARA CYCLE

[Prajna] is the inconceivable [mind] and nevertheless thought


of;
Non-duality and nevertheless dual;
Endowed with all supreme forms;
Existence and non-existence; perception and non-perception. 499
(TV 4)
The mind without consciousness,
Devoid of cognitive objects , unsurpassable,
Peaceful, pure [and] devoid of appearances
Is the awareness known as prajiia. (TV 5)
The means of access to her
Will become clear in the treatises of the Mantra[naya] .
For there are manifold means in them,
Corresponding to persons of inferior, average and superior [fac
ulties] . (TV 6)
Those with inferior capacities have perfectly cultivated the cir
cles oo
With the help of the karma- and samayamudras.
[With a mind] directed to the external in the matter of pure real
ity,
They meditate on enlightenment. (TV 7)
[In] union with ajiianamudra (i.e., a visualized consort)
With Mafijuvajra or the like as chief [deities] ,
[All this] being neither true nor a false appearance[This is the practice of] yogins with average faculties . (TV 8)
To those unable to know
The level of self-empowerment as it really is ,
The path is taught in gradual steps
Towards the attaining of enlightenment. 5 0 1 (TV 9)
499 Tib . : "perceived and perceiver."
500 I.e., the mm:uj,ala, implying the union with a consort and so forth.
50 1 Tib . : "The path i s taught. They attain enlightenment gradually."

THE TWENTY VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

Given your affection for deities ,


How is there not a mental imprint?
[Even] if [this] mental imprint is pure,
It will still be like all other [imprints] ? (TV 1 0)
The yogin who has seen true reality, however,
Is wholly devoted to mahtimudrti;
His faculties being unsurpassable
He abides in [the realization of] the nature of all entities .
(TV 1 1 )
Bliss, naturally attained
And free from all imagining
This is precisely what the world is;
Therefore, everything is free of confusion. 5 02 (TV 1 2)
This is because the outer entities perceived by the mind
Do not appear as delusion;
These vivid [presences] are just like a woman in a dream
Mind only-[but still] they serve a function. (TV 1 3 )
For [one who has attained] enlightenment there is mind only,
And mind is [then] taken as no-mind;
No-mind [in turn] is self-awareness,
And [such an] awareness depends on the guru. (TV 1 4)
The emptiness of all things
Is not taken as the name of any [one] thing.
This [emptiness] , being the nature of all entities ,
I s difficult t o realize directly b y oneself. (TV 1 5)
Just as grains [become] boiled rice in this world
Through the presence of fire and so forth,
Ignorance becomes awareness
[When] purified by suchness. (TV 1 6)
502 Tib . : "thought."

1 89

1 90

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


He for whom thought is meditation
For him nothing is inconceivable.
The Buddhas declared to the world
That a yogin is someone whose nature is inconceivable. 5 03
(TV 1 7)
The circle [of the mm:uJala] is the yo gin,
And he himself is mahamudrii.
He is the dharma-, sambhoga-, and nirmiit:takiiyas,
And he himself is all forms . (TV 1 8)
He who has done his duty and is without any wish5 04
Has turned away from all attachment, 5 05
And engages in the four modes of ascetic behaviour5 06
Is a Buddha and regarded as a Buddha. (TV 1 9)
Non-duality having been presented as non-duality,
May, by the merit I have accumulated,
The world experience this very day
Non-duality and great bliss. (TV 20)

The Tattvavirri-sika, composed by the renunciant and glorious Advaya


vajra, 5 07 is ended. From the mouth of the venerable Dhiri (=Dhira?) S rI
Jfiana and translated by the translator Seng dkar Sha kya ' od.
End of the Translation

503 I.e., the yogin sees everything as not being different from the inconceivable.
504 Tib . : "thought."
505 Tib . : "hesitation."
506 I.e., walking, standing, sitting and lying down. (see fryapatha in Edgerton: Buddhist
Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, vol. 2, s.v.).
507 The author is not mentioned in the Sanskrit.

THE TWENTY VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

191

Concluding Remarks
From the topical outline5 08 it is clear that Maitr'ipa first introduces the
four seals and then distinguishes them as skilful means for those with
inferior, average, and sharp faculties . While inferior practitioners rely
on a karmamudrii and the samayamudrii, (verse 7) a direct approach to
mahiimudrii is open for those with sharp faculties (verse 1 1 ) . Those of
average faculties rely on the practice with a visualized consort (jniina

mudrii) .

508 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. kha, fol. 86a -b1 .
5

1 8 . The Twenty Verses on Mahayana


(Mahayanavirsika)

Translation of the Mahayanavi-rsika:

Homage to the Svabhavikakaya ! 5 09


I prostrate to the natural kiiya
Which is unconditioned and without defining characteristics .
It is endowed with all supreme forms
And joined with the level "indivisible union." (MV 1 )
The seeing of the nija[kiiya], which i s [contained]
In the dharma-, smribhoga, and nirmiiJJa[kiiyas] as their true na
ture,
Is the appropriate [practice]
For the attainment of perfect enlightenment. (MV 2)
The seeing of this [nijakiiya] is deep insight (vipasyanii)
Because of not superimposing [anything] .
This will be explained now
In accordance with the Mantrayana (i.e., Mantranaya) . (MV 3 )
The manifold [world] is not taken t o b e eternal,
Or said to be entirely annihilate [either] ;
Nor is it a combination of both eternal and annihilate,
Nor can it be that neither is the case. (MV 4 = TRA 28)
Knowers of reality know true reality
As being free from [these] four extremes.

509 Missing in the Sanskrit.

1 94

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


It is clear of the four extremes
While still being based on the four extremes . 51 0 (MV 5)
It is equivalent to space, if not [in reality ] ; 5 1 1
It i s quiescent, without beginning, middle or end,
Inconceivable and still only mind,
It is the very nature of all entities . (MV 6)
Once the one taste in everything ("the world") ,
Which is luminous and undefiled, is realized;
As long as one is not afraid of any thought,
One may abide as one pleases ! (MV 7)
Neither are defilements different from enlightenment,
Nor do defilements arise in [the state of] enlightenment. 512
The thought of defilement [arises] because of delusion,
[But] delusion is stainless by nature. (MV 8)
For the wise who is free from concepts ,
Activity on the level of the body is the ascetic life.
On the level of speech, it is the teaching of the Dharma.
Activity on the level of the mind is determination. (MV 9)
This illusion that the world is an illusionDo not think that an illusion is [just] an illusion !
[It is not that easy;] illusion is confusion, a great error,
And for the wise an error remains an error. (MV 1 0)

5 1 0 In his quotation of the *Tattvadaakatfkii (DRSM 462 1 _2 ), ' Gos Lo tsa ba gZhon nu
9 0
dpal understands 5cd in the following way: "As for the thorough knowledge of true
reality, in order to purify the four extremes in any of the three interpretative [forms
of imagination] , one abides evenly in these four extremes . (dngos po 'i de kho na nyid
yangs su shes pa la ni dpyod pa gsum po gang la yang 1 1 mtha ' bzhi rnam par dag pa 'i
phyir 1 1 mtha ' bzhi po la mnyam par gnas I). In other words, he must have read viuddhal'(l in the sense of -viuddhiirtha!Ji or -viuddhe.
5 1 1 Based on the Amanasikiiriidhiira one could also translate: "It is equivalent to space,
and at the same time to a (i.e., non-arising, luminosity). " Skt. asamal'(l has not been
translated into Tibetan.
5 12 Tib . : "Defilements d o not arise from enlightenment."

THE TWENTY VERSES ON MAHAYANA

1 95

Thus, in short, for Buddhas and other enlightened beings


This is duly recognized.
Experiencing everything wholly [in this way] ,
The knower of reality succeeds . (MV 1 1 )
Well, one may realize emptiness
In the thousand collections of teachings;
[But] it is not realized through analysis .
The meaning of emptiness s13 [is learned, rather,] from the
guru. s14 (MV 1 2)
For a wise man, given that [his] thoughts have ceased,
All forms are blissful reality.
[But] emptiness is not [this] blissful reality.
Blissful [reality] is neither inconceivable nor the [ultimate, emp
tiness-like] bliss . sis (MV 1 3)
He (i. e . , the yogin) who does not, in ultimate terms,
See [anything] as awakened, i.e., engage in any superimposi
tion[Only] in the case of not [truly] seeing, it is possible that
He acts later [appropriately] in whichever manner. (MV 1 4)
He for whom there is neither duality nor non-duality,
And [for whom] enlightenment is not different from existence
[Such] a great yogin is free from any expectations
And has reached the path of all forms . (MV 1 5 )
All yogins should perform
The initial activity as taught above;
Wisdom which is inseparable from emptiness and compassion
Is taken to be [present] in the state of enlightenment.
(MV 1 6 = KDN 8)
5 1 3 Lit. "destruction. "
5 1 4 Tib . : "What i s realized through the thousand collections o f the Dharma is emptiness.
This realization is not through analysis. [It comes] through the guru, without analysis."
5 1 5 See MSP 7-8.

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

1 96

Emptiness is nothing else than loving kindness,


[And loving kindness] is another name of compassion.
We do not say [this] as if having made something up;
If we were to describe them, [we would do so] as their indivisi
ble union. (MV 1 7)
He whose practice of continuous meditation [remains undis
turbed, even]
When apprehending [forms] such as a vase,
Will become a great Buddha
Whose single body [of compassion and emptiness pervades] all
forms. (MV 1 8)
The unconditioned mind is the dharma[kaya];
Realization is the defining characteristics of the saf(lbhoga[ka

ya].
[Then there is] that: A variegated [body] has been emanated
(i. e . , the nirmolJ-akaya).
The natural one (i.e., the nijakaya) is the nature of all [three] .
(MV 1 9 = PA 2)
Through whatever merit I, fortunate one, have accumulated
By [having composed] this [treatise]May the entire world become determined
[To attain] the enlightenment of the Buddha ! (MV 20)
The Mahayanavif(lsika, composed by Advayavajra, 516 is ended. From
the mouth of the Indian Pm:u,iita Vajrapat)i 517 and translated by the monk
from mTshur Jfianakara (i.e . , Ye shes ' byung gnas).
End of t h e Translation

5 16 The author is not mentioned in the Sanskrit.


5 1 7 Peking bsTan ' gyur: "Translated and finalized by the learned Indian man Divakara
candra and the Tibetan translator-monk S akya brTson 'grus."

THE TWENTY VERSES ON MAHAYANA

1 97

Concluding Remarks
The annotated list of amanasikara texts from the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud
chos mdzod contains the short note that Maitripa composed the
Mahayanavi7Jisika together with the Mahasukhaprakasa, the Tattva
vi7Jisika, the Apratithanaprakaia, and the Yuganaddhaprakasa in order
to explain in detail that Yuganaddha [Madhyamaka] is compatible with
the view maintained in the Madhyamkaatka. 518

5 1 8 "Yid la mi byed tho yig", vol. kha, 79b 4: lta ba de ldan zung 'jug rgyas bshad phyir I
3
theg chen nyi shu de nyid nyi shu mdzad 1 1 de yang rten 'brel rab tu mi gnas pa I bde
chen gsal ba zung 'jug gsal ba mdzad I

1 9 . The Five Verses on Penetrating Insight


(Nirvedhapaiicaka )5 19

Translation of t h e Nirvedhapaiicaka (the text contains verses and


prose):

Homage to omniscience ! 520


Once the Buddha [within] is realized, the world becomes pure.
This is through the realization of the Buddha [within] , this
friend. 521
Oh primordially pure great Buddha!
Is the teaching of the Buddha understood? 522 (NVP 1 )
These are words relating to the nature of someone who has overcome
[all] concepts about remedy, true reality and fruit, and possesses pene
trating insight [into] the co-emergent. 523
Wisdom is [not only] spotless and empty,
[But] has [also] the nature of effortless compassion.
It arises in dependence
And is free from [both] an own-being and non-existence.
(NVP 2)
This explains the image of penetrating insight. 524
5 1 9 The Tibetans must have read *Nirbhedapaficaka and translated Mi phyed lnga pa
("Five Verses on the Indestructible").
520 Tib . : "Homage to the Buddha! "
521 Tib . : "Those who possess the realization of the Buddha [within] are relatives. "
522 Tib . : " [But] how i s this teaching o f the Buddha realized?"
52 3 Tib . : " . . . who possesses what is naturally inseparable. [His] essence is taught. "
5 24 Tib. (B) : "This explains the nature of realization as being inseparable"; Tib. (DP) :
" . . . of the realization of the profound inseparable."

200

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


The emptiness of phenomena-amazing !
Compassion-even more amazing !
Amazing, the power of great bliss !
Amazing, the pure apparent ! (NVP 3)

This teaches the roar525 of the profound co-emergent. 526


Well, what [shall] we say, how [shall] we explain [it] ,
[And] when we explain [it] , where are the people [who under
stand] ? 527
He, for whom realization occurs,
Possesses it without effort. 528 (NVP 4)
In this [verse] it is proclaimed that [true reality] is difficult to find for
people who [only] believe in the profound Dharma, expressive of non
abiding [nirvaa, attained] through compassion.
My fruit, indeed, is the direct cutting [of sentient beings] from
the
Seed of the threads of their own karman.
The violent is not to be harmed by me. 529
Even such a person, alas , I endure ! 53 0 (NVP 5)
In this verse [Maitripa] has considered the [compassionate] heart of
bodhisattvas . They assist all sentient beings whose intellect is fettered
and afflicted by the threads of their karman.

5 2 5 Tib . : "power"
5 26 Tib . : " . . . the power arisen from the profound inseparable co-emergent."
5 2 7 Tib . : " [And] when we explain [it] , who will understand?"
5 2 8 Tib. : "Once realized, the unchanging [abiding nature] appears without effort. "
5 2 9 Tib. " [But] I d o not harm others. "
530 The last o f line o f the Sanskrit i s incomplete and restored from the Tibetan.

THE FIVE VERSES ON PENETRATING INSIGHT

20 1

The Nirvedhapancaka, composed by the learned master Maitripa, is


ended. Translated by the Indian pai:i<;lita Vajrapai:ii and the Tibetan
translator rMa ban.
E n d of t h e Translation

Concluding Remarks
According to the annotated list of amanasikara texts , the Nirvedha
pancaka was taught together with the Premapancaka and the Pancata
thagatamudravivarm:ia in order to seal what had been summarized in
the SekatatparyasaY(lgraha and the Sekanirdea. The latter two were
composed in order to establish the connection with the empowerment of
Mantranaya. 531
The 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod contains a valuable commentary
on the Nirvedhapancaka probably by ' Bum la ' bar:
The first verse teaches the object to be purified, namely, the
source of buddha qualities in sentient beings, which is [their]
natural purity, and the related [conditions] of the effortless puri
fying [factors] , the gradual purification of conceptual stains , and
the gradual realization of suchness. Through these [factors]
there are the Dharma, the S a:rgha, and the Buddhas [in sentient
beings] , purified on the path in such a way. Possessing the three
purities (i.e. , the natural purity, the purifying factors , and the
gradual purification) one is united with the Buddhas . With re
spect to this thought one is said to be of the same non
conceptual nature, there being the indivisible union in terms of
the ground, path, and fruit. 532
53 1 "Yid la mi byed tho yig" 79b2_ : khyad par sngags lam dbang dang 'brel ba 'i phyir I
3
dbang skur mdor bstan dgongs pa mdor I bsdus dang dbang rnam nges rnam dag pra
khrid mdzad I rgyas gdab nges bsten (=bstan?) phyag rgya Inga pa dang 1 1 dga ' bcug
Inga pa mi phyed Inga pa mdzad I
532 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, 26a _ : de ltar tshigs su bead pa dang
45
pos 'gro ba 'i khams rang bzhin gyis rnam par dag pa dag bya dang I dag byed lhun gyis
grub pa dang I rnam par rtog pa 'i dri ma rim gyis (text: rims kyis) dag dang I de bzhin

202

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The second verse [teaches] how the union of emptiness and


compassion into a pair is realized in an ordinary way. 533
The third verse explains extraordinary emptiness and compas
sion, the confinement of the winds and [related] mental states of
the [system of] five cakras within the central [channel] , the ac
tualization of its power, which is the apparent illusory body, the
purity in the form of luminosity, and the power of the co
emergent. 534
As to the fourth verse, [usually] the explanation of this experi
ence based on luminosity is not understood. When realized, the
object of realization, namely, the unchanging abiding nature,
appears without effort. It is even more difficult to find faith [in
it] than to realize it. 535
In the fifth verse [Maitripa] has the following thought: I cannot,
out of love, endure that sentient beings who are bound by their
own karman are in error about the level of true bliss . How to
endure [their suffering when] thinking of them? I will help those
in need of being tamed. 536
nyid rim gyis (text: rims kyis) rtogs pa 'i rtsa lag gyis chos dang dge 'dun dang de ltar
lam gyis sbyangs pa 'i sangs rgyas te I dag pa gsum ldan gyis sangs rgyas mams zung
'jug rtog pa 'i ngor rnam rtog dang bral ba 'i ngo bo nyid cig du bstan pa I gzhi lam 'bras
gsum gyis zung 'jug dang I
533 Op. cit., 26a _6 : tshigs bead gnyis pas ni I thun mongs kyis stong pa nyid snying rje
5
zung 'jug du 'jug paji ltar rtogs (text: rtog) pa 'i tshul dang I
534 Op. cit., 26a6 -b 1 : tshig bead gs um pa ni I thun mongs min pa 'i stong pa nyid snying rje
dang I 'khor lo lnga 'i rlung sems rnams dbu mar bsdom pa dang I de 'i nus pa kun rdzab
sgyu ma 'i sku mngon du byas te I de yang 'od gsal du dag pa I lhan cig skyes pa 'i mthu
bshad pa I
535 Op. cit., 26b 1 : tshig bead bzhi pa ni 'od gsal gyis nyams myong de bshad ni mi go la I
rtogs na ni mi 'gyur ba (text: gyur pa) rtogs bya 'i gnas lugs lliun gyis grub kyang (read
lhun gyis grub pa nyid du snang?) I de la (text: las) rtogs pa las mos pa tsam yang rnyed
dka ' bas I
53 6 Op. cit., 26b 1 _2 : tshig bead Inga pas ni I rang gi (text: gis) las kyis 'ching ba 'i sems can
rnams bde ba dam pa 'i go 'p hang de (text: do) las phyin ci log tu gyur pa ni bdag nyid
kyang brtse bas mi bzad la I de nyid kyi kyang dran pa ci ltar bzad de gdul bya rjes su
'dzin par dgongs pa 'o I

20. The Six Verses on the Middle [Path]


(Madhyamaatka)

Translation of the Madhyamaatka:537

Homage to the Buddha ! 538


[S iikaravada]
Non-dual wisdom539
Which is free from the four extremes really exists .
It is empty of thoughts and devoid of cognitive objects .
This is what the S likiiraviidins know. 540 (M 1 )
[Nirlikliraviida]
[Here,] the right middle path [according to them] is upheld
B ased on [the belief that while] self-awareness is not invalidat
ed, 541
Blue and so forth do not542 appear
And characteristic signs do not arise. (M 2)
[Mliyopamiidvayaviida]
Clarity which is free from the four extremes
Has the defining characteristic of being false.

537 First translated by Brunnhi:ilzl (2007 : 1 3 8-39)


53 8 Missing in the Sanskrit.
53 9 Tib . : "Momentary knowledge"
540 Tib . : "This is what the Sakaravadin should know. "
54 1 Lit. : "cut off."
542 The negation is missing in the Tibetan.

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

204

It is non-duality [in the sense that everything is] like an illusion.


This is an acceptable tenet. (M 3)
An awareness empty of entities
Spotless and without aspectsThis is the middle path right [for them] .
After meditation it is the pure relative. (M 4)
[Apratithanavada]
Whether [mind has] clarity or not,
In reality neither is apprehended,
Since by nature it is entirely unarisen.
The superior ones 543 take this to be the [right] middle [path] .
(M 5)
Clarity which is free from the four extremes
Has the nature of deities .
It has the nature o f non-dual bliss
And is mere dependent origination. (M 6)
The Madhyama$atka is ended. This work is by the great pal).c;lita and
renunciant, the glorious Advayavajra. 544 Translated by Guru Vajrapal).i
and Nag tsho.
End of the Translation

Concluding Remarks
Maitripa is said to have composed the Madhyama$atka along with the
Saha}a$afka in order to expound the particular view of Yuganaddha

543 Tib. gzhan dag is a wrong translation of apare.


544 Tib. : " ... by the learned master and par,t<;!ita Maitripa."

THE SIX VERSES ON THE MIDDLE [PA TH]

205

Madhyamaka. 545 In the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod the Madhya
ma.Jatka is introduced with the following remark:
The proponents of the tenets each maintain that their own tenet
represents the centre (i.e. , the right middle path) . I have com
posed this treatise, which is about what is taught by them in par
ticular. 546
In fact, the Madhyama.Jatka explains how the two Yogacara-tenets
(S akara and Nirakara) and the two Madhyamaka tenets
(Mayapomadvaya and Apratithana) endorse the "right middle path"

(madhyama pratipat) .

545 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. kha, 79b : zung 'jug de la lta ba 'i khyad par
3
phyir I I than skyes drug pa dbu ma drug pa mdzad I
546 Op. cit., 26b - : grub mtha ' smra ba rnams so so rang gis grub mtha ' dbu mar khas
34
Zen pa la de dag gis khyad par du bstan pa 'i bstan bcos (text: chos) 'di mdzad do I
...

2 1 . The Five [Verses on Transcendent] Love


(Premapancaka)

Translation of the Premapaficaka: 547

Homage to the Venerable Vajrasattva!


Were it not for the handsome suitor of appearances
Which are but dependent arising,
The [beloved] mistress of emptiness
Would be considered no better than dead. (PP 1 )
Emptiness is a most lovely mistress
With an incomparable figure.
If they ever parted,
The handsome lover would be forlorn. (PP 2)
Therefore, trembling with anxiety,
The man and woman are seated in front of the guru,
And through their natural pleasure
[The guru] has generated the love belonging to co-emergence.
(PP 3)
Marvelous ! Such mastery on the part of [this] genuine guru !
S o great his skill: 548
That these two are now inseparable from the natural [state] ,
Beyond cognitive objects , and unsurpassable ! (PP 4)
All their qualities are complete,
And both of them are without the two extremes .
547 First translated by Brunnholzl (2007 : 1 37-38)
548 Tib . : "Amazing, such a skill in means ! "

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

208

This couple549 is the nature of all that is,


[Yet] the two always manifest without an own-being. (PP 5)
The Five Verses on the Love of Insight and Means are ended.
End of the Translation

Concluding Remarks
In the S anskrit text there is no colophon. The Thabs dang shes rab rtse
ba lnga pa mentions Maitripa as the author. The translators were Va
jrapar;ii and mTshur ston Ye shes ' byung gnas . According to the Peking
bsTan ' gyur, it was rMa ban who, in collaboration with Vajrapar;ii, who
translated the same Indian text also under the title dGa ' gcugs lnga
pa. 550 The dPal spungs edition of the second text mentions mTshur as
the translator.
The Thabs dang shes rab rtse ba lnga pa, which Karma bKra shis chos
'phel mentions in his list of amanasikiira texts and the dGa ' gcugs Inga
pa are simply two different Tibetan translation of the same text, the
Premapaficaka. This was not recognized by the compilers of the bsTan
' gyur and the Phyag chen rgya gzhung, but in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud
chos mdzod we find only the dGa ' gcugs lnga pa. The topical outline
divides the Five Verses on Transcendent Love into instruction on indi
visible union (yuganaddha) based on worldly concepts (the first three
verses) and a description of the wonderful realization of this state. 551
The 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod further informs us that Maitripa
taught these five verses after witnessing how a couple in union naturally
experienced wisdom:

549 Thus taking account of the dual.


550 According to the Peking bsTan ' gyur ( 1 24a _6 ).
5
55 1 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, 85b : thabs dang shes rab du rtse ba
4
lnga pa la don gnyis te I 'jig rten pa 'i tha snyad la brten nas zung 'jug la gdams pa dang
I rtogs pa ngo mtshar nas che brjod phul ba 'o I

THE FIVE [VERSES ON TRANSCENDENT] LOVE

209

A brother and a sister who were naturally together from


the beginning,
Gave up the shame of duality and had sexual inter
course,
And as son, naturally arisen wisdom, resulted
A wonder which had never happened before.
The great Maitripa saw that a worldly couple cannot abandon
playing with each other as long as [the two] are together. The
resulting bliss of satisfaction occurs, and a son is finally born.
Likewise, there are-on the level of the ground-co-emergent
[appearance and emptiness] , which are united into a pair in such
a way that one cannot abandon the other. On the path they play
with each other as lovers in the union of bliss and emptiness,
and on the level of the fruit, they have the genuine accomplish
ment of indivisible union (yuganaddha) . Having seen this he
composed the Premapaiicaka. 552

552 Op. cit., 25a2_ : gdod nas lhan cig skyes pa 'i ming sring gang 1 1 gzung 'dzin ngo tsha
4
spangs nas snyoms zhugs pas 1 1 rang byung ye shes sras bu rang gyur pas 1 1 'di ni snga
nas med pa 'i ngo mtshar yin 1 1 de yang rje btsun mai tri pa chen pos 'jig rten gyi khyo
shug ma bra! gyi (text: gyis) bar du phan tshun brtse ba mi 'dor ba dang I phan tshun du
brtse ba 'i ts him pa 'i bde ba 'byung ba dang I mthar gnyis ka la brten nas bu cig bskyed
pa !tar I gzhi zung 'jug lhan cig skyes pa phan tshun 'dor ba mi srid pa dang I Zam thes
gnyis bde stong mnyam par sbyor ba 'i brtse ba dag tu rol pa dang I 'bras bu zung 'jug
du grub pa mtshan par gzigs nas dga ' bcug Inga pa 'di mdzad do II

22. The Ten Verses on True Reality


(Tattvadasaka)

Translation of the Tattvadasaka:553

Homage to Vajrasattva ! 554


Homage to you, suchness,
Which has no association with existence and non-existence,
Because, [when] stainless , this very [suchness]
Has the form of enlightenment in virtue of realization. 555 (TD 1 )
S omebody who wishes to know556 suchness does not [find it]
In557 [the Yogiiciira tenets of] S iikiira[viida] or Niriikiira[viida] ;
Even the middle [path] (i.e. , Madhyamaka) which is not adorned
With the words of a guru, is only middling. (TD 2)
This state of being is indeed enlightenment.
This is what it naturally is once attachment is abandoned;
Attachment is born from confusion,
And confusion is without a basis-[so] it is claimed. (TD 3)
What is true reality? It is the form (i. e . , the nature) 558 of entities ,
And form i s [indeed] no-form (i.e. , emptiness) ,
553 An earlier version of this translation is contained in Mathes 2006:209-2 1 1 .
554 Tib. : " . . . the youthful MafijusrI!"
555 The Tibetan is here difficult to construe.
55 6 The genitive of the participle (icchataft) is here taken as the logical subject.
557 The Tibetan supports a construction with the nominative: "It is neither Sakara nor
Nirakiira."
55 8 See TD'f (B 17a 1 ; D 170b , P 1 86b _ ) : de 'i phyir dngos po 'i dea bzhin nyid ni de kho
34
5
na nyid du bstan pa ' o J
B rang

212

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


Because559 no-form is also form, given its being by nature560
[B oth] the fruit [to be attained] and the [co-emergent] cause [of
suchness] . (TD 4)
Thus phenomena are [all] of one taste,
Unobstructed, and without an abode.
They are all [realized as] luminous
Through the samadhi of realizing true reality as it is. (TD 5)
[This] samadhi of realizing true reality as it is, for its part,
Comes from engaging [bodhi]citta,
Since true reality arises without interruption
For those who are aware of its abode. 561 (TD 6)
The world itself, which is free from knowledge and knowable
objects ,
Is taken to be non-duality.
B ut even vain clinging to a state free of duality
Is taken, in like manner, to be luminous . 562 (TD 7)
By the power of having realized this true reality,
The yogin, with eyes wide open,
Moves everywhere like a lion,
By any [chosen] means [and] in any [chosen] manner. (TD 8)
[The yogin] who has left the [eight] worldly dharmas behind
And adopted yogic conduct [that appears to be] crazy
Does everything without [any need for] a reference point,
B eing adorned with self-empowerment. (TD 9)
What has been taught as stainless reality,
What has been called non-duality-

55 9 Nothing corresponds to Skt. yataf:z in the Tibetan.


5 6 0 *Sahajavajra (TDT (B 1 6b4) takes "nature" as "dependently arisen self-awareness . "
5 61 Tib . : "Being aware o f its abode, true reality arises without interruption."
5 62 Tib . : "Therefore, even the vain clinging to a state free o f duality . . . "

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

213

The gifted ones are worthy of its knowledge,


Having excluded from it563 sameness and difference. (TD 1 0)
The Tattvadaaka is ended. This work is of the learned master and re
nunciant Advayavajra. 564
End of the Translation

An Analysis of the Tattvadasaka and *S ahaj avajra ' s *Tattvadaaka


ffka565
Maitnpa composed the Tattvadaaka along with the Tattvaprakaa in
order to teach the profound meaning in a few words. 566 A brief glance at
the ten verses on true reality (or suchness, as it is referred to in the first
three verses) reveals two approaches to its subject: Not only can the
nature of true reality be ascertained on the basis of common Madhya
maka logic, it can also be directly experienced as luminosity in medita
tive concentration which realizes true reality as it is (yathii,bhuta
samiidhi). Ultimately there is of course only one true reality for Mai
tripa, but descriptions of it differ depending on one ' s approach: while
true reality defies all categorization (ontological or otherwise) , no mat
ter what form of analysis, it can be described in more positive terms on
the basis of direct experience. In his first verse, Maitripa introduces
these two approaches by defining suchness along the lines of Madhya
maka as neither existent nor non-existent, and then equating, probably

5 63 The Tibetan has wrongly rendered ato by de.


5 6 4 Tib . : "The Tattvadaaka, composed by the great learned master and renunciant
Advayavajra, is ended. Translated by the Indian pai:i<;lita Vajrapfufi and the Tibetan
translator Tshul khrims rgyal ba." P: "Translated by the guru Vajrapfufi and Mtshur Ye
shes 'byung gnas] . Later, translated [again] by Tshul khrims rgyal ba."
5 6 5 This analysis is based on initial observations on the *T'attvadaakarrka published in
Mathes 2005 and 2006. For a complete English translation of the *T'attvadaaka[fka, see
BrunnhOlzl 2007 : 1 4 1 -90.
5 66 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, 79b : zab don nyung ngu 'i tshul du 'du
5
ba 'i phyir 1 de nyid bcu pa dang de nyid gsal ba mdzad II

214

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

under the influence of the Ratnagotravibhaga, 567 stainless suchness with


enlightenment.
In the second verse we are warned not to follow lower philosophical
tenets which define suchness as a form of consciousness, whether ac
companied by really existing cognitive content (sakara) or not (nira
kara). Nor should one seek to grasp suchness with the help of middling
Madhyamaka, unenhanced as it is by the words of a guru. This implies
that the remaining eight verses have been enhanced by such words and
are in line with supreme Madhyamaka. The guru ' s actual words are
Paramitanaya pith-instructions , which enable true reality to be experi
enced directly, even during initial stages of deep insight meditation
(vipasyana). Suchness as enlightenment is then defined as the true state
of being free from attachment, the latter having arisen from baseless
confusion (TD 3 ) . In verse 4, the logical subject then switches to true
reality, which is taken as the nature of things on the authority of the
famous statement "Form is empty and emptiness is form" (TD 4) ; and
subsequently as the one taste of all phenomena-that is, luminosity.
This is how it is experienced in the "samadhi of realizing true reality as
it is" (yathabhutasamadhi). The latter is cultivated by arousing bodhici
tta (TD 5-6) . Helpful concepts on the path, such as that the world is
beyond duality, are also realized to be luminous by nature (TD 7), and
the yogin moves at will, like a lion, on the strength of having realized
true reality in such a way (TD 8) . What then follows (TD 9) is clearly
tantric in origin: such a yogin is said to have adopted a "mode of con
duct that appears to be crazy" (unmattavrata) 568 and "empowered him
self' (svadhithana) , the latter being the technical term for the third
stage of the Paiicakrama. 569 But from the Kudrtinirghiitana it is also
clear that Maitripa understands unmattavrata as an extreme form of
Mahayana conduct which results from having perfected the six
paramitas. 570 Moreover, for *S ahajavajra these terms (unmattavrata and

5 6 7 See Ratnagotravibhiigavyiikhyii on 1.25, where stainless suchness is taken as the


transformation of the basis on the level of a Buddha (RGVV 2 1 9_ 1 0).
5 68 Normally translated as yogic conduct.
5 6 9 See Mimaki & Tomabechi 1 994:3 1 -39.
5 70 See the introduction to and explanation of verse KDN 1 3 .

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

215

svadhithana) refer to non-conceptual realization. 571 T o sum up, the Ta


ttvadasaka mainly propagates a direct approach to reality which, while
in accordance with Mantranaya, mainly relies on pith instructions .
In the introduction to his commentary *S ahaj avajra informs us that
Maitrip a ' s ten verses on true reality are a summary of Paramitanaya
pith-instructions which accord with the secret Mantranaya:
Having presented in detail the stages of penetrating the meaning
of non-abiding in accordance with Pramai;ia, Madhyamaka and
authoritative scriptures (agama) , 572 [Maitripa] wished to com
pose brief Paramita[naya] pith-instructions which accord with
the tradition of the secret Mantra[naya] . 573
In the commentary by Ti pi ' bum la ' bar on the *Tattvadaakatfka we
find the following explanation of this passage:
"Accord with the tradition of the secret Mantra[naya] " means :
Even though [the Tattvadasaka] does not really fall under the
Mantra[naya] , the realization of the view it has in common
5 7 1 TDT (B 26a3 _ , D 176a -b 1 , P 1 93b 6 ) : "Yogic conduct [that appears to be] crazy (un
4
7
mattavrata) means acting without the thoughts of the mental faculty" (smyon pa 'i brtul
zhugs ni yid kyis" bsam pa med par byed nyid do I)
" BD kyi
TDT (B 26b2 _3 , D 176b 3 _4 , P 1 94a3 _4) : "He is adorned by self-empowerment (svadhi
nhana)" refers to an empowerment-by himself [so to speak]-in the form of the yo
gin's own mind-stream, which is characterized by uncontrived true reality. That which
emanates from [his] nature of suchness adorns him naturally." (rang byin brlabs pas
rnam brgyan pa ' o 1 1 zhes bya ba ni rang nyid" gnyug ma 'i de kho na nyidb kyi bdag nyid
kyic rnald 'byor pa 'i sems kyi rgyun de 'i bdag nyid du byin gyis brlabe pa 'o 1 1 de bzhin
nyid kyi rang bzhin las 'p hro baf rang bzhin gyis brgyan pa ni rgyan no).
" B bzhin b D nyid de bzhin nyid c P du ct P om. e D brlabs r BD ba 'i
572 This probably refers to the Tattvaratnavalf.
573 TDT (B lb4-2a2 , D 1 6 1 a2 , P 1 76a _ ) : . . . tshad ma dang I dbu ma dang I lung <rnams
45
gis 'dir rab tu mi gnas pa 'i"1 don la 'jug pa 'i rim pa rgyas par (bbstan nasbl Ccgsang ngags
kyi tshul dangcl rjes su mthund pa 'i pha rol tu phyin pa 'ie man ngag mdor bsdus <fpa byed
par 'dod pasfl I . . .
" DP gi grub pa 'i b P nye bar rtogs pas c DP sngags kyi ct P 'thun e B pa dag gi r D par
mdzad par bzhed nas

216

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

[with Mantranaya] , that of non-abiding, [when] adorned with


the pith-instructions of the guru, is a temporal necessity (i.e. , the
goal) . Paramita[naya] refers to S akara, Nirakara, and so forth.
[But] this is a separate topic . As to the brief pith instructions ,
they account for the difference between [Paramitanaya tenets
which] are a means of realizing suchness and [those which are]
not. 574
In other words , Paramita[naya] pith-instructions do not really form part
of Mantranaya. But when adorned with the pith-instructions of the guru,
the tenet of non-abiding enables one to realize suchness, which accords
with Mantranaya.
In his commentary on TD 2cd, *S ahaj avajra points out that Paramita
[naya] pith-instructions provide something what middling Madhyamaka
lacks : "being adorned with the words of the guru" :
[Maitripa] said: "Even the middle [path] (i.e . , Madhyamaka)
which is not adorned with the words of the guru is only mid
dling", because ["middling"] refers to what remains postulated
[even] after the particular features [of Sakara- and Nirakara
vada] have been negated. As for the aim of [presenting true real
ity] here [as] yuganaddha-suchness-adorned with the pith
instructions of the genuine guru, [who is] Bhagavafi-it has
been taught [in order to] captivate the minds of learned ones.
This is because all phenomena are the non-arisen true reality. 575
5 74 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, 177b 6 - l 78a 1 : gsang sngags kyi tshul
dang rjes mthun pa ni I sngags dngos ma yin yang thun mongs (text: mong) nang gi lta
ba rab tu <mi gnasl pa bla ma 'i man ngag gis brgyan pa rtogs pa ni gnas skabs kyis
dgos pa ' o I pha rol tu phyin pa dag ni rnam (text: rnams) bcas rnam (text: rnams) med la
Cbsogs pabl I de brjod bya 'i khyad par ro I man ngag bsdus pa ni de bzhin nyid rtogs pa 'i
thabs dang thabs ma yin pa 'i khyad par ro I
" The text reads gnas b The text reads so
5 7 5 TDT (B l l a -b 1 ; D 1 66b6 _ , P 1 82b 1 _ ) : bla ma 'i ngag gis ma brgyan pa 'i I dbu
3
5
7
ma 'ang 'bring po tsam nyid do 1 1 zhes bya ba smras te I bye brag rnams" bkag nas I Zhag
ma khas Cbblangs pa 'ib) yul yin pa 'i phyir roe 1 1 'dir bcom ldan 'das ma bla ma dam pa 'i
man ngag Cctgi rgyandl gyis brgyan pa 'i zung du 'jug pa 'i de bzhin nyid kyi dgose pa ni
mkhas pa rnams kyi yid1 'p hrog par byed pa nye bar bstang te I gang gi phyir yang chos
thams cad ni ma skyes pa 'i de kho na nyid do I

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

217

*S ahajavajra thus glosses "words o f the guru" as "pith-instructions of


the genuine guru, [who is] BhagavatI", the latter here being a personifi
cation of Prajfiaparamita. In other words , pith-instructions are given by
the genuine teacher, who embodies Prajfiaparamita in the sense of hav
ing attained "perfection of insight" (prajfiiipiiramitii,). This is clear from
*S ahaj avajra ' s commentary on TD 4, in which reality is taken as the
nature of things , on the basis of an allusion to the famous statement
"Form is empty and emptiness is form". The explanation of TD 4 con
cludes as follows :
Therefore, the nature of entities , it has been taught, is reality.
These [teachings] are Paramita[naya] pith-instructions, [i. e . ,
Paramitanaya teachings] adorned with the pith-instructions of
the genuine guru. This [reality] needs to become clear from the
lotus of the guru ' s mouth-he in whom one has taken real de
light; it is nothing else. 576
In this context it is interesting what ' Gos Lo tsa ba gZhon nu dpal says
about Maitripa in the introduction to his Ratnagotravibhiiga commen
tary:
The lord of this doctrine (i.e., the Ratnagotravibhiiga)-the fa
ther, the Venerable Maitripa-and his son (i. e . , *S ahajavajra)
assert that the emptiness taught in the Madhyamakiivatiira is
middling Madhyamaka, and "awareness-emptiness" (rig stong)
is the tradition of supreme Madhyamaka. 577
' Gos Lo tsa ba gZhon nu dpal obviously wants us to understand TD 2cd
as implying that even the Madhyam aka of Candrakirti is only middling
if it is not adorned with pith-instructions . Maitripa' s Tattvadasaka is
BP mam pa b B blang ba 'i BP om. d P gis brgyan DP dgongs f P yid yid g D
bsten
57 6 TDT (B 17a 1 _ 2 , D 170b _6 , P 1 8 6b _ ) : de 'i phyir dngos po 'i rang bzhin nyid ni de kho
35
5
na nyid du bstan pa ' o 1 1 de dag ni pha rot tu phyin pa 'i man ngag bla ma dam pa 'i man
ngag gis brgyan pa 'o 1 1 de yang yang dag par shin tu mnyes par byas pa 'i bla ma 'i zhal
gyi padma nyid las gsal bar bya 'ib I gzhan du ni ma yin no I
DP la b D om. P bya 'o
5 77 DRSM 1 6 1 6 _ 1 ; see Mathes 2008a: 1 87.
7
c

218

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

then, one may conclude, so adorned, and thus supreme Madhyamaka.


Even though the term "awareness-emptiness" itself is not found in the
Tattvadaaka, the latter states (TD 5) that all phenomena are of one
taste, unobstructed, without an abode, and experienced in the samadhi
of realizing true reality as luminous. *S ahajavajra explains "one taste"
as "the one taste in terms of suchness", "unobstructed" as "not superim
posing an own-being", and "without an abode" as "not arisen". 578 It
goes without saying that these terms define emptiness in accordance
with Nagarjuna and Candrakirti. What makes Maitripa' s Madhyamaka
supreme is the direct experience579 of this emptiness as natural luminos
ity, which is equated with self-awareness by *S ahajavajra, and this is
exactly what gZhon nu dpal is referring to by means of the compound
awareness-emptiness . The luminous nature of phenomena can be expe
rienced in the samadhi of realizing true reality which is taken by
*S ahaj avajra as the path of uniting amatha and vipasyana as a pair:
What is called natural luminosity is self-awareness, in view of
its being naturally free from stains . One may ask, How does one
see the phenomena of true reality, whose nature is such a such
ness? Therefore, [Maitripa] said "through the samadhi [of real
izing] true reality for what it is . " The latter is a path which fea
tures amatha and vipasyana united as a pair. 58 0
In the light of this explanation, TD 2cd implies that supreme Madh
yamaka is supplemented with pith-instructions whose main purpose is
to enable a direct experience of emptiness as luminosity on a path seek5 7 8 TDT (B 17a _ , D 170b - 1 7 l a 1 , P 1 86b _ 8) : ro gcig pa ni de bzhin nyid du ro gcig pa 'o
45
7
7
I I thogs pa med cing zhes bya ba ni rang bzhin sgro btags med pa ' o 1 1 gnas med par
zhes bya ba ni ma skyes pa ste I
5 79 The expression "direct experience" is justified on the grounds, that the ultimate
nature (emptiness) cannot be ascertained as being luminous or awareness through infer
ential valid cognitions (see Mathes 2008a: 1 84-85).
5 80 TDT (B 1 7a6 -b 1 , D 1 7 1 an, P 1 87a 1 _ 2 ) : (rang bzhin gyis"l 'od gsal ba zhes bya ba ni
rang bzhin gyisb dri ma spangs pas rang rig pa ste I . . . I de ltar gyur pa 'i de bzhin nyid
kyi bdag nyid kyic de kho na nyid kyi chos rnams Ji ltar mthong zhe na I de 'i phyir I Ji
bzhind 'byung ba 'i ting nge 'dzin gyis I zhes bya smras te I zhi gnas dang lhag mthong
zung du 'jug pa dan ldan pa 'i lam ni Ji bzhind 'byung ba 'i ting nge 'dzin no I
DP om. b P gyi c B gyis ct DP ltar
. . .

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

219

ing to unite calm abiding with a particular form o f deep insight. With
out this addition, one has no choice but to rely on the reasoning of
"middling Madhyamaka. " This is supported by *Sahaj avajra ' s commen
tary on TD 1 . Having delineated the subject-matter as (a) true reality,
(b) the act of attaining (the ends of meditation) and (c) that which must
be attained (enlightenment) , *S ahajavajra addresses the objection that
these topics fall properly within the domain of valid cognition with the
interesting remark that suchness is here approached through pith
instructions :
This i s true, but the suchness which was formerly established
through valid cognition as something which exists , is here estab
lished as yuganaddha [-suchness] by way of pith-instructions .
These are not taught here, because arguments which establish
[it] , such as "on account of being free from the one and the
many," have been adduced [in my explanations of TD 1 ] . The
reason for this is that attainment through conduct is not a topic
of [relevance to] suchness, true reality and the like, for insight
alone lacks skilful means, lacking as it does the pith-instructions
of the genuine guru. 581
*S ahaj avajra concludes this remark by referring to his commentary on
TD 2cd. This is pretty straightforward: when one is merely concerned
with knowing reality, the reasoning of middling Madhyamaka will do,
but when it comes to skilful means , suchness must be established as the
union of dependent arising and emptiness 582-skillful means and in
sight-with the help of pith-instructions . In his commentary on TD 6
(in which arousing bodhicitta is taken as the foundation of the samtidhi
5 8 1 TD'f (B 5b -6a2 , D 1 63a _ , P 178b _6 ) : de ni bden te I 'on kyang de dag sngar gnas
4
5
57
pa 'i yod par tshad mas rab tu grub pa 'i de bzhin nyid 'dir man ngag gi sgo nas zung 'jug
par" rab tu sgrub pa yin te I de dag ni 'dir ma bstan teb 1 1 gcig dang du ma dang bral ba 'i
phyir zhes bya ba la sogs pa 'i yang rab tu sgrub pa 'i rigs0 pa nyid dran pa 'i phyir 1 1
gang gi phyir spyod pas rab tu sgrub pa nyid de bzhin nyid de kho na nyid la sogs pa 'i
dngos po ma yin te I bla ma dam pa 'i man ngag mams dang bral bas shes rab kyi cha
'ba ' zhig ni thabs dang bral ba 'i phyir ro I
DP pa b BDP to P rag
5 8 2 See TD'f (B l lb ; D 1 67a2 , P 1 82b ) : skyes pa dang ma skyes pa dag gi zung du 'jug
3
5
pa nyid ni de kho na nyid du rtogs par bya ste I
c

220

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

of realizing true reality) , *Sahajavajra first summarizes the common


Mahayana path of preparation as the path of calm abiding and deep
insight united as a pair and properly endowed with the means of gener
osity and the rest, also known as arousing bodhicitta. This is achieved
by combining meditative stabilization and analysis, 583 which in turn
leads to a stable amatha concordant with insight. *S ahajavajra refers
readers to KamalaSila ' s Bhiivaniikrama for information on further lev
els , while also pointing out a major difference between his and Kamala
slla ' s approach. This is clear from the following passage from the
*Tattvadaakatfkii on verse 6 :
Here, i n this regard, the distinctions made with respect to engag
ing [bodhi]citta within the tradition of Paramita[naya] are pre
sented both concisely and at length in the Bhiivaniikrama and
other works of Kamalaslla. One should look them up there; they
are not written here for reasons of space.
No such engaging [bodhi]citta is intended here [in the Tattva
daaka, however,] since whereas in the [Bhiivaniikrama] it is
[only] pure in virtue of having been produced on the basis of
analysis, here [in the Tattvadaaka] meditation is [performed]
with non-analytical [bodhi]citta right from the beginning. 584
When somebody who possesses Paramita[naya] pith instruc
tions, which are adorned with the words of the guru internalizes
Yuganaddha-Madhyamaka, then the very insight into the ulti
mate, [namely,] emptiness endowed with all excellent forms ,
5 8 3 It should be noted that *Sahajavajra does not always use the term "analysis" (dpyad
pa) in a sense at odds with that of pith-instructions ; see *Sahajavajra's commentary
(TDT (B 24a5 , D l 75a6 , P 1 92a7 ) : " . . . emptiness, which is analyzed on the basis of the
pith-instructions of the genuine guru" (bla ma dam pa 'i man" ngag gis dpyad pa 'i stong
pa nyid). In TDT (B 2 l b5 , D 1 73b 6 , P 1 90b 2 ) however, he opposes "detailed analysis" to
"pith-instructions of the genuine guru" (rnam par dpyad pa 'am I bla ma 'i man ngag gis
dngos po mi dmigs pa nyid ni yid la mi byed pa 'o ) .
a D gdams
5 84 The corresponding passage in the Derge and Peking bsTan 'gyur reads: "Here one
must meditate before non-analytical [bodhi]citta (?)" ( 'dir dpyad pa med pa 'i sems kyi
sngon du bsgom bya ha nyid do) ; the version in the dPal spungs edition (B) is as fol
lows: "Here, too, one needs to meditate directly, without an analytical mind."

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

22 1

[spontaneously] continues within a continuum [of moments] . 585


This is calm abiding and nothing else, for it has been said [in the

Hevajratantra] :
Meditation is actually non-meditation (or non-product
ion586 by the mind) , the thorough knowledge of all phe
nomena. 587 (HT I.8 .44cd)
For this reason, the path is characterised by such a union of
calm abiding and deep insight; 588 and here, to be sure, an engag
ing [bodhi]citta together with devotion toward a goal different
[from this path] is not being asserted. This is [also] taught in
[Maitripa' s Mahayanavir(lsika] :
Well, one may realize emptiness
In the thousand collections of teachings;
[But] it is not realized through analysis .
The meaning of emptiness 589 [is learned, rather,] from
the guru. (MV 1 2)
It is further stated [in the Mahayanavir(lsika] :
He whose practice of continuous meditation [remains
undisturbed, even]
When apprehending [forms] such as a vase,
Will become a great Buddha
Whose single body [of compassion and emptiness per
vades] all forms . (MV 1 8)
In order to elucidate these two [verses] , [it should be remem
bered that Maitripa] said [in the Tattvadaaka] :

585 Tib. rgyun chags su 'jug pa (DRSM 5 5 1 1). BDP: lhun gyis grub pa rgyun (DP rgyan)
gyis 'jug pa.
586 Skt. bhiivanii can be translated as both "production" and "meditation. "
587 HT 95 6 : sarvadharmaparijfiiinal'(l bhiivanii naiva bhiivanii II
588 Following DRSM .
589 Lit. : "destruction."

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

222

[This samadhi of realizing true reality as it is, for its


part,
Comes from arousing bodhicitta,] 590
Because true reality arises without interruption
For those who are aware of its abode. 591 (TD 6)
For those who, thanks to the pith instructions of the genuine
guru, are aware of the basis of this engaging [bodhi]citta, whose
nature is the suchness [of the two truths] united as a pair, there
arise uninterruptedly-that is, in every moment-emptiness and
compassion inseparable, [these being] the defining characteris
tics of ultimate bodhicitta. They are called yogins because they
are of this very nature. 592
5 90 Not quoted by *Sahajavajra.
5 9 1 Tib . : "Being aware of its abode, true reality arises without interruption."
5 92 TDT (B 1 9b _20b 1 , D 1 72b2 - 173a 1 , P 1 89a 1 _ ) : de ltar de nyid 'jug pa 'i sems pha rol
5
7
tu phyin pa 'i tshul gyi" rab tu dbye ba rnams"" ka ma la shf Cbla 'i sgom pa 'i rim pabl la
sogs Cbbpas bsdus pa dang rgyas pa la sogsbb) pa 'i sgo nas bstan te I de nyid lasbbb rtogs
par bya 'o I 'dirbbbb rgyas pas' 'jigs pas ma bris so 1 1 (cc 'di lta bur gyur pa 'icc) 'jug pa 'i
sems ni 'dir dgongs'cc pa ma yin no l 'dir de dpyad Cdpa las byas pasdl yongs su dag pa 'i
phyir ro I 'dir Ceyang dpyad par med pa 'i sems kyis mngonel du bsgom par bya ba nyid do
1 1 gang yang pha rol tu phyin pa 'i man ngag ni bla ma 'i man ngag gis brgyan pa dang
bcas pa/ zung du 'jug pa 'i dbu ma nges par rtogs pa 'o 1 1 de ni don dam pa stong pa
nyid rnam pa thams cad kyi mchog dang ldan pa 'i shes rab nyidg lhun gyis grub par
rgyunh gyis 'jug par 'gyur ba ni zhi gnashh te gzhan du ma yin no I chos thams cad yongs
shes nas 1 1 bsgom du med nyid sgom; pa yin 1 1 zhes bya ba 'i tshig gis so 1 1 de lta bur gyur
pa 'i zhi gnas dang lhag mthong zung du 'jug pa dang ldan pa 'i lam mo 1 1 'bras bu thob
pa la mos par gyur pa 'i 'jug pa 'i sems ni 'dir dgong pa ma yin no I de skad du I chos kyi
phung po stong phrag rnams 1 1 rtogsk pa zhes bya stong pa nyid 1 1 rtogs pa 'i don ni1l
dpyad pa yin 1 1 bla ma dam pa 'i dpyad pa med 1 1 ces pa 'o 1 1 gang gism bum la sogs 'dzin
1 1 bsam gtan de ni de la sbyor" 1 1 rnam pa kun gyi lus gcig po 1 1 'di rtogs rtogs0 pa chen
por 'gyur 1 1 zhes bya ba CPyod doPl 1 1 'di dag ni gsal bar bya ba 'i phyir I gang phyir de yi
gnas rig pas 1 1 de nyid rgyun mi 'chad las skyes 1 1 zhes bya baq bstan to' I de ni 'jug pa 'i
sems kyi gnas zung du 'jug pa de bzhin nyid kyi bdag nyid I bla ma dam pa 'i man ngag
gis rig pa I de nyid stong pa nyid dang snying rje dbyer med pa don dam pa byang chub
kyi sems kyi mtshan nyid do 1 1 rgyun mi 'chad pa ni skad cig so so la skye bar 'gyur ba 'o
1 1 de 'i bdag nyid kyi phyir rnal 'byor pa zhes bya 'o I
a B gyis aa p rnams ni b BDP la bb p om. bbb p du bbbb B 'dir ni c p pa 'i cc B de lta bur
B dgos ct B par bya ba DP dpyad pa med pa 'i sems kyi sngon 1 DP pa 'i g B nyid do h
CCC

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

223

In other words , *S ahajavajra propagates initial vipasyanii sessions that


can be performed by resorting to direct cognition on the basis of pith
instructions . Such a vipasyanii of direct insight into the ultimate is at the
same time ,Samatha, the two being the same. As doctrinal support for
this direct approach, *Sahaj avajra quotes the second part of a verse
from the Hevajratantra (HT I.8 .44cd) , whose first part (HT I.8 .44ab) is
adduced in Maitripa' s Amanasikiiriidhiira as proof that the practice of
amanasikiira is also found in the tantras . The quoted verse is from a
description of the completion stage in a chapter on the circle of the yo
ginis :
This entire world arises from me.
The three parts of the world arise from me.
Everything is pervaded by me;
The visible world consists of nothing else. 593 (HT I.8 .4 1 )
DP rgyan hh P nas i DP bsgom i B dgos k B rtog 1 B rtog pa 'di don D g i DP sbyar
P rtog P BP yang ngo q B bas ' DP te
DRSM 55 6 _20 : de la 'di dag ni 'jug pa 'i sems pha rol tu phyin pa 'i tshul gyi rah tu dbye
ba ka ma la shf la 'i sgom pa 'i rim pa la sogs par bsdud pa dang rgyas par bzhag ste I de
nyid las khong du chud par bya 'i 'dir ni mangs pa 'i 'jigs pas ma bris so 1 1 'di lta bur
gyur pa 'i 'jug pa 'i sems ni 'dir dgongs pa ma yin te I de 'i de ni rnam par dpyad pa nyid
kyis yongs su dag pa 'i phyir dang I 'dir rnam par ma dpyad pa 'i sems kyis dang po nas
sgom pa nyid kyi phyir ro 1 1 gang gi tshe pha rol tu phyin pa 'i man ngag bla ma 'i gsung
gis brgyan pa dang bcas pas zung du 'jug pa 'i dbu ma khong du chud pa de 'i tshe yang
don dam pa rnam pa thams cad kyi mchog dang ldan pa 'i stong pa nyid kyi shes rah kho
na rgyun chags su 'jug par 'gyur ba ni zhi gnas yin gyi gzhan ni ma yin te I thams cad
chos ni yongs shes na 1 1 sgom pa nyid ni sgom pa min 1 1 zhes gsungs pa 'i phyir ro 1 1 de 'i
phyir de lta bur gyur pa 'i zhi gnas dang lhag mthong zung du 'jug par gyur pa ni lam yin
gyi I 'bras bu tha dad pa la mos par gyur pa 'i 'jug pa 'i sems ni 'dir bzhed pa ma yin te I
de gsungs pa I chos kyi phung po stong phrag tu 1 1 stong pa nyid ni rtogs zhes pa 1 1 rtogs
pa 'di ni dpyad las yin 1 1 bla ma dam pa 'i dpyad pa med 1 1 ces bya ba dang 1 1 gang gis
bum so gs 'dzin pa na 1 1 rtag tu sbyor bas bsam gtan te 1 1 rnam pa thams cad sku gcig pa I
I 'di ni sangs rgyas chen por 'gyur 1 1 zhes bya ba yang ngo 1 1 'di dag nyid gsal bar bya
ba 'i phyir I gang phyir de 'i gnas rig rnams la 1 1 de nyid rgyun mi 'chad par skye 1 1 zhes
bya ba gsungs te I 'jug pa 'i sems de 'i gnas zung du 'jug pa 'i de bzhin nyid kyi bdag nyid
can bla ma dam pa 'i man ngag gis rig pa de rnams la de kho na nyid stong pa nyid dang
snying rje dbyer med pa don dam pa 'i byang chub kyi sems kyi mtshan nyid rgyun mi
'chad par skad cig so so la skye bar 'gyur te I de 'i bdag nyid can nyid kyi phyir mal
'byor pa rnams la zhes bya 'o I ; see also Mathes 2008a:266-67.
5 93 HT 94 _ : madbhavaY(l hi jagat sarvaY(l madbhavaY(l bhuvanatrayam I madvyapitam
34
idaY(l sarvaY(l nanyamayaY(l dmaY(ljagat 11
m

224

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The yogin who reflects in such a way


And is well absorbed in this practice
Will, without any doubt, attain [the goal] ,
Even if he has little merit. 594 (HT I.8 .42)
He should think [of this] ,
Whether eating, drinking [or] bathing, awake or asleep .
Then the serious pratitioner of mahiimudra
Will achieve continuity. 595 (HT I.8 .43)
The whole world should be meditated upon [in such a way]
That it is not produced by the intellect.
Meditation is actually non-meditation (or non-production596 by
the mind) ,
The thorough knowledge of all phenomena. 597 (HT I.8 .44)
[All] things , movable or fixed,
Grass , a thicket, creepers and so forthAre meditatively cultivated as the supreme truth
Whose nature is one ' s own being. 598 (HT I.8 .45)
There is [only] one [thing] among them and no other,
[And] that is the great bliss, which must be realized by oneself.
It is attained through self-realization,
B ecause meditation must be realized by oneself. 599 (HT I.8 .46)

5 94 HT 95 1 _2 : evaf!! matva vai yogfyo 'bhyase susamahitafl I sa sidhyati na sandeho man


dapw;yo 'p i manavafl II
5 9 5 HT 95 _ : khanapane tatha snane jagrat supto 'pi cintayet I satatyaf!! tu tato yati
34
mahamudrabhikaf!lkakafl II
5 9 6 Skt. bhavana can be translated as both "production" and "meditation."
5 97 HT 95 _ 6 : bhavyate hi jagat sarvaf!! manasa yasman na bhavyate I sarvadharmapari
5
jnana1J1 bhavana naiva bhavana II
5 9 8 HT 96 1 _2 : sthiracala ca ye bhavas tniagulmalatadayafl I bhavyante vai paraf!l tattvam
atmabMvasvarupakam 11
5 99 HT 96 _ : team ekaf!! para1'(l nasti svasa1J1vedya1J1 mahat sukham I svasaf!! vedyad bha
34
vet siddhifl svasaf!!v edya hi bhavana II

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

225

The practice of directly realizing co-emergent bliss or mahamudra is


performed here in the context of experiencing the four joys during the
completion stage, within a practice preceded by the initial generation of
a circle of yoginis . This passage of the Hevajratantra has been exam
ined by Ti pi 'Bum la ' bar, who explains :
As to the non-analytical [bodhi]citta here, in the secret Mantra
naya, a non-analytical realization manifests during the fourth
empowerment. 600
It could be argued, however, that by quoting HT l.8 .44cd, *S ahajavajra
is simply intimating, that such a direct approach does indeed exist, and
that the vipasyana of direct cognition accords only with Mantranaya,
and is not a practice of the completion stage in the strict sense. As we
have seen above, direct access to reality is made possible through pith
instructions of the guru, which can consist of verses from the
Samadhirajasutra, for example (see below) .
Now in the Tattvadasaka, the means are Paramitanaya pith instructions
which "accord with Mantranaya. " The latter expression is also used in
Maitripa's introduction to his Mahayanavirrisika, a text quoted by
*S ahaj avajra in his commentary on TD 6. The first two verses of this
short treatise on the Mahayana define the goal as the "original (or natu
ral) kaya " (nijakaya) , namely the nature of the three kayas (sometimes
equated with the svabhavikakaya). Then, in the third verse, Maitripa
declares :
The seeing of this [nijakaya] i s deep insight ( vipasyana),
Given that no [thing] is superimposed.
This will be explained now
In accordance with Mantrayana (i. e . , Mantranaya) . (MV 3)
"Not to superimpose" is to be taken here as Maitripa' s own Madhya
maka view of not abiding in any ontological or similar extreme
achieved through the practice of mental disengagement (amanasikara).
600 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, 1 84a : 'di la dpyad pa med pa 'i sems ni
3
gsang sngags kyi theg pa 'di la dbang bzhi pa 'i dus su ma dpyad rtogs pa 'char bas so I

226

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

This is what Maitripa reads, too, out of the above-quoted Hevajra pas
sage (HT I.8 .44cd) . Maitripa ' s seeing of the nijakaya in the Maha
yanavirrisika accords with the Mantranaya, just like *S ahaj avajra ' s deep
insight. It should be noted that the initial use of direct cognitions does
not exclude non-inferential types of investigation. 60 1 Pith-instructions
may, of course contain analytical statements , and thus may also be ac
companied by analysis . *S ahaj avajra quotes numerous instances of
Madhyamaka reasoning himself, especially at the beginning of his
commentary, and in his explanation of the next verse (TD 7) he ex
plains amanasikara as the "non-apprehension of things , achieved either
by precise analysis or the pith-instructions of a guru," 602 which shows
not only that Madhyamaka reasoning is relied upon to provide the doc
trinal foundations of his tradition, but also that it may be used during
meditation practice. Still, it does not play the same crucial role as in
Kamalasila' s approach. 603
Of particular interest is the following commentary on TD 7 , in which
these pith-instructions and the reality they reveal are called mahamudra.
*S ahaj avajra starts by defining non-duality in terms of his so-called
Yuganaddha-Madhyamaka as being "bodhicitta, which is the reality of
non-dual knowledge. "604 Prior to his explanation of the second part of
the verse (TD 7cd) , the following objection is addressed: To define real
ity in the above-mentioned way has the fault of bearing the characteris6 0 1 According to Thrangu Rinpoche it is possible to ascertain the true status of phenom
ena (including mental events) by investigating their colour, shape, etc., with the help of
direct cognition within one' s introverted mental consciousness during vipayana.
6 02 TDT (B 2 l b , D 173b , P 1 90b2 ) : rnam par dpyad pa 'am I bla ma 'i man ngag gis
6
5
dngos po mi dmigs pa nyid ni yid la mi byed pa 'o I
6 03 This is also observed by gZhon nu dpal in his commentary on the "abandoning of
characteristic signs" in the Dharmadharmatavibhaga (DRSM 1 14 9_ 12 ) : "KamalaIla
maintains that the [interpretative] imagination that must be given up can only be given
up through the insight of thorough investigation. [By contrast,] it is maintained in the
commentary on Maitripa's Tattvadaaka that it is not given up by thorough investiga
tion, but by the ' meditative stabilization which [experiences] reality exactly as it is ' .
The latter knows a s luminosity [even] the own-being of that which must b e given up.
Here it is reasonable to follow Maitripa, who [re]discovered this treatise [known as the
Dharmadharmatavibhaga]". See Mathes 2008a:390.
6 04 TDT (B 20b , D 2 l a , P 1 89b ): . . . shes pa gnyis med pa 'i de kho na nyid byang chub
6
6
5
kyi sems so I

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

227

tic sign of an interpretative imagination of reality, in the same way as


the practice of the samadhi of realizing true reality is accompanied by
the characteristic sign of the interpretative imagination of remedies , and
such characteristic signs must be abandoned through non-conceptual
realization, as urged in the Avikalpapraveadharai:if. TD 7cd, then, is
taken as Maitripa ' s answer to such a possible objection. It says, that
nothing, not even such things as the characteristic signs of attainment, is
really abandoned, but everything is simply realized as natural luminosi
ty:
[The sentence] "The suchness of the non-dual world is bodhicit
ta" is the characteristic sign of an interpretative imagination of
true reality. Likewise, the expression "The samadhi which [ex
periences] reality exactly as it is" is the characteristic sign of an
interpretative imagination of the remedy, 605 [and the sentence]
"When realized, it has the nature of enlightenment" is the char
acteristic sign of an interpretative imagination of attainment.
Somebody may [then] object: "If the illustrious one [repeatedly]
taught in the A vikalpapravea[dharai:if] that even the character
istic signs [of the remedy etc.] , [namely] those which become
appearances and manifest, are completely abandoned through
non-conceptual realization, how do these [sentences] then not
contradict [what has been taught] here [in the Tattvadaaka] ?"
[The possible answers are as follows : ] 606

605 BDP have gnyen po 'i phyogs, not snying po, and gZhon nu dpal has the syllable
gnyen in his commentary on this quotation (DRSM 464 1 ).
606 TDT (B 20b -2 l a , D 173a _ , P 1 89b - 1 90a 1 ) : 'gro ba nyid gnyis su med pa 'i de
6
6
3
57
bzhin nyid kyi byang chub kyi sems zhes bya ba de kho na nyida (bdpyod pa 'ib) rnam par
rtog pa 'i rgyu mtshan yin pa 'i phyir dang j ji bzhin 'byung ba 'i ting nge 'dzin zhes bya
ba yang gnyen po 'i phyogs la (cdpyod pa 'ic) mam par rtog pa 'i rgyu mtshan no 1 1 de nyid
byang chub rtogsd pa 'i rang bzhin can zhes pas 'bras bu la dpyode pa 'i rnam par rtog
pa 'i rgyu mtshan gyi phyir I 'di dag ni yang rgyu mtshan gzhan gyisf mngon du gyur par
gzhan du snang ba 'gyur la I gzhan ni yid la mi byed pas yangs su spang bar bya zhes
bcom ldan 'das kyis bstan te I rnam par mi rtog pa la 'jug pa las bstan pa dang ji ltar mi
'gal zhe na I
a B nyid du b B dpyod pa ni P spyod pa 'i c B dpyod pa 'i D om. ct P rtog e P spyod f P
gyi

228

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


First of all, some say in this regard: With respect to apparent en
tities , the reality of what must be accomplished and what ac
complishes must be expressed first, since otherwise it would
follow that the teaching has no fruit. It has been taught[,
though,] that later, after one has become familiar [with the
fruit] , 607 the characteristic signs of what must be accomplished
etc . , will be abandoned. [This follows] from the practice of the
abandonment of even the knowledge which is without character
istic signs . If [inferential] knowledge is taken first, how is there
a contradiction? This is not the best answer, for it is insufficient.
Therefore, another answer has been taught [in Tattvadasaka
7cd] : 6os
But even the vain clinging to a state free from duaijty
Is taken, in like manner, to be luminous . (TD 7cd)

DRSM 4627 _ 1 1 : 'gro ba gnyis su med pa 'i de bzhin nyid byang chub kyi sems so 1 1 zhes
bya ba ni de kho na la dpyod pa 'i rnam par rtog pa 'i mtshan ma de yin la I yang dag pa
ji lta ba bzhin gyi ting nge 'dzin zhes bya ha yang snying po la dpyod pa 'i rnam par rtog
pa 'i mtshan ma nyid do 1 1 rtogs na byang chub kyi rang bzhin can zhes bya ba ni 'thob
pa la dpyod pa 'i rnam par rtog pa 'i mtshan ma de yin te I mtshan ma 'di dag kyang
snang bar gyur cing mngon du gyur pa rnams yid la mi byed pas yangs su spong ngo I
zhes bcom ldan 'das kyis rnam par mi rtog par 'jug pa las gsungs na I de dag dang 'dir
gsungs pa rnams ci ltar mi 'gal zhe na I
6 07 I follow the reading of BDP here, which have phyi nas goms par gyur nas ni instead
of phyis goms pa las ni.
60 8 TDT (B 2 l a _ , D 173a -b2 , P 1 90a 1 _ ) : 'di la re zhig kha cig 'di skad <bsmras tebl I
35
4
7
bsgom pa 'byung ba 'i tshogs pas dang por brjod pa nyid de I bsgrub par bya ha dang
sgrub par byed pa dang de kho na nyid do 1 1 gzhan du na bstan pa 'bras bu med par
thalbb ba 'i phyir ro 1 1 phyis nas goms par gyur nas ni bsgrub bya la sogs pa 'i rgyu
mtshan <cspang barl bstan pa <ctyin no J Jctl rgyu mtshan yang ni shes pa 'i sbyor ba spangs
pa 'i phyir zhes pa 'o0l 1 1 de 'i shes pa 'i dang por bya ha nyirl ji ltar 'gal bar 'gyur 1 1 'di
ni rabg kyi lanh ma yin te I 'dis mai bzod pas Zan ni gzhan I
BP de b BP smra ste bb P thal bar 'gyur c DP spangs par ct D te 0 B phyir ro 1 1 zhes
bya 'o f B nyid de I g P rah rib h DP lam i P mi
DRSM 462 1 1 _ 1 5 : 'di la re zhig kha cig gis smra ha ni I dngos po kun rdzob pa rnams la
bsgrub par bya ba dang sgrub par byed pa 'i de kho na nyid du dang por brjod par bya
ba yin te I gzhan du bstan pa 'bras bu med par thal ba 'i phyir ro 1 1 phyis goms pa las ni
bsgrub par bya ha la sogs pa 'i mtshan ma spong bar gsungs te I shes pa mtshan ma med
pa yang spangs pa 'i sbyor ba las te I shes pa de dang por bya ba nyid yin na ji ltar 'gal
zhes so 1 1 'di la ni nus pa med pas rab kyi Zan ma yin pa 'i phyir Zan gzhan I

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

229

The underlying intention here is as follows : In order that those


who do not know true reality might thoroughly realize [that] re
ality, it was taught that one must give up the three interpretative
[images] and likewise completely give up the four extremes .
This i s because i t has been said [in Sekanirdefa, verse 36] : 609
He who does not abide in [the domain of] the remedy,
Is not attached to reality,
And who does even not desire the fruit,
Finds mahamudrii. (SN 36)
Here mahiimudrii [stands for] the pith-instructions on the reality
of mahiimudrii. 610 For those who thoroughly know the reality of
entities there is no contradiction [with the Avikalpapravea
dhiirm;,f] , for [the interpretative imaginations of the remedy and
the like] do not have to be abandoned in terms of the reality [of
their luminous nature] , as has been said [in Mahiiyiinavif(lsikii,
verse 5cd] with regard to any of the three interpretative [forms
of imagination] : 61 1
609 TD'.[' (B 2 l a -b 1 , D 173bn P 1 90a _ ) : gnyis dang bra! bar rlom pa yang I gang phyir
45
5
de ni 'od gsal 'dod 1 1 ces bya ba smras te I 'di ni 'dir dgongs pa yin te I de yongs su shes
pas de kho na nyid dob 1 1 de kho na nyid rtogs par bya ba 'i phyir dpyod pa gsum rnam
par spang bar bya bac bstan pa yin te I mtha ' bzhi yon gs su (ctspong badl bzhin no I
B dgos b B de c B bar ct B spangs pa
DRSM 462 1 5 _ 1 7 : gnyis dang bra! bar rlom pa yang I de lta nyid phyir 'od gsal ba I zhes
bya ba gsungs te I 'dir dgongs pa ni 'di yin te I de kho na nyid yongs su mi shes pa dag
gis de kho na nyid rtogs par bya ba 'i don du dpyod pa gsum spong bar gsungs pa yin te I
mtha ' bzhi yongs su spong ba bzhin no I
6 1 0 My translation is based here on B, D and P.
6 1 1 TD'.[' ( B 2 l b 1 _2 , D l 73b _ , P 190a _ ) : gnyen p o 'i phyogs la m i gnas shing 1 1 de nyid la
34
57
yang mi chags pas 1 1 gang gi 'ang 'bras bu mi 'dod pas 1 1 <de yisl phyag rgya chen po
shes 1 1 zhes bya ba 'i tshig gis so 1 1 'dir yang phyag rgya chen po zhes bya ba ni phyag
rgya chen po 'i de kho na nyid kyi man ngag ste I dngos po 'i de kho na nyid yongs su shes
pa 'o 1 1 yang dpyad pa gs um po 'di rnams kyang ste I
' B de 'i phyir P de 'i
DRSM 462 1 7_ 1 9 : gnyen po 'i phyogs la mi gnas shing 1 1 de nyid la yang chags min gang 1 1
gang gis 'bras bu mi 'dod pa 1 1 de yis phyag rgya chen po shes 1 1 zhes gsungs pa 'i phyir
ro 1 1 'dir yang phyag rgya chen po zhes bya ba ni phyag rgya chen po 'i man ngag ste I
dngos po 'i de kho na nyid yongs su shes pa la ni dpyod pa gsum po gang la yang I

230

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

In order to purify the four extremes


[In any of the three interpretative forms of imagination] ,
He abides evenly in these four extremes . 612 (MV 5cd)
As to being free from duality, even the vain adherence to non
duality, namely the interpretative imagination of reality, is lu
minous , since it lacks an own-being and is pure by nature.
Likewise, the vain adherence to what must be accomplished and
that which accomplishes must be realized as being luminous. 613
The main point here is that, following Sekanirdea 36, both the pith
instructions and the revealed reality are called mahamudra. Ramapala
comments on this verse (SN 3 6) by paraphrasing (in that comes close to
a quotation) the Avikalpapraveadhara1Jf which means that the ,aban
doning of characteristic signs through non-conceptual realization can be
understood as in this dharm;f. In other words , mahamudra as ama
nasikara does not need to be a specifically tantric practice, even though
the Sekanirdea supplies the tantric context of an empowerment based
on the sequence of the four seals . But here again, it could be argued that
by quoting the Sekanirdea *S ahajavajra is simply establishing a con
nection between the practice of the A vikalpapraveadhara1Jf and
mahamudra. In other words , a mahamudra practice based on Paramita
naya pith-instructions would be only on a par with the mahamudra of
6 12 According to TDT (BDP) and MV 5cd: " [True reality] is clear of the four extremes
while still being based on the four extremes . "
6 1 3 TDT (B 2 1 b2_ , D 173b _ , P 1 90ar 1 90b 1 ) : mtha ' bzhi la ni mnyam brten nas 1 1 mtha '
45
4
bzhi las ni mam par dag 1 1 ces bya ba nyid kyi de kho na nyid" du ma yin pas 'gal ba ma
yin no I gnyis dang bra! ba ni gnyis su med pa ' o 1 1 rlom sems ni de kho na nyid du dpyod
pa 'i rnam par rtog pa 'o 1 1 'di yang 'od gsal ba 'i rang bzhin las med pas rang bzhin gyis
rnam par dag pa 'i phyir ro I de !tar bsgrub par bya ba dang sgrub par byed pab yang 'od
gsal kyi rang bzhin du rtogs par bya 'o I
p om. h p par
DRSM 462 1 9_23 : mtha ' bzhi mam par dag pa 'i phyir 1 1 mtha ' bzhi po la mnyam par gnas I
I zhes bya ba lta bur de nyid du spang bar bya ba ma yin pa 'i phyir 'gal ba ma yin no I
gnyis dang bra[ ba ni gnyis su med par rlom pa de kho na la dpyod pa 'i mam par rtog
pa de yang 'od gsal ba ste I ngo bo nyid med cing rang bzhin gyis yongs su dag pa 'i
phyir ro 1 1 de bzhin du bsgrub par bya ba dang sgrub par byed par rlom pa yang 'od
gsal bar rtogs par bya 'o I

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

23 1

the four seals, and not an advanced practice of the completion stage in
the strict sense.
*Sahaj avajra further points out that the vain clinging to non-duality, that
is, the interpretative imagination of true reality, does not exist as any
thing other than its own luminous nature. Abandoning the characteristic
signs of these imaginations through the practice of amanasikara is what
leads to the realization of their luminous nature, which is achieved by
not focusing on the supposed own-being of phenomena, through [re
course to] either precise analysis or the pith instructions of a guru. This
is clear from the next portion of the *Tattvadafakatfka on 7cd:
Well then, as to [the phrase] "completely abandoning these
characteristic signs through amanasikara-here, amanasikara
does not mean that one does not become mentally engaged [at
all] , as when closing one ' s eyes [results in] not seeing objects
such as a vase. What is meant by amanasikara rather is
through [recourse to] either precise analysis or the pith
instructions of the guru-not to focus on an own-being of enti
ties . It has been said: 614
In brief, [when] walking or sitting,
Sleeping or resting in equipoise,
I look, listen and smell,
Touch and experience,
And even though I see [through] eyes of insight
B ased on analysis and pith-instructions ,
That no phenomenon arises ,
I have not seen.
What is meant by withdrawing one ' s attention from characteris
tic signs , then, is merely the thorough knowledge that [phenom6 1 4 TDT (B 2 1 b - , D 173b _ , P 1 90b1_ ) : yang 'dir rgyu mtshan yangs su spangs pas yid
2
46
56
la mi byed pa zhes bya ba ni I 'dir mig btsums pa ltar bum pa snam bu la sogs pa ci yang
mi mthong ba ni yid la byed <pa med pa> ni med do 1 1 yang nab rnam par dpyad pa ' am
bla ma 'i man ngag gis dngos po mi dmigs pa nyid ni yid la mi byed pa 'o I de skad du I
n om. b DP ni

THE AMANASIK4RA CYCLE

232

ena] are without characteristic signs . Well then, as to character


istic signs , [their] interpretative imagination is a verbal concept,
for it has been said [in Abhidharmakofa 1. l 4cd] :
A notion has the nature of apprehending characteristic
signs . 615
Moreover, the illustrious one said: "Non-arising is purity. "
Where? In the Samadhirajasutra, 616 [where] it has been said: 617
DRSM 4622 3 _2 5 : 'on kyang yid la mi byed pas mtshan ma 'di dag yongs su spong ngo
zhes bya ha la I 'dir yid la mi byed pa ni mig btsum pas bum pa la sogs pa mi mthong ha
!tar yid la byed pa med pa ni ma yin gyi I ' on kyang mam par dpyad pas sam I bla ma 'i
man ngag gis dngos po 'i ngo ho nyid mi dmigs pa nyid yid la mi byed pa yin no 1 1 de
gsungs pa I
6 1 5 TDT (B 2 l b -22iti, D 1 73b -174a 1 , P 1 90b2 _ ) : 'gro dang gnas dang 'dug p a dang 1 1
6
6
5
nyal ha na yang mnyam par gzhag 1 1 nyan dang blta dang de bzhin snomb 1 1 reg pa dang
ni myong< ba dang 1 1 shes rah migct ni dag pa yis 1 1 mam par dpyad dang man ngag las 1 1
chos mams thams cad ma skyes phyir I mthong ha yang ni mi mthong 'gyur 1 1 zhes bya 'o0
1 1 de 'i phyir rgyu mtshan gyi00 yid la mi byed lat 1 1 rgyu mtshan med par yongs su shes pa
nyid de I yang ni rgyu mtshan la dpyod pa 'i mam par rtog pa zhes pag (hmtshan mar
'dzin pa 'i mam par dpyod pa 'ohl I
DP lta b DP bsgom DP myang ct D nyid 0 B bya ba 'o P pa 'o 00 BD gyis t B par g B
bya ba h DRSM 'du shes ni mtshan mar 'dzin pa 'i bdag nyid can no (AK I. 1 4cd: . . .
sa1r1jna nimittodgraha1:iatmika)
DRSM 4622 5 - 463 3 : 'gro ha dang 'dug dang mdor bsdu na I I nyal lam mnyam par
bzhag pa 'am !ta dang mnyan dang de bzhin snom I reg pa dang ni myong ha dang I shes
rah mig dag bdag nyid kyis 1 1 rnam par dpyad dang man ngag las 1 1 chos kun ma skyes
pa nyid du 1 1 mthong yang mthong ha ma yin no 1 1 zhes so 1 1 de 'i phyir mtshan ma med
pa nyid du yongs su shes pa kho na mtshan ma yid la mi byed pa ste I 'on kyang mtshan
ma ni dpyod pa 'i rnam par rtog pa ming gi 'du shes te I 'du shes ni mtshan mar 'dzin
pa 'i bdag nyid can no 1 1 zhes gsungs pa 'i phyir ro I
6 1 6 The quoted passage (SRS XXXII.92-97b) has been collated with the help of Paul
Thomas (Rangjung Yeshe Institute, Nepal) from the following bKa' ' gyur editions :
Lhasa, mdo, vol. ta, 170arb4
Lithang, mdo, vol. da, 1 14a3 _6
Dolpo", mdo, vol. nga, 1 52b4_ 8
Peking, mdo, vol. khu, 1 14b2
Phudrak, mdo, vol. tsha, 62a5 -b2
sTog, mdo, vol. ja, 308a4-b2
I.e., the bKa' ' gyur of gNas gsar dgon pa digitalized by Lama Tenzin Gyaltsen in
Eicher Gaon in 20 1 2 and 20 1 3 .
c

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

233

Being cognizance, 618


A notion is characterized by the apprehension [of a
characteristic sign] . 619
But [in reality] the notion is non-apprehension,
[Since] it is taught as being empty [of truly existent
characteristic signs] . 620 ( S R S XXXII.92)
[What is empty [in such a sense] is [usually] taken to be
a notion,
And it is [its] empti[ness] 621 which is being taught.] 622
The own-being of a notion has not arisen,

6 1 7 TD'.[' (B 22a2 _ , D 1 74a 1 , P 190b ) : de yang ma skyes pa nyid de rnam par dag par
3
5
bcom ldan 'das kyis bstan to I I Ji skad du bcom ldan 'das kyis ting nge 'dzin gyi rgyal po
las I
6 1 8 For this meaning ofjanana see Rhys Davids 1 989, s.v.
6 1 9 See AKBh 542 _2 1 : sarrijiia sarri}iianarri vi:fayanimittodgraha I
0
DRSM 463 3 -4 : de yang skye ba med pa nyid rnam par dag pa yin par bcom ldan 'das
kyis gsungs te I ji skad du I ting nge 'dzin gyi rgyal po las I
620 SRS 201 1 _ 1 : sarrijiia sarrijananarthenaa udgrahe1:ia nidarsita I anudgraha ca sa
5 6
sarrijiia viviktarthena desita I
" Sandhi not observed.
Peking bKa' ' gyur , mdo, vol. khu, 1 14b 2 : 'du shes kun du shes pa 'i phyir 1 1 'dzin par
yang ni de bstan te I I 'du shes de" ni mi 'dzin pa I I dbenb pa 'i don du rab tu bstan I
" Dolpo, Lhasa, Lithang de; Peking, Phudrak, Stog du b Peking dpan
TD'.[' (B 22a3 , D 1 74a 1 _2 , P 1 90b5 _ 6 ) : yang dag shes phyir mtshan mar 'dzin 1 1 nye bar
'dzin par nges par bstan 1 1 mtshan mar 'dzin pa med Cpa yang) 1 1 rnam par nges na
bstan pa yin I ; P pa 'i ngang
DRSM 463 4_5 : "A notion is characterized by a noted object, through the apprehension of
it. And this notion is taught as being isolated from [the act of] taking in. " (kun tu shes
pa 'i don gyis de 1 1 'dzin pas 'du shes nges par bstan 1 1 'du shes de yang rjes su 'dzin 1 1
rnam par dbyen par bstan pa yin I) .
My translation follows the Sanskrit.
62 1 The Tibetan according to the bKa' ' gyur editions has "notion" instead of "empty
[ness] . "
622 The first two padas are missing in the TD'.[' and the DRSM.

234

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


Nor will it [ever] arise in such a way. 623
(SRS XXXII.93cd)
The one who has the notion:
"I will eliminate notions ! "
Delights in the fabrication of notions
And is not liberated from notions . 624 (SRS XXXII.94)
Whose notion has arisen?
Who brought it forth?
Who experiences the notion,
And who stops it? 625 (SRS XXXII.95)

62 3 The Sanskrit of 93cd differs : "The nature of a notion is known. Thus a notion will
not occur [anymore] . " SRS 20 1 1 7_ 1 8 : yac co viviktaY(l sa sa1J1)iia ya vivikta sa deianaa I
sa1J1)iiasvabhavo jiiata cab eva1J1 sa1J1)iia na bhe:fyati 11 . The first two padas are missing
in the TD'f and the DRSM.
a Read desita? b Sandhi not observed.
Peking bKa' ' gyur, vol. khu, 1 14b2 _3 : dben pa gang yin 'du shes te 1 1 'du shes gang yin
bstan paa de 1 1 'du shes rang bzhin ye shes del (bl de ltar 'du shes med par 'gyur lb)
a Phudrak pas b Dolpo 'du shas kun tu shas pa 'i phyar 1 1 de ltar 'du shes rang bzhin
'gyur l
TD'f (B 22a3 _4, D 174a2 , P 1 90b6 ) : mtshan ma 'i rang bzhin shes na yang 1 1 de ltar
mtshan ma 'byung mia 'gyur I
a np med
DRSM 463 5 _ 6 : "A notion has not arisen in terms of an own-being, nor will a notion ever
occur in such a way." ( 'du shes ngo bos ma skyes pa 1 1 de ltar 'du shes 'byung mi 'gyur I)
624 I thank Paul Thomas (Kathmandu) for providing the correct reading prahasyami
from his forthcoming edition.
SRS 20 1 1 9 _20 : prahasyami (text : -ma ) imalJ1 sa1J1)iiaf!1 yasya sa1J1)fia pravartate I sa1J1)fia
prapaiice carati na sa <asa1J1)fiatual mucyate II
a Dutt reads sa1J1)iiat tu. Sa1J1)iiatu is an ablative, u being in the place of o metri causa.
Peking bKa' 'gyur, vol. khu, 1 14b 3 4 : 'du shes 'di ni spanga <bsnyam dubl 1 1 gang gi 'du
shes 'byung ba ni 1 1 'du shes <cspros lac) spyod pa ste 1 1 'du shes las ni de mi 'thar'1 I
a sTog spangs b Dolpo du, later corrected to nas su Dolpo spong ba ct Dolpo, Phudrak
thar; sTog mthar
TD'f (B 22a4 , D 1 74aH P 1 90b6 _7 ) : mtshan ma 'di ni spanga bar bya I mtshan (bma med
mthongbl la 'jug 'gyur I mtshan ma spros pa la spyod pas 1 1 mtshan ma las ni grol ba
med I
a P sdang b BD med mthong ba
DRSM 463 6 _7 : 'du shes 'di la gang dga ' ba I 'du shes rab tu 'jug par 'gyur 1 1 'du shes
spros pa la dga ' ba 1 1 de ni 'du shes su brjod de I
c

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

235

No phenomenon was found by the Buddha


For which a notion has arisen.
Think here about this meaning,
And there will be no notion [anymore] . 626
(SRS XXXII.96)
When notions have not arisen,
Whose notion [needs to] be blocked? 627
(SRS XXXII.97ab)
Likewise, [even] the thought that [this] is inconceivable and
non-conceptual is a notion of the mind. It is, however, not the
62 5 SRS 20 1 2 1 _22 : kasyeyaf!l sa1J1jiia utpanna kena sa1J1jiia utpadita I kena sa sparsita
sa1J1jiia kena sa1J1jiia nirodhita II
Peking bKa' ' gyur, vol. khu, 1 14b4: su yi 'du shes 'di" dag byungb 1 1 su yisc 'du shes 'di
bskyed byas 1 1 susd ni 'du shes reg par byas 1 1 sus ni 'du shes (ebkag par 'gyurl I
Dolpo, sTog de b Dolpo, Phudrak 'byung c Lhasa, Lithang, Peking yi ct Dolpo, sTog
su e Litang, Lhasa, sTog bkag par 'gyur ; Dolpo bka ' bar 'gyurd ; Phudrag rnam par
rtogs
TDT (B 22a4_5 , D 174a3 , P 1 90b7_ 8 ) : gang 'di mtshan ma skyes pa na 1 1 gang gis mtshan
ma skyes pa yin 1 1 mtshan ma gang la gang gis reg 1 1 gang gis mtshan ma 'gog par byed I
DRSM 4637_8: gang la 'du shes skyes pa gang 1 1 ci zhig gis ni 'du shes bskyed 1 1 'du shes
gang la gang gis reg 1 1 gang gis 'du shes 'gog par byed I
626 SRS 20 1 2 _24 : dharmo na labdho buddhena yasya sa1J1jiia utpadyate I iha cintetha falJ'l
3
arthalJi tatal:t sa1J1jiia na bheyati II
Peking bKa' ' gyur, vol. khu, 1 14b4_5 : gang gi 'du shes 'byung" ba ni I I sangs rgyas kyisb
kyang chos ma bmyesc 1 1 'dir'1 ni don dee bsam par bgyisf I I de nas 'du shes med par
'gyurg I
Phudrak byung b Phudrak kyi c Lithang, Phudrak myes ; sTog bsnyes d Dolpo, Phu
drak 'di e Phudrak med 1 Phudrak gyis g Dolpo 'gyurd
TDT (B 22a_5 , D 174a3 _4 , P 1 90b 8 ) : gang gis mtshan ma skye 'gyur ba 1 1 blo yis chos
rnams thob pa med I I sems 'di yis ni de bzhin sems 1 1 de phyir mtshan ma 'byung mi
'gyur I
DRSM 463 8_9 : sangs rgyas chos rnams ma thob pas 1 1 gang la 'du shes skyes 'gyur ba 1 1
'di na don med pa yi don 1 1 de phyir 'du shes 'byung mi 'gyur I
627 SRS 20 1 : yada (text : kada ; B yada) sa1J1jiia anutpanna kasya sa1J1jiia virudhyate I
25
Peking bKa' ' gyur, vol. khu, 1 14b5 : <nam tshe 'du shes skyes pa naal 1 1 su yi 'du shes yin
zhes brjod I Phudrak na tshe 'du shes med par 'gyur
The Tibetan in the bKa' 'gyur must have read nirucyate instead of virudhyate.

236

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


case that there is no realization of emptiness (lit. "the lack of
own-being") . 628

In other words , the practice of amanasikiira involves the realization of


emptiness . Such an interpretation finds support in Maitripa ' s Amanasi
kiiriidhiira, where the state of amanasikiira is characterized by luminous
emptiness (the initial letter a not only being a simple privative) , while
manasikiira is taken in the sense of self-empowerment (i.e . , realization) .
The fact that *S ahaj avajra quotes the Samiidhiriijasutra at length (also
further down in his commentary) shows that the related pith
instructions do not need to be tantric. It has become clear then that the
term "Paramita[naya] pith-instructions" does not refer to instructions on
piiramitiis, but that those pith-instructions belong to the Paramitanaya,
even though they accord with Mantranaya.
To sum up *S ahaj avajra ' s commentary on TD 7cd, nothing is really
abandoned, but phenomena are ascertained for what they are : under the
lens of analysis they are seen to lack an own-being, and in the samiidhi
of realizing true reality they are experienced as luminosity. It should be
noted that this supreme Madhyamaka of pith-instructions is referred to
as mahiimudrii in a non-tantric context; that is , initial direct experiences
of emptiness as luminosity do not require tantric empowerment, but are
made possible here with the help of Paramitanaya pith-instructions .

TDT (B 22a_6 , D 1 74a4 , P 1 90b 8 - 1 9 l a 1 ) : gang la" mtshan ma ma skyes pa 1 1 Cbji ltarbl
mtshan ma 'gag par 'gyur 1 1 shes pa 'oc I
" D 'di b B gang gis c B bya 'o
DRSM 463 9_ 1 0 : I gang tshe 'du shes ma skyes pa 1 1 su yi 'du shes 'gogs par 'gyur 1 1 zhes
so I
628 TDT (B 22a_ , D 1 74a4 , P 1 9 l a 1 ) : de ltar gyur ba 'i sems" med pa dang 1 1 rnam par
6
rtog pa med pa zhes bya ba ni I semsb dang rnam par rtog pa 'di nyid dag ni rang bzhin
med pa 'i shes pa de dagc med pa ni ma yin no I
a P sems pa b P sems dpa ' c B kho na nyid de I
DRSM 463 1 0_ 1 1 : de ltar na bsam gyis mi khyab cing mam par mi rtog pa 'o snyam pa ni
sems kyi mam par rtog pa nyid de 1 1 rang bzhin med pa nyid du shes pa med pa ni ma
yin no I

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

237

Next, in his commentary on TD 8, *S ahajavajra judges this mahiimudrii


approach of Paramitanaya pith-instructions to be different from both
Paramitanaya and Mantranaya. The root verse is as follows :
By the power of having realized this reality,
The yogin, whose eyes are wide open,
Moves everywhere like a lion,
By any [chosen] means and in any [chosen] manner. (TD 8)
*S ahaj avajra immediately adds to this verse:
Thanks to the yoga of firmly realizing the previously taught
non-dual reality with the help of pith-instructions of the genuine
guru. 629
A little later the text elaborates on this point:
Well then, if one asks , What is the difference in comparison to
a yogin who follows Mantranaya? [The answer is as follows :]
because [the yogin ' s practice] is [conducted] without [follow
ing] the sequence of the four seals, and because it takes a long
time to perfect complete enlightenment through the type of
equanimity that lacks the experience of great bliss resulting
from pride in being the deity, there are great differences with
regard to what is accomplished and that which accomplishes.
On the other hand, it differs from the yogin in the Paramitana
ya, specifically because the suchness of indivisible union, the
emptiness discerned through the instruction of a genuine guru,
is firmly realized. Therefore, those who do not practice auster
ities [but rather] have perfect certainty that the reality of one
taste is emptiness are like [skilful] villagers grasping a snake :

62 9 TDT (B, 23a -b ; D 174b , P 1 9 lb _ ) : 'di 'i sngar bstan pa 'i gnyis su med pa 'i de kho
6
6 1
56
na nyid ni bla ma dam pa 'i man ngag gis nges par rtogs pa 'i mal 'byor pas so I
a B du

23 8

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

even though they touch the snake, they are not bitten. S ome
call this the wisdom of reality [or] mahiimudrii. 63 0
In other words, the practice of realizing mahiimudrii on the basis of
pith-instructions is clearly distinguished from both Paramitanaya and
Mantranaya. To conclude this topic, *S ahaj avajra quotes and comments
on a verse from Jfianakirti ' s Tattviivatiira:
For outstanding yogins
The union of means and insight is simply meditation.
The victorious ones call it
Mahiimudrii union63 1 632
[But] the followers of [Mantra]yana point out that the mere
meditation of means and insight is not mahiimudrii meditation;

6 30 TDT (B 24a -b 1 , D 175a _ P 1 92a -b 1 ) : 'o na gsang sngags kyi tshul gyia mal 'byor
3
47
5
pa dang bye brag ci yod ce na 1 1 phyag rgya bzhi 'i rjes su 'gro ba med pa 'i phyir dang I
lha 'i nga rgyal gyi bde ba chen po 'i ro med pas 1 1 btang snyoms kyi rnam pas mngon par
byang chub pa dus ring pos rdzags pa 'i phyir I bsgrub par bya ba dang sgrub par byed
pa nyidb kyi rnam pasc bye brag nyid shin tu che 'o 1 1 gzhan gyisd pha rol tu phyin pa 'i
tshul gyi rnal 'byor pa las 'di khyad par yod de I bla ma dam pa 'i mane ngag gist dpyad
pa 'i stong pa nyid zung du 'jug pa 'i de bzhin nyid nges par rtogsg pas shin tu khyad par
'phags pa 'i phyir ro 1 1 de 'i phyir 'di nyid dka ' ba 'i spyod pa med pa 'di nyid nih stong pa
nyid du ro gcig pa 'i de kho na nyid shin tu ngd pa dag ni yul gyi grong gis sbrul 'dzin
pa ltar sbrul la rtse yang de 'ii 'bigs par mi 'gyur ro 1 1 'di nyid la de kho na nyid kyi ye
shes phyag rgya chen po zhes kha cig brjod de I
a BD gyis b B gnyis c DP pa ct P gyi e B gdams t D gi g D rtog h D om. i BD shes i B
des ni D nges
First quoted and translated in Mathes 2006 :220-2 1 .
6 3 1 "Union of mahiimudrii" does not mean that one unites with an objective reality called
mahiimudrii, it refers rather to a realization that lies beyond a perceived object and a
perceiving subject (oral information from Chetsang Rinpoche).
6 3 2 TA (B 327b2_ , D 43arb 1 P 47b2- ) : thabs dang shes rab mnyam sbyor ba 'i 1 1 bsgom
3
3
pa nyid rnal 'byor mchog gia ni 1 1 phyag rgya chen po 'ib mnyam sbyor ba 1 1 sgomc par
rgyal ba rnams kyis gsungs I. a B gis b BP por c D bsgom. This verse is also contained
in the Subhii:jitasarrigraha (SBhS, part 1 , 397 8_9 ) : prajnopiiyasamiiyogo bhiivanaiviigra
yoginarri I mahiimudriisamiiyogabhiivanii bhm:zyate jinaifi II

THE TEN VERSES ON TRUE REALITY

239

otherwise it woud follow that that Paramitanaya and Mantra


naya are not different. 633
The verse cited above is taken from the beginning of the fourth chapter
in Jfianakirti ' s Tattvtivatiira, which considers the mode of Mantranaya
for those of superior faculties . The verse is also found in the Subhti
$itasal'(lgraha, where it is explained at length. In both sources 634 it is
clear that for the union of means and insight to be simply meditation,
insight must be free from any mental fabrication. This goes hand in
hand with the realization that phenomena are free of such mental fabri
cation. 635 A little later in the Subhti$itasal'(lgraha, the means is explained
in a purely tantric context, though:
[The question] "And what is the means?" is answered now :
Through the power of sentient beings ' [diverse] mental dispo
sitions , a great variety of means have been taught in the Man
tra[naya] treatises with divisions of the generation and com
pletion stages . 636
6 33 TDT (B 24b 1 _ , D 175arb2 , P 1 92a 1 _ ) : thabs dang shes rab mnyam sbyor bas J J
3
3
bsgom pa nyid ni mal 'byor mchog 1 1 phyag rgya chen por mnyam sbyor ba 'ib 1 1 bsgom
pa ru ni rgyal bas bshad 1 1 ces pa ' o I thabs dang shes rab mnyam par sbyor ba bsgom pa
tsam ni phyag rgya chen po bsgom pa ma yin te I pha rol tu phyin pa 'i tshul dang I
sngags kyi tshul dagc tha dad med par thal bar 'gyur ba 'i phyir ro zhes sngags pa dag go
I
DP ba b B bas DP ba c DP om.
634 The descriptions of prajna, which follow this verse in the Tattvavatara and Subhai
tasmrigraha, are similar.
6 35 See SBhS, part 1 , 397 14 : "What is this insight here? What is the means? How are they
cultivated? Together or separately? In this respect it has been said: "That which does
not prepare the ground for any mental fabrication or verbal [superimposition, such] an
awareness of (lit. "by") the mind-vajra is known as insight." Insight is the realization
that all phenomena are without mental fabrication. " (atha keyarrt prajna ? ka copayaft ?
katharrt tayor vibhavana ? saha ? prthag veti ? I atrocyate I ya sa sarvaprapancanam
abhamir vacasam abhuft I vittift sa *cittavajrei:ia prajneti parikfrtita I sarvadharma
niftprapancatavabodho hi prajna) . Bendall reports cittaya and two lacunae. My read
ing is supported by the Tibetan translation of this verse in the * Tattvavatara (B 327b5 ; D
43b2 ; P 47b4-5 : rigs de thugs kyi rdo rje yis). The meter would also allow to read vittift sa
*cittavajrasya: "the awareness of the mind-vajra. "
6 36 SBhS, part 2, 7 _ : ka ca upaya iti atrocyate I sattvasayavasad utpattyutpannakrama
35
pratyekabhedena bahutaropayo mantraastre desitaft I

240

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The context of the Subhiiitasarrigraha thus leaves no room for


Paramitanaya-based mahiimudrii. In the Tattviivatiira, too, the verse on
the mahiimudra union of means and insight is taught at the beginning of
a chapter on Mantranaya. Still, the clearly tantric description of upiiya
in the Subhiiitasarrigraha diverges from Jfianak:Irti ' s more general
Mahayana sense of the threefold compassion. 637 It is worth recalling
here what I already mentioned in previous publications : namely that for
Jfianakirti advanced Paramitanaya practitioners of .Samatha and
vipasyanii are already in the possession of mahiimudrii even at an initial
stage. 638 Moreover, in his description of the Paramitanaya, Jfianakirti
links the traditional fourfold Mahayana meditation with mahiimudrii by
equating the goal "Mahayana" in Lalikiivatiirasiltra X.257d with mahii

mudrii. 63 9

In summary, the fact that *S ahaj avajra quotes Jfianak:Irti ' s Tattviivatiira
shows that he and probably also his master Maitripa were familiar with
Jfianakirti ' s system of classification. In other words they could have
picked up the idea of a mahiimudrii path outside of the sequence of the
four seals from this famous master who worked with the translator Rin
chen bzang po (958- 1 05 5) . But while the *Tattvadaakatfkii lends sup
port for Paramitanaya-based or ' sutra-based ' mahiimudrii, any mention
of such a third approach beyond the methods of Paramita and Mantra is
absent in the only other known work by *S ahaj avajra, the Sthiti

samiisa. 640

6 37 I.e. , compassion directed towards sentient beings, compassion beholding the imper
manent nature of phenomena, and compassion without a focus. See TA (B 3 3 l a 1 _5 ; D
45b3 _6 ; P 50a3 _ 8 ) .
6 38 It should be added that Jiianakirti structures his Tattvavatara around the distinction
between three approaches to reality, namely those of the Mantranaya, Paramitanaya
and "the path of freeing oneself from attachment" (i.e., Sravakayana) . Each of these
three has again three distinct forms, for adepts with sharp, average and inferior capaci
ties .
6 3 9 See Mathes 2008 : 34-36.
6 40 In *Sthitisamasa V7cd, *Sahajavajra thus asks : "When one ' s [practice] is free from
investigation, how can it be free from the tradition of mantras?" (see Mathes 2006:223).

23 . A Justification of Non-conceptual Realization


(Amanasikiiriidhiira)

Translation of the Amanasikariidhiira (the text consists of verses


an d prose ) :

641

Homage to the Buddha ! 642


[The word] amanasikiira is one that many are confused about.
[ l . Objection: ]
Some say that it i s an ungrammatical word, fo r i n compound [the ap
propriate form] should be amanaskiira.
Response: [In Par.iini ' s Atiidhyiiyf 6,3 , 14 it is stated: ] "In the case of
tatpuruas, when there is a [noun with a] krt [suffix, the locative end
ing] is often [preserved] . " 643 Given that [Par.iini] says "often" in this
[sutra] , the [ending of] the seventh case has not disappeared. When
compounds are formed without the disappearance [of the case ending] ,
the forms amanasikiira[, which means the same as] amanaskiira;
tvacisiira ("firmness in the skin") , which means the same as] tvaksiira
("skin firmness"644) ; and yudhithira ("resolute in battle") result. There
fore, [amanasikiira] is not ungrammatical. 645
64 1 A first version of this translation was published in Mathes 20 1 1 .
642 Tib. : "Homage to the Glorious Vajrasattva! "
643 See Bothlingk 1998:336.
644 I.e., fine skin.
645 Based on the optional disappearance of the locative ending, Padma dkar po distin
guishes in his Phyag chen rgyal ba 'i gan mdzad two different objects of negation: ama
nasikiira signifies that any object of mental engagement is negated; amanaskiira that the
object of negation is mental activity as such: "Since the privative a thus negates an
object in a locative meaning, [the form] is amanasikiira. It is understood that it must
refer to the absence of [anything which could serve as] a basis or foundation of one ' s

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

242
[2. Objection: ]

The next [opponent] says : This term[, amanasikara, can be] accepted as
having accurate features , but unfortunately it [can] hardly [be] estab
lished as a Buddhist one. 646
[Response : ] Not so, for it is found in various sutras and tantras . In the
Aryasarvabuddhaviayavatarajfianalokalmrikaramahayanasiltra [it is
stated] :
The mental factors of amanasikara are [taken to be] virtuous ,
and those o f manasikara not virtuous. 647
Likewise [it is stated] in the same [siltra] :
Homage to You, who are without imagined thoughts ,
Whose intellect is not based [on anything] ,
Who are without mindfulness , whose realization is non-con
ceptual,
And who are without cognitive object. 648
And in the Avikalpaprave.adharmff [we find] :
A B odhisattva, a great being, abandons all characteristic signs ,
which are [produced by] thoughts and consist of mental forms
through non-conceptual realization (amanasikara) . 649

focus . . . . As to amanaskara, in this case it is the mental activity that is taken as the object
of negation." (Phyag chen rgyal ba 'i gan mdzod, 38 1 6 _ 1 9 : de ltar gnas gzhi can gyi don de
thog ma 'i a yig gis bkag pas I a ma na si kii (text: ka) ra zhes pa I gang du dmigs pa 'i
gnas sam rten gzhi med pa la bya dgos par shes te I (3914_15:) yid mi byed pa zhes pa
yid kyi las 'dir dgag byar bzhed pa ste I)
6 46 In the Sanskrit, the equivalent of sangs rgyas pa 'i tshig does not occur.
6 47 I could not locate this quotation in the JiianalokaliiY[tkiira itself, but the same passage
is also quoted in Ramapiila's Sekanirdefapaiijikii (Mathes 2007:555), and the Catur
mudranvaya (Mathes 2009: 1 1 5)
64 8 See JAA 146 1 _ 2
649 See APDh 95 1 _ 1
8 9
....

A JUSTIFICATION OF NON-CONCEPTUAL REALIZATION

243

Various other [passages] are not recorded here for reasons of space.
[3 . Objection: ]
Now, another [opponent] contends : [Amanasikara may be] a term used
by those who follow the Sutras , but it is not used by those of the Man
tra[naya] , it being found [only] in Sutras .
[Response: ] That is not so, for it is stated in the Hevajra[tantra], in the
chapter on reality [I. 5 . 1 ] :
Neither . . . mind nor mental factors exist in terms of an own
being.
And also [in HT I.8 .44ab it is said] :
The whole world should be meditated upon [in such a way]
That it is not be produced by the intellect.
By implication it is understood [that it is meditated upon] through non
conceptual realization ( amanasikara). 650
[4. Objection: ]
The next [opponent] says : [True, the sense o f amanasikara] i s also
[found] in the tantra[s] , [but] what it refers to does not exist, since [ma
nasikara] is the object of the negative particle in a non-affirming nega
tion.

6 50 The second part of the same stanza (HT I.8.44cd (HT 95 ) : "When one thoroughly
6
knows all phenomena, meditation is actually non-meditation. " (sarvadharmaparijfitinaf!Z
bhiivanti naiva bhiivanti 11) is also quoted in *Sahajavajra's *Tattvadaakapkti in order to
provide doctrinal support for the non-analytical meditation of the samtidhi which realiz
es true reality as it is. Reading amanasiktira into the Hevajratantra thus prepares the
way for extending its semantic range from a pure negation of mental activity and objec
tive support to include direct realization of phenomena, which in the Tattvadaaka are
said to be luminous by nature.

244

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

[Response :] That is not the case. [A non-affirming negation] is a nega


tion of what is relevant: Not to negate what is not applicable is [the de
fining characteristic of] a non-affirming negation, like for instance "the
wives of the king who do not see the sun." The meaning of this is as
follows : The wives of the king are indeed kept secret (i.e. , protected
from other men) , so that they even do not see the sun. 651 This does not
imply the non-existence of the sun. 652 Then what [does it imply] ? What
is applicable: that the wives of the king see the sun-that is what is ne
gated. In the case of amanasikara, too, it is what is applicable-namely
mental engagement (manasikara) [resulting] in something perceived, a
perceiver and the like-that is negated by the privative a, and not the
mind [itself] . 653 Therefore there is no fault.
[5 . Objection]
Whenever someone says that the illustrious one approved of mental
engagement, which has the defining characteristics of permanence and
nihilism,
[Response :] Then we say : Are eternalism, nihilism, and so forth mental
engagement or not? Through it the abandonment of all acts of clinging
is referred to-by the [very] term amanasikara. 654 This has been stated
by the Illustrious One in the A vikalpapravesadharal!-f:
6 5 1 "Sun" (surya) is masculine in Sanskrit.
6 5 2 This sentence corresponds to Tib.: "Not knowing it in such a way does not mean that
it is not."
6 53 It is interesting that such a defintion of non-affirming negation allows for a distinc
tion between what is meant to be negated ("what is applicable") and a luminous nature
or emptiness of the mind, to which the yogin directs his attention (manasikara), as we
shall see further below. This distinction could be well taken as a forerunner of the Ti
betan gzhan stong ("empty of other") interpretation of emptiness. Likewise, in the case
of taking amanasikara as an affirming negation, only a particular aspect of the mind,
namely that part of it which is engaged in the normal dualistic process of conceptualiza
tion, is negated. This does not entail the negation of all mental processes.
6 5 4 The Tibetan differs here (probably not having understood that kriyate must be taken
in the sense of 'referred to' ) : " [Response:] Then we say: When not becoming mentally
engaged, [even] to the extent of [thinking that the defining characteristics of] mental
engagement are eternalism, annihilation and the like, all acts of clinging are eliminated
by these [acts of amanasikara]-by the [very] term amanasikara.

A JUSTIFICATION OF NON-CONCEPTUAL REALIZATION

245

S on of a noble family, what is the reason [the state of] the non
conceptual sphere been called amanasikara? It is in view of
[one ' s] having gone beyond all characteristic signs [created by]
conceptual thinking. In other words , the term amanasikara de
notes a state in which one has left all conceptual thinking be
hind.
[Affirming Negation]
Even [when amanasikara is taken] in the sense of an affirming nega
tion, there is no fault. When [someone] says "Bring a non-Brahmin,"
the bringing of somebody similar to a Brahmin, a Katriya or the like
[is intended] , not a low-caste person of base origin, such as a wagoner.
Here, too, [where amanasikara is taken as an affirming negation,] an
awareness of essencelessness is maintained. Hence the tenet of Mayo
pamadvaya is established. From what, then, does the [undesired] conse
quence of the view of nihilism follow?

[Amanasikara as a Compound in Which the Middle Word is Dropped]


Or, alternatively, the negative particle (i.e. , the privative a) is only
[used] in its usual [metaphorical] sense. This word (i. e . , this negation)
has two [meanings] that require explaining. [Everything] being either
[like] an illusion or something not truly established, 655 [the privative a]
negates neither something existent nor something non-existent. By this
reasoning it is ruled out [that the privative a] has the meaning of negat
ing the world. I will explain the formation of the word. Amanasikara
means the manasikara for which the letter a [in front of it] is the main
[focus] . It is a compound in which the middle word is dropped, as in the
case of a sakaparthiva, a "king [for whom] vegetables [are the main
thing of his diet] . " Accordingly, whatever mental engagement (manasi
kara) there is, all of it is "a" which has the nature of non-origination. 656
6 55 This means that the negation must be taken as implying the mode of emptiness as
serted by the Mayopamadvayavadins or that asserted by the Aprati\hanavadins.
6 5 6 Maitripa analyzes amanasikara as a compound in which the component pradhiina
("the main thing") has been dropped. This is fully in line with Jayaditya's and Vama
na's Kaikavrtti on Atadhyayf 2 , 1 ,60, in which Maitripa' s example of "vegetable king"

THE A.MANAS/KARA CYCLE

246

[Objection: ] Where did the illustrious one teach that the letter a stands
for non-origination?
[Response : ] This is also as taught in the Hevajra[tantra], in the chapter
on mantras [1.2. 1 ] :
The letter a i s at the beginning because all phenomena have not
arisen throughout beginningless time . . . .
This means : Given that all phenomena have not arisen throughout be
ginningless time, the letter a is at the beginning; that is , it is the main
thing. The letter a relates to the defining characteristic of non
origination, and this is stated as such in [Manjufrz]namasalflgfti [V. l c2b] :

is analyzed as a "king for whom vegetables are the main thing." (see KV, vol. 2, 84:
slikapradhtinafl plirthivafl slikaplirthivafl) When it is understood thus-that one directs
one 's attention (manasiklira) to the letter a as the main [focus]-"a" can no longer be
the simple privative, but must stand for a more profound negation, such as the one
implied by emptiness or non-origination (anutplida). In other words, the first analysis,
in accordance with the Kasiklivrtti, implies a second analysis of amanasiklira, in which
a is taken as having the nature of anutplida. This suggests that a form of manasiklira
which is aware of its true nature of non-origination or emptiness is not excluded by the
term amanasiklira. Padma dkar po' s remarks in this regard are as follows : "The letter a
being taken to mean non-origination, [the remaining] manasiklira is [then] explained as
mental engagement. Thus the correct mental engagement [of realizing] the meaning of
the letter a is 'the mental engagement of a' (a-manasiklira). The middle word [of the
compound] has been dropped, just as in the case of calling a king who is fond of vege
tables a "vegetable king." A stands here for the 'perfection of insight' (prajfilipliramitli),
'not arisen' (an-utpanna) and 'not obstructed' (a-nirodha)." (Phyag chen rgyal ba 'i gan
mdzod 40 1 8 4 1 6 : a yig skye ba med pa 'i don du byas te I ma na si kli ra yid la byed par
bshad do 1 1 de ltar na a yig gi don tshul bzhin du yid la byed pa ni I a yid la byed pa zhes
sbyar te I de yang I bar gyi tshig mi mngon par byas pa lo ma la dga ' ba 'i rgyal po la lo
ma 'i rgyal po zhes pa bzhin 1 1 'dir a ni shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa 'o I a nu tpa nna I
a ni ro dha . ). Padma dkar po' s analysis of the compound "vegetable king" is in accord
with Jayalqx:ia' s Subodhinf commentary on the Siddhlintakaumudf (no. 739), where we
find: slikapriyafl plirthivafl sakaplirthivafl (SB, p. 178). Maitripa' s own analysis of the
compound as "manasiklira for which the letter a is the main thing" shows, however, that
he followed the Kasikavrtti.
-

. . .

A JUSTIFICATION OF NON-CONCEPTUAL REALIZATION

247

The letter a is the beginning of the alphabet.


Its significance is great. It is the supreme letter (ak$ara),
Of great strength, without arising,
Beyond words and exemplification.
Moreover, the letter a is the seed of the goddess Selflessness (Nair
atmya) , and this is as stated in Hevajra[tantra] [ll.4.22a] :
The first vowel (i.e. , a) is [the seed syllable of] Nairatmya.
Therefore, all mental engagement is said to lack a [true] self, an own
being. [This is stated,] moreover[, in Hevajratantra 11.4.44] :
[N airatmya] has the nature of the first vowel.
The Buddhas 657 conceive her as being wise.
In the yoga of the completion phase she is the female Buddha,
The [personification of] insight.
Moreover, a stands for the word ' luminous ' , and manasikiira for the
word ' self-empowerment' (sviidhi$thiina) . 658 It is both a and manasi
kiira, so we get amanasikiira. 659 Because of that, the words a, manasi
kiira, and so forth, 660 refer to the inconceivable state of being luminous
and [the one of] self-empowerment, [that is,] an awareness which con
tinues as something that is not separate from emptiness and compas
sion, [i.e.,] not distinct (advaya) from [the level of] indivisible union.

6 57 Tib . : "The knowledgeable"


6 5 8 Tib . : "Moreover, a stands for the word 'luminous ' , and manasikara fo r the word
' self-empowerment' . "
6 59 This means that amanasikara i s taken here a s a karmadharaya compound.
660 I.e. , luminosity and self-empowerment.

248

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The Amanasikiiriidhiira, composed by the great learned master, the glo


rious Advayavajra, 661 is ended. Translated by the Indian Pal)<;iita Va
jrapal)i and the Tibetan translator rMa ban chos ' bar. 662
End of the Translation

An Analysis of the Term Amanasikiira 663


The term amanasikiira looks back upon a long history. It is already well
attested in early Buddhism, but at some point it became controversial
at the latest when it was used as a label for the teachings of the Chan
master Mo-ho-yen (Mahayana) , 664 the famous opponent of Kamalaslla
during the bSam yas debate . 665 It is difficult to say whether it was the
provocative overtones the term had gained by then, but among the
mahasiddhas amanasikiira became a highly favoured description of
both the practice and the goal of mahiimudrii. 666 When Maitripa started
to integrate these mahiimudrii teachings into mainstream Buddhism, he
thus considered it necessary to compose a whole text to demonstrate
that amanasikiira deserves to be considered a proper Buddhist technical
term for defining mahiimudrii in a correct way.

Amanasikiira can already be found in early canonical sources , such as


the Majjhimanikiiya (I.436) and Aliguttaranikiiya (IV.425) , where it
relates to the notion of the multiple (Pali niinattasaiiiiii), that is, to the
meditator having ceased to be mentally engaged in apperceptive notions
of multiplicity. 667 In the Cufasuiiiiatasutta (Majjhimanikiiya III. 1 04-09)
one first attends (Pali manasikaroti) to the solitude grounded in the no
tion of the forest, after withdrawing one ' s attention (Pali amanasi661 The author is not mentioned in the Sanskrit.
662 The Tibetan translator is not mentioned in the Peking bsTan ' gyur.
66 3 Already published in Mathes 20 10:5- 1 1 .
664 This attribution is found in Chinese and Tibetan documents from Dunhuang (see
Seyfort Ruegg 1989: 192).
665 For a detailed discussion of this debate, see Seyfort Ruegg 1989:56-92.
666 The equation of mahiimudrii with amanasikiira is found, for example, in Saraha's (or
Savaripa's) Dohakoani'imazMahamudropadea (DKMU 75b 5 ) .
667 See Seyfort Ruegg 1989: 1 93f.

A JUSTIFICATION OF NON-CONCEPTUAL REALIZATION

249

karitvii) from any notion of village or human beings . Likewise, one


abandons the notion of forest and attends to the solitude grounded in the
notion of earth, until one has successively withdrawn one ' s attention
from the notions of the four spheres of infinite space, infinite con
sciousness , nothingness, and neither-perception-nor-non-perception.
Fin ally, one attends to the solitude grounded in a concentration of mind
which is beyond characteristic signs . 668 This sequence of concentrative
levels was first thought to be a path towards liberation, but the predom
inant strand of the early Buddhist tradition considered liberation with
out insight (prajiiii) impossible and thus rejected the soteric function of
such an attainment. 669
the presentation of the mundane path in the Sriivakabhumi, in the
paragraph on the two attainments without mental activity, amanasikiira
is mentioned along with asmrti ("not being mindful") in a similar con
text:
In

[The yogin] pursues [the practice of] not being mindful and
withdrawing his attention (amanasikiira) from any notion
(sal'f'l}iiii) . As a result of this meditation, the state connected with
mental activity is still active while [one is] on the path of prepa
ration. But as soon as one has reached [the attainment of the
cessation of all notions] , mind does not function any more. 67 0
The practice of withdrawing one ' s attention from apperceptive notions
or characteristic signs (nimitta) must be combined with a certain type of
mental engagement, namely the directing of one ' s attention (manasi
kiira) to space or the like. This is made clear in the following passage
668 CSS 1 04-08: amanasikaritvti gtimasafifiaY(l amanasikaritvti manussasafifiaY(l arafifia
safifiaY(l paticca manasikaroti ekattaY(l. . . . amanasikaritvti tikificafifitiyatanasafifiaY(l ama
nasikaritvti nevasafifitintisafifitiyatanasafifiaY(l animittaY(l cetosamtidhiY(l paticca manasi
karoti ekattaY(l.
669 Schmithausen 2007:215-19.
670 Deleanu 2006, vol. I, 343 : . . . saY(ljfitisv asmrtyamanasiktiram anucarati. tasya bhava
ntinvaytit prayogamtirge sacittiktivasthti bhavati. samanantarasamtipannasya ca puna
cittaY(l na pravartate. For the accompanying English translation, see Deleanu 2006, vol.
II, 460-6 1 . (It is only for terminological reasons that I present my own translation.)

250

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

from the third yogasthana of the Sravakabhumi (which is on the focus


ing of the mind) :
Directing one ' s attention to the element of space as a remedy for
[clinging to] forms is the mental engagement of [employing] a
remedy. Non-conceptual realization (amanasikara) [in the sense
of not focusing on] a single characteristic sign and realizing
(manasikara) the sphere beyond characteristic signs is the reali
zation (manasikara) of the sphere beyond characteristic signs . 671
In the nirvaa section of the Vinicayasarrtgrahaf we have a similar
combination of amanasikara with manasikara: the Arhat in the nirvaa
with remainder is said to focus his attention (manasikara), realizing the
sphere beyond characteristic signs by virtue of non-conceptual realiza
tion (amanasikara) , in the sense of not focusing on a single characteris
tic sign. 672
In the Samahita Bhumi, the practice of amanasikara is said to be per
formed during the nine stabilizations of the mind, that is, even during
initial amatha meditation:
How does one perform [the practice of] not being mindful and
non-conceptual realization? By bringing the mind to rest within,
and the like. 673
In other words , the mental engagement of focusing on characteristic
signs is already being avoided at an early stage of the path, either by
directing one ' s attention to the sphere beyond characteristic signs or
simply by samatha meditation.

6 7 1 SBh 395 1 _21 : nlpapratipak:je1yilkasadhiituY(l manasi kurvataf:t pratipak:jamanasikii


8
rataf:t I sarvanimittiiniim amanasikiiriid iinimittasya ca dhiitor manasikiiriid animitta
dhiitumanasikiirataf:t I
6 7 2 See Schmithausen 1 969 :46-47.
6 73 Delhey 2009, part 1 , 224 (4.2.9. 1 .2.) . . . katham asmrtyamanasikiiraY(l karoti ?
adhyiitmacittasthiipaniidibhif:t.

A JUSTIFICATION OF NON-CONCEPTUAL REALIZATION

25 1

In Mahayana, the negation of "becoming mentally engaged" is also


taken as an attribute of the Buddha, along with other predicates, such as
the absence of thoughts , mindfulness or cognitive objects . 674 This is at
least what we find in the Jfiiiniilokiilmkii ra, a Mahayanasutra which
plays an important role in Asailga' s 675 commentary on the Ratnagotra
vib hiiga (or Uttaratantra) . A further Mahayana source is the Avikalpap
raveadhiiraftf, in which the main practice of a Bodhisattva is described
as abandoning all "characteristic signs" (nimitta) through "not directing
one ' s attention [to them] " (amanasikiira). These nimittas are those asso
ciated with the natural imagination (prakrtivikalpa) (which constitute
the duality of the ordinary world) along with those associated with the
three types of interpretative imagination (nirupaftavikalpa), relating to
the remedy, reality (or suchness) and the fruit. For in the process of
abandoning the mistaken projections of an ordinary mind, which oper
ates under the influence of desire, hatred and so forth, one tends to cul
tivate mistaken notions of the remedy, reality and the fruit. The latter
must likewise be abandoned through not directing one ' s attention to
them. 676
Similarly, in the Dharmadharmatiivibhiiga the same four sets of
nimittas are abandoned by cultivating non-conceptual wisdom. 677 This,
however, requires one to become mentally engaged by directing one ' s
attention to the mind, whose imprints cause duality, and by realizing the
non-existence of this duality in four steps. 678 The Dharmadharmatii674 See JAA 146 1 _2 : "Homage to You, who are without imagined thoughts, whose intel
lect is not based [on anything] , who are without mindfulness, whose realization is non
conceptual, and who are without any cognitive object. " (avikalpitasarrikalpa
aprati:f{hitamtinasab I asmrty amanasiktira niralambab namo stu te 11).
The edition of the Taisho Study Group reads -pa-.
b The edition of the Taisho Study Group reads --al:z.
675 I here follow the Tibetan tradition of ascribing the Ratnagotravibhtigavyakhya to
Asailga.
676 See Mathes 2005 : 1 9-20.
677 The abandonment of the four nimittas in the Dharmadharmatavibhtiga is one of the
six points that specify the means by which non-conceptual wisdom is cultivated (see
Mathes 2005 : 12).
67 8 This is described in point 7, concerned with comprehending the transformation of the
basis (see Mathes 1996 : 1 46-49).

252

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

vibhiiga even defines non-conceptual wisdom by explicitly excluding


amanasikiira:
As to the comprehension of the defining characteristics, [non
conceptual wisdom is known] by its own defining characteris
tics , which exclude five points : amanasikiira . . . . 679
Vasubandhu makes it clear that non-conceptual wisdom is not simply
the negation of mental engagement; otherwise the knowledge possessed
by small children and fools would be non-conceptual. 68 0 Still, one could
argue (as ' Gos Lo tsa ba gZhon nu dpal did) that the abandoning of the
four types of nimittas in the Dharmadharmatiivibhiiga must be under
stood against the backdrop of the Avikalpapravesadhiira1Jf; that is, the
nimittas must be abandoned through amanasikiira. 68 1 The obvious solu
tion of this problem is to see in the amanasikiira of the dhiira1Jf not
simply a complete absence of mental engagement, such as the one
found at times in small children or fools . This is clear from the follow
ing passage in the A vikalpapravefadhiira1Jf, where the path is linked to
"correct mental engagement" (samyalimanasikiira) :
In this way a B odhisattva, a great being, abandons the character
istic signs of all kinds [produced by] thoughts through not di
recting his attention [to them] (amanasikiira), and is thus well
connected with the non-conceptual. But first he does not touch
the non-conceptual sphere . . . . As a result of proper mental en
gagement, he touches the non-conceptual sphere "without the
wish to acquire it" (anabhisarriskiiriit) or [without any other] ef
fort (aniibhogataJ:i), and purifies [it] gradually. 682

6 79 DhDhVV 485-88 : mtshan nyid yangs su shes pa ni yid la mi byed pa dang I . . . mam
pa lnga spangs pa 'i rang gi mtshan nyid kyis so I
6 80 See Mathes 1 996:87 & 143.
68 1 See Mathes 2005 : 1 1 - 1 6 & 1 9-24.
682 APDh 95 1 _ : evaY(I sa bodhisattva mahtisattva ettini sarvtiktiravikalpanimitttiny ama
8 23
nasiktirata(t parivarjayan suprayukto bhavaty avikalpena I na ca ttivad avikalpaY[! dhti
tuY(I sprati I . . . sa . . . samyalimanasiktirtinvaytid anabhisaY(lsktirtid antibhogato vtivi
kalpaYf! dhtituY(I sprati I krame-i:ia ca parisodhayati I

A JUSTIFICATION OF NON-CONCEPTUAL REALIZATION

253

The subsequent sentence in the Avikalpapraveadhara"!Jf (which is also


quoted in Maitripa ' s Amanasikaradhara) explains that the non
conceptual sphere is called non-conceptual (avikalpa) or amanasikara
(according to the Gilgit manuscript) in virtue of being beyond all char
acteristic signs (nimittas). 68 3 In other words, the amanasikara practice of
the dharaftf goes hand in hand with proper mental engagement, in a way
similar to the mental engagement of focusing on the sphere beyond
nimittas in the Sravakabhumi. This latter practice could be seen as a
forerunner of the mental engagement of cultivating non-conceptual
wisdom in the Dharmadharmatavibhaga, which is, of course, not simp
ly the abandonment of nimittas through the absence of mental engage
ment.
In his commentary on the Avikalpapraveadharaftf, Kamalasila restricts
the literal meaning of amanasikara to the fruit of one ' s deep insight
(vipasyana) practice-an insight which must be brought about by the
logical inferences common to mainstream Madhyamaka. Analytic
meditation turns into non-conceptual abiding in the same way as a fire
kindled by rubbing pieces of wood burns the pieces of wood them
selves :

It is the nimitta of precise investigation which is intended [by


the expression] amanasikara. It has the nature of being concep
tual, but it is burnt by the pure wisdom-fire arising from it, in
the same way as a fire kindled by rubbing two pieces of wood
burns those very pieces . 684
When the masters of mahamudra called their practice amanasikara,
they most surely did not have such an analytical path in mind. While
Kamalasila ' s approach to the non-conceptual rests on inferential rea
soning, S araha propagated a revolutionary direct means of access to the
true nature of mind with the help of pith-instructions . The term ama683 See the translation of the Amanasikii radhara below.
684 APDh'f (D 1 32a _ , P 1 57b _ ) : yang dag par so sor rtog pa 'i mtshan nyid ni 'dir yid
23
56
la mi byed par dgongs so 1 1 de ni rnam par rtog pa 'i ngo bo nyid yin mod kyi I 'on kyang
de nyid las byung ba yang dag pa 'i ye shes kyi mes de bsregs par 'gyur te I shing gnyis
drud pa las byung ba 'i mes shing de gnyis sreg par byed pa bzhin no I

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

254

nasikara is thus used in a more literal sense, as implying that we should


become as natural and unaffected as a small child. 685 S araha (or S ava
ripa?) 686 maintains this in the same passage of the *Dohakoamaha
mudropadesa in which mahamudra is equated with amanasikara:
May [your] uncontrived knowledge be like that of a small child !
When thoughts [related to] focused attention arise, just make
them look into themselves !
Do not think of water and waves as two different things !
In mahamudrii, [the practice of] non-conceptual realization

(amanasikara),
One does not meditate, for there is not the slightest reason to do
so. 6s7
"Not to meditate" does not mean here that one does not need to do any
thing at all. S araha thus encourages us in the same doha to watch our
mind without distraction and realize its true nature. 688 What the expres
sion "not to meditate" rather refers to is a practice free from any at
tachment to the remedy, reality or fruit.
From the "notes (Tib. zin bris) summarizing the meaning and [contain
ing] a topical outline of the twenty[-five] amanasikara texts" of ' Bum la
' bar, 689 we learn that the Amanasikaradhara was composed in order to

68 5 This is a state of mind related to amanasikara, and thus not accepted as non
conceptual wisdom in the Dharmadharmatavibhaga (see above) .
686 The attribution is uncertain.
68 7 DKMU (B 75b _ , D 1 23b , P 96a2 ) : I ma bcos shes pa bu chung !ta bur zhog 1 1 dran
3
56
rtog byung na de nyid rang la ltos 1 1 chu dang rlabs gnyis tha dad ma rtogs shig 1 1 yid la
mi byed phyag rgya chen po la 1 1 bsgom rgyu rdul tsam med pas mi bsgomb ste I
" DP sgom t BP sgom
688 DKMU (B 74b -75a 1 , D 123a 1 _2 , P 95b -96a 1 ): "Watch your own [mind] without
6
8
distraction! When you realize the true nature of your own [mind] by yourself, even the
distracted mind appears as mahamudra." (ma yengs sems kyia rang gis rang la ltos 1 1
rang gi de nyid rang gis rtogs gyur na 1 1 yengs pa 'i sems kyang phyag rgya chen por
'char I)
a B kyis
68 9 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, fol. 80a .
5

A JUSTIFICATION OF NON-CONCEPTUAL REALIZATION

255

refute various objections . 69 0 These objections are summarized


probably by the same ' Bum la ' bar, by way of an introduction to the
Amanasikaradhara-in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod:
With regard to amanasikara, objections were raised to this pro
found [term] to the effect that both the term and the meaning
[assigned to it] are faulty, and it was formed in contradiction
even to [our] own Buddhist treatises . Maitrlpa [thus] justified
the term [amanasikara] on the basis of canonical texts , logic,
examples and pith-instructions . 691
In the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod we find, after the Tibetan
translation of the Amanasikaradhara, a few most valuable concluding
remarks (by ' Bum la ' bar?) on Maitripa's understanding of amanasi

ktira:
Manasikara means mental engagement. It is the mind appearing
as the manifold world. [The letter] a stands for non-arising. The
two being identical, we get amanasikara. Non-abiding, ama
nasikara, the non-conceptual and the inconceivable are syno
nyms . In the commentary by Bra bo [ ' Bum la ' bar] it is said:

Amanasikara does not mean that there are no objects;


otherwise it would follow [that they resemble] a hare ' s
horn and the like. It is not the absence of consciousness;
otherwise it would follow [that one becomes like] a
vase. It is not the termination of notions , otherwise it
In his gsan yig, Bu ston lists a certain Bra bo 'Bum pa 'bar (according to the Blue An
nals, his name was Bra'o 'Bum la 'bar) among the seven men from dBus and gTsang
who received mahtimudrti teachings from Maitripa' s disciple Vajrapfu:li. See "Bu ston
gsan yig" 1 1 5 1 _2 ; and Roerich 1 949- 1 95 3 : 857.
69 0 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, fol. 79b : rtsod pa spangs ba yid la mi
2
byed dang I
69 1 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. ka, fol. 200b _ : yid la mi byed pa la ni ting
56
ka pa 'di la sgra skyon dang I don la don skyon yod 1 1 nang pa sangs rgyas pa rang gi
(text: gis) gzhung dang yang mi mthun byas pa nas brtsad pa maitripas sgra bsgrubs 1 1
lung gis bsgrubs (text: bsgrub) rigs pas bsgrubs 1 1 dpes bsgrubs (text: bsgrub) I man
ngag gis bsgrubs (text: sgrub) I

256

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


would follow that it is the absorption into cessation,
which is without notions . It is not cessation, otherwise it
would follow [that it resembles] fainting and the like. It
is not the decrease of knowledge; otherwise it would fol
low [that amanasikara resembles] the consciousness of a
small child. It is not the thought of amanasikara, be
cause this is precisely mental engagement. It is not anal
ysis by means of discerning insight, because [such anal
ysis] is not a non-conceptual path. Therefore, the ama
nasikara approach is a realization that is based on expe
rience and is free from all concepts . 692
As for the ultimate path [of amanasikara] , the dualistic concepts
of mental engagement on [the level of having attained] an illu
sory body are terminated by actual luminosity, which is the
fourth stage [of luminosity] . 693 With regard to [the level of] un
ion when [still] learning, there is still mental engagement on ac
count of [one ' s] wisdom of discriminating awareness, but not on
account of dualistic concepts . [Only this much is then] called
mental engagement. The corresponding practice is found in the
pith instruction for tantric practitioners and should be learned
from the mouth of the guru. [Maitrlpa? said: ]

69 2 Op. cit. , 202b5 -203a4 : ma n a s i ka (text: ka) ra yid la byed pa ste I sems nyid sna

tshogs su snang ba 'o I a ni skye ba med pa 'o I de gnyis bdag nyid cig pa ni I a ma na si ka
(text: ka) ra 'o I rab tu mi gnas pa dang I yid la mi byed pa dang I rnam par mi rtog pa
dang I bsam gyis mi khyab pa rnams rnam grangs ste II bra bo 'i ti ka las yid la mi byed
pa ni yul med pa la mi bya ste 1 1 ri bong gi rwa la sogs pa la thal ba 'i phyir dang 1 1 shes
pa med pa la mi bya ste 1 1 bum pa la sogs pa la thal ba 'i phyir dang 1 1 'du shes bkag pa
la mi bya ste I 'du shes med pa 'i snyom 'jug sogs la thal ba 'i phyir dang 1 1 'gag pa la
yang (text: mang) mi bya ste 1 1 brgyal ba la sogs pa thal ba 'i phyir dang 1 1 shes pa
nyams chung ba la mi bya ste 1 1 byis pa chung ngu 'i shes pa la thal ba 'i phyir dang 1 1 yid
la mi byed do snyam pa la mi byed ste 1 1 de nyid yid la byed pa yin pa 'i phyir dang 1 1 so
sor rtog pa 'i shes rah kyis dpyad pa la mi bya ste I mam par rtog pa dang bral ba 'i lam
ma yin pa 'i phyir ro I des na yid la mi byed pa ni 1 1 don nyams su myong bas rtogs la 1 1
rnam par rtog pa thams cad bra[ ba zhig yin no zhes gsungs I
69 3 I.e., the fourth of the five levels: lus dben, ngag dben, yid dben, don gyi 'od gsal,
zung 'jug. All five are taken as 'od gsal, the fourth being the "actual luminosity."
(Khenpo Tenzin Wangchuk).

A JUSTIFICATION OF NON-CONCEPTUAL REALIZATION

257

Since emptiness and dependent arising do not contradict


each other,
Manasikiira and amanasikiira are not contradictory here,
either.
Having perfected non-conceptual luminosity, one abides
on the path
Through [this] supreme union (i.e., manasikiira and

amanasikiira) .
Moreover, he said:
Through the view of non-abiding
The extremes of permanence and annihilation are re
moved.
It is to those here who possess a magnificent accumula
tion of merit
That the pith instructions for entering [this path] are ex
plained here. 694
Both Kamalaslla and Maitrlpa share the conviction that amanasikiira is
not a simple negation of mind or all mental activity. A comparison of
the A vikalpapravesadhiirm:zf and the Dharmadharmatiivibhiiga shows
that the abandonment of characteristic signs goes hand in hand with the
mental engagement of cultivating non-conceptual wisdom. While Ka
malaslla propounds the traditional Mahayana approach of analysis that
eventually leads to non-conceptual states that deserve the label ama
nasikiira, Maitrlpa (without excluding KamalaSlla' s analytical approach
6 94 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. ka, 203a _ : 'di 'i lam mthar thug pa ni sgyu
46
lus kyi yid la byed pa 'i bzung 'dzin gyi (text: gyis) rnam rtog rim pa bzhi pa 'i (text: pa)
don gyi (text: gyis) 'od gsal gyis bkag pas 1 1 slob pa 'i zung 'jug ni so so rang gis rig pa 'i
ye shes kyis yid byed kyang yod la 1 1 bzung 'dzin rnam rtog gis yid la byed pa ni med pa
yid la byed pa zhes pa 'o 1 1 de dang rjes su mthun pa 'i nyams Zen ni 1 1 rgyud pa 'di 'i man
ngag la yod pas bla ma 'i zhal las shes par bya 'o 1 1 stong dang rten 'byung mi 'gal bas 1 1
yid byed mi byed 'dir mi 'gal 1 1 rtog med 'od gsal mthar phyin nas 1 1 zung 'jug mchog gis
lam la gnas I slar yang smras pa 1 1 Zta ba rab tu mi gnas pas 1 1 rtag dang chad pa 'i mtha '
bsal nas 1 1 rlabs chen bsod nams tshogs rnams la 1 1 'jug pa 'i man ngag 'dir bshad bya I

258

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

altogether695 ) prefers the direct path of mahiimudrii, on which the true


nature of mind is experienced as luminosity. The practice of ama
nasikiira must thus be complemented either by the correct mental en
gagement of analyzing emptiness (Kamalaslla) or the correct mental
engagement of directly realizing emptiness as luminosity (Maitripa) .

6 9 5 This is clear from *Sahajavajra' s *Tattvadasaka(fkii (see Mathes 2006 : 2 1 8).

24 . The Six Verses on the Co-emergent


(Sahajaatka)

Translation of the Sahajaafka: 696

Homage to Vajradhara ! 697


Buddhists take true reality
To be free from permanence and nihilism;
To engage in affirmation and exclusion
When it comes to naturally arisen phenomena-this is the talk
of fools . (S 1 )
To those who claim [that there is] existence w e say
That, upon analysis , nothing exists .
To those who claim [that there is] no existence we say
That, when no 698 analysis is done, everything exists . (S 2)
In whatever manner superimpositions
Present themselves to the yogin of true reality,
In like manner superimpositions
Are destroyed by the yogin of true reality. (S 3)
As the co-emergent is not fabricated,
Attachment does not pertain to the co-emergent.
Bliss is not different from the co-emergent;
Bliss has the defining characteristic of freedom from attach
ment. (S 4)

69 6 First translated by BrunnhO!zl (2007: 1 39-40)


697 Missing in the Sanskrit.
69 8 The negative marker is missing in the Tibetan.

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

260

Once the genuine bliss associated with realization is known 699[Bliss] whose nature it is to be free from attachmentOnce the manifold [world] is turned into self-realization
It is dissolved into the ocean of the co-emergent. (S 5)
The yogin of mantra reality
Is throroughly established in a state without attachment.
Once this has transformed the factors of existence into gurus ,
He should be one who has no attachment to objects . 7 00 (S 6)
This work, the Sahajaatka, by the learned renunciant, the glorious
Advayavajra, 70 1 is ended. Translated by the Indian pm:u;lita and the Ti
betan translator and monk from mTshur, Ye shes ' byung gnas .
End of the Translation

Concluding Remarks
According to the annotated list of amanasikara texts from the 'Bri gung
bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, Maitripa composed the Sahajaatka and the
Madhyamaatka in order to expound the particular view of Yuga
naddha-Madhyamaka. 702 The way this is understood is clear from the
following introductory lines in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod:
As for the primordial indivisible union, the co-emergent,
It is, [once] established by reasoning, a tenet.
In the practice of skilful means , it is great bliss.
This treatise by Maitripa, which clarifies the meaning in a few
words , is a delight. 703
6 99 Tib . : "Because of knowledge, [there is] . . . "
7 00 Tib . : "They teach objects o f non-attachment."
7 0 1 Tib. : "Maitrlpa."
7 02 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. kha, 79b : zung 'jug de la lta ba 'i khyad par
3
phyir I I lhan skyes drug pa dbu ma drug pa mdzad I
703 Op. cit. , 28a4 : gdod nas zung du 'jug pa lhan cig skyes 1 1 rigs pas gtan la phab pa
grub pa 'i mtha ' 1 1 thabs kyi nyams su blangs pa bde ba che I tshig nyung don gsal mai
tri 'i gzhung 'di dga ' I

THE SIX VERSES ON THE CO-EMERGENT

26 1

The topical outline subsumes the six verses of the Sahajaatka under
four points . The first two are the generation of experience by establish
ing the true nature of knowable objects (verses 1 -2) and enunciating the
yoga of pacification (verse 3). These are followed by the yoga of reali
zation (lines 4a-c ) while the fourth point is the experience of renuncia
tion in which everything manifests with the same taste (lines 4d-6d) . 704
,

704 Op. cit. , 89a2 : lhan cig skyes pa drug pa la don bzhi ste I shes bya 'i gnas lugs dang zhi
(text: bzhi) ba 'i rnal 'byor gyis nyams skyes lugs dang I rtogs pa 'i rnal 'byor dang I dgos
pa med pa 'i nyams chos can ro mnyam du shar ba 'o 11

2 5 . A Pith Instruction on Reality Called A Treasure of


Do has
(*Dohiinidhiniimatattvopadea 705)

Translation of the *Dohanidhinamatattvopadea:

Homage to Glorious Heruka !


The three ways (yanas) are explained in terms of four posi
tions . 7 06
It should be known that the Vaibhaikas are the [first] two
[ways] . 77
The inferior and average S ravakas are from the west;
The superior ones and the Pratyekabuddhas , from Kashmir.
(DN 1 )
The five skandhas are the tenet of all,
[But only] the two [schools] from the west assert an inexpressi
ble person.
All [of them] take refuge for life in the three [jewels]
While the [self-]compassion of [wishing to] discipline them
selves arises exceedingly. (DN 2)
For those on the inferior [ S ravaka]yana, the notion of clinging
to the purity of the body
Must be understood as a stain with the help of the cultivation of
the repulsive. 708
705 In the Tibetan: Do ha ti (!) zhes bya ba de kho na nyid kyi man ngag.
706 I.e., schools of thought.
707 I.e. , Sravakayana and Pratyekabuddhayana.
708 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzod, vol. ka, 1 99b6 -200a 1 : theg pa dman pa 'i mi
gtsang sgom pa des 1 1 gtsang 'dzin blo de dri mar shes par bya I

264

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


Exhaling and inhaling is the meditation of the average
[ S ravakas] .
The stain of this [meditation] is breath retention. (DN 3)
The meditation of superior [ S ravakas] is [focused on] the four
truths,
The eightfold path, and the emptiness of a person[al self] .
Suffering is sarrzsara; origination attachment;
Cessation nirva1:w; and freedom from bad influences the path.
(DN 4)
To apprehend so-called permanence7 09 is known as a stain.
Pratyekabuddhas meditate by themselves on the inconceivable.
The stains of their meditative equipoise [should] be known to be
twofold:
They should be known to be excitement and lack of attention.
(DN 5)
[The world is] an accumulation of suble [atoms]-[this accord
ing to] the tradition of the S autrantika.
[Their] meditation is on the inconceivable, and [their] stains are
like the previous ones.
[Their] view is [centred on] the six perfections ,
And with the power of compassion they dedicate [their merit to
others] . (DN 6)
The world is only mind. There are no subtle atoms .
The Yogacaras [claim that the world] is like a dream.
The manifold appearances of blue, yellow and the rest:
Claim [them to be] what you want-everything has the nature
[of mind] . (DN 7)
Everything is [for them as experienced in] the meditation of
self-awarenes s .
[Their] view o f permanence [should] b e known a s [their] stain
of meditation.

709 Op. cit. , 200a2 : rtag pa zhes pa la dmigs.

A PITH INSTRUCTION ON REALITY

265

Moreover, they maintain that there are mental imprints of [our]


existence.
All the forms [they produce appear] to be opposed [to the
mind] . (DN 8)
Space-like non-duality is inconceivable and pure.
It has the nature of compassion, lacks [mental] forms , and is the
perfect Buddha.
The two form kay as arise from [this] root.
The stains of [their] meditation and view are like the previous
ones . (DN 9)
Mere self-awareness beyond the four extremes-[ everything be
ing]
Like the reflection of the moon in the water, an illusion, and a
dreamThe meditation of this view has been taught [in Madhyamaka] .
The nihilism of abandoning self-awareness is [their] stain of
meditation. (DN 1 0)
People go further and further afield and attain something else.
[But] all forms are naturally pure :
This is the matchless [tenet of] non-abiding.
The stains of meditation [and] view boil down to perceiving [re
ality] in extremes . (DN 1 1 )
This aspect is the outer (i.e., exoteric) Paramitanaya.
[Using] experiences of [one ' s] blissful nature is the great secret
Mantra[naya] .
It is the [blissful] mind that [results from] the uniting of the va
jra and lotus.
The moon and sun (i.e., prajiia and means) of supreme attach
ment unite. (DN 1 2)
Through the power of the means, compassion, all sentient be
mgs
[Can] abide in this desire [while realizing it] as suchnes s .
Wherever there i s the one taste whose nature is bodhicitta
This is co-emergent bliss . (DN 1 3)

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

266

At this time two [drops] have actually fallen into the [lotus] . 71 0
Moreover, emptiness and compassion have there become equal.
The entire world is realized as having an aspect of the co
emergent
In accordance with the teachings of the supreme guru. (DN 1 4)
The *Dohanidhinamatattvopadea, composed by the great learned mas
ter and renunciant, the glorious Advayavajra, is ended. Translated by
the reverend Dhari S ri Jfiana.
End of the Translation

Concluding Remarks
The colophon of this text mentions Advayavajra as author. It is not
found in the Indian collection of Maitripa texts , but it is contained in the
bsTan ' gyur, as well as in the dPal spungs and 'Bri gung collections of
Indian mahamudra works. It is the second work in the ' Bri gung list of
the amanasikara cycle, and described there as a treasure of dohas which
links the meaning of the Tattvaratnavalf-the first entry in the ' Bri
gung list, outlining the common tenets-with Mantranaya. 7 1 1 Indeed,
the Dohanidhi presents the four tenet systems in the same way as in the
Tattvaratnavalf, with Apratithana-Madhyamaka (Maitripa' s favoured
tenet) at the summit. Contrary to the Tattvaratnavalf, though, which
mentions Mantranaya but stops short of commenting on it, the
Dohanidhi dedicates a few lines to how one uses bliss as a skilful
means .

7 1 0 In his Caturmudropadea Maitripa explains that co-emergent joy is experienced


when "two of what is present in the form of four drops are at the tip of the jewel and
two in the middle of the lotus." See Mathes 20 1 1 : 108 (Based on Khenpo Phuntsok' s
(Lekshay Ling) explanation that there really i s only one drop I had suggested t o read
"four[fold] drop" instead of "four drops"). The two fallen drops are then, as emptiness
and compassion, Vajrasattva (see Mathes 2009 : 1 05 - 1 07).
7 1 1 "Yid la mi byed tho yig" 79b 1 _2 : thun mongs grub mtha ' bstan pa rin po che phreng 1 1
de 'i (text: de) don sngags dang sbyor ba doha (text: dho ha) ste I

A PITH INSTRUCTION ON REALITY

267

The *Dohanidhintimatattvopadea in the 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos


mdzod is followed by a short statement of the intention which underlies
these dohas :
As the yogin [ascends] from the tenets of the Vaibhaikas to
[the one of] Apratithana-Madhyamaka, he abandons [ever fin
er] forms of confusion and develops by increasingly becoming
endowed with [fine] qualities . Then he enters the Path of Man
tras , his ultimate view of Madhyamaka [and] Cittamatra [now]
being adorned with the pith-instructions of the guru, and em
braces co-emergent great bliss. This is the intention of these
treatises . It has been said, however, that the [real] intention of
this master [Maitripa] is to guide [the yogin] to Apratithana
Madhyamaka. 712

7 12 'Bri gung bka ' brgyud chos mdzad, vol. ka, 200b _5 : de !tar bye brag tu smra ba nas I
3
dbu ma rah tu mi gnas pa 'i bar gyis grub mtha ' rnams la 1 1 'khrul pa 'i cha rnams gong
ma gong mas spangs I I legs cha rnams ni yar ldan du sbyar nas dam mthar dbu sems kyi
(text: kyis) !ta ba la bla ma 'i man ngag gis brgyan nas sngags kyis lam la zhugs ste 1 1
bde chen lhan cig skyes pa la sbyor ba ni gzhung 'di dag gis dgongs pa 'o 1 1 'on kyang
slob dpon 'di 'i dgongs pa yin 1 1 dbu ma rah tu mi gnas pa la bkri bar bzhed pa yin no I

26. A Pith Instruction on Settling the Mind Without Be


coming Engaged in the Thought Processes of Proj ecting
and Gathering-A Genuine Secret
(Shes pa spro bsdu med par 'jog pa 'i man ngag gsang ha
dam pa)713

Translation of t h e Shes p a spro bsdu med par 'jog pa 'i man ngag

gsang ba dam pa:

Homage to the genuine gurus !


A practitioner of inconceivable yoga
Awakens his mind of compassion instantaneously;
It is sealed with unborn insight
And is characterized by inconceivable non-duality. (SM 1 )
Appearances [simply] remind him of the unborn.
The nature of mindfulness is without a perceived object.
Through the nature of entities-form and the other [skandhas]
He experiences the taste of great bliss
And realizes the inconceivable yoga. (SM 2)
Through the kindness of the guru, in turn,
[One ' s practice acquires] the nature of discriminating aware
ness . (SM 3)
Since [mind] produces [everything] in conformity with [one ' s]
expenence,
7 1 3 This short text is not contained in the Indian collection of Maitripa texts, either. The
Tibetan translation in the bsTan ' gyur mentions neither author nor translator. Thus the
attribution of this second last work to Maitripa seems to be doubtful. Chos grags rgya
mtsho included it in his cycle of amanasikara texts, however.

270

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Mindfulness [produces] neither a perceived [object] nor the op


posite.
Since cause and fruit are inseparable,
I do not have [gradual] levels of meditation. (SM 4)
Tasting the taste of emptiness,
Even meditation is realization;
This is because through meditation [with] insight
Everything [becomes] mahamudra. (SM 5)
Even in what is opposed [to liberation]
There is nothing but mahamudra,
No matter for however long the duality of diversity arises .
[In this] naturally relaxed and carefree [state] ,
[Everything] melts [back] into what it has arisen from. (SM 6)
Possessing blissful wisdom as a result of that
There is no hope for any fruit. The yogin of non-conceptual re
alization
Has nothing to think about emptiness, the essential nature.
(SM 7)
Insight into non-duality [rests] in itself
[And categories such as] "absorption" or "subsequent attain
ment" no [longer] apply.
The practitioner of a yoga which is a continuity of the incon
ceivable
[Rests] in himself, not becoming engaged with duality. (SM 8)
He truly awakens to non-arising,
[All] entities having evaporated into the non-arisen.
What in reality is non-dual accords with vajra [emptiness] ;
S tates of being overpowered by faults are [only] adventitious .
(SM 9)
Therefore, [the yogin] is straight and fresh,
This [world] and true reality being experienced directly.
May the yogin who sees non-arising
Not clutch at knowledge but rest in natural clarity ! (SM 1 0)

A PITH INSTRUCTION ON SETTLING THE MIND


Why gather [anything] in or project [anything] onto
The non-arisen true nature of mind?
Pith instructions are the supreme means ! (SM 1 1 )
The gSang ba dam pa is ended.
End of the Translation

27 1

27 . A Golden Garland of Mahamudra


(*Mahamudrakanakamala)

Translation of the *Mahamudrakanakamala:

Homage to the genuine gurus !


The flowers and leaves of magical trees have blossomed, and
have many sweet fruits .
The Dharma kings have adorned the fertile fields in the billion
worlds with them.
In the skies is the dance of suns and moons along with the dance
of moving stars;
And the crown of the niiga kings is ornamented with the pre
cious jewel [removing sickness] .
Beautiful and breath-taking beings are decorated with fine
pearls,
And authentic Buddhas manifest among the assemblies of gods
and men. (MKM 1. 1 )
[Even an ordinary] mind has many precious jewels and quali
ties ,
But without a captain you cannot cross the ocean [of the mind of

sarrzsiira] .
You may have studied a lot and possess all the qualities of the
[three] baskets ,
But without blessing you will not realize the meaning of non
arising. (MKM 1.2)
Although plants grow in the summer,
There will be no harvest without planting seeds in the fields .
Likewise, although the sentient beings in the six realms are a
buddha within,
They will not see this liberating wisdom without meditation.
(MKM 1.3)

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

274

Obstructed [by] visual distortions [and] doubts ,


Travellers do not reach the desired land.
Likewise, an untrusting and doubtful mind
Will not find the level of great bliss and enlightenment is not
found. (MKM I.4)
Meditation and non-meditation are within the reach of a concep
tual mind.
When you [even] do not think about non-meditation, the ground
without distraction
Is the mahamudrii path of non-conceptual realization (ama

nasikiira).
Ah ! [This is] freedom from [worldly] action, non-arising, and
beyond the intellect. (MKM 1.5)
The wisdom lamp of the true nature of phenomena, which is
clarity and emptiness, luminous awareness,
[Shines] for the king of bliss and emptiness, the undefiled great
bliss.
Non-conceptual appearance and emptiness is the true nature of
phenomena.
[His] eyes see this amazing truth of the true nature of phenome
na. MKM 1.6)
Illusions are drawn into the light of the luminous dharmakaya;
There is an illusory body-characterized by the union of lumi
nosity and dharmakiiya' s appearances .
Meeting the non-dual co-emergent and true nature o f phenome
na
Oh you gurus ! Is this not Buddha[hood] ? (MKM 1.7)
Nagasara (i. e . , Nagarjuna) , Caryapa (i.e. , KrJ.lacarya) , S ava
[ripa] , S araha, 714
S anti[deva] Bhusu[ku] , Virupa, :Qengipa, Minapa (i.e . , Macce
ndranatha) ,715
7 1 4 The syllables ma ya after saraha could not be rendered.
7 1 5 The syllables pu dhri after mf na pa could not be rendered.

A GOLDEN GARLAND OF MAHAMUDRA

275

Candrabhadrapa, Arya Mekha[la] , Karopa,


Ravi, 716 Koilkali[pa] (i.e., Kailkaripa) , Bhagavira, Tilopa,
Kailka[Q.a] , Koki[lipa] , Anailga[pa] , Candra, S arva[bhaka] , Ko
tali[pa] ,
Bhande[pa] , Kana[khala] , Kambala, i;>ombi Heru[ka] , Dari
ka[pa] ,
KrQ.a, Nagaprabha, 717 Kukku [ripa] , GhaQ.tapa! (MKM 1.8) 718
One who is not realized should not adopt the conduct of the re
alized !
If they do, it is like ordinary people violating the law of the
king.
The realized should not adopt the conduct of those who are not
realized !
If they do, it is like the steadfast great elephant entering a
swamp . (MKM 1.9)
0 friends ! This co-emergent
Is not found somewhere else. Ask the guru !
When you realize this essence of ultimate instructions ,
Your mind will be immortal, and your vital energy without in
terruption. (MKM 1. 1 0)

Whoever does not realize the luminous


True nature of phenomena, the undefiled
B ody of nirvii:t:ia which is great bliss ,
Cannot b e taught the non-conceptual path. It i s the supreme es
sence. (MKM 1. 1 1 )
Since your own body is the mat:t<J.ala of the victorious ones,
No effort whasoever is needed, it would [only] obstruct the path
of liberation.

7 16 The syllables di to after ra bi could not be rendered.


7 1 7 Or Nagaprabhiipa? (i.e. reading . . . pra bha ka stead of pra bha pa).
7 1 8 Not having been able to identify all these names with certainty, my translation of
MMK I.8 remains preliminary.
. . .

THE AMANA SIKARA CYCLE

276

[This applies to] outer and inner mm:uj,alas,


Made of powdered colors or not. (MKM I. 1 2)
[Through] the blessing of the guru who experiences non-dual
bliss and emptiness,
There is the lamp of the self-arisen true nature of phenomena.
You have not realized and will not realize [anything] : There is
nothing to be meditated upon.
Not [being able to] say that it is this and that, you remain silent.
(MKM I. 1 3)
[On] the path of the non-arisen uncontrived [nature] ,
Which neither comes from anywhere nor goes [anywhere] ,
The sun of the true nature of phenomena, enlightenment, and the

dharmaktiya,
Are free from the darkness of ignorance. (MKM I. 1 4)
Like a tortoise, it is not tainted
By the faults of sarrisara, and ever pure.
Through the kindness of the guru, who is [like] a lamp without
darkness,
There is this sun of wisdom. (MKM I. 1 5)
Do not look at it ! It is not seen by looking.
Do not conceptualize it ! It is beyond the reach of analysis .
Do not think about it ! It is inconceivable.
Do not hope for it ! It is beyond hope and fear. (MKM I. 1 6)
Not being an object seen by looking,
It must be cultivated through the blessing of the guru.
Do not think there is any seeing of something that is the true na
ture of phenomena.
Liberation is free from identifying. (MKM I. 1 7)
S omebody who has abandoned [worldly] action
Is free from such action, without anything to do, and beyond
perceived and perceiver.
For someone whose practice is beyond hope and fear

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277

There are no thoughts and nothing to meditate upon.


(MKM I. 1 8)
Wonderful ! You see the amazing truth of the true nature of phe
nomena.
Wonderful ! The lamp of experiencing the blessing shines .
Wonderful ! [Your] faith in, and respect for, the guru i s unwa
vering.
Wonderful ! The fruit is natural luminosity, clearly manifest
blessing. (MKM I. 1 9)
Self-awareness has never arisen.
It is empty, uncontrived, and without effort.
The naturally luminous jewel [of this] nature of mind, which is
self-awareness
Is bright, pure, and unobstructed. (MKM I.20)
Natural luminosity is not found
Through [any] conceptual [state of] meditation or non-meditat10n:
It is the uncontrived, undistracted ease
In undistracted non-meditation. (MKM I.2 1 )
Self-awareness is the co-emergent, true nature of phenomena
[And] great bliss [ , both of which] are inexpressible.
They are [beyond] self and other, happiness and suffering-they
transcend the reach of the intellect,
They are the vision of the truth of the true nature of phenomena,
and the expanse of the dharmakiiya. (MKM I.22)
Self-awareness is realized by itself.
It is like the [ever pure] water element, gold, and space.
There is no difference whatsoever between a Buddha and a sen
tient being,
Sarrzsiira and nirviiT:W, or what to reject and what to adopt.
(MKM I.23)

278

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The natural liberation within the three poisons is the Dharma


lamp ' s
Non-dual bliss and emptiness, which [are the nature of] the
channels and winds.
The knot of attraction and repulsion, which is a reification of
ordinary thought,
Is liberated in itself, in the [very duality of] a perceived and a
perceiver. (MKM I.24)
Wisdom, namely the pure luminosity of phenomena' s true na
ture of embodied beings,
Is free from extremes, without basis, and beyond apprehension.
Therefore, delusion and non-delusion, the basis of delusion, and
the root of delusion
Have no origination and terminate within the sphere free from
[worldly] action. (MKM I.25)
The illusory body is like a rainbow.
It is the seal of abundance (samayamudrii). By directly encoun
tering
The natural manifestations of sense faculties, which are without
fixation,
The truth of the true nature of phenomena is seen. (MKM I.26)
Undefiled great bliss is the karmamudrii which is the sun of the
True nature of phenomena. It is the wisdom lamp of the true na
ture of phenomena,
Non-arisen enlightenment. Being free from all thought it extin
guishes
The suffering of smrisara in the expanse of great bliss.
(MKM I.27)
The tj,iikas, tf,iikinfs, and Dharma protectorsThe ma'f}tj,ala of the victorious one in your own body
Are your natural seals, channels, winds, and bodhicitta.
They cannot be apprehended as anything. (MKM I.28)

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279

To realize the ultimate nature of mind, which is bliss and empti


ness,
The true nature of phenomena, is the path of mahiimudrii.
In the absence of any apprehension in terms of object and act of
apprehension
It cannot be conceived of as anything. (MKM I.29)
The lion sound of essencelessness [and] , as a consequence of it,
The lamp of meditative concentration on emptiness
Remove all hindrances,
Such as happiness and suffering, permanence and annihilation.
(MKM I.30)
Wholesome and unwholesome deeds
Dissolve into the natural sphere of non-grasping;
The body of the true nature of phenomena [and] great bliss
Are recognized in the sphere of non-dual self-awareness.
(MKM I.3 1 )
Because there i s no bliss when one i s without the lamp
Of commitment, which is like the sound of a lute,
One sees the sun as the sun of the true nature of phenomena
Through the wisdom-sun of commitment. (MKM I.32)
As you go through [the process of] the four empowerments, you
see the four paths;719
You are liberated, the four kiiyas being the four seals.
The vajra-body, which is indivisible union endowed with means
is perfected
Within the sphere of the victorious ones, which is your own
body. (MKM I.33)

7 1 9 I.e. the four paths of the creation stage, the perfection stage, the union as a pair, and
inseparable [salJ'lsara and nirvaa] . Oral information from Khenpo Blo gsal.

280

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


Mental imprints are self-liberated as wisdom; in it there is nei
ther permanence
Nor annihilation, neither rejection nor adoption, neither super
imposition nor wrong denial.
In the primordially pure natural [state of] the true nature of phe
nomena
There is neither hindering dullness nor agitation, neither hope
nor fear. (MKM I.34)
When the inconceivable luminosity of self-awareness is re
called,
No [duality of] a perceived and a perceiver whatsoever [re
mains] .
Defilements become naturally purified and thoughts [are recog
nized as] the dharmakiiya;
[Otherwise,] the Buddhas of the three times could not be sought
at all. (MKM I.35)
Just as mercury transforms [metal] into gold, the three realms
Are satiated by the taste of great bliss, which is the true nature
of phenomena.
Ultimately, the apparent [truth] of saYf1siira is pure,
And the true nature of phenomena free from extremes. This is
the Middle Way. (MKM I.36)
The scorpions-the concepts-of purity and impurity
Belong to the saYf1siira of a perceived and a perceiver.
Because of [this] delusion great bliss is not seen, and the yogin
Who does not see [that this scorpion is saYf1siira] , does not find
[great bliss] . (MKM I.37)
The ordinary mind dissolves into the middle of [its] interior.
When the six collections [of consciousness] are purified, bliss is
uninterrupted.
All imagination is futile and the cause of suffering;
Since [bliss] cannot be meditated upon, just enter [its] natural
sphere. (MKM I.38)

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28 1

Mahamudra is spontaneously present in yourself.


Enter [its] sphere of effortlessness without thinking and cogniz
ing !
It lacks [the extreme of] annihilation [because one can] have a
direct experience [of it] ;
It lacks [the extreme of] permanence, too, [because it is] indi
visible union beyond fixation. (MKM 1.39)
Just as the chariot cannot go anywhere without its two wheels,
Realization is not genuine without a guru, even if one makes an
effort to be generous and the rest.
[Even as] full-grown vultures start off into the sky with their
wmgs,
[So too] do fortunate beings do well by internalizing empower
ment, blessing, and instruction. (MKM 1.40)
Inside the deep and vast oceans there are plenty of jewels;
What is under the control of the naga-kings is amazing.
All sight and sounds have ever been the unchangeable dhar
makaya.
What is enjoyed by yogins in possession of realization and ex
perience is amazing. (MKM 1.4 1 )
Just a s the power of gold-producing mercury
Transforms iron into gold,
So the power of precious empowerments
Transforms defilements into non-dual wisdom. (MKM 1.42)
Because the colour of experience manifests
In the wish-fulfilling jewel of realization,
[All] desires and hopes will be fulfilled through the power of
enjoying [anything] .
Those who experience the equal taste [of everything] accom
plish this. (MKM 1.43)
Even though one possesses great bliss, it is not realized, being
hindered by delusion;
Whoever wishes to remove [delusion] , must gather the accumu
lations of merit and wisdom;

282

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

One may strive a hundred eons before the two accumulations


are [completely] gathered,
But without a guru great bliss is never realized. (MKM I.44)
The Buddhas of the three times are one in essence;
Their nature is one ' s own mind.
If you wish to realize [this nature] , leave it as it is !
Once you are familiar [with it] , it becomes directly manifest.
(MKM I.45)
First, one must realize one ' s mind through the [blessing of the]
gurus;
Then one must establish that it is not separate from any phe
nomena;
Realizing non-duality; one [endures] living in charnel grounds,
And [through this] experience one easily adopts the yogic con
duct [that appears to be] crazy. (MKM I.46)
The [related] bliss of equality is [stable] like a horse, an ele
phant, and an ocean;
[Mental] fabrication[, however,] resembles a monkey [trying] to
paint in the water.
The inseparable [qualities] resemble [those of] a river, the sun,
and medicine;
By focusing on the crown of the head, one attains [a level] simi
lar to that of a universal monarch. (MKM I.47)
All those abiding on [bodhisattva-]levels are fortunate;
Once you have gone down deep into the ocean, you will be free
from poverty.
If you hold a sword in hand, your riches will be great;
Having reached the level of no limitations, you will meet
friends. (MKM I.48)
If you do not torment your mind, your view will be great;
If you are without fixation, [everything] will be of equal taste;
If you are without exertion, you will have the best meditation;
Once free from dualistic appearances, you will be a perfect
Buddha. (MKM 1.49)

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283

The three [channels] lalanii, rasanii, and avadhutf


You must empower yourself and [thus] control [them] .
The trio, guru, mind, and appearancesY ou must rely on them in order to generate realization.
(MKM 1.50)
[This completes the verses from] the first circle of gathered qualities in
the *Mahiimudriikanakamiilii, the first chapter on spontaneously mani
fest blessing.
Lui[pa] , Jalan[dhara] , Virupa, Kama[la] , Indra[bhuti] , Khac,iga
pa,720
Viku[i:ithana] , Natha [Siddha] Goraka, Dhoka[ripa] ,721
Ghui:ia[pa] , Arigaja,722 Karikari[pa] , Dhahu[ripa] ,723 Teli (i.e.,
Dhilipa),
Oc,ira724 S aka[ra] (i.e., Saroruha),725 Karikai:ia[pa] ,726
Capa[ripa] , Kusali,727 Sata[pa] (i.e., Putalipa), Dharma[pa] , Ku
kkuripa,728
Rahu[la] , Kusu[fi] (i.e. , Kucipa), Kumari[pa] (i.e., Kumbhari
pa),729
Dhoka[ripa] ,73 Cama[ripa] ,731 Kan:iika! (MKM II. 1)732
When one rubs honey on the nose of an undisciplined wild dog,
it bites in all directions;
7 2 For kha ra bha?
721 Bhe ;:ii bi na si could not be identified.
722 For a na dza?
72 3 Ba bo could not be identified.
724 For o tra? A place in North Orissa.
72 5 Ni dra yi could not be identified.
726 Na ga na si could not be identified.
72 7 For ku si ya li?
72 8 For ku ru na?
72 9 La kha dha kha pa ra pu could not be identified.
730 Bi ta ;:ie ra pa could not be identified.
73 1 For tsa ma? Dha ka could not be identified.
732 Not having been able to identify all these name with certainty, my translation of
MMK II. 1 remains preliminary.

284

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


If one gives an unworthy person of low intellect [pith] instruc
tions, he burns his [mind] stream.
When one puts a sword into the trunk of a stable and powerful
elephant, all hostile troops are conquered.
A fortunate intelligent being conquers [all] thoughts by meeting
head-on the appearances which [still manifest within his] reali
zation of non-arising. (MKM II.2)
If there is no experience [of it] even though one realizes non
arisingThis is like a boy carried away in the hand of a demoness.
If there is no realization of the abiding nature even though one
experiences [it]This is like throwing an iron hook at the trunk of an elephant.
(MKM II.3)
The [ultimate] meaning will not occur to those who [only] offer
to the Buddhas;
As long as one struggles for something, one will not become a
Buddha.
Through the pith instructions of the guru[, which are his] bless
ing, experience increases;
This is [only] on the part of the intellect, but is not the actual
[true nature] . (MKM II.4)
Don't look at anything, but look into the middle!
[In the middle of] supreme Uoy] and the Uoy of] no-joy there is
great bliss.
Once the union with a secret tantric consort has been performed,
The yoga [practice] must be directed in accordance with the
identified goal. (MKM II.5)
If there is no self-empowerment the very moment [great bliss
manifests] ,
One will not become a Buddha by either of the two-exoteric or
esoteric-[forms of] conduct.
If one is not separate from the manifestations of fully developed
bliss,

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285

One attains the supreme experience by abandoning fixation.


(MKM II.6)
By attending the venerable genuine [guru] , one sees true reality;
By meditating in an opening of a forest, one attains isolation;
Once one realizes that phenomena are mind, there is nothing
that is unfavourable;
Drinking the milk of the sky, one will be satiated. (MKM 11.7)
Once bliss and emptiness are realized as freedom from ex
tremes,
One will obtain satisfaction through a wish-fulfilling tree.
Once a victorious being knows how to go to sea [and find wish
fulfilling jewels] ,
A son will be born to brahmin parents . (MKM 11. 8)
It is by attachment, hatred and delusion [themselves] , that the
Attraction and repulsion of a perceived and a perceiver are natu
rally terminated.
It is by not being fixated [on them, things which] are like an il
lusion in a dream, that
Experience will become the unobstructed openness of clarity
and emptiness. (MKM Il.9)
Clarity, clarity, the guru of great bliss
Is clarity, the guide to enlightenment.
The experience of the non-dual, clear, and pure dharmadhatu
[Becomes] clear within the sphere of the natural state.
(MKM Il. 1 0)
Bliss, guru, great bliss, bliss !
Do not cling to bliss ! Do not conceptualize it! Bliss!
The perceived is naturally liberated, the perceiver naturally pure
and blissful.
A being free from [worldly] action has nothing it need do. Bliss
is beyond the intellect. (MKM Il. 1 1)
Empty! Empty ! The ordinary body
And the illusory body are empty in a sphere devoid of fixation;

286

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Their indivisible union is empty within the state of non-arising;


Self-awareness is empty in terms of the co-emergent kaya.
(MKM 11. 1 2)
Awareness ! Awareness ! It is your mind.
It does not perceive anything. Non-conceptual awareness !
It does not analyze anything. Inexpressible awareness !
It is awareness beyond the reach of conceptual analysis.
(MKM 11. 1 3 )
[It is] non-conceptual, without thought, beyond the reach of
conceptual analysis,
No-mind, inconceivable, not to be thought of as anything,
Beyond support and supported, and without going, coming, and
abiding.
Smrisara and nirvii1:la, happiness and suffering-[everything] is
exhausted in the space of [this] great bliss. (MKM 11. 14)
In an alertly relaxed state which is uncontrived and undistracted,
Mental factors come to an end. [There] is luminosity without
coming and going.
Appearances are inexpressible. The undistracted master recog
nizes them
As the true nature of phenomena, the dharmakaya of self
luminous awareness. (MKM 11. 15)
The nature of mind has not been seen, there has been nothing [to
see] .
It is not to be seen now, it cannot be shown.
It has not been distracted, there is no distraction, and there is
nothing to be distracted;
There is no meditation and nothing to meditate upon.
(MKM 11. 1 6)
Free ! Free ! You are free from sarrisara and nirvii1:la;
Free in the expanse of great bliss and the true nature of phe
nomena!
You are liberated within inexpressible awareness;

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287

Free in the sphere of meditation that is devoid of fixation !


(MKM II. 17)
Lie on the shore of not having anything that needs to be done !
0 wonderful true nature of phenomena! You see the true nature
of phenomena!
0 [this is] buddha[hood] , o [this is] buddha[hood] !
Well, you have attained the level of enlightenment;
Wonderful, amazing ! There is no [more] cause of death.
(MKM II. 1 8)
Phenomenal existence is not true. It has ever been false,
Is an adversary, has never existed, and is an appearance of delu
s10n.
Everything produced has no [true] meaning and is suffering.
Once you are free from attraction and repulsion, you are a Bud
dha. (MKM II. 1 9)
All action has no [true] meaning and is the cause of suffering.
Bliss is when nothing needs to be done; yoga without effort is
bliss .
N o matter what you think of, your desires and hopes will not be
fulfilled.
Therefore there is bliss [only] in a natural state without thought.
(MKM II.20)
The nature of mind is great bliss, the body of drops,
The continuum of the mind, which is inseparable bliss and emp
tiness.
Like the sky, the inexpressible true nature of phenomena
Is imperceptible and cannot be shown. (MKM II.21)
Wonderful, amazing ! The body (kaya) of the guru
Is emptiness, freedom from mental fabrication, the non
conceptual state,
Inseparable appearance and emptiness, the empty sphere,
Always contained in the non-arisen dharmakaya. (MKM II.22)

288

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The mind of appearances, Buddhas and sentient beings,


Are like the sun and its rays of light.
Beyond abandonment and attainment, without hatred and at
tachmentWhoever does not have [these stains] is a Buddha.
(MKM II.23)
Knowable objects appear but lack independent existence;
Knowledge is clear[ly] manifest but non-conceptual.
[When one rests] without distraction in undefiled great bliss,
Which is the nature of mind, there is nothing to meditate upon.
(MKM II.24)
The nature of mind is the guru, the body of the Buddha;
The conditioned mind of appearances is the basis of virtue.
The dharmakiiya is the path of meditative absorption [even in
the] lower realms,
And pride is endowed with non-dual bodhicitta. (MKM II.25)
The uncontrived true nature of phenomena is free from [all] no
tions [such as]
The beginning and end of sarrzsiira, and hope and fear.
[The true nature] is without an object of meditation and medita
tion, acceptance and rejection.
[Its] fruit is supreme self-luminous self-awareness.
(MKM II.26)
The co-emergent body of self-awareness, [namely]
The buddha nature [of all beings] in the six realms,
Which essentially is self-luminous awareness,
Possesses the ornament of non-conceptual commitment.
(MKM II.27)
The mind of appearances is the true nature of phenomena[, and
thus] possesses
The dharmakiiya. [This] unequalled, non-conceptual,
And pure illusory body is the path to enlightenment.
Indivisible union is non-arising bliss, the ornament of the higher
realms. (MKM II.28)

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289

The mind of appearances is the great bliss of self-awareness,


free from mental fabrication;
The illusory [body] is [based on] the inexpressible channels and
winds, the winds and mind.
Dream [yoga is based on] luminosity, and great bliss [on] indi
visible union;
In it the vivid presence of the four ktiyas and wisdom is unob
structed. (MKM Il.29)
Invisible ! Your invisible mind
Is pure and manifests as the guru.
Appearances and empti[ness] are the body of great bliss,
And inseparable bliss and emptiness are the ornament of bless
ing. (MKM Il.30)
The nature of mind is invisible; [its] root which is beyond the
intellect,
Is clarity and emptiness, the secret of the eftikinfs .
Appearances are emptiness, [and this is] the body o f great bliss;
Inseparable appearance and emptiness are the ornament of the
efakinfs. (MKM Il.3 1 )
For [somebody] free from action, and whose winds and mind
are non-conceptual,
The empty appearances are free from mental elaboration.
The great bliss [of this] emptiness is inexpressible;
Bliss and emptiness free from extremes are the ornament of the
winds. (MKM Il.32)
Your own mind is great bliss, bodhicitta,
Undefiled great bliss, and the dharmaktiya.
The appearances in the expanse of empty luminosity
Are the wisdom of bliss and emptiness, the ornament of enlight
enment. (MKM Il.33)
Appearances are empty of true [existence, like] a dream;
Attachment and aversion of a perceived and a perceiver are ob
jects of confusion.

290

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The imagined is [like] a banana tree without essence-you


[must] not be attached [to it] ;
Whatever appears is [then] the ornament of the path.
(MKM II.34)
What neither comes nor goes anywhere
Is the non-conceptual nature of mind.
Its ornament is the [direct] vision of the nature, the true nature
of phenomena,
Which can be neither objectified nor shown. (MKM II.35)
There is suffering [and] no happiness in sarrisara,
But when one is introduced [into the true nature through] the
blessing of the guru,
Dullness and agitation, which are the enemies of meditation ex
periences,
[Become] an ornament of self-awareness, a vision of luminosity.
(MKM II.36)
Experience without [worldly] action is a [form of] meditation
beyond the reach of the intellect;
It is free from apprehension and thought, a perceived and a per
ceiver.
In the effortless [sphere] of not conceptualizing anything
It is the ornament of the natural liberation from hope and fear,
denial and affirmation. (MKM II.37)
Emptiness which possesses wisdom
And has compassion as an ornament is the path to indivisible
union.
It is great bliss, the body of mahamudra,
Inasmuch as emptiness and compassion are inseparable.
(MKM II.38)
Spontaneously manifest bliss is an experience
Without fixation and beyond the intellect; [in its] natural ex
panse
Bliss has the ornament of truly knowing the true nature of phe
nomena;

A GOLDEN GARLAND OF MAHA.MUDRA

29 1

This wisdom is without meditation and distraction.


(MKM il.39)
Not to conceptualize anything, not to intend anything,
Not to grasp anything, devoid of conceptual analysis,
And nothing that needs to be done, this is self-luminous aware
ness,
The ornament of natural liberation, without having to correct or
modify [anything] . (MKM II.40)
It is bliss-any non-conceptual experience you like:
It is empty, the true nature of phenomena beyond the intellect;
It is conduct[, i.e.,] the path on which the equal taste [of every
thing] manifests spontaneously;
It is liberation[, i.e.,] the ornament of natural liberation [within]
hope and fear. (MKM Il.4 1 )
It does not exist a s anything. N o matter what the object o f phe
nomenal existence is,
It is empty. There is neither a determining mind
Nor conceptual analysis [behind it] . The path leaving sar(lsara
behind
Is the ornament of the natural state without meditation and anal
ysis. (MKM 11.42)
Once the experience of abiding in the stream has become stable,
[Everything] will gradually become conduct.
Mental acts of attachment and aversion are pacified
In accordance with the pith instructions of a genuine guru.
(MKM II.43)
[This completes the verses from] the second circle of gathered qualities
in the *Mahamudrakanakamala, the second chapter on experiencing the
object of meditation.

292

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


Tilopa, Naropa, Bhadra[pa] ,733 Candana, [Ava]dhiifi[pa] ,734
[Kfl).]acarya, Ratri, Maitripa, the Tibetan Legs sbyin, Padma
pada,
Vajradhara, Jogini, Kahna[pa] , Mekha[la] , Khanakhala, 735
Rari, Ranka, S auri, Jvala[pati] , Cindha[kumara] , Viriipa,
Jfianavajra, Medhapa, i;>ombi [Heruka] ,736
Kamparipa,737 Prajfia,738 Vajra[pada] (i.e. , Minapa), Kana[pa]
.
(i.e., K-al).hapa) , 139
Ho, Rakita[pada] ,74 Karl).ika,741 Bhiiti742! (MKM III. 1)743
On the golden side of Mount Meru is the abode of birds,
When [these] birds are chased away,744 it looks golden.
Once the learned ones realize non-arising
And set aside [the notion of] the nature of entities, [their] bliss is
great. (MKM ill.2)
I have been a Buddha from the very beginning,
But I did not see this Buddha [in me] through [any] power of
thought.
When I realized it, I neither saw nor heard [anything];
The non-duality by which I realized [this Buddha in me] is
mahamudra. (MKM IIl.3)
Just as small children grow strong through being nursed by their
mother,

733 For bha su tra?


734 Ra ma ya could not be identified.
735 For ma ha la?
736 Bha ta ri ro pa could not be identified.
737 For ka ma kri ta?
7 3 8 Ru after pra dznya is problematic.
739 Na ma se could not be identified.
740 For ra si ti?
74 1 For ka ra na?
742 Ma ta bra ma na could not be identified.
743 Not having been able to identify all these name with certainty, my translation of
MMK III. 1 remains preliminary.
744 Lit. " [this]nature of [being covered by] birds is put aside,"

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293

Those with a poor mind gradually [enter] the great path through
the guru' s pith instructions.
Just as all diseases [caused by] the interaction of wind, bile, and
phlegm are cured through the power of medicine,
All severe diseases of clinging to an "I" and self are burnt away
by the guru ' s pith instructions. (MKM 111.4)
Just as somebody who sees [can] guide
Any group of blind people,
The eyes of the guru lead
Those who are lost on the path of wisdom to enlightenment.
(MKM ill.5)
Just as the troops of the universal king
Control all countries,
[The king of] great bliss finds the co-emergent taste
And controls sa1ftstira. (MKM 111.6)
Being of a noble, supreme family, and having the empowerment
of [a Buddha] family,
The guru, t;fakinfs, and the true nature of phenomena are [your]
friends.
View, conduct, and meditation are present together;
You see the truth [through] the exemplifying and [then through]
actual wisdom. (MKM 111.7)
The path of the worthy masters of yoga [consists of]
The three kayas, the great luminosity of the true nature of phe
nomena,
The clear, pure nature of mind, the illusory body,
The seal of liberation, and their indivisible union.
(MKM ill.8)
Those [who observe] the three codes are an ornament among the
beings in the six realms,
View, meditation, conduct, and non-fixation being [their] lad
der.
Being aware that one ' s body has the nature of great bliss, one is

294

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Free from the experiences of denial and affirmation, abandon


ment and adoption;
Hope and fear become self-luminous [through] the kindness of
the guru. (MKM III.9)
Before one has realized [their] identity, a pure rice dish and a
corpse are very different;
Once one has realized [it] , a sweet and pure rice dish and this
rotten corpse are not different.
Likewise, when not realized, sarrisara745 and Buddhas are taken
to be different.
When realized, sarrisara [is seen to have] the body of the great
primordial Buddha. (MKM III. 10)
In abandoning [worldly] action, [one is following] pith instruc
tions;
If there is no anger or desire, there is realization;
[When] there is no concrete bliss, [there] is meditation.
When nothing needs to be accomplished, there is conduct.
(MKM III. 1 1)
[When] means and insight are uncreated, [there] is the view.
[Then] one is fully pervaded by the guru' s stream [of blessing] ,
And the fruits on the pure wish-fulfilling tree of the co
emergent
Fully ripe without effort. (MKM III. 1 2)
The best of codes among all Buddhas
Is when one ' s mind does not indulge in thoughts;
Therefore, whatever is realized by the natural mind,
Is [also] seen by all Buddhas. (MKM III. 13)
Everything a yogin hears is genuine;
He is a supreme teacher because he realizes non-arising through
[whatever] he sees;
745 I take the dag after 'khor ha as a collective plural particle.

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295

He is resourceful because non-duality is clear [to him] through


everything he does;
The fruits of virtue and wrong-doing are not two [different
things] for this [realized] being. (MKM IIl. 14)
The co-emergent taste
From the empowerment [that comes] from him,
The genuine guru, pervades everything;
It is sealed by non-arising, [the seal of] Vajradhara.
(MKM III. 1 5)
Inseparable bliss and emptiness become perfect in the pure lotus
of the heart [ cakra] .
They are mental engagement with non-arising, the mind of in
conceivable great bliss.
The yogins [then] experience all sight and sound as the three
types of equal taste;
Because the blessing of the venerable ones arises, there [also
arises] the inseparable perfect Buddha. (MKM ill. 1 6)
One analyzes many times all phenomena and one ' s own mental
factors,
[But] when all [one ' s] realization is without pith instructions on
experience,
The various colours of a crystal [are wrongly seen] to be true in
terms of own-being.
When it has these [false] phenomena, be satisfied without hope
or fear. (MKM III. 17)
First, the wise gives rise to realization.
Second, he meditates one-pointedly in the forest.
Once an experience has arisen,
He will become superior through conduct. (MKM IIl. 1 8)
Whatever the type of co-emergent [may be] ,
When [the accompanying realization] is produced in a reduced
way,
Pain occurs, as in the eye of an elephant [suffering reduced vi
sion] .

296

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE


If one loosens up [the mind] without fixation, that is supreme
meditation. (MKM 111. 1 9)
Bliss! Bliss ! Non-abiding is bliss;
The nature of not being attached is bliss;
To know that everything imagined is this [co-emergent] is bliss;
Buddha[hood] without practice is bliss. (MKM IIl.20)
If one puts on a massive armour
And in one' s mind sails a boat [to its interior]
With jewel-like courage, [one', s mind of]
Great bliss [can even] enter the chest of a human corpse.
(MKM 111.2 1 )
In whatever [thought] , in whatever place, and with whatever
[presuppositions]
The conceptual and analytical intellect [is engaged] ,
One falls necessarily under the power of the demon of taking
things as real;
Therefore, not to cling to anything at all is the most intelligent
[thing to do] . (MKM 111.22)
Appearances [are rightly seen] in the sun of the true nature of
phenomena,
But they are [usually] consigned to the dark prison of the per
ceived and the perceiver;
The nature of mind, [its] luminosity, [and] the very dharmakiiya
itself
Are [thus] covered by a net of dark ignorance. (MKM 111.23)
[Through] the blessing of the guru [arises] the great bliss of
non-duality,
Spontaneously manifest and without fixation in the expanse of
experience;
Being the progression of conduct whose nature is natural libera
tion,
It is the dharmakiiya beyond hope and fear. (MKM III.24)

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297

Non-arising and without [false] imaginationThe path to enlightenment is free from concepts,
Non-conceptual, without clinging, and beyond the reach of the
intellect;
Wherever you search, it is [only found] within the non
conceptual. (MKM III.25)
Look at the invaluable treasure of buddha-qualities
[Which manifests] from natural stainlessness, [i.e.,]
The mind whose nature is means and insight!
[This is possible] through the kindness of the guru, the sun of
the genuine Dharma. (MKM III.26)
The spiritual friend who has gone beyond deluded truth,
Who has cut the fetters of defilements,
And who has attained mastery over the truth of the true nature
of phenomena,
Sees the luminosity of non-arising. (MKM III.27)
Insight is without eyes, and the demon of real existence
Is conquered; self and other, [everything] is the body of great
bliss.
The experience of not conceptualizing anything
And freedom from [worldly] action is the bright wisdom lamp.
(MKM III.28)
Whoever clings to things in terms of existence and non
existence
[Does not realize wisdom which is] like a lamp.
[Wisdom] is not an object of the intellect, [and precisely] be
cause [mistaken clinging] is difficult to abandon
One must destroy the knot of correcting and modifying what is
beyond the intellect! (MKM III.29)
This lamp of insight which lacks means
Is [like] a flower of the sky. The [true] path of insight
Is free from an intellect that grasps at extremes;
Like a rabbit' s horn, [these extremes] are meaningless and must
be abandoned. (MKM III.30)

298

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

Precisely this is mahamudrii,


By which the meaning of non-duality is realized. [This means
that]
The true nature of phenomena is not seen [in an ordinary way,
but that]
One is undistracted from the sun of the true nature of phenome
na, the dharmakaya. (MKM III.3 1)
The luminous emptiness of sarrzsiira and nirvar:ia,
Which is free from knowledge and knowable objects,
Is the lamp of insight beyond the reach of the intellect;
It is not to be seen and cannot be shown. (MKM III.32)
With the boat of continuous compassion
[The Buddhas] liberate sentient beings without exception
From the great ocean of suffering which is unbearable sarrzsiira.
[This boat] is the ladder of means. (MKM III.33)
Appearance and mind are not two, and means
And insight are inseparable; it is the path to enlightenment.
Just as in the case of milk [mixed with] water,
The experience of equal taste cannot be divided. (MKM III.34)
Naturally stainless non-dual wisdom [beyond] existence and
non-existence,
Perceived and perceiver, and defining characteristics and object
to be defined
Is the lamp of the true nature of phenomena.
It is the secret of all the Buddhas in the three times.
(MKM III.35)
It is the basis of sentient beings ' happiness and suffering, faults
and [good] qualities;
Like clouds in the sky,
It abides in all sentient beings
Like a wish-fulfilling gem without exception. (MKM IIl.36)
Experience which is free from denial and affirmation, hope and
fear,

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299

Is not to be seen and cannot be shown;


Once true reality is seen
As it really is, one is liberated. (MKM III.37)
The suffering of the six realms [can be] the great bliss
Of experiencing the [mere] appearances of the mind;
[Such] appearances, not the common ones,
Are seen [through] the kindness of the guru, and this is libera
tion. (MKM III.38)
In the light of experience [and] with the eye of wisdom
Is the true nature of phenomena-this sun of enlightenment
Of great purpose, the inexpressible
Great bliss of everything-is truly and easily seen.
(MKM III.39)
He who, possessing the kindness of the guru, severs
The bondage of [false] imagination-his experience is without
fixation;
Whoever remains inattentive
Will not find bliss within sarrzsiira. (MKM III.40)
It is because one hears words without [making] the link to
[their] objects
And because of insight without a cognitive object
That the mind is endowed with the qualities of a precious jewel;
[This is realized] through the kindness of the guru.
(MKM III.4 1 )
Unwavering faith and devotion-the lamp o f this commitment
Is the treasure of the victorious one in one ' s body;
It is the source of great bliss and qualities,
And one sees what cannot be seen. How wonderful !
(MKM III.42)
The experience of the natural state,
Which is free from going to and coming from anywhere,
Is inexpressible and without distraction.

300

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

It does not depend on meditation and is beyond the reach of the


intellect. (MKM III.43)
The mind of pure luminosity, which is the true nature of phe
nomena,
Is enlightenment, vivid presence, and the expanse of phenome
na;
You will find this stainless jewel of mind,
Which has the body of great bliss and wisdom. (MKM III.44)
Do not look at it! Great bliss cannot be seen.
Do not conceptualize it! [Its] experience is beyond the reach of
the intellect.
Do not think about it! Realization is the expanse of the true na
ture of phenomena.
There is nothing that needs to be done; it is without distraction.
(MKM III.45)
Now, this precious experience of resting in the supreme
Is not [to be] analyzed; it is the natural state without distraction.
[This] undistracted abiding nature, which overcomes [all no
tions of] entities, the clinging to the self of material forms,
Is beyond any concepts involving the adoption of virtue and the
abandonment of wrong doing. (MKM III.46)
The lamp of wisdom is without cognitive object, its realization
being non-conceptual;
[With it] one cuts through the bondage of the [false] imagination
related to recollection.
The movement [of mind] is terminated in the expanse
Of the true nature of phenomena, the dharmakaya.
(MKM III.47)
[For] the blind who have not meditated there is nothing to be
seen; therefore,
[Through] the kindness and the transmitted blessing of the guru,
who is aware of the
Taste of nectar through meditation, one becomes aware of [this]
taste of bliss

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301

Within the experience of the natural state, [but] nothing whatso


ever is grasped. (MKM 111.48)
It is without concepts [such as] sa-rrisara and nirvafta,
And beyond the reach of conceptual analysis.
Objects of meditation and meditation do not exist as anything;
There is no grasping, [and] the confusion of reifying thoughts is
abandoned. (MKM ill.49)
[This is] the lamp of the Dharma
Which possesses the eye of the Dharma and the dharmakaya.
The two accumulations are the drum of the Dharma.
The great path to enlightenment is the conch of the Dharma.
It is the conch proclaiming luminous essencelessness.
(MKM 111.50)
[This lamp of the Dharma] is the magical cow which bestows
precious jewels;
One takes it in as the quintessence of immortal nectar.
There are the flowers of the wish-fulfilling tree, an ocean full of
fruits,
Mount Meru, the excellent vase,
The sun and the moon in the sky, song, dance, and play.
(MKM 111.5 1 )
The [ultimate] meaning is known directly or analyzed
By means of inferential valid cognition. Through trust that one
will see the meaning,
Accompanied by [a sense of] certainty,
One meets it in a reunion, [like] a son [meeting] the previously
known mother. (MKM 111.52)
Dharma and non-dharma are equal,
But sentient beings [take them as] separate. On account of a de
ceptive intellect
They deprive themselves of liberation. Thoughts on this life
Are not liberation. [Such beings] are in the mouth of a sea mon
ster. (MKM 111.53)

302

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

[When] compassion and emptiness


Are split apart and separate, the [ultimate] meaning is not seen;
The path of inseparable emptiness and compassion
Means to abide in neither sa111sara nor nirval!-a. (MKM III.54)
Nobody likes the knot of experiential objects
[Produced] by a conceptual intellect [under the sway] of fixa
tion;
The path of non-origination is full of the taste
Of co-emergent bliss [found in] objects of sensual pleasure.
(MKM III.55)
As for the true nature of mind, which is good in itself,
If the sensation of the co-emergent taste,
Which is the directly manifest great bliss of the natural state,
cannot be expressed,
Then the meaning of true reality will not be found by [relying
on] signs. (MKM III.56)
This is because deluded people, who conceptualize great bliss
As sa111sara and nirval!-a, are bound;
No matter where you look for it,
True reality is beyond the reach of the intellect. (MKM III.57)
On the path, on which the great bliss of self-awareness [can]not
be characterized,
And on which the mental consciousness is [experienced as] the
co-emergent,
The taste of the natural [state] is realized [through] the kindness
of the guru;
From experience gained through meditation on non-origination
One sees the [ultimate] meaning. Non-origination is wonderful!
(MKM III.58)
Natural liberation from karman, which binds sentient beings,
The realization of the mind of self-awareness,
Which knows the [true] meaning, and supreme nirval!-a[All] this is free from the cognitive objects of mental fabrica
tion. (MKM III.59)

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303

The nature of mind, this treasure of precious jewels,


Is beyond sarrisiira, the pacification of cyclic existence, and ni
rvii7Ja.
[It is covered by] the seeds of virtue and wrong-doing, the roots
of imprints,
[And still it is] the path of liberation, the body of finding en
lightenment. (MKM III.60)
Once the nature of mind is liberated in this open sky
Of the true nature of phenomena, all sentient beings
Are [recognized as] the wisdom sun of [natural] purity;
There is no other enlightenment besides this natural liberation.
(MKM III. 6 1 )
People in sarrisara may be filled with the taste o f great bliss,
But without means they do not see the [true] meaning of reality.
Those beings with means and freedom from [worldly] action
Possess the immortal beyond abodes of going and coming.
(MKM III.62)
Whoever grasps is overpowered by
The demon of entities; for those [so] confused
There is no path of liberation from bondage.
Therefore, the teacher of the path of liberation depends on [a
mind] without grasping.
(MKM IIl.63)
The bees of conceptual mental consciousness mounted on the
horses of the winds
Follow the objects of sensual pleasure, the honey of a perceived
and a perceiver;
What they have followed lacks bliss. Having cut away the con
fusion of [this] sarrisiira,
One must grasp the true nature of phenomena, [which is related
to] the channels and winds of wisdom and enlightenment.
(MKM III. 64)

304

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

For whoever is empowered by the realization of a knowledge


holder,
The objects of sensual pleasure are merely entertainment;
In continuously seeing self and other[, however,]
One does not see one ' s continuum and [so] is not satisfied.
(MKM 111.65)
This is because phenomena, which are free from existence and
non-existence,
Are neither [true] entities nor the opposite.
Whatever way one takes them, they [remain]
Objects of the intellect, because grasping is conceptual.
(MKM ill.66)
Empty, emptiness-this qualifies as fruit;
As long as one is overpowered by the great demon of clinging
to existence,
[Emptiness] is not seen, no matter where one abides;
[Even] when not used [by the demon] as [his] servant.
(MKM ill.67)
A mind full of devotion [displays] respectful great intelligence,
[But when it is] linked to karman one [still] possesses the root
of mental imprints
And a mental body; through seeing the true nature of phenome
na,
One sees what helps others, like the jewel of a wish-fulfilling
tree. (MKM ill.68)
Free from the dullness and agitation of meditative absorption,
and not agitated
By the wind of concepts, one is without concepts, and possesses
the dharmakaya;
May the guru, who is the mountain and sun of the true nature of
phenomena
And the dharmakiiya, free us from the darkness of ignorance.
(MKM 111.69)

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305

He of a loving mind and with an ocean full of compassion for


sentient beings
Is the unwavering glorious Vajradhara,
The lord of compassion; may the wisdom lamp
From the treasure chest of his heart show us the path to enlight
enment! (MKM III.70)
You are a wish-fulfilling tree, always full of flowers and
fruitsy ou virtuous one who are filled with the taste of immortal nec
tar !
Show us the unchangeable meaning and conquer the demon of
entities
Through your play of selfless great bliss, free from mental fab
rication! (MKM III.7 1 )
Teacher, glorious source o f radiance,
You who are endowed with all qualities of precious jewels
And who radiate the light of unarisen luminosity and emptiness !
Utter the sound of non-dual emptiness free from mental fabrica
tion! (MKM III.72)
Fearless great pmy,rj,ita, source of bliss, great bliss,
Secret of all Buddhas, fearless lion !
May you show us the non-conceptual nature, the true lamp be
yond the intellect,
Just like a bee, which extracts the nutritious nectar from flow
ers ! (MKM III.73)
Renunciant, inexhaustible treasure of space-like qualities
Ornamented by supreme merit,
[You who possess] the wisdom of a Buddha and the four dhar
mas,
Make us attain the Dharma of enlightenment! (MKM III.74)
You possess the unarisen space-like properties of the wise,
Unconditioned emptiness and luminosity,
Free from extremes, without a self and mental fabrication; your
gathered qualities

306

THE AMANAS/KARA CYCLE


Are the dharmakaya. May you make us realize true wisdom
through [your] sun! (MKM III.75)
[Your] co-emergent nature is the co-emergent body of sentient
beings,
The sphere of nirviil!-a with its pure properties, free from
thoughts.
[Your] two accumulations are spontaneously present, and you
have the eyes of a Buddha;
Chief, master, of gathered qualities, make us see the true nature
of phenomena! (MKM III.76)
The concealed essence of the noble tj,akinfs , which is the con
cealed essence of all Buddhas[This] source of bliss, sun of great bliss, and radiance of all
blissIs the secret treasure of the guru, the treasure whose secret is es
sential pith instructions;
[Such] a selfless great bliss ! May we have [these] gathered qual
ities of great blis s ! (MKM III.77)
As for the purity of cyclic existence and peace,
The principal one who embodies it as a mal!-ala of equal taste
Is the supreme [master] of gathered qualities, this circle of gath
ered qualities,
The chief, the master, of the gathered qualities. May I possess
his glory ! (MKM III.78)
The emptiness of non-existing phenomena,
Which is non-dual and free from grasping
The luminous true nature of phenomenaMay I see [this] circle of gathered qualities, [this] true enlight
enment! (MKM III.79)
May I stand, through [these] gathered qualities, [this] circle of
gathered qualities,
Within the [transmission] lineage of Maitreyanatha,
Who severs the bondage of the [false] imagination

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307

Of focusing on meditation and object of meditation.


(MKM III.80)
Peaceful intelligence is the sphere of nirviilJ,a, which lacks a
self.
As long as there is the quintessence of essential meaning in se
cret Mantra[naya] ,
Which is linked with the continuity of great bliss, supreme bo
dhicitta, and compassion,
There is the light of the Buddha' s enlightenment, the great path
to enlightenment[, on which everything is experienced as] illu
sion. (MKM III.8 1 )
[In their] clinging to the dichotomies of existence and non
existence,
Inanimate and animate, [people] are misguided,
[But] the lord who pervades [them] , is the victorious lion of
men;
In the city of the Buddha, the supreme abode of the circle of
gathered qualities,
[Everybody] possesses [his] lamp of enlightenment, [his] lamp
light of wisdom. (MKM III.82)
[In their natural] purity, sentient beings have always been Bud
dhas by nature.
Still, because of the dark clouds of ignorance that have gath
ered, deluded beings
In the six realms are without a proper path, the sun of the Sugata
having set;
It is for them that the wisdom light of the circle of gathered
qualities shines [like] a great fire. (MKM III.83)
Master of sentient beings ! You possess the root of the path to
the true nature of phenomena,
Great bliss and enlightenment, which are nirviilJ,a, [the state in
which] phenomena are
Naturally free from mental fabrication! You enjoy the bliss of
nirvii"(la, which is non-duality

308

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

And unimpaired, undefiled luminosity ! May you keep us


[your] heart ! (MKM III.84)

You remove the darkness of ignorance, light of enlightenment


from the sun of wisdom!
Enlightenment of the glorious Dharma! Wisdom of the Dharma
lamp !
Spiritual friend of enlightenment, you are accomplished on [the
basis of your own [efforts] ,
Intelligence o f the Dharma! May you keep us [in your heart]
with the power of recalling the true nature of phenomena!
(MKM III.85)
You, of virtuous mind, are the only friend of all qualities,
Resolute in compassion, the lion of men,
A wish-fulfilling tree of love, a spiritual friend, a precious jew
el,
And an inexhaustible great treasure ! May you protect us in your
shade ! (MKM III.86)
Glorious master of all qualities in the three worldly realms,
Supreme man, king, crest-jewel of all gods and semi-gods,
Genuine lord possessing all qualities !
May we possess the precious ornaments of being born in [Bud
dha] realms ! (MKM III.87)
You are free from concepts, venerable physician of effortless
Dharma!
You remove the pain of defilements, having become a protector
of sentient beings !
Sage l Expel from us fortunate ones the inexhaustible pain
Of karman-related defilements produced by karman !
(MKM III.88)
May you purify all stains of sa-r1isiira
With your eye which is the true nature of phenomena-the sun
of the Buddha!
You are born from mantras through the lamp of the immortal
stream of the guru 's nectar,

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309

Which is like a clear and bright crystal [reflecting] the stainless


moonlight. (MKM III.89)
You, hero, father of the lamp, remove all the suffering of sen
tient beings out of compassion !
Glorious one, you are the cause of benefit to [both] yourself and
others through stainless means and insight!
Incomparable guru of the lineage, hero, you are a treasure of all
qualities !
Liberated from the ocean of existence, you live as a great hero
who interrupts [the turning of] the wheel of sarJ1sa ra !
(MKM ill.90)
You, o son, who possesses the eye of the Dharma, offer to the
assembly of the glorious victorious ones !
You, o son, offer to the assembly and its lord, and entirely dry
up the ocean of existence !
You, o son, offer to the Buddha, and be like a wish-fulfilling
tree, an ornament [full] of all qualities !
You are a son of the rjakinfs ' secret teaching and of the unarisen
circle of the gathered qualities of all Buddhas ! (MKM III.9 1 )
Mother, mother, unique mother! You are the noble mother em
bodying the great bliss of the circle of gathered qualities !
As a guide to non-dual enlightenment, you are the essenceless
ness of the circle of gathered qualities; you have the eye of the
Dharma!
The sun-light which opens through your kindness the lotus of
my intellect,
Is the lamp of seeing, hearing, and remembering, the wisdom
lamp of enlightenment, which removes the darkness of igno
rance. (MKM III.92)
[This is the] rosary of precious pearls which perfectly propa
gates the experience of yogins and the realization of learned
ones.
At [this] time when there are neither precious jewels nor [good]
qualities in the six realms,

3 10

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

The sons of the Buddha, who possess the eye of the Buddha' s
Dharma, hold the lineage of precious jewels;
[Their] mahamudra [teaching] of non-conceptual realization
cuts away the roots of mental imprints on the path to enlighten
ment. (MKM III.93)
It contains the meaning of the Dharma with regard to the true
nature of phenomena, [this] great path of the supreme Dharma,
[this] breath-taking golden rosary.
The [all-]pervading lords and protectors of sentient beings, who
have arisen from non-dual wisdom, have seen the state of this
meaningful Dharma treasure of precious jewels.
[This is the] intent of [their enlightened] mind, which is the pure
vision of the meaning of liberation according to the canon.
[May all] see the meaning of great bliss as [it occurs] on the
path of seeing, in that, through the kindness of the [protectors] ,
not seeing [becomes] seeing !
[May all] be free from doubt, and [may] enlightenment, [that]
trustworthy lamp, shine clearly and purely, without stains or
thoughts !
May the natural experience be without fixation !
May the radiant sun of the true nature of phenomena clear away
the darkness of ignorance ! (MKM III.94)
This is the fruit from the tree of enlightenment, whose roots of
mental imprints and karman
Are connected through the prayer for encountering [the true na
ture]-[a tree] which has a beautiful trunk of intent and flowers
of realization as fruits.
In [this tree ' s] cool shade of belief,
How should the son of prayer not meet the mother [of enlight
enment] like when old friends meet? (MKM III.95)
[This completes the verses from] the third circle of gathered qualities in
the *Mahamudrakanakamiila, the third chapter on self-evident belief in
non-duality. The Precious Golden Rosary of Mahamudra Vajra Songs
is completed. It is instruction from the teachings of many accomplished
yogins and pm:uf,itas, combined into one text by the venerable master

A GOLDEN GARLAND OF MAHAMUDRA

311

Maitripa. Translated by this paf},t/,ita (i.e., Maitripa) and the translator


Mar pa Chos kyi blo gros.
E n d of t h e Translation

An Analysis of Maitripa' s *Mahiimudriikanakamiilii


Maitripa's *Mahiimudriikanakamiilii was translated into Tibetan by Mar
pa Lo tsa ba. Even though not included in the cycle of amanasikiira
texts, the text embodies its themes and shows that all aspects of Mait
ripa' s mahiimudrii were indeed passed on to early bKa' brgyud masters.
The *Mahiimudriikanakamiilii is a garland of inspired mahiimudrii vers
es, which resemble a series of key instructions .
One of the most noteworthy features of Maitripa' s mahiimudrii system
is the way he presents the four moments and four joys of tantric em
powerment. As can be seen from the Sekanirdea, Maitripa clearly fol
lows, like his teacher Ratnakarasanti, a tradition which claims that the
moment of freedom from defining characteristics and co-emergent joy
are placed in the third position.746 However, the majority of scholars
Kamalanatha, Abhayakaragupta, Ravisrijfiana, Vibhuticandra,747 and
most of all, also Mar pa Lo tsa ba' s main teacher Naropa,748 put them in
the fourth position. Given that the correct sequence of the four joys was
a subject of considerable debate in late Indian Buddhism, it is notewor
thy that Marpa faithfully renders Maitripa' s position in his translation
of the *Mahiimudriikanakamiilii, verse II.5 , even though this goes
against the mainstream view, including that of his root guru Naropa. In
MKM II.5, Maitripa perfectly summarizes the essence of the Caturmu
driinvaya where a well attested, but hitherto unrecovered tantra encour
ages the adept to identify the goal in the middle of supreme joy and the

746 Mathes 2009 :99-106.


747 See Kvaerne 1 986:34-35 .
748 See SU'.f5 106 1 _20 In this context, however, virama means "intensification o f joy" and
not "the [joy of] no-joy . "

3 12

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

joy of no-joy.749 In the second part of the verse, Maitr!pa tells us not to
look at anything except the middle of the second and fourth joy. The joy
of the third moment is here clearly understood as being beyond a per
ceived and a perceiver, which means that the third moment, vilakm;,a,
is taken as "freedom from defining characteristics. " In Maitr!pa' s em
powerment, only the third moment with its erotic joy at the peak of
union is truly beyond duality and as such able to provide a glimpse of
Buddhahood.
Going by Naropa's commentary on the Sekoddesa, virama (Maitr!pa's
[joy of] no-joy) is taken to be in the third position, understood as an
even further intensification of the immediately preceding supreme
joy-all this being induced by the continuously descending drop of
bodhicitta, which is then prevented from moving out of the vajra-jewel.
It is precisely from this withdrawal that the adept experiences the co
emergent joy.750 Zhwa dmar Chas kyi grags pa, whose mahamudra line
age goes back to both Maitr!pa and Nampa composed an interesting
comparative study of these two traditions of empowerment. He percep
tively points out that
[the two masters] may differ in their presentation of the [joy of]
no-joy and co-emergent [joy] in the third and fourth positions,
but in the Sekanirdea and its commentary it is said that the
teaching of the [joy of] no-joy in the third and the co-emergent
[joy] in the fourth [position] were given in accordance with the
sequence [in the Hevajratantra] . It is a forceful empowerment

749 See CMA 3 : Between supreme uoy] and [the joy of] no joy see the goal and stabilize
[it] !
7 5 0 SUTr 272 1 r273 2 : "The energetic movement [of the drop] out of the vajra-jewel is
stopped. The bliss of not having lost the nectar of moon, which [then] has the nature of
the co-emergent joy on the level of body, speech, mind and wisdom, is called the great
prajiiil and is the fourth empowerment. " (rdo rje nor bu las phyi rol tu g.yo ba las 'dzag
pa 'gag pa I sku 'i lhan cig skyes pa 'i dga ' ba dang gsung gi lhan cig skyes pa 'i dga ' ba
dang thugs kyi lhan cig skyes pa 'i dga ' ba dang ye shes kyi lhan cig skyes pa 'i dga ' ba 'i
bdag nyid zla ba bdud rtsi mi 'pho ba 'i bde ba gang yin pa de ni shes rab chen po zhes
bya ba dbang bskur bzhi pa ste I )

A GOLDEN GARLAND OF MAHAMUDRA

313

for the general public, for those [full of] defilements and was
taught with the generation stage in rnind.751
In other words, Chas kyi grags pa fully supports Maitripa's account, but
accepts in an inclusivistic way the competing sequence of four joys as a
provisional teaching given with the purpose of furthering beginners on
the generation stage. In support of their interpretation of the Hevajra
tantra, namely that the co-emergent joy is the third one, Maitripa and
Ramapala pointed out that the third and fourth joy are the same. This in
turn proved to be useful for Chas kyi grags pa's strategy to demonstrate
the common intentional ground Maitripa and Naropa share.752 Of par
ticular interest is also, that in the commentarial traditions of the Six
Dharmas of Naropa, Maitripa' s identification of the goal of the co
emergent before no-joy shines through in a list of six joys :
Those who comment on the Six Dharmas of Naropa extensively
distinguish six joys, namely joy, supreme joy, intensification of
joy, joy of no-joy, co-emergent Uoy] , and no-joy. Going by this
distinction, the reassurance that one is Vajrasattva, arises from
both the joy of no-joy and co-emergent Uoy] . From this it is
easy to understand that the intentions of these two realized mas
ters are not contradictory. 753
75 1 Zhwa dmar Chos kyi grags pa: "mKhas grub nii ro mai tri dbang gi bzhed pa mthun
par grub pa zhes bya ba bzhugs so," 842 1 7 _20 : dga ' bra! dang lhan skyes gsum pa dang
bzhi par bzhag pa 'i khyad par yod na 'ang I dbang bskur nges bstan rtsa 'grel du I dga '
bra! gsum pa dang lhan skyes bzhi par gsungs pa ni I go rim gyi dbang gis bzhag pa
dang I nyon mongs pa mang ba rnams la drag po 'i dbang bskur ba I dgos pa 'i tshig
dang I bskyed rim gyi phyogs la dgongs nas gsungs so I
75 2 See also Chos kyi grags pa (ibid. , 843 20_22), who takes the third and fourth as the co
emergent joy: " Since the terms ' no-joy' and 'joy of no-joy ' are freely used with the
same meaning in the Hevajratantra, the two realized masters are forced to explain,
going by [this] meaning, both the third and the fourth joy as the co-emergent [one] . "
(brtag gnyis s u I dga ' bra! dang dga ' bra! gyi dga ' ba don gcig la ming ci bder gsungs
'dug pa 'i phyir I mkhas grub de dag dga ' ba gsum pa dang bzhi pa gnyis ka lhan skyes
su don gyis bzhed dgos so I)
753 Ibid. , 845 _ : nti ro chos drug rgyas par 'chad pa rnams kyis I dga ' ba mchog dga '
59
khyad dga ' dga ' bra! gyi dga ' ba lhan skyes dga ' bra! te I dga ' ba drug tu dbye ba
'byung ba 'i bye brag shes na rdo rje sems dpa 'i dbugs dbyung ba I dga ' bra! gyi dga ' ba

3 14

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

That the co-emergent is sandwiched in between the joy of no-joy and


no-joy is a remarkable compromise that accommodates the two posi
tions of Maitripa and Naropa.

dang I than skyes gnyis ka las 'byung bas mkhas grub de dag gi dgongs pa 'gal ba med
par bde blag tu rtogs par 'gyur ro I

Conclusion

The fine blend of mahamudra and Madhyamaka in Maitripa' s cycle of


amanasikara texts reflects an ingenious and most successful integration
of the new teachings and practices of the Mahasiddhas into the main
stream Mahayana current of late Indian Buddhism. The early stages of
this process are discemable in the Caturmudranvaya, where the defini
tion of mahamudra contains interpolations of non-tantric elements,
namely, two quotations from the Jiianalokalarrikara. An originally pure
ly tantric presentation of mahamudra within the sequence of the four
seals is thus linked with the view of non-abiding and with the practice
of non-conceptual realization (amanasikara). This combination of Tan
tra (i.e., mahamudra) with Sutra was subsequently fully exploited in the
Sekanirdea and its commentary. Mahamudra thus became equated with
the recently introduced Indian doxographical category Apratithana
Madhyamaka-a strongly anti-foundationalist strain of Madhyamaka
having certain obvious affinities with the so-called *Prasa:rigika-Ma
dhyamaka tradition that Tibetans associated with Nagarjuna, Candraki
rti and others. This mahamudra was directly linked in the Sekanir
deapaiijika with Mahayana texts such as the Avikalpapraveadhara!Jf.
As the latter elaborates the practice of abandoning characteristic signs
as was similarly presented in the Dharmadharmatavibhaga, Maitripa' s
mahamudra forges, according to ' Gos Lo tsa ba gZhon nu dpal, close
ties with some of the central works of Maitreya (i.e., the Dharma
dharmatavibhaga and Ratnagotravibhaga), works which increasingly
functioned as a bridge between sutras and tantras. This sutra-based
mahamudra comes of course doctrinally close to Chan Buddhism, and
we have also seen that Maitripa's disciple VajrapaJJi in his *Gurupa
ramparakramopadea makes room for also an instantaneous approach
to enlightenment (which is also typical of Chan) in addition to the gen
erally accepted gradual path.
However, Maitripa's differences from the Tibetan tradition of Northern
Chan teachings that was allegedly rejected as a "heretical doctrine"
(chos min) at the eighth century Sino-Indian bSam yas Debate are clear-

3 16

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

ly specified in his Amanasikiiriidhiira. There, the very term ama


nasikiira that had become controversial since Kamalaslla accused the
Chinese Chan master Heshang, is not only explained as not becoming
mentally engaged, but also as a mental engagement that is luminous
self-empowerment-terminology that deary suggests a tantric context.
But as we have seen in *Sahajavajra ' s commentary on the Tattvadasa
ka, a direct realization of the luminous nature of mind is also considered
possible on a mahiimudrii path that does not depend on tantric genera
tion and completion stages . Moreover, Maitripa claims in his Tattva
vi111sikii, that the practices of karmamudrii and samayamudrii are only
meant for yogins of inferior capacities, even if the direct mahiimudrii
for the advanced is still part of Mantranaya according to TV 6. To be
sure, what is suggested by the term amanasikiira in the Amanasikiirii
dhiira is a direct realization of the ultimate nature of mind. Maitripa
thus shares with KamalaSila the conviction that amanasikiira is not a
simple negation of mind or all mental activity. But while KamalaSila
stresses the necessity of initial investigation as a condition for attaining
non-conceptual states that deserve the label amanasikiira, Maitripa in
sists on the immediate insight of his mahiimudrii path.
The differences between Maitripa' s mahiimudrii and Kamalaslla' s in
terpretation of amanasikiira as the fruit of analytic meditation are also a
major concern in *Sahajavajra's commentary on Maitripa's Tattvada
aka. 754 Contrary to the Bhiivaniikramas, *Sahajavajra's meditation (in
cluding deep insight meditation) must be performed with a non
analytical bodhicitta right from the beginning.755 Maitripa' s Apratitha
na-Madhyamaka is thus characterized by a non-conceptual realization
of inconceivable emptiness and luminosity, accompanied by the Madh
yamaka view of non-abiding. B ased on the Tattvadaaka, Amanasikii
riidhiira, and Tattvaratniiviilf, it could be shown that non-abiding means
to refrain from both the wrong superimposition of an independent exist
ence and the wrong denial of dependently arisen appearances. The re
lated practice of non-conceptual realization (amanasikiira) thus corre
sponds to a non-affirming negation (prasajyapratiedha), but in the
sense that only what is applicable is negated. When Maitripa maintains
75 4 Mathes 2010:9- 1 0 .
755 Brunnholzl 2007 : 1 74; Mathes 2006:217.

CONCLUSION

3 17

in Tattvadasaka verse 5 that phenomena are experienced as being lumi


nous, or in Mahayanavirrzsika verse 3 , that the original nature of the
three kayas (i.e . , the nijakaya) can be seen in vipasyana by avoiding any
reification, the Madhyamaka method of non-affirming negations is not
violated, for we have by then left behind the level of inferential investi
gation. The yogin now has immediate access to true reality and experi
ences it directly, as being luminous. The teachings of natural luminosi
ty, buddha nature and so forth can thus be taken as a positive descrip
tion of this experience. As such it can be regarded as a teaching with
definitive meaning (nftartha) . To deny or reify the experience of lumi
nosity would lead the yogin astray, just as denying or reifying the ap
pearances of the ordinary world does. Positive descriptions in maha
mudra teachings and the Madhyamaka refutation of any mental fabrica
tion can be both taken as definitive without contradicting each other.
When engaged in analytical activities, one is necessarily confined to the
procedures of Madhyamaka reasoning and so does not abide in either
extreme of superimposition and denial. What is left, then, is a genuinely
non-conceptual experience of true reality.
In an analytical approach, Madhyamaka tenets outshine the lower Ma
hayana tenets of Sautrantika (which also belongs to Mahayana in the
eyes of Maitripa) and Yogacara, Apratithiina-Madhyamaka being at
the peak of Maitripa' s systematic presentation of tenets. Yogacara en
joys a privileged position over Sautrantika, though, and is the only ten
et, besides Madhyamaka, accepted for tantric practice. But Y ogacara
emptiness cannot fully remove subtle forms of superimposition, such as
an ultimately existing non-dual mind, wherefore it needs to be refined
by Apratithiina-Madhyarnaka which rejects even non-dual mind as an
epistemic foundation. In the tantric context this finds expression in the
metaphor of the Akobhya-seal of Yogacara emptiness, to which the
Vajrasattva seal, which symbolizes the realization of Madhyamaka
emptiness, needs to be applied. As Maitripa' s Apratithiina-Madhya
maka allows for a mahamudra-based direct access to emptiness, the
more experiential terms of Yogacara, such as self-awareness and lumi
nosity, nonetheless prove indispensable to describing and explaining
this realization. In his Paficatathagatamudravivarm:w, Maitripa thus
explains that a Madhyamaka tenet that is based on self-awareness is
supreme. Such claims should not be misunderstood as entailing the rei
fication of emptiness, and Maitripa is quick to inform us, that awareness

318

THE AMANASIKARA CYCLE

does not share any privileged status, and is, like anything else, depend
ent origination. Understood in this way, the more analytical teachings of
the second dharmacakra are supreme in defining a philosophical view,
while the experiential terms of the third dharmacakra are equally valid
and definitive when it comes to communicating the final realization
attained on the basis of Maitripa' s fine blend of mahiimudrii and Ma
dhyamaka.

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

General Remarks

The first twenty-four texts of my edition are from Haraprasad Shastri' s


*Advayavajrasarrigraha. 756 They are listed in the sequence o f manu
script N (i.e., NGMPP B 22/24) , which is complete up to folio no. 40. I
thus follow the editio princeps by Shastri, but count the Kudrtinir
ghiitana and its commentary as two texts. Morevover, the Mulapattayaf:t
and Sthaliipattayaf:t are taken separately. This accords with the edition
of the "Studying Group of Sacred Tantric Texts " at Taisho University.
In the Tokyo manuscript (Todai University Library no. 1 5 1 ) the se
quence of the first five texts is the same. But before the Summary on
the Meaning of Empowerment (Sekatiitparyasarrigraha, no. 14 in the
Tokyo manuscript) there are still texts which are more philosophical in
content. No. 6 in the Tokyo manuscript thus is the Tattvadaaka, no. 7
the Tattvavirrisikii, no. 8 the Svapnanirukti, no. 9 the Miiyiinirukti, no. 1 0
the TattvaprakiiSa, no. 1 1 the Apratithiinaprakiisa, no. 1 2 the Yugana
ddhaprakiiSa, no. 13 the Paiicatathiigatamudriivivarm;,a. The Sekatiitpa
ryasarrigraha is incomplete and ends in the paragraph on the master
empowerment. The folios no. 34 up to 37 are missing. Folio no. 3 8
starts in the middle o f the Premapaiicaka, which i s followed by the Ca
turmudriinvaya. The latter breaks off nearly at its end on folio no. 4 1 ,
which is the last one of the Tokyo manuscript.
The Tibetan edition of altogether twenty-seven texts (i.e., the Tibetan
translations of the twenty-four texts found in the *Advayavajra
sarrigraha, the Do hii ti zhes bya ha de kho na nyid kyi man ngag, the
75 6 This title is not found in any of the available manuscripts and probably an invention
of Shastri.

320

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

Shes pa spro bsdu med par 'jog pa 'i man ngag gsang ba dam pa, and
the Phyag rgya chen po gser gyi phreng ba) is based on the Derge and
Peking editions of the bsTan ' gyur as they represent the two main bran
ches of the transmission stemma. Instead of collating the other canoni
cal recensions, it has been decided to compare the two chosen canonical
representatives with the dPal spungs edition of Karmapa VII Chos
grags rgya mtsho ' s "Collection of Indian Mahamudra Works " (Phyag
rgya chen po 'i rgya gzhung), which contains all twenty-seven texts . The
detailed references are provided at the beginning of each text.
The Karmapa' s collection has no colophon at its end, but the third vol
ume (which is assigned the letter hurri) contains at the beginning an
additional text with its own folio numbering and the title "A Short In
dex and Inventory [Showing] How the Three Volumes of Indian
Mahamudra Works on True Nature Were Put Together as a Literary
Source - Earrings of Accomplishment [for the] Practice Lineage."757
This 42-folio-long rGya gzhung dkar chag was composed by a disciple
of Kong sprul Blo gros mtha' yas, Karma bKra shis chos 'phel, at the
monastic seat of dPal spungs.758 Moreover, we are given a detailed ac
count of how the Phyag chen rgya gzhung was compiled and its blocks
carved.759 When Lama Byang chub chos 'phel of the Ja sbra family was
7 57 The Tibetan title according to the front page: gNas lugs phyag rgya chen po 'i rgya
gzhung glegs barn gsum yi ge 'i 'byung gnas su ji !tar bkod pa 'i dkar cha gs bzhugs byang
mdor bsdus pa sgrub brgyud grub pa 'i ma rgyan ces bya ba bzhugs so .
7 5 8 "rGya gzhung dkar chag", 42a5-6: " . . . written in the neighbourhood of the monastery
'Holder of the Dharma that Delights the Mind' at dPal spungs (the font of many pre
cious qualities) by Karma bKra shis chos 'phel blo gros rgya mtsho'i sgra dbyangs, a
lazy person called Blo gros who lacks the Dharma of definitive meaning, [but] rejoices
in the fact that the moon of the essence of mellifluous words has arisen [like the reflec
tion of the moon on] a lake-[words which are] a token of his hope that qualities will
eventually arise." ( . . . karma bkra shis chos 'phel blo gros rgya mtsho 'i sgra dbyangs
sam I 'byung du rung ba 'i yon tan la smos pa 'i btags ming du sgra dbyangs snying po 'i
zla ba mtsho byung dgyes pa 'i blo gros zhes bya bgyi ba 'i nges pa don gyi chos med
snyoms las pas yon tan rin po che du ma 'i 'byung gnas dpal spungs yid dga ' chos 'dzin
gyi gandhola 'i nye 'dabs su bris pas).
75 9 After a description of these works compiled by the Seventh Karmapa and detailed
lists of the various reading transmissions (Tib. lung), Karma bKra shis chos 'phel pre
sents in a paragraph of his own (the third of the second chapter) "how the volumes of
the present collection of such Dharma [texts] were carved as printing blocks. " ("rGya

GENERAL REMARKS

321

looking for a project to support, mKhan chen bla ma bKra shis ' od zer,
another disciple of Kong sprul Blo gros mtha' yas, suggested that he
sponsor the carving of printing blocks for a new edition of Chos grags
rgya mtsho ' s collection of Indian mahiimudrii works. After recounting
the reasons for bKra shis ' od zer ' s choice, the rGya gzhung dkar chag
adds some other interesting details, such as how the S a skya scholar
Phun tshogs rgyal mtshan edited the copy to be used for setting the dPal
spungs print.760 The printing blocks were then stored at the great pub
lishing house of dPal spungs monastery.761

gzhung dkar chag", 3 l a5 _6 : de lta bu 'i chos kyi bzhugs tshogs kyi glegs ham 'di dag spar
du ji ltar bsgrubs pa 'i tshul).
760 "rGya gzhung dkar chag", 3 lb 6 -32a4 : "After that, when he looked for original texts,
pure, clear-cut text transmissions proved to be somewhat rare in this place (i.e., dPal
spungs). Having gathered some texts-from the dPal spungs bla brang and from Kun
mkhyen 'Jam pa'i dbyangs of rDzong [g] sar (i.e., Rdzong gsar Mkhyen brtse dbang po
1 820-1 892)-and having looked up what is in the Sde [ge] prints of the precious Tan
jur, [Phun tshogs rgyal mtshan and his team] corrected the original text [and] carefully
compared [it with all] texts. . . . Many learned masters have problems when it comes to
carefully editing for correct spelling, metre, and meaning, but a close disciple of the
Venerable Evar thar rtse Zhabs drung Rin po che (a treasure of mind [and] a vessel in
the ocean of Tantra classes), [namely] the monk Phun tshogs rgyal mtshan and [others] ,
skilled and without equal in correcting Tibetan, earnestly rendered their service of
comparing and correcting the texts many times. " (de ma thag phyi mo 'i dpe btsal ha na
ha cang dpe rgyun dag nges shig 'di phyogs cung dkon pa !tar gyur mod I dpal spungs
bla brang gi phyag dpe dang I rdzong sar nas kun mkhyen 'jam pa 'i dbyangs kyi phyag
dpe sogs dpe 'ga ' zhig 'dzom pa dang I bstan 'gyur rin po che sde spar gyi nang du
bzhugs so 'tshal bsdus te ma dpe zhus dag dpe bsdur legs par bgyis 1 . tshig gi 'bru dag
kyang sdeb sbyor dang don 'thob kyis legs par 'chos thub pa ni mkhas pa rnams la 'ang
bka ' seb zhig 'dug (text: 'du gi?) kyang I 'di ni e val'(! thar rtse zhabs drung rin po che
rgyud sde rgya mtsho 'i shing rta blo gter zhabs kyi zhal slob nye gnas dge slong phun
tshogs rgyal mtshan nyid bod brda 'i 'bru dag bgyid pa la mkhas pa rnams kyis kyang do
zlar ma gyur ha tsam gyi ya mtshan mnga ' ba de nyid kyis lan grangs du mar dpe bsdud
'bru bcos kyi sri zhu nan du phul nas).
7 6 1 "rGya gzhung dkar chag", 32b 1 _2 : "The originals of [these] volumes, which had been
prepared in this way, were kept at the great publishing house attached to the great Ka
gyu seat of dPal spungs in mDo khams, [also called] Yid dga' chos 'dzin gyi chos
grva. " (de ltar grub pa 'i glegs ham gyi phyi mo ' ang mdo khams bka ' brgyud kyi gdan sa
chen po dpal spungs yid dga ' chos 'dzin gyi chos grva dang zung 'brel ba 'i spar khang
chen mor bzhugs su gsol ha lags so). The description of the seventh Karmapa' s collec
tion partly is from Mathes 20 1 1 :90-93.
..

322

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

Comparing the Tibetan with Shastri' s editio princeps and the edition of
the twenty-four S anskrit texts by the Taisho Study Group, I disagreed
with a number of readings and thus decided to systematically check
again the manuscript NGMPP reel no. B 22/24 from the National Ar
chives in Kathmandu and the Tokyo manuscript. Various forms of as
sistance in this process from Prof. Diwakar Acharya (Kyoto University)
and Nirajan Kafle (Nepal Research Centre, Kathmandu) are gratefully
acknowledged.
Postscript: During his visit to Vienna in January 201 5 , Francesco Sferra
informed me about the existence of further Sanskrit manuscripts with
parts of the *Advayavajrasamgraha. It was too late, however, to include
them in my edition.
Abbreviations used in the edition:
Ill
B
D
Es
Esh
EUi
N
NGMPP
om.
p

one akara missing


two or more akaras missing
dPal spungs edition of the Phyag chen rgya gzhung
Derge bsTan ' gyur
Edition by the "Study Group of Sacred Tantric Texts"
(Mikkyo-seiten kenkyukai)
Edition by Shastri
Edition of the Tattvaratnavalf by Ui
NGMPP B 22/24
Nepal German Manuscript Preservation Project
omittit/omittant
Peking bsTan ' gyur
Tokyo Manuscript

In the following cases variant readings have not been recorded:


dw:uja and double da1:1a
sandhi observed/not observed
internal sandhi, like kiiicit against kirricit
sa against sa or a
shad and double shad
yang against 'ang

1 . Kudrtinirghatana

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) , p. 1 - 1 1


AICSB 10 (March 1 988) (E5), p. 225 - 1 99 ( 10-36)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. lbl -7a5
Tokyo Manuscript (T) , fols. lbl - l l a3
dPal spungs (B) , vol. OJ?i, fols. 196b5-204b3
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2229, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fols. 204b62 1 0a2
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3073, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols . 1 1 3a71 1 9a8
namo1 buddhiiya I
1 N l l l mo
rgya gar skad du I ku dr !i nir 0gha ta na1) I bod skad du I lta ba ngan pa
sel ba zhes bya ba I 'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur pa la phyag 'tshal lo I I
sangs rgyas la phyag 'tshal lo I
1 BDP ga ta na ma (D ma)
vakye 0kudr!inirghii1)tam adikarmavidhiinatal). I
anenc2aiva viharei:ia yatnena labhate padam2) 11 (KDN 1 )
1 T tops are missing 2 T missing
[P 1 1 3b] I gang zhig ' di la gnas gyur na I
rgyal ba'i go 'phang 'thob ' gyur ba I
dang po 'i1 las [D 205a] pa'i cho ga nyid I
lta ba2 ngan sel3 bshad par [B 1 97a] bya I (KDN 1 )
DP po 2 DP om. 3 DP sel ba
0iha hi1) dvividha2 sattval). 8aika aaikas ca I tatra8ayo3 ' dhimuktipra
yogo4 (5bhumiprapannaprayogas ca vasitaptiparyanto hetva5lvasthiisthi
tanar 8aikai:iam suvi8uddhadikarma6vidhanena sarbhara(7dvayar
sarbhrtya7) samyaksarbodhisampallabhal). I a8aikai:iam8 api nirastapra
tipakatattvaphalavikalpanar9 sakyamuner iva prar:iidhanavega10sama-

324

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

rthyad yuganaddhanabhogayogatal). sattvarthakriyalakal).am avicchi


nnam adikarma pravartata eva I iti sthitam11 I tatha12 ca I
1 T om. 2 EsEsh dvidhii T -dhii/:i 3 N tatriisaya T tatrapiya (with a correc
tion sign over the letter pi) 4 T -prayoga 5 N bhumiprapannaprayo Ill n
ca vasitiiptiparyantal:i hetva- T bhu Ill tiiptiparyantahatva- 6 N -rmii- 7
E sNT dvayasambhrta- 8 Es ..:..nam 9 N -piinii 10 T prm:iidhiiniitvava- 1 1
EsN sthital:i 1 2 N trthii
0 'dir ni1) sems can ni rnam pa gnyis te I slob pa dang I mi slob pa'o 1 1 de
la lhag pa'i bsam pas mos pa'i sbyor ba dang I sa la zhugs pa'i sbyor ba
dang I lnga la dbang thob par2 mthar thug pa'i bar du3 rgyu'i gnas skabs
la gnas pa'i slob pa rnams shin tu rnam par dag pa'i las dang <4po pa'i4)
cho gas tshogs gnyis bsags nas yang dag par rdzogs pa'i byang chub
yang dag par ' thob5 bo 1 1 mi slob pa'ang de kho na nyid dang I 'bras bu
rnam par rtog pa ni gnyen po 'i phyogs kyis6 bsal la3 I sha kya thub pa
ltar sngon gyi smon lam gyi shugs kyi nus pas zung du 'jug pa nyid <3du
'bad pa med par3l sems can gyi don byed pa ni mtshan nyid rgyun mi
' chad par dang po 'i las la 'jug go zhes bya bar (7nye bar7l gnas so I
de ' ang I
1 B 'di la 2 B pas 3 P om. 4 P po 'i 5 BP thob 6 P kyi 7 D om.
na te ' sti manyana natha na vikalpo na vefijana1 I
anabhogena te loke buddhakrtya:r pravartate I I (KDN 2)
1 T cenjanii
mg on po sems pa 1 mi mnga' zhing I
rnam rtog g.yo ba mi mnga' yang I
khyod kyi2 ngang gis 'jig rten la I
sangs rgyas mdzad pa 'jug par ' gyur I (KDN 2)
D dpa ' 2 BDP nyid
pararthasa:rpa[T 2a1]c2d buddhana:r phala:r mukhyatama:r ma
tam2J I
buddhatvadi yad anyat3 tu4 tadarthyat phalam iyate I I (KDN 3)
1 The folio was misplaced and microfilmed as the second last in
the bundle 2 N -d buddhiiniiY(l phalaY(l mukhyatamarri T I l l mam
matam 3 N anyas 4 T ta

KUDSTJNIRGHATANA

325

gzhan don phun tshogs sangs rgyas kyi 1 I


'bras bu gtso bo gzhan ma yin I
des na sangs rgyas 'bras bur bshad3 I (KDN 3)
B nyid P kyis 3 D brjod
cintamat)ir ivakampyaI:i sarva0sarkalpavayubhil:i1J I
tathapi sarvasattvanam asqasa2prapurakal:i I I (KDN 4)
1 T 1 1 1 2 N a!fasakun rtog rlung dmar thams cad kyis I
dpag bsam shing ltar mi bskyod pa I
0de lta na yang sems can gyi1J I
bsam pa ma lus yongs rdzogs byed I (KDN 4)
DP de ltar sems can thams cad kyi
[Esh 2] phala1tattvavipakanar vidhyapohavivarjanat2 I
C3sarbodhir buddhyate dhanyais4 tatpascat3l tv adikarmai:ii
(KDN 5)
1 Esh phalaf!l 2 T -varja Ill 3 Esh saf!1bodhir buddhyate dhanyo
tatpascat N saf!1bodhir buddhyate dhanyai tatpacchat T 1 1 1 4 Es T
dhanya
'bras bu de nyid mi mthun phyogs I
blang dang dor ba rnam spangs nas I
blo ldan rdzogs pa'i byang chub rtogs1 I
dang po 'i2 las pa3 ' bad c4par bya4l I (KDN 5)
B rdor 2 D po 3 B pas 4 P pas bsam
[Es 1 2] nanu aikai:iam adikarmavidhanar yujyata1 C2eva I katham afai
kanam api niI:isvabha2lvabhavinam a.c3dikarmarambhal:i I ayam a3lpi su
vari:iani4ga<;labandhana eva I satyam I prajiiaparamitadhigamavirahat I
prajiiaparamita hi paiicaparamitanar svabhavaI:i I ata eva I
I T prayujyata 2 Es katham asaik:ja- T I ll 3 T the lower part of the letters
are missing 4 From here onwards T is damaged
I zhes C1bstan pa yin no1l I ' on2 te las dang po c3pa la3l ni slob pa'i cho ga
nyid rigs na' ang I mi slob par rang bzhin med par bsgoms 4 par ' gyur pa
rnams la c5dang po pa'i las pa'i5l rtsom pa yod pa ji lta bu6 I dper na ' dir
yang gser gyi sgrog gis beings pa lta bu nyid do zhe na I bden te I shes

326

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

rab kyi pha [P 1 14a] rol tu phyin pa'i7 rtogs8 pa dang ma bral ba'i phyir
ro 1 1 shes9 rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa 00ni pha rol tu phyin pa10l lnga'i
<11ngo bo11l nyid do 1 1 de lta12 bas na I
1 B bas bstan [B 1 97b] to 2 B gal 3 DP pas 4 B inserts pas rtogs 5 DP las
dang po pa 'i 6 B bur 7 D pa 8 B rtog 9 B gang gi phyir shes 10 D om. 1 1
D P bdag 12 B om.
sarvakarava[N 2a]ropeta siinyateti nigadyate I (KDN 6)
I rnam pa thams cad kyi mchog dang ldan pa'i stong pa nyid do
zhes bstan pa yin no I (KDN 6)
uktatp. ca bhagavata I prajfiaparamitavirahita9 paficaparamita9 paramita
namadheyatp. na labhante I aryavimalaldrtinirdese coktam I
I de' ang bcom ldan ' das kyis1 <2gsungs so l2J shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin
pa dang bral ba'i pha rol tu phyin pa lngas ni pha rol tu phyin pa'i ming
mi 'thob bo I zhes gsungs [D 1 05b] pa dang I 'phags pa dri ma med par
grags pas bstan pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po 'i mdo las kyang I
1 DP om. 2 BDP om.
prajfiarahita upayo bandha9 I upayara1hita2 pra3jfia bandha9 I
prajfiasahita upayo moka upayasahita prajfia moka9 I I (KDN 7)
1 T (2b2) starts again from the syllable ra 2 N rahita 3 T lost af
ter the syllable pra
shes rab dang bral ba'i thabs ni ' ching ba' o I
thabs dang bral ba'i shes rab kyang ' ching ba' o I
shes rab dang bcas pa'i thabs ni thar pa' o I
thabs dang bcas pa'i shes rab kyang thar pa'o I (KDN 7)
tadatmyatp. canayo9 sadgurupa1de8ata9 <2pradipalokayor iva2l sahajasid
dham eva3dhigamyate I ata eva I
1 T starts again from pa 2 T tops are missing 3 T lost after evaI zhes gsungs 0pa yin no1l 1 1 ' di dag gi2 de'i bdag nyid ni3 bla ma dam
pa'i gdams4 ngag nyid las I sgron ma dang snang ba bzhin du lhan cig
skyes pa grub5 pa bzhin du rtogs par bya' o 1 1 de lta bas na I
1 DP so 2 DP ni 3 D om. 4 DP man 5 P drug

KUDJp;TINIRGHATANA

327

adikarma 1 yathodditar kartavyar sarvayogibhil:t I


srmyatakarui:iabhinnar <2yad bodhau jnanam iyate2l 1 1
(KDN 8 = MV 1 6)
1 T starts again from here 2 T Il l yate
stong nyid snying rje dbyer med pa I
sangs rgyas ye shes ' dod pa gang I
rnal 'byor pa kun bya ba nyid I
dang po 'i las can bstan pa gang I (KDN 8)
adikarma 1 ca I
1 N -rmaii
paficaparamital:t prokta1 adikarmeti sarjfiaya2 I
prajfiaparamita <3casar svabhavo na3lbhir iyate I I (KDN 9)
1 N -ktaf:t 2 T jiiaya 3 T I ll
pha rol [B 1 98a] phyin lngar gang bstan pa I
dang po 'i las can zhes bya la1 I
shes rab pha rol phyin pa de'i2 I
ngo bo nyid ni dpyad par3 bya I (KDN 9)
DP ba 2 BD yi P yis 3 DP mi
tatha catra I
danar Silar kamar1 viryar dhyanar prajfiar ca sadaram I
satatar2 seva[T 3a]yan dhiman <3sukh1 sujfio3J 'pi j ayate I I
(KDN 1 0)
1 N kama 2 N ta . . su tatarrz 3 Esh sukhf svastho N sujiie svagno
01 zhes pa dang l1J I de bzhin du I
1 D om.
sbyin dang tshul khrims bzod brtson ' grus I
bsam gtan shes rab la gus pas I
rtag tu blo ldan gyis bsten na I
bde bar 0shes rab kyang 'byung1l ' gyur I (KDN 1 0)
B gshegs kyang 'byung bar D shes rab 'byung bar

328

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


sambhoganirmiter hetur1 danaSilakamatraC2yam3 I
dhyanaprajfieti dharmasya viryarp. tli2)bhayor4 matam I I
(KDN 1 1)
1 EsEsh -te hetur N -te hetu 2 T 1 1 1 3 N -ya 4 Esh tubha[ya]yor
longs spyod rdzogs dang sprul pa'i rgyu1 I
sbyin dang tshul khrims bzod pa gsum I
bsam gtan shes rab chos kyi ' o I
brtson ' grus gnyis kar ' dod pa yin I (KDN 1 1)
DP sku

[Es 14; Esh 3] tasmad bodhisattvena suvifoddhadikarmaviharil).a bhavi


tavya0m I viparyaye ca nastikavadaprasa1)ngal:t I tad uktam I
1 T Ill
I zhes bstan pas n a byang chub sems dpa' las dang p o pa1 shin tu rnam
par dag pas gnas par bya'o 1 1 c2bzlog pa2) ni chad3 par smra bar thal bar
' gyur ro 1 1 de' ang I [P 1 14b]
1 BDP pas 2 B bzlos pas 3 DP med
fobhafobharp. yady api nil:tsva1bhavakam tathapi C2kuryac chubh
am eva nafobham I
jalendubi2lmbopamalokasarp.vrtau sukharp. priyarp. dul:tkham aja
sram apriyam 1 13 (KDN 1 2)
1 N nisva- 2 T I l l 3 missing in T
dge dang mi dge gang1 phyir dngos med kyang I
de lta' ang2 dge ba nyid bya mi dge3 min I
'jig rten kun rdzob chu yi zla ' dra yang I
c4bde ba4) yid ' ong sdug bsngal rtag5 mi bde I (KDN 1 2)
P gtan tshigs gang 2 DP ltar 3 B dger 4 BD de las 5 D yid
0 katharp. tarhi faikeunrnattavratasthita 1)narp. nirvikalpatadhimuktiva
tam2 adikarma3 pravartatam4 I ucC5yate I fariradanarp. k:rtva caryarp. kr[N
2b ]tavan5) I
1 T 1 1 1 2 T nirvikalpiivimuktivatiim 3 T iikarma 4 T pravarttapravarttatiim
5 T Ill

KUDipj!INIR GHATANA

329

I zhes bstan pa yin no 1 1 de ltar na slob pas smyon pa'i brtul zhugs la
gnas nas rnam par mi rtog pa la 1 myong bar ' dod pas las dang po pa la
'jug pa la1 ji lta bu zhe na I C2brjod par bya' o 12) I lus sbyin par gtong ba'i3
C4spyod pa dang ldan4) pa ste I
1 DP om. 2 D om. 3 DP ba 4 P dang ldan pa 'i spyod
8ariram1
danam2 c3dattva ca3)
pascac caryarr4 samarabhet I (KDN 1 3)
1 EsEsh sarfra- 2 N -dana 3 N dattva T da . . 4 NT carya
I lus ni sbyin par gtang byas la I
I phyi nas spyod pa brtsam par bya I (KDN 1 3)
iti vacanat I 0danar dattar ca 8ariravadhi I kayavakcetasar sarva1)[T
3b] sattvarthaya2 sarvarar:iac chilam I kantis ca kriira3taptakarapaC4tra
dighatasahanataya I viryar catalokadharma4)badhopaC5saha5)nataya I
dhyanar ca sarvasvabhavanugatana6bhogasvaC7rasavahitaya I prajfia ca
sarvadharmanupala7)bdhilakar:iadhic8gamanataya8) I
1 T 1 1 1 2 N -satvathaya 3 N krra- T svara- 4 T I l l 5 T -ma- 6 T -naY(l 6 T 11 1 1 T
-vigamataya
I zhes bya ba'i tha tshig go I I lus gtong ba'i sbyin pa1 dang I lus dang I
ngag dang I yid kyis sems can tharns cad kyi don byed pa'i tshul [B
1 98b] khrims dang I C2drag po'i2l tsha ba la3 sog les gzhag4 pa la C5sogs
pa5) bzod pas6 bzod pa dang I 'jig rten gyi chos brgyad kyis 7 [D 1 06a]
gnod pa la8 mnyam pa nyid kyi brtson ' grus dang I dngos po thams cad
kyi rjes su zhugs pa'i 'bad pa med par9 rang gi ngang gis 00'jug pa'i10l
bsam gtan dang I chos tharns cad mi dmigs par rjes su rtogs1 1 pa'i mts
han nyid kyi shes rab ste I
1 B pa po 2 BD grang ba dang 3 BDP dang I 4 P gsheg 5 DP om. 6 DP
pa 'i 7 DP kyi 8 DP las 9 DP pa 'i 10 DP 'byung ba 'i 11 D brtag P brtags
anabhogarasavedho1 yaC2syajasrar pravartate I
tasyaiva hi pravarta2)nte sarval) paramital) para!) I I (KDN 1 4)
1 Es -vedhe EshN -rasavedhau T -rasavidho 2 EsN -syajasraY(l
pravarta- Esh -syajasraY(l - - - - I - - - - pravarta- T Ill (the lacuna
is large enough for the supplied syllables)

330

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

tasmad unmattavratasthi0tanam apy1J C2adikarma pravartata eva I [Es 1 6]


ca2)rvakapasor nataparalokasya vacanar sarvathaivayuktatvan nodahr
tam3 1 1 C4tatra aikar prati bodhisattvasya4)
1 N -tanarr1m apy T ta Il l 2 N adikakarma pravartata eva I ca- T Il l 3 T
nodahrta 4 Esh bhutaiaikalfl prati bodhisattvasya T I l l
prathamar diyate poadhar
tadanu 0 sikapadar diset1) I (KDN 15)
I EsNT sikapadalfl dasam Esh sikopadesa
iti srlhevajravacanat1
1 T -vaca- 1 1 1 (end of T 3b)

'bad pa med par1 ro gcig pa'i ngang gis thams cad du c2'jug pa ni2J ro
gcig par ' dod pa'i pha rol tu phyin pa thams cad kyi mchog go I (KDN
14; not recognized as metrical)
1 P pa 'i 2 DP om.
I de lta bas na smyon pa'i brtul zhugs la gnas pa1 yang dang po las la
'jug pa nyid yin no 1 1 tshu rol mthong bar grags pa nyams pa'i2 'jig rten
pha rol c31a bslus pa3) thams cad du rigs4 pa tsam ma yin par5 smra ba
ltar ni ma yin no 1 1 de la6 slob ma brtul zhugs can gyi5 byang chub sems
dpa ' la7 I
1 BP pa 'i 2 D pa 3 D slu ba 4 B rig 5 P pa 6 B la 'ang 7 D om. BD la ni
dang por gso sbyong sbyin par bya I
phyi nas bslab pa sbyin par bya1 I (KDN 1 5)
B bya 'o
I zhes dpal1 dgyes rdo rje las gsungs so2 . . .
1 P om. 2 B pas so
[Es 36] 1 1 kudrtinirghatanar samaptam iti II

KUD$TINIRGHATANA

33 1

B 204b2-3 ; D l lOal-2; P 1 1 9a7- 8 : I 0lta ba ngan sel ba zhes bya ba slob


dpon mkhas pa chen po nges par sbyangs pa dpal gnyis su med pa'i rdo
rjes mdzad pa1) rdzogs so 1 1 1 1 (2rgya gar gyi2) mkhan p o bla m a b a dzra pa
J:.li 'i zhal sna nas dang bod kyi lo tsa ba mtshur ston ye shes 'byung gnas
gyis bsgyur C3zhing zhus te gtan la phab3) pa' o 1 1
1 P slob dpon mkhas pa chen po nges par sbyangs pa dpal gnyis s u med
pa 'i rdo rjes mdzad pa lta ngan pa sel ba zhes bya ba 2 P om. 3 DP om.

2 . Kudrtinirghatavakyatippinika

Edition Shastri ( 1 927), p. 1 1 - 1 2


AICSB 1 0 (March 1 988) (Es) , p. 1 97- 1 95 (38-40)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 7a5-8a3
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fols. l l a3 - 1 2a3
dPal spungs (B) , vol. Olfl, fols. 204b4-206al
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 223 1 , fols. 1 1 0a6- l l l a3
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3075, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols. 1 1 9b61 20b6
I rgya gar skad du I ku dr ti nir gha 1 ta <2tI ka2) I bod skad du I 1ta ba ngan
sel gyi dka' ' grel I rdo rje ' dzin pa la phyag 'tshal lo 1 1
1 BDP ga 2 P ti ba
tatravasthatrayam1 I hetvavastha phalavastha2 [*sattvarthakriyavastha
ceti I tatra aikal).ar hetvavastha I tathagatanam phalavastha sattvartha
kriyavastha ceti I tatra hetvavastha*]3 nama bodhicittat prabhrti bodhi
mal).c,ianiadanar3" yavat I phalavastha nama samyaksarbodhijfianotpa
ttau sarvaklea<4gul).a4>prahal).ipraptyavastha I sattvarthakriyavastha na
ma [N 7b] prathamadharmacakrapravartanat prabhrty a sasanantardha
nar5 yavat I
1 EsEsh -stha traya NT -sthatraya 2 EsEsh om. 3 (restored from the
Tibetan) 3" EshNT -vedana1Jl 4 T om. 5 N saanantardhana T sa1Jlsana
ntardhana1Jl
de la gnas skabs ni rnam pa gsum ste I rgyu'i gnas skabs dang I 'bras
bu'i gnas skabs dang I sems can gyi don byed pa'i gnas skabs so 1 1 de la
slob pa ni rgyu'i gnas skabs so 1 1 'bras bu' i gnas skabs dang I sems gyi
don byed pa'i gnas skabs ni de bzhin gshegs pa' o 1 1 de la1 rgyu' i gnas
skabs zhes [D 1 l Ob; P 120a] bya ba ni byang chub kyi2 mchog tu sems
bskyed pa nas bzung ste3 I byang chub kyi snying po la gnas4 kyi bar ro I
I 'bras bu'i gnas [B 205a] skabs zhes bya ba ni yang dag par rdzogs pa'i
byang chub kyi ye shes skyes pa dang2 I nyon mongs pa thams cad
spangs5 pa I yon tan thob pa'i gnas skabs so 1 1 sems can kyi don byed

334

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

pa'i gnas skabs zhes bya ba ni dang po chos kyi 'khor lo bskor ba nas
bzung ste I bstan pa ma nub kyi bar du'o6 I
1 B la 'ang 2 P om. 3 DP nas 4 B mchis 5 D spang 6 DP ro
[Esh 1 2] tatra hetvavastha trividha1 I aayavastha prayogavastha vasita
vastha ceti I tatrafayavastha sattvani[T 1 1 b ]rmokapral).idhanar I tad
dhetavas2 catvaral). I tad yatha I
1 N trividharri 2 T -tas
de la rgyu'i gnas skabs ni1 gsum ste I bsam pa'i gnas skabs dang I sbyor
ba'i gnas skabs dang I dbang gi gnas skabs so 1 1 de la bsam pa'i gnas
skabs ni sems can <2thams cad2l nges par thar pa'i smon lam mo 1 1 de'i
nye ba'i ka3 ba bzhi ni ' di lta ste I <2gzhan gyi2l sdug bsngal nye bar bsal
ba la4 so sor rtogs5 pa dang I dgos pa la so sor rtogs6 pa dang I grogs la
so sor rtogs6 pa dang I longs spyod la so sor rtogs6 pa' o 1 1 de la thabs su
' gro bas7 byang chub tu smon pa ste I de 'i rjes su 'tshol ba bzhi ni ' di lta
ste I
1 BD la 2 P om. 3 EDP dka ' 4 BD om. 5 B rtog D rtag 6 BD rtog 7 DP ba
gotrasanmitrakarul).yadul).khabhirutvahetaval). I
caturbhil). pratyayair Clebhir bodhicittal).1l prajayate I I (KDNT 1 )
1 EsEsh ebhir bodhicittarri N ebhi bodhicitta
rigs dang I bshes gnyen dam pa dang I snying rje dang I sdug bsngal la ji
1 snyam pa'i bzod pa dang <2bzhi ni rgyu bzhi'o 1 1 rkyen bzhi po ' di dag
gis ni2l byang chub kyi sems skye bar ' gyur ro3 I (KDNT 1 )
1 D inserts m i 2 P rkyen bzhi bzhi rnams las 3 D te
iti vacanat I daabhir arthair1 aayavastha I tatra prayogo2 dvividha2a I
bhilmipraptasya3 paramital). sapta4 I tatradhimukticaritasya paramita da
Sa I
1 NT athair 2 T prayogii 2a EsEsh T dvidhii 3 EsNT adhimukticittasya Esh
adhimuktacittasya 4 N saptafi

KUDf!.$'[/NIRGHATAVAKYATfPPINIKA

335

I zhes bya ba'i1 tshig bcu po de dag gis2 ston te I lhag pa'i bsam pa'i
gnas skabs so I (3de la sbyor ba'i gnas skabs ni gnyis te 13) lhag par mos
pa'i4 sbyor bas sbyor lam pha rol tu phyin pa bcu dang I sa thob pa'i pha
rol tu phyin pa bdun no I I de la lhag par mos pa'i pha rol tu phyin pa
bcu ni I
1 BP ba 2 BP om. 3 D om. 4 D pa
0danar snar1i kama c2v1ryar dhyanarp.2) prajna upayata I
prar:iidhanarp. balarp. jfianam etal;i3 paramita dafa I I
(KDNT 2 = MA V V.5)
I T diina sfla 2 T vfrya dhyiina 3 Esh matiil:z
sbyin pa dang I tshul khrims [B 205b] dang I bzod pa dang I brtson ' grus
dang I bsam gtan dang I shes rab dang I thabs dang I smon lam dang I
stobs dang I ye shes te I de dag1 ni pha rol tu phyin pa [P 1 20b] bcu ' o I
(KDNT 2)
1 P orn.
bhumipraptasya danarp.1 catasrbhil;i sampadbhil;i sampannam afayapra
yogapratigrahakadeyasampadbhir iti I danaSilakantiviryadhyanaprajfio
paya2 etal;i sapta paramital;i I adhimukti3caryacari4taC5paramitabhyo5) visi
ya[N 8a]ta iti dvividha prayogavastha I
I EsEshNT om. diinaf(l 2 Esh diinaf(l sflaf(l kiintir vfryaf(l dhyiinaf(l prajiiii
upiiyal:z 3 T -kta- 4 N -re- 5 N -piiritiibhyo
sa thob pa'i sbyin pa ni phun sum tshogs pa bzhi ni 1 I bsam pa dang I
sbyor ba dang I 2 yongs su ' dzin pa dang I sbyin pas phun sum tshogs pa
ste I sbyin pa dang I tshul khrims dang I bzod pa dang I brtson ' grus dang
I bsam gtan dang I shes rab dang I thabs te de dag ni pha rol tu phyin pa
bdun no I Ihag par mos pa'i sbyor ba (3dag las3) pha rol tu phyin pa dag
bye brag [ l l l a] tu gyur pa' o I mam pa gnyis po ' di dag ni sbyor ba'i
gnas skabs so I
1 B ste 2 BP insert grogs kyi khyad par dang j 3 DP bas
tatra vasitaJ:i panca I tad yatha 0kie8a u1)papattiJ:i1a c2karma u2)payaJ:i3 sa
ttvaparipa[r 1 2a]kavastha ceti I
1 Es kleo- la EsEshNT -tti 2 Es karma- 3 EsEshNT -ya-

336

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

de la dbang Inga ni ' di lta ste I nyon mongs pa dang I skye ba dang I las
dang I thabs dang I sems can yongs su smin pa la dbang ba rnams so I
tatra hetvavasthasthitena sarvam adikarma kartavyam I phalavasthasa
ttvarthakriyavasthasthitasya ca sakyamuner ivanabhogenadikarma pra
vartata eveti I vistarer,ia kudrtinirghate jfieyam I
0de la1) rgyu' i gnas skabs la2 gnas pa las dang po pa rnams kyis thams
cad bya' o 1 1 de las3 'bras bu' i gnas skabs dang I sems can gyi don byed
pa'i gnas skabs la gnas pa rnams kyis sakya thub pa ltar ' bad pa med
par4 las dang po pa la rab tu 'jug go I ' di5 ni lta ba ngan pa sel ba rgyas
par shes par bya' o I
1 P de 'i 2 P om. 3 DP la 4 P pa 5 BD 'di dag gis P 'dis
1 1 kudrtinirghatavakyatippir,iikeyarp.1 srirnatpar,ic;iitavadhutadvayavajra
pactanarp. krtir iyam I I
1 E s -nikeyaf(l Esh -nirghiitadivakya?ippinikeyaf(l N -nirghatadiva
kya?ippinikeya T -?ipinikeyaf(l
lta ba ngan sel ba'i dka' 'grel 01am dran pa zhes bya ba1) dpal ldan legs2
par sbyangs pa gnyis su med c3pa'i rdo rjes3) mdzad pa rdzogs so I I
C4rgya gar gyi mkhan po4) ba dzra pa r,ii dang I c4bod kyi lo tsa ba4) mtshur
csston dznya na ka ras5l [B 206a] bsgyur c6zhing zhus te gtan la phab
pa' o6) I I
1 D om. P lam dran pa 2 DP nges 3 D pas 4 D P om. 5 DP gyis 6 D P b a yin
no

3 . Mulapattayaft

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) , p. 1 3


AICSB 1 0 (March 1 988) (Es), p. 193 (42)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fol. 8a3-b2
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fol. 1 2a3-b3
apratithitanirval).ar jagadanandasundaram I
natva mafijusriyar vakye1 mi1lapattis caturdafa I I (MA 1 )
1 N vak!fe
acaryev avamanena sugatajfiavilanghane I
dvead1 gotragul).akhyane mahamaitrivivarjane I I (MA 2)
1 EshN -tit
bodhicittaparityage yanatritayanindane I
guhyakhyane jane pake jinatmaskandhadi1al).e1 I I (MA 3 )
1 NT -ne
uddhatmadharmasandehe duta1maitri2viragataJ:i I
dharmev anadvayarope sraddha[T 1 2b]cittapradi1al).e I I (MA 4)
i E sh l. !fta- 2 T -tryasamayasevane 'praptau1 prajfiatmastripradi1al).e I
mi1lapattir [N 8b] bhavet tena mantrinaJ:i samayakatiJ:i2 I I
(MA S)
1 EshNT praptau 2 Esh -krtiJ:i
tatkrtau siddhayo na syur maro duJ:ikhasya saficayal,t I
ni1rayagatir2 ca bhurkte ' sau fivrar3 vividhavedanam4 I I
(MA 6)
1 N ti- 2 NT -fii 3 EshN tfvra 4 Esh -tiJ:i

338

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


guror yathaptitaJ:i1 pujar vidhaya mal.).9-ale tataJ:i I
g:rhl.).!yad bodhicittar ca ratnatrayadisarvaram2 I I (MA 7 )
1 Esh yathii "ptitaf:i 2 N -sa7Jivarama

mUlapattayaJ:i samaptaJ:i1 I I
1 T samiiptaf:i

4. Sthulapattayafl

Edition Shastri ( 1 927), p. 1 3


AICSB 1 0 (March 1 988) (Es) , p. 1 9 1 (44)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fol. 8b2-4
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fols. 12b4- 1 3al
vidyayaf.11 sevane prltya samayanam ayogataf.i I
gal).acakre vivadar ca guhyadharmaprakaanat I I (SA 1 )
1 NT -ya
sractcthasattveu sactctharmacte8ana anyatha bhramat1 I
saptahar vasan2 madhye sravakanar3 mahat4krte I I (SA 2)
1 Es -met 2 N -sat 3 NT -nii 4 EshN mahayogabhyaniscite1 yogy2abhajane guhyadeanat I
sthlilapattir3 bhavet tena yoginaf.i sarvarakatif.14 I I (SA 3)
1 Esh yogiit pati[ta]S cet N yogiibhyanifrete 2 N yogi 3 NT patyo 4 EshNT --krtif:i
pujayitva mahacaryar yatha8aktyu1pacarata}:i I [T 1 3a]
apraticchannacittena deayet tat2krtau vratI 1 1 (SA 4)
1 T yathasa- 2 Esh tu N ta
sthUlapattaya}:i samaptaf.11 I I
i N -af:i

5 . Tattvaratnavalf

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh), p. 14-22


Sanskrit edited by Hakuju Ui : "Shinri no Hokan (Tattvaratnavalf) ,"
Nagoya Daigaku Bungakubu Kenkyuronshu 3 ( 1 952) , Tetsugaki 1 (EuJ,
p. 1 -3 1
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 8b4- 14b l
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fols. 13al -20b5 (fol. 1 6 i s missing)
dPal spungs (B), vol. orri, fols. 21 6b4-223b l
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2240, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fols. 1 15a61 20al
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3085, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols. 1 26b61 30b8
namal:i sr1vajrasattvaya I
rgya gar skad du I ta ttva ra tna a ba 111 na ma I bod skad du I de kho na
nyid rin po che 'i phreng ba zhes bya ba I <2dpal rdo rje sems dpa' la
phyag 'tshal lo 12) I 'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur pa la phyag 'tshal lo I
1 BDP li 2 DP om.
pra:r:iamya vajrasattvasya cara:r:iambhoruhadvayam I
tattvaratnavalir brumal:i faraccandramaladyutel:i I I (TRA 1 )
ston ka'i zla b a dri med ' od I
rdo rje sems dpa'i zhabs gnyis kyi1 I
chu skyes la ni phyag 'tshal nas I
de nyid rin chen <2phreng brjod bya2) I (TRA 1)
P kyis 2 DP brjod par bya
0sadamna1)yaparibhrata2tamovrtadrsam iyam I
tattvaratnavalI samyak pursar [N 9a] tattvaprakasinI3 I I
(TRA 2)
1 T sada I ma- 2 N -bhasta- T -bhrarrisa- 3 N-nfrri

342

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


brgyud pa'i gzhung lugs las nyams shing I
rab rib kyis ni mig bkab pa'i I
skyes bu rnams la yang dag pa'i I [D 1 15b]
de nyid [B 2 17a] rin chen phreng1 bshad bya I (TRA 2)
DP rnam

tatra tril)-i yanani I sravakayanar pratyeka0buddha1lyanar mahayanar


ceti I sthitayas catasraI:i I vaibhaikasautra1antikayogacara<2madhyami
ka2lbhedena I tatra vaibhaikasthitya sravakayanar pratyekabuddha1l_
yanar ca vyakhyayate I mahayanar ca dvividhar paramitanayo ma
ntranayas ceti I tatra3 paramitanayal:i sautrantikayogacara<2madhyami
ka2lsthitya vyakhyayate I mantranayas tu yogacara<2madhyamika2lsthitya
vyakhyayate4 I yogacaras ca dvividhal:i I sakaraniraka[T 1 3b] rabhedena I
evar <5madhyamiko 'pi5l mayopamadvayavadisarvadharmapratithana
vadibhedad dvividhal:i 1 1
1 EshNT om. 1 " N -tii- 2 EshN -madhyamaka- 3 Eui tatra ca N tatra yo 4
Esh vyiikhyiinayate N vyiikhyiipayate 5 N madhyamikopi
I de la theg pa ni gsum ste I nyan thos kyi theg pa dang I rang sangs
rgyas kyi theg pa dang I theg pa chen po zhes bya 'o 1 1 gnas pa ni bzhi
dag1 ste I bye brag tu smra ba dang I mdo sde pa dang I rnal 'byor spyod
pa pa2 dang I dbu ma pa'i dbye bas so 1 1 de la bye brag tu smra ba'i gnas
pa ni I nyan thos kyi theg pa dang I rang sangs rgyas kyi theg pa zhes
bya' o 1 1 theg pa chen po pa' ang rnam pa gnyis te I pha rol tu phyin pa'i
theg pa dang 13 I gsang sngags kyi theg pa zhes bya' o I de la pha rol tu
phyin pa'i theg pa la' ang gsum ste I mdo sde pa dang I mal ' byor spyod
pa dang [P 1 25a] I dbu ma la gnas pas4 dpyad5 par bya' o 1 1 gsang sngags
kyi tshul6 la' ang gnyis te I rnal 'byor spyod pa pa2 dang I dbu ma pa2 la
gnas pa'o 1 1 rnal ' byor spyod pa pa2 la' ang rnam pa gnyis te I rnam pa
dang bcas pa dang I rnam pa med pa'i dbye bas so 1 1 de bzhin du dbu ma
pa2 la' ang rnam pa gnyis te I sgyu ma lta bur gnyis su med par smra ba
dang I chos thams cad rab tu mi gnas par smra ba' i dbye bas so I
1 D bzhi 2 DP om. 3 P continues on fol. 1 24b 8 4 BD par 5 DP spyad 6 BD
theg pa

TATTVARATNAVALl

343

[Sravakayana]
tatra sravakas1 trividha9 I mrdumadhyadhimatrabhedena2 I atra ca mrdu
madhyau pascatyavaibhaikau I adhimatras tu kasmiravaibhaikal)-3 II
1 N friiva T friivaka 2 Em -bhediit 3 N -vebhiisikaf:i
I de la nyan thos kyang mam pa gsum ste I tha ma dang I 'bring dang I
mchog gi dbye bas so 1 1 de la tha ma dang 'bring ni bye brag tu smra
ba'i 0nub phyogs pa' o1l 1 1 mchog ni kha che bye brag tu smra ba' o I
1 P phyi ma 'o
[Inferior Sravaka]
tatra mrdusravakasya vicaral). I nnap1tadibahyarthangikarapurvakar pu
dgalasya nityanityatvaviyuktim 1 aheti vivrtil)-2 I tad uktam I
1 T -tam 2 NT vivrttif:i
I de la nyan thos tha ma pa'i dpyad1 par bya ba ni sngon po dang ser po
la so gs pa2 phyi 'i don khas len pa sngon du ' gro bas I gang zag ni rtag
pa dang mi rtag pa nyid dang bral ba' o [B 2 1 7b] zhes rnam par spyod3
pa' o 1 1 de ' ang
1 B spyad 2 P pa 'i 3 DP dpyad
[Em 2] asti khalv iti niladi [N 9b] 0jagad iti ja<;liyase1l I
bhavagrahagrahaveagambhic2ranayabhirave2J I I (TRA 3 )
1 Esh - - - - - - - para N ja . . . . ti . . . . . . se T jagiid diiti jacjfyase 2
Esh riipiiyabhfrave N -dhiimabhfrave T -ranayabhfve (see SBhS
388 - )
22 23
sngon po la sogs yod par ni I
dngos ' dzin gdon gyis zin pa mams I
zab mo 'i 0lugs kyi1J 'jigs pa yi2 I
' gro ba shin tu rmongs pa la'o I (TRA 3) I zhes bya ba dang I
B lung gis D lus kyi 2 BD yis
asti pudgalo bharavaho T,la T,liccarp bhaT,lami T,laT,liccarp bhaT,lamiti pudga
las ca ragavan sarpsarafiti ragaprahaT,layaubhabhavana1 dhyanarp1" I
aubhabhavana2 tu farirasya viT,13mutraukrafoT,litaslemantantraC4sandhi-

344

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

phupphusa4)cikkil).aklamatha5<6plihay alqtprabhp:isamudaya6) (7ru[T 14a]


patanirlipal).am7) I tad uktam I
1 Esh samaprahii!Jii.[Esh l 5]yiisuddharri matama- 1" Esh -dhyayan 2 -f}ii. 3
EshN vin- Eu; biJJ- 4 EshErn -sirrihanaka- N om. -pphusa- 5 Eu; -cikkiJJa
klomaka- T -cikkisaklamatha- 6 N -plfhayakrtprabhiltisamudada- T -plf
hayakrtprabhiltisamudaya- 7 Esh (da)rilpata nirilpayet -T -rupataniril
panam N -rupatanirilpa I l l
I khur khur ba'i gang zag kyang (lyod p a ste1) I rtag p a zhes kyang mi
brjod de 1 1 mi rtag ces kyang mi brjod do 1 1 gang zag ' dod chags dang
bcas pa ni 'khor bar ' gyur bas I ' dod chags rab tu spang ba'i phyir mi
sdug pa'i bsam gtan bsgom par bya'o 1 1 mi sdug pa bsgom pa la' ang1"
lus kyi bshang ba dang I gci ba dang I khu ba dang I khrag dang I (2lud pa
dang 1 2) ngar snabs dang I rgyu ma dang I [D 1 16a] zhag3 dang I glo ba
dang I snying dang I mkhal ma dang I mtsher4 pa dang I pho ba la sogs pa
tshogs pa la nges par dpyod5 pa' o 1 1 de yang gsungs pa I
1 D yod de P yod do 1" D yang 2 DP om. 3 P bzhag 4 DP mcher 5 BP spy
od
imar carmaputar tavat svabuddhyaiva 1 prthak kuru2 I
asthipafijarato marp.sar prajfiaastrei;ta mocaya I I (TR.A 4)
1 EshErnN svabuddhau ca 2 Eu; prthakkuru
re zhig pags pa'i kha sbyor ' di I
rang gi blo yis 1 tha dad dbye I
sha yang rus pa'i2 drwa ba las I
shes rab mtshon gyis dbye bar bya I (TR.A 4)
P yi 2 P pa
asthiny api prthak kft:va1 pasya majjanam2 antatai:i I
kim atra saram astiti svayam eva vicaraya 1 1 iti I (TR.A 5)
1 Eu; prthakkrtva 2 NT majjanam
rus pa rnams kyang dbye byas [P 125b] nas I
rkang gi bar du blta 1 byas na I
' di la snying po ci yod ces I
bdag nyid kyis ni brtag par gyis2 I (TR.A 5)
BD dbye 2 DP bgyi

TAITVARATNAVALl

345

0 1 zhes bstan pa' o l1J


1 BP om.
pudgalasya nityatvadarfana0purvo ragal_l1J samadhimalam I yavajjivar
buddhar dharmar sarghar Saral).ar gacchami I
1 EUi -purvarohaft N -purvaropa
0dvav eva1J vandyau <2sugato 'tha vrddhal_l2l I (TRA 6)
(lndravajra)
1 Esh om. EUi kif(l punar 2 Esh sugatau 'tha vrddhaft Eu; sugatau
'tha buddhau
yavatkualamiilar tenaikam1 atmanar damayiyamy ekam atmanam
amayiyamy2 ekam atmanar parinirvapayiyamiti drtil.i 1 1
1 EuiNT tam ekam 2 EshN samayf syam
I gang zag gi1 rtag <2pa nyid du lta2l ba sngon du song <3ba'i tshogs pa3l ni
ting nge ' dzin gyi dri ma' o 1 1 ji srid 'tsho 'i bar du sangs rgyas dang I
chos dang I dge ' dun gsum la skyabs su mchi' o I <31 bde bar gshegs pa
dang I rgan po gnyis la phyag bgyi' o l3aJ I dge ba'i rtsa b a ci <4mchis pas4l
bdag nyid gcig pu dul bar bgyi'o 1 1 bdag nyid gcig pu zhi bar [B 2 1 8a]
bgyi ' o I zhes bya ba ' di ni lta ba' o I
1 D gis 2 P par blta 3 DP ba ni 3a Not recognized as a quotation 4 D bsags
pas P bsags pa
[Average Sravaka]
madhyasya1 drtivivrtil_l2 piirvavat I kircit parartharucir asau I [N l Oa]
anapanasamadhina nityanityatvaviyuktapudgaladarfanar dhyanam I ku
mbhakena niscetTuhaval_l samadhimalar jac;lyavahakatvat I I
1 N T madhyamasya 2 T -vivrttf N -vivrti
'bring po' i lta ba dang dpyod1 pa ni snga ma bzhin no 1 1 ' di ni gzhan gyi
don cung zad byed par ' dod pa'o2 I I dbugs dbyung ba dang rngub3 pa' i
ting nge ' dzin gyis rtag p a c4dang mi rtag pa4l nyid dang bral b a ' i gang
zag la lta ba'i bsam gtan dang I rlung gi bum pas5 sems med pa'i rang
bzhin ni ting nge ' dzin gyi dri <6ma ste6ll bems por gyur pa'i phyir ro I
1 B spyod P dpyad 2 P pa dang 3 DP dbugs rngub 4 P om. 5 D pa 'i 6 DP
ma 'o

346

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

[Superior Sravakas]
sravaka-adhimatrasya [T 14b] bahyarthan1gikaril).al,i 8arirasya naira
tmyatavyava2sthapanar: vivrtil,i I caturaryasatyaparijfiane3 pudgalasya
sunyatadar8anar: dhyanam I atra ca dul,ikhar: pancaskandhasvarupar:
jfiatavyam I samudayo vikalpal,i prahatavyal,i I nirodho4 vipasyana saka
tkartavyal,15 I margaI,i c6sunyata bhavyal,16) I sunyatayal,i sadasivarupata
dhyaropo1 dhyanamalam I drtau punar asya pararthakaritaviseal,i I I
1 Esh biihyiirthii[na]li- 2 T om. -va- 3 T -satyabhiivajniine 4 EshN -rodhye
5 Esh siikiit kartavyaf:i 6 Es sunyatii bhiivayitavyeti EshN om. 7 T -rupatii
'dhyiiropo
I mchog gis1 ni phyi 'i don khas len cing I lus la bdag med pa nyid du
rnam par 'jog2 cing dpyad3 pa'o 1 1 'phags pa'i bden pa bzhi yongs su
shes pas 0gang zag1l stong pa nyid du lta4 ba ni bsam gtan no 1 1 ' dir
sdug bsngal ni phung po lnga'i rang bzhin te I shes par bya' o I I kun
'byung ni rnam par rtog pa ste I spang par bya' o 1 1 ' gog pa ni lhag
mthong ste I mngon csdu bya' o5l I I lam ni stong pa nyid de bsgom par
bya' o 1 1 stong pa nyid kyang c6rtag tu6l zhi ba'i mam pa nyid du sgro
' dogs7 pa ni bsam gtan gyi dri ma' o 1 1 yang ' di'i lta ba ni gzhan gyi8 don
byed pa' i khyad par ro I
1 DP om. 2 D 'jig P gzhig 3 B spyod 4 P blta 5 DP du 'o 6 B rtog pa 7 DP
btags 8 P om.
atra ca mrdusravako niyatagotratvad akarul).ika0tvac chravakallbuddha
evety eke I anye tu I
I EshEUi -tviit siikya- N -tviic chriikaI yang ' dir nyan thos kyi tha ma ni rigs nges pa nyid kyi phyir dang I
snying rje dang bral ba'i phyir nyan thos kyi byang chub nyid du ' gyur
ro zhes kha cig ' dod do I
[Esh 1 6; Eui 3] I sarve1 buddha bhaviyanti nabhavyo bhuvi2 vi

dyate I
I na kartavyo 'vasado3 ' smat samyaksambodhisadhane I I iti I I
(TRA 7 )
1 EshN sarva- 2 Esh bhuvi 3 T 'vaiido

347

TATTVARATNAVALl

sattvanar m:rdusravako 'pi samyaksambuddho bhaviyafiti I niyata


gotrar tu kircid1 buddham <2apekyeti2) manyante3 I madhyas tu bhavi
pratyekabuddhaJ:i I adhimatras tu catuJ:ikalpa<4sarkhye4)ya[T 1 5 a]bhi
nirvartyabuddha iti I
1 EshNT kaiicid 2 EUi apekata iti N apekyati T apeketi 3 EUi manyate
4 T -sakheI gzhan dag ni I
I 0sangs rgyas thams cad1) nyid du ' gyur I
I ' di na skal med ' ga' yang med I (TRA 7)
1 D thams cad [D l l 6b] sangs rgyas
ces bya bas I bdag gis yang dag par rdzogs pa'i byang chub bsgrub pa la
sgyid lug1 par mi bya' o snyam sems shing I nyan thos tha ma' ang2 yang
dag par [B 2 1 8b] rdzogs pa'i sangs rgyas su ' gyur ro zhes zer ro 1 1 rigs
nges pa'ang sangs rgyas 'ga' zhig la brten nas ' gyur ro snyam sems so I
I 'bring po ni rang sangs rgyas nyid du ' gyur ro3 I 4 mchog ni bskal pa
grangs med pa bzhis sangs rgyas nyid du ' gyur ro zhes zer ro I
1 P lugs 2 P ma 3 D ba 'o 4 P continues on fol. 1 27a
3
[Pratyekabuddhayana]
pratyekabuddhayanasya1 viv:rtir adhimatrasravakasyaiva I ayar ca pra
tipannapudgalasunyacintyatalakm:iana1acaryasvayambhujfianavipasya
naamathaJ:i2 I c3tatre3lndriyan nirodho vipasyana pu[N l Ob]dgalasyanu
palabdhiJ:i I kayavakcetasar4 saryamaJ:i5 amathaJ:i6 I idam asya dhya
nam I atrasannanidrasya cetasaJ:i sukha7vasthadhyanam I cetasaJ:i su
su8ptavasthadhyanar ca samadhimalam9 I tatra purvasmin bhaskarama
tanupraveal:t I tad uktam I
1 EshNT pratyekasya la Esh -ma- 2 EshNT -samarthal:i 3 EshEUiN tatra i- T
tate- 4 N kayaka . . tasiif(l 5 Esh saf(lya[ma]- N saf(lya . 6 EshNT samar
thal:i 7 N . . khii- 8 EshEUi -u- 9 N -mala
.

rang sangs rgyas rnams kyi dpyad1 pa ni I nyan thos mchog rnams kyi
bzhin no 1 1 ' di la zhugs pa'i gang zag ni stong pa nyid dang I bsam du
med pa'i mtshan nyid dang I slob dpon med pa dang I rang byung gi ye
shes dang I lhag mthong dang I zhi gnas so 1 1 de la lhag mthong ni dbang

348

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

po marns ' gog pa dang I gang zag mi drnigs pa' o 1 1 zhi gnas ni lus dang I
ngag dang I yid yang dag par sdom pa ste I ' di ni 'di'i bsam gtan no 1
' di la gnyid2 kyis sems bsdus pa'i bde ba'i gnas skabs kyi sems kyi
bsam gtan dang I sems las byung ba shin tu ' gags pa'i gnas skabs ni
bsarn gtan gyi dri ma' o 1 1 de la snga ma ni nyi ma'i gzhung la <3rjes su3l
zhugs pa marns <4kyis te4l I de ' ang I
1 B spyod 2 BD gnyis 3 P om. 4 P kyi ste
anagataya:rp. nidraya:rp. pranate bahyagocare I
ya bhaven manaso 'vastha bhavayet tii:rp. prayatnatal:_i I I iti I
(TRA 8)
0 ong bar1l gyur pa'i gnyid dag ni I
phyi yi spyod yul nyarns pa2 na I
yid kyi spyod yul gang ' gyur pa I
de ni 'bad pas3 bsgom par bya I (TRA 8)
BD 'ongs par 2 B pas 3 BD la
<11 zhes bya ba dang 1 1)
1 BP om.
aparasrni:rp.s tu vaieikarnatanupravesal:_i I tad ahur1 nagarjunapadal:_i I
1 N ahu
ajanana:rp. hi prajfiana:rp. nidradrtantasadhitam I
indriyoparata:rp. yadvaj 1 jfiana:rp. vaiseika:rp. matarn I I (TRA 9)
1 T yac ca
gzhan yang bye brag pa'i gzhung gi rjes su 'brang ba mams 0kyi yang1l
I klu sgrub kyi zhal snga nas I
1 BD kyis kyang
shes pa med pa'i ye shes gang I
gnyid kyi dpe yis1 bsgrubs pa yin2 I
dbang po ' gags3 pa'i shes pa ste I
bye brag pa yi ' dod pa yin I (TRA 9)
P yi 2 BDP ni 3 BD 'gag

TAITVARATNAVALl

349

[B 219a] 0 1 zhes bstan pa yin no l1J


1 P om.
bhagavat1pravacanam api I
1 EshEm bhagavataf:i N bhagavata
[T 1 5b] varar jetavane1 ramye srgalatvar vrajamy aham I
na tu vaiseikar mokar <2gotvam agantum2l arhati 1 1 iti I
(TRA 1 0)
1 N jitavane T jaitavane 2 Esh gotamagantum NT gautamo gan
tum
bcom ldan ' das kyi 1 gsung rab las kyang I
1 BP kyis
rgyal byed [P 1 27b] tshal ni nyams dga' bar I
bdag ni1 wa ru2 gyur kyang sla'i I
bye brag pa yi thar pa ni I
nam yang gau3 ta ma ma ' tshal lo I (TRA 1 0)
DP nyid 2 B nyid 3 D go
I zhes bstan pa yin no I
drtir api purvavat I ayam api catul).kalpasarkhye1yabhinirvartyabu
ddhabhaval). I karm:ia canayol). sravakapratyeka<2buddhayol).2J [Esh 1 7] sa
ttvavalambana I dul).khadul).khatavipari1,1amadul).khatabhyam ahany aha
ni sattvan3 alambya ya karu1,1otpadyate sa sattvavalambana I sravakasya
deana [N 1 l a] vacikr pratyekabuddhasya5 tu kayiki I tad uktam I
1 T -khe- 2 EshNT -yof:i T om. 3 T hanyamanasattvan 4 EshEmN vacakf 5
EshNT pratyekasya
0 1 lta ba ni snga ma bzhin no l 1J I ' di ' ang bskal pa grangs med pa bzhi
' das2 nas sangs rgyas su ' gyur ba' o 1 1 nyan thos dang rkyen rtog3 ' di dag
gi snying rje ' ang [D 1 17a] sems can dmigs pa ste I sdug bsngal kyi sdug
bsngal nyid dang I ' gyur ba'i sdug bsngal nyid1 <4dag la4l nyin re zhing I
sems can la dmigs nas snying rje gang skye ba de ni I sems can la dmigs
pa'i snying rje ' o I I nyan thos ni ngag gis5 ston pa' o I I <6rang sangs
rgyas6l ni lus kyis7 ston pa'o 1 1 de 'ang I
1 DP om. 2 B 'das pa 3 D rtogs 4 D dga ' 5 P gi 6 DP rkyen rtogs 7 P kyi

350

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


[Em 4] sambuddhanam anutpade sravakanai:p.1 (2punal). kaye2J I
jfianai:p. pratyekabuddhanam3 asai:p.sargat4 prajayate5 I I (TRA 1 1)
1 N fravakanaf(lm 2 EshNT parikaye 3 NT -buddhasya 4 N sa
sarggat T saf(lsargat Esh saf(lsargat ca 5 EUi pravartate
rdzogs sangs rgyas rnams 0mi 'byung1l zhing I
nyan thos rnams kyang zad pa na I
rang sangs rgyas kyi ye shes ni I
rten2 pa med par rab tu 'byung I (TRA 1 1)
B ma byung 2 P rtog

zhes bstan pa' o I


[Mahayana, Paramitanaya]
[Sautrantika]
idanii:p. paramitanayayogina ucyante1 I tatra mrdul).2 sautrantikal). I asya
khalu paramal).u3sai:p.cayarupo4 'rthal). sakarajfianajanakal). I tasya ceyam
eva pratyavekal).a5 yad uta sakarajfianajanaka6tvai:p. nama I [T 1 6a] 7 tad
ahul). I
1 N ucyate 2 EshN mrdu 3 NT paramanu- 4 N -rupa 5 EshT pratyavekata
N pratyavetyavekata 6 T -na- 7 T, fol. no. 1 6 is missing
da ni pha rol tu phyin pa'i rnal ' byor pa rnams kyi brjod par bya' o 1 1 de
la chung ngu ni mdo sde pa'o 1 1 yang ' di'i don ni1 rdul phra rab bsags
pa'i ngo bo rnam pa dang bcas pa'i shes pa skyed2 par byed pa'i ngo
bo ' o 1 1 de' ang ' di'i ngo bo nyid ni gang gi phyir rnam pa dang bcas pa'i
shes pa skyed2 pa nyid ces bya' o I de' ang
1 D du 2 D skyes P bskyed
bhinnakalai:p.1 kathai:p. grahyam iti ced grahyatam vidul). I
hetutvam eva yuktijfia jfianakararpal).akamam2 I I
(TRA 1 2=PV 111.247)
1 N -kala 2 Esh -yam
I tha dad dus su1 ji ltar gzung zhe na I
I mkhas pas gzung bar bya ba nyid I

TATTVARATNA.VAL!

35 1

rig pa'i shes par gtan tshigs nyid I


shes pa rnam pa len bzod pa' o I (TR.A 1 2)
B su 'ang
iti vivrtil;1 I viayebhyal; paravrttendri2yagramasyacintyata3 dhyanam I
tad uktam I abhyasasyeyar4 c5kalo nayar5) kalal; sakat6kriyaya!; I ta
smat paricaya1;7 kartavyal; I paricayas8 ca I
1 N vivivrtti/:t 2 N paravrttenti- 3 N -tyanta 4 Esh -syayaf(l 5 EshEmN
kalana yat 6 Esh Stif(lkhytif(l Em Saf(lkhya N sakhya 7 N paricaya 8 N pa
rijaya
[B 2 1 9b] I zhes bya ba ni brtags1 pa' o 1 1 dbang po yul gyi grong las
yongs su ldog pa'i2 bsam gyis mi khyab c3pa ni3) bsam gtan no 1 1 de' ang
' di ni goms par bya ba'i dus yin gyi I mngon sum du bya ba'i dus ni ma
yin no I zhes gsungs pas I de'i phyir goms par bya ba kho na' o 1 1 goms
par bya ba' ang I
1 P brtag 2 P pa 3 P pa 'i
cittar niscitya1 c2bodhena a2)bhyasar kurute yada I
tada cittar na pasyami kva gatar kva3 sthitar4 bhavet I I
(TRA 1 3 )
1 N niscintya 2 N bodhena- (unmetrical) 3 Em om. 4 N sthitaf(lm
sems kyis1 sems med rtogs2 pa yis3 I
gang tshe goms par byed pa na I
gang nas gang du song gyur pa I
de tshe sems mthong mi ' gyur ro I (TR.A 1 3)
DP kyi 2 D rtog 3 P yi
bhiivayed 0grhibhuto 'pi samasritya kal).at1) kal).am I
vajraparyankam adhaya nasagre caficalar manal; I I (TRA 14)
1 Esh grhibhii -- - - ilabdha- Em grhibhiite 'p i - - - ilabdha
( appendix: grhibhiite 'p i cittasthityai km:ia- N grhibhiimi vi
labdha. The reading should be grhzbhiito, but this violates the
meter.
skad cig skad cig la brten 1 nas I
rdo rje'i skyil krung bcas nas ni I
sna rtser g.yo ba'i yid gtad la I

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

352

I khyim par gyur kyang bsgom par bya I (TRA 14)


1 D bsten
malam asya samadhel,i pi1rvavat I tritayanupalabdhya1 prajfiaparamita
svabhavena paficaparamitacarru:iarp. phalavaimukhyena2 sattvarthapari1).amana taddrtir3 iti I
1 N -lamdhya 2 Esh -khye na 3 Em tad drtir
I ting nge ' dzin [P 1 28a] ' di'i dri ma ni snga ma bzhin no 1 1 'khor gsum
mi dmigs pas shes rah kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i rang bzhin pha rol tu
phyin pa1> Inga la kun tu spyod cing I 'bras bu la re ba med par sems can
yongs su smin par byed pa ni lta ba' o I
1 DP pa
[Yogacara]
[Sakaravada]
madhyo yogacaral,i I tatra sakaravi 1jfianavadI I
1 EshN om. -viI 1 'bring po ni2 mal 'byor spyod pa'o 1 1 de la rnam pa dang bcas pa'i
shes pa3 smra ba ni
1 B inserts de la 2 P om. 3 D pa dang
atkena yugapad yogat1 paramal).ol,i a9arp.8a2tetyadina
(TRA 1 5=Virs 1 2ab)
1 EshN yogacare 2 EshErn arj,angadrug gis1 cig car sbyar ba na I
phra rah cha shas drug tu 'gyur I (TRA 15)
p gi
[N 1 1 b] nyayena parama<11).i1nam a 1>py anupapattel,i I cittamatram eve
dar cittakaradhari grahyagrahakabhavavinirmuktarp. prakaar parka8ata [Esh 1 8] iti pratipannavan I I tad uktam I
1 N -nuJJa-

TATTVARATNAVALl

353

I zhes bya ba la sogs pa'i [D 1 1 7b] rig pas rdul phra rab kyang dmigs
par mi ' gyur gyi 1 I ' di dag thams cad ni sems tsam ste I sems nyid
gzung2 ba dang ' dzin pa'i rnam pa'i ngo bo dang bral ba I gsal ba nyid
gsal bar rab tu ston pa' o 1 1 zhes rab tu rtogs pa'o 1 1 de ' ang3 I
1 D gyis 2 P bzung 3 P 'di 'ang
cittamatrm:p. bho jinaputra yad uta traidhatukam iti I
tatha cahul:i kirtipadal:i I
I kye I rgyal ba'i sras dag I khams gsum po ' di dag1 ni sems tsam
mo l
1 B om.
I zhes gsungs pa dang I de bzhin du chos kyi [B 220a] grags pa'i zhal
sna nas kyang I
dhiyo nlladirupatve bahyo1 'rthal:i2 ki:qmibandhanaI:i I
dhiyo 'niladirupatve bahyo3 'rthal:i4 kiqmibandhanaI:i I I iti I
(TRA 1 6)
1 N biiho 2 N ' rtha 3 N biiho 4 N ' rthaf!Z
Cf. PV III. 43 3 :

dhiyo niladirupatve bahyo 'rthal:i kimpramar,iakaI:i I


dhiyo 'niladirupatve sa tasyanubhavaI:i katham I I
sngo sogs ngo bo blo nyid n a I
phyi yi don gyi rgyu ci zhig I
blo nyid sngo sogs ma yin na' ang I
phyi yi don gyi rgyu ci zhig I (TRA 1 6)
I ces bstan pa yin no I
anyatrapy uktam I
[EUi 5] na citteu bahirbhuta indriyarthal:i svabhavataI:i I
rupadipratibhase1na cittam eva hi bhasate I I (TRA 17)
1 N -se-

354

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

I gzhan dag nas kyang I


dbang po 'i don gyi ngo bo nyid I
sems las gzhan yod ma yin te I
gzugs la sogs par snang ba ni I
sems nyid rab tu snang ba' o I (TRA 17)
I zhes bstan pas I
tasmac cittam eva citrakararp. pararp. nirapekarp.1 prakaarp.2 prakaata
iti sakaravijfianavadiyogacarasya vivrtiJ:t I
1 EshEUiN nirapeka- 2 EshEUiN prakiisyaf!l
I de' i phyir sems kho na sna tshogs kyi rnam par gzhag pa gzhan la mi
ltos par1 rab tu gsal ba (2nyid do l2l zhes bya ba ni I rnam pa dang bcas
pa'i shes pa smra ba'i rnal 'byor spyod pa'i rnam par brtags pa yin no I
1 DP pas 2 P om.
[Nirakaravada]
nirakaravadiyogacaras tu cittam evedam anakarasvasarp.vedanarupam
iti manyate I tad uktam I
rnam pa med par smra ba'i rnal 'byor spyod pa ni 0yang l 1l ' di dag
thams cad sems nyid de I rnam pa med pa'i rang rig pa'i ngo bo nyid
sems so2 zhe bya ' o 1 1 de ' ang I
1 B I yang 2 D om.
bahyo1 na vidyate hy artho [T 17a] yatha balair vikalpyate2 I
vasanaluthitarp.3 cittam artha4bhasarp. pravarta5te I I (TRA 1 8)
1 EshEuiN biihye 2 N vikalpate 3 NT -luthita 4 Eui artha- 5 NT
rttaji ltar byis pas1 rnam brtags pa'i I
phyi rol don ni yod ma yin I
bag chags kyis ni dkrugs pa'i sems I
don du snang bar rab tu 'jug2 I (TRA 1 8)
P pa 2 DP 'byung

TAITVARATNAVALi

355

yavad abhasate1 yac ca tan mayaiva ca bhasate I


tattvato hi nirabhasal,l foddhanantanabhonibhaI,i I I (TRA 1 9)
1 T iibhriimsate
gang zhig ji srid snang gyur pa 1 I
de srid sgyu ma bzhin du snang I
snang ba med pa' i de nyid ni I
nam mkha' mtha' med dag pa bzhin I (TRA 1 9)
DP pa 'i
niprapafico nirabhaso dharmakayo mahamunel,l I
rilpakayau tadudbhiltau Pfthe mayaiva tithatal,11 I I (TRA 20)
1 EshEUi ti$?hate NT ti$?hata
iti vivrtil,11
1 NT -vrttif:i
[P 128b] I thub pa chen po'i1 chos sku ni I
spros pa med cing snang ba med I
de las2 byung ba'i gzugs kyi sku I
rjes la sgyu ma bzhin du gnas I (TRA 20)
D po 2 D la
zhes bstan pa ni rnam par brtags pa' o I
vidhiltasaka 1 lavikalpa<2sacitradvaita2lsakatkara9aqi dhyanaqi sakarava
dinal,l I tad uktam I
1 T -kii- 2 EUi -saccittiidvaita-; EshNT saccitriidvaitarnam pa dang bcas pa'i bsam gtan ni rnam par rtog pa1 ma lus pa2
spangs shing I sna tshogs dang bcas pa gnyis su med pa3 [B 220b]
mngon sum du byed pa' o 1 1 de' ang I
1 B pa 'i drwa ba 2 B par D om. 3 BDP par
yatra yatra [N 1 2a] mano yati jfieye1 tatraiva yojayet I
calitva yasyate kutra sarvam eva hi <2tanmayam I I iti2J (TRA 2 1 )
1 Esh }iieyarri 2 N tanmayeti T tanmaya Ill

356

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


shes bya gang dang gang dag la I
yid ni1 ' gro ba der sbyar na I
gang du ' gro zhing g.yo bar ' gyur I
thams cad de yi rang bzhin no I (mA 2 1 )
zhes bstan p a yin no I
D kyis P kyi

Osatadva1lyacintyaniprapaficanirabhasacittasakatkara!).ar dhyanar ni
rakaravadinal:i I tatha ca I
1 T ll l
I rnam p a med par smra ba'i [D 1 1 8a] bsam gtan ni 0bde ba1l gnyis su
med cing bsam gyis mi khyab I spros pa med pa I snang ba med pa'i ye
shes ni mngon sum du byed pa' o 1 1 de ' ang I
1 BP bden pa
riipam a0sya matar svaccha1lr nirakarar nirafijanam I
sakyar <2ca na hi taj2) jfiatum abuddhena kadacana I I (TRA 22)
1 T I l l 2 EshErnNT tena na hi (taj added according to AM)
' di 'i ngo bo gsal bar ' dod I
rnam pa med cing ma gos pa I
de1 ni mkhas pa ma yin pas I
nam yang shes par mi nus so I (TRA 22)
p 'di
[Esh] vijfiapti1matram evedam ity api2 <3hy upalambhata:J:i I
stha3lpa<4yann agrata.I:i4) kircit tanma<5tre na5lvatithate I I
(TRA 23)
1 EshNT vijiiana- 2 Esh ayarri 3 T I l l [T l 7b] 4 Esh -yen na sa NT
yann agra"f:i 5 EshNT -trefta' di dag thams cad sems ts am zhes I
<1 ' di tsam1l du yang2 dmigs nas su I
ci yang rung ste mdun 'jog na I
de nyid tsam la mi gnas so I (TRA 23)
B de snyam D 'di snyam 2 B ni

TAITVARATNAVALl

357

yada tv alambanar jfianar naivopalabhate tada I


sthitar1 vijfiana2maC3tratve grahyabhave ta3)dagrahat I I (TRA 24)
1 EshNT sthito 2 EshNT vijfiapti- 3 T I l l
gang tshe shes pas dmigs p a rnams I
nye bar mi dmigs de1 yi tshe I
sems tsam la ni gnas pa ste I
gzung ba med pas der ' dzin med I (TRA 24)
DP pa
01 ces bstan pas so 1 1)
1 BP om.
paramarthasannityasakaravijfianasamadhau 0 bhagavataJ:i sarsthita 1)ve
dantavadimatanupravefaC2J:i I sa hi parama2)rthasannitya3svacidrupabrah
mabhi[EUi 6]nnaparir,iamarupar jagad icchati I tatha coktam I
1 N bhagavatasatsthita- T bhagavatsamsthita- 2 T 1 1 1 3 EUiEshT -tyaf!l
rnam pa dang bcas Clpa'i shes pa1) smra ba'i ting nge ' dzin gyi dri ma ni
I don dam par rtag2 par ' dod pa ste I c3legs ldan pa'i gzhung3) rig byed
pa'i rjes su 'jug pa ste I de ' ang don dam par rtag4 pa rang gi sems kyi
ngo bo la tshangs pa las gzhan ma yin pa yongs su gyur pa'i ngo bor
' gro ba rnams ' dod do 1 1 de ' ang I
1 D pa P par 2 D rtogs 3 DP beam ldan 'das kyi gzhung la gnas nas 4 P
btags
yad yad vai1 drsyate kic2rcit tat tad brah2>meti kalpyate3 I
tato nanyagatar cittar brahmaC4r,iy eva4>vatithate5 I I
(TRA 25 = SN 1 5)
1 Esh yad TN om. 2 T I l l 3 EUiE shNT kalpayet 4 Esh -1Jaivii- N nevii- T -naivii- 5 N -ta
cung zhig gang dang gang mthong ba I
de dang de ni tshangs par brtag1 I
sems ni de las gzhan C2ma yin2> I
tshangs pa nyid la nges par gnas I (TRA 25)
P rtag 2 DP pa med

358

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

iti samadhi1mala:rp. sakaravadinaJ:i I


1 EUi samahiI zhes bya ba ni rnam pa dang bcas 0par smra ba'i1l ting nge 'dzin gyi
dri ma' o I
1 D pa 'i P pa
eva:rp. nirakara0vadino 'pi JJ nityanirabhasaniprapaficasvasa:rp.vedanavi
jfianabhavanayam bhaskaramatasthitavedantavadimatanupravesaprasa
ilgaJ:i I so 'pi vyapagata2sakalanamarilpaprapaficopaplavaviuddhapraka
sananta3 gha[T 1 8a]nani[N 1 2b]tyabrahmabhyupagacchati I <4tatha ca4l I
1 EshEuiN -vadinapi 2 N vyapagatal:z 3 EuiEshNT -nda- 4 EshEuiN om.
I de bzhin du [B 22 1 a] rnam pa med par smra ba'i sgom 0pa yang1l [P
1 29a] rtag2 pa snang ba med (3pa l3l spros pa <4med pa'i4l rang rig pa'i
shes pa ste I nyi ma'i gzhung gi rjes su zhugs par thal bar ' gyur te 1 1
de ' ang ming dang gzugs ma lus pa dang bral ba I spros pa'i 'khrul pa
ma lus pa rnam par dag pa I rab tu gsal ba I mtha' med pa I bar mtshams
med pa I rtag pa'i tshangs par khas len par byed do 1 1 de' ang I
1 B pa 'i dri ma 'ang P pa 'ang 2 B rtog D rtags 3 DP pa 'i 4 D om. P med
bodhambhodhau mayi svaccha:rp.1 tucchaka2 visvabudbudaJ:i3 I
udita4 va pra1Ina5 va na vikalpena6 kalpyata7l l iti I I (TRA 26)
1 T svacche 2 EshEUiN tac chayam T tuccho 'yam 3 EshEuiN
visvabuddhayal:z T visvabudbudal:z 4 EuiEshNT udito 5 EuiEshNT
-no 6 EshEUiNT vikalpaya 7 EshEui kalpate
bdag gi1 rtogs2 pa'i1 rgya mtsho dwangs3 pa la4 I
sna tshogs chu bur gsog ni5 'byung bar ' gyur I
' char ba dang ni nub par ' gyur ba yang I
rnam par rtog pas kun tu ma rtog6 pa' o I (TRA 26)
D om. 2 BDP rtog 3 DP dangs 4 B las 5 DP 'di 6 B brtags P
rtogs
nirakaravadinaJ:i samadhimalam I drtir anayoJ:i pilrvavat I
I zhes bya ba ni rnam pa med par smra ba'i ting nge ' dzin gyi dri ma' o I
' di ' i lta ba'ang snga ma bzhin no I

TATI'VARATNAVALl

359

[Madhyamaka]
[Mayopamadvayavada]
adhimatro madhyamikaJ:i I I tatra mayopamadvayavadino vivrtiJ:i 1 I
1 N vivrttirtif:t T vivrttif:t
rab ni dbu ma pa'o 1 1 de la sgyu ma lta bur1 gnyis su med par smra ba'i
spyad pa ni I
1 DP bu
na san nasan na sadasan na capy anubhayatmakam I
catukotivinirmuktar tattvar madhyamika viduJ:i I I (TRA 27)
yod min med min yod med min I
gnyis ka 1 min pa' ang ma yin pa I
mtha' bzhi las ni rnam grol ba I [D 1 1 8b]
de nyid dbu ma pa C2yis rig2l I (TRA 27)
DP kyi 2 BD yi rigs
asya cayam arthaJ:i I na sad badhayogat I asad api na cabhasanavasat1 I ta
tha doad2 dvandvad ubhayam api na3 I napy4 anubhayar tatha bodha
bhavad iti I api ca purvetaraparamarsat5 I [Esh 20] murtis citrar6 yatha
tatha.7 vastu8aktiJ:i8 prasailgaJ:i9 I sa10 hi mayo11pamadvayeti vivrtiJ:i12 I
1 N ciibhiisanavasiin 2 N -ii- T -a- 3 NT no 4 N py 5 T -pariimariit 6
EshEUi citre N citra 7 EshEUiN om. 8 EshEuiN -sakti T -saktirri 9 EshEUi - skaviisaligaf:t N ktaviisaligaf:t T tkaviisaligaf:t Esh . . . skaviisaligaf:t 10 E0_
iNT sa (T has a uddhicihna) 11 N -mii- 12 NT -vrttif:t
I ' di 'i don ni ' di yin te I yod pa ma yin pa ni sbyor bas gnod pas so 1 1
med pa ma yin pa yang1l bag chags kyi dbang gis mi bden par snang
ba' o 1 1 ' dir2 gnyis ka2a la'ang skyon gnyis yod pas ma yin no I c2I gnyis
ka ma yin pa'ang ma yin te I de lta bu 'i rtog pa med pa'i phyir ro l2l I
gzhan yang sngon dang da ltar dpyad3 pa med par sna tshogs su4 ji ltar
snang ba de ltar rdzas5 su bden pa ci zhig I gang du thal bar ' gyur I de ni
sgyu [B 22 lb] ma lta bur6 gnyis su med pa'o zhes brtags7 pa' o I
1 B la ' ang 2 DP om. 2a D ga 3 B spyad 4 P om. 5 D rjes 6 DP bu 7 P brtag

360

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

asyaiva ca mayopamadvayasya bhavana dhyanam I yas C1tv a1ltroccheda


bhiniveas tad dhyanamalam I I ma[T 1 8b]yopamadvayadhimokataJ:i at
paramitaC2paripurai:iar2l drtil:i I I
1 EshEUi tat 2 Esh paripilri- EUi -pilrilJf N -paripilri T -pilriI ' di nyid ni sgyu ma lta bur1 gnyis su med pa'i bsam gtan no I I ' di
la' ang ' chad pa la mngon par zhen pa ni bsam gtan gyi dri ma' o 1 1 sgyu
ma lta bur1 gnyis su med par lhag par mos pas2 pha rol tu phyin pa drug
yongs su rdzogs par byed pa ni lta ba' o I
1 DP bu 2 D pa dang P pa 'ang
[Apratithanavada]
sarvadharmapratithanavadinar tv ayar vicaraJ:i I I

I chos thams cad rab tu mi gnas par smra ba'i brtags1 p a ni ' di yin t e I
1 BP rtag D brtag
na matar sasvatar visvar na cocchedi samihitam I
sasvatocchedinor1 yugmar2 nanubhayar vinobhayam 1 1
(TRA 28)
1 EshEUiNT -no 2 Esh yugmyarrz EUi yugmiirrz N yugma T yugman
sna tshogs rtag1 ma yin te I
chad pa2 yang ni khas mi len I
rtag dang chad pa gnyis ka dang3 I
C4gnyis ka4l [P 1 29b] min pa' ang5 ma yin no I (TRA 28)
D brtags 2 P par 3 P yang 4 D gnyi ga 5 D pa 'am
sarvasminn apratithanar1 vastutattvar vidur budhaJ:i2 I
athaia kalpana naiva [N 1 3 a] yac cid vetti3 na cittatam I I
(TRA 29)
1 Esh prati$?/:liine [ca] EUi aprati$thiine TN prati$t/:liinarrz 2 N
buddhiif:z 3 N vaitti
' dir1 ni thams cad mi gnas par2 I
dngos po 'i de nyid mkhas pas rig I
des na I ' di lta bu'i rnam rtog gis I

TATTVARATNAVALl

361

I sems ni sems kyis rig ma yin I (TRA 29)


1 DP 'di 2 DP pas
yavan 1 sarvasamaropal,i sa sarval,i sarvatha na hi I
[EUi 7] madhyamartho2 niraropas tatrapohavidhI3 kutal,i I I
(TRA 30)
1 EUi yo vit NT yiivat 2 EshNT -rthe 3 EshN -rohavidhf
ji srid sgro btags thams cad ni I
de kun thams cad du med pas I
dbu ma'i don la sgro btags med I
des na dgag dang sgrub1 pa med I (TRA 30)
B bsgrub
anabhogar1 hi yaj jfianar tac cacintyar2 pracakyate3 I
sarcintya4 yad acintyar vai tad acintyar5 bhaven na hi 1 1
(TRA 3 1 )
1 N aniibhoga Esh aniibhoge 2 EUi ciiintyarrz 3 EshEuiN pracak!fate
4 EUi saiicinti 5 Esh a[ci]ntyarrz N antyim
shes pa gang zhig1 lhun grub pa I
de la bsam mi khyab ces brjod I
bsam2 bzhin du ni mi sems pa I
de la bsam mi khyab mi brjod I (TRA 3 1 )
P zhes 2 P bsams
yenajatar jagad buddhar buddhil,i uddhaiva bodhatal,i I
nijar tasya jagat satyam anabhogena dhimatal,i 1 1 (TRA 32)
gang1 gis ' gro ba ma skyes zhes I
blo ni dag pa2 rtogs pa nyid I
' gro ba'i gnyug ma bden pa nyid I
blo dang ldan pas 'bad pa med I (TRA 32)
DP bdag 2 BD pas
tad uktam I

EDITION OF TIIE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

362

sarvaropavinirmukte svatas tattvarp.1 cakaati2 I


sunyatadyabhidhanais tu tatraropanirakriya I I (TRA 33)
1 EshEmT tattve N tatva 2 EshEmNT cakasati
I de ' ang
sgro btags kun las nges grol ba I
bdag gis de nyid du brjod do I
stong pa la sogs mngon brjod dang I
de la sgro ' dogs bcod pa'o I (TRA 33)
I zhes bstan pa yin no I
asya ca 0vicarayatasya1lrthasya[T 19a]naroparupasyanabhiniveavihare
i;ia sakatkriya2 dhyanam I sarvarthocchedo ja<;libha<3vo va3l samadhima
lam I anaropei;ia atparamitaparipurai;iarp. drtil:i 1 1
1 EsEshNT vicaraya ayatasya- 2 N - kriya 3 EshEm -va"f:i N -va
I brtags1 pa ' di'i don ni I sgro ma btags pa'i don gyi rang bzhin la mngon
par zhen pa med par mngon du byed pa la [B 222a] ni bsam gtan no 1 1
don thams cad du2 chad par lta ba dang I bem3 po 'i rang bzhin du gyur
pa ni ting nge ' dzin gyi dri ma' o 1 1 sgro ' dogs pa med par pha rol tu
phyin [D 1 1 9a] pa drug yongs su rdzogs par byed pa ni lta ba'o I
1 B rtag DP btags la BDP pa med pa 2 DP om. 3 DP hems
atra mrdumadhyayor dharmavalambana karui::i a I dharmavalambana ca
nityatavyasanasampatinaI:i sarvadharman alambyotpadyate ya sa bod
dhavya I adhimatrasya calambananiI:isva1bhava <2mana[Esh 2 1 ]skara2l
dharmadhi<3gamanalambana3l karui;ia I I
1 NT calambananisva- Esh calambanani"f:isva 2 NT manaska- 3 NT -gamo
'nalambana
I ' dir dman pa dang 'bring po 'i snying rje ni chos la dmigs pa ste I chos
rnams kyi1 mi rtag pa nyid kyi2 rlung gis bskyod pa'i chos thams cad la
dmigs nas skye bar ' gyur bar3 rtogs4 par bya' o I rab5 ni dmigs pa6 med
pa ste I rang bzhin med pa'i chos yid la byed pas I mngon par rtogs pa ni
dmigs pa med pa'i snying rje ' o I
1 B om. 2 B kyis 3 P ba 4 B brtag 5 B rab kyi 6 B su

TATTVARATNAVALl

363

kay atrayavyavastha casya maitreyanathair ukta1 I I tatha ca 11


1 T uktiif:t
' dir sku gsum du rnam par gzhag 1 pa ni mgon po byams pas gsungs so2
de yang I
P bzhag 2 B te
karoti yena citra:r:ii hitani jagatal).1 samam I
a bhavat so 'nupacchinnal).2 kayo nairma:r:iiko3 munel). 1 1
(TRA 34)
1 T jagata 2 EUi 'nupacchannaf:t NT ' nupacchinna 3 NT nairmii
niko
gang gis srid pa ji srid par I
' gro la phan pa sna tshogs dag I
mnyam nyid mdzad pa'i sku de ni I
thub pa'i sprul sku rgyun mi ' chad I (TRA 34)
dvatriip.allaka:r:iaSitivyafijanatma muner ayam I
sambhogiko matal). kayo mahayano1pabho[N 1 3b]gatal). I I
(TRA 35)
1 T mahiino[P 130a] I mtshan ni sum cu rtsa gnyis dang I
dpe byad brgyad cu 'i bdag1 nyid ' di I
theg chen nye bar longs spyod phyir I
thub pa'i longs spyod rdzogs skur ' dod I (TRA 35)
P mtshan
sarvakaraip. viuddhiip. ye dharmal). prapta nira[T 1 9b] sraval). I
svabhaviko munel). kayas 1 teaip. prakrtilaka:r:ial). 1 1 iti I I (TRA 36)
1 N kiiya
zag med chos rnams rnam kun tu I
rnam par dag gyur1 gang dag yin I
de2 dag rang bzhin mtshan nyid can I
thub pa 'i ngo bo nyid sku yin I (TRA 36)
BP 'gyur 2 DP 'di

364

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

I zhes bstan pa yin no I


[Mantranaya]
mantranayas tv asmabhir1 ihatigambhiratvad gambhiranayadhimuktika
puruaviayatvac caturmudradisadhanaprakafanavistaratvac ca na vya
kriyate I I tatha ca2 I I
1 Esh asmadvidhair 2 T caf:t
' dir kho bos gsang sngags kyi lugs 1 ni ma bshad de2 I shin tu zab pa'i
phyir dang I zab mo 'i theg pa la3 lhag par mos pa'i skyes bu'i spyod yul
yin pa'i phyir dang I phyag rgya bzhi la sogs pa'i sgrub pa rab tu <4bstan
pa rgyas pa'i4J phyir ro 1 1 de ' ang I
1 DP gzhung 2 DP do 3 DP om. 4 B rgyas par bstan [B 222b] par bya
ba 'i
[Em 8] ekarthatve 'py asarpmohad bahupayad adukarat I
tiki;i.endriyadhikarac ca mantrasastrar visiyate I I (TRA 37)
don gcig (lnyid na' ang1l ma rmongs dang I
thabs mang dka' ba med pa dang I
dbang po rnon pos2 dbang byas phyir3 I
sngags kyi bstan bcos khyad par 'phags I (TRA 37)
B na yang D na 'ang 2 B po 'i 3 D pas P pa
krtas casmabhir1 atra sekaniri;i.ayo nama granthal:i I
1 N cabhir
I zhes bstan pas so 1 1 de ' ang 0kho bos1l dbang nges par bstan pa zhes
bya ba nas2 bstan to I
1 P khos 2 P na

TATTVARATNAVALl

365

[Mahayana Hermeneutics]
nanu yadi mahayananirIJita1 evarthal:i paramartho 'bhyasyal)2 kimarthar
tarhi3 sravakapratyekac4buddha4)yane bhagavan desitavan I tan na I ma
hayanaprapyaprapaIJartham eva sravakapratyekac4buddha4)yanasopana
yor nirmaIJat5 I tad uktam I
1 NT -nirnfta 2 Esh 'sti asya Em 'sti atra NT ' bhyasa 3 N tahi 4 EshNT
om. 5 NT nirmanat
gal te theg pa chen po nas don ni 1 nges par bstan na I don dam pa la
goms par bya ba'i phyir nyan thos dang C2rang rgyal gyi2) theg pa bcom
ldan ' das kyis ci'i phyir bstan zhe na I de ni3 blo dman pa yin te I thob
par bya ba'i theg pa chen po thob4 par bya ba'i phyir ' di dag skas kyi
rim pa lta bur bstan pa yin no I de' ang I
1 DP 'di 2 DP rang sangs rgyas kyi 3 DP om. 4 BD rtogs
adikarmi1kasattvasya2 paramarthavataraIJe3 I
upayas tv ea4 sambuddhail:i so[T 20a]panam5 iva nirmital) I I
(TRA 38)
1 T -ma- 2 AM -lokasya 3 N caramarthavatarm:ia T para
marthavatarm:ial!l 4 N epa EshErn aya1J1 (AM ea) 5 NT sopaJJam
0sems can dang po 'i las can rnams1) I
dam pa'i don la c2'jug pa la2l I
thabs ' di rdzogs [D 1 1 9b] pa'i sangs rgyas kyis I
skas kyi rim3 pa lta bur4 gsungs I (TRA 38)
AM dang po 'i las can 'jig rten pa 2 AM gzhug pa 'i phyir; B na
3 AM them 4 B bus
I zhes bstan pa dang I
saddharmapuIJ9-arike 'py uktam I
0ekar tu yanar hi1) nayas ca eka eka ceyar2 deana3 nayaka
nam I

366

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


upayakaualyar:4 (5mamaiva rilpar:5) yat tr19i6 yanany upadarfa
yami I I (TRA 39)
1 EshN eka hi yiina T evarri hi yiinam 2 EuiNT ciyam 3 EshEuiNT
deana 4 EshNT -kaualya 5 Ern mamaivarilpam N mameva
rilpam 6 Esh triini
dam pa'i chos padma dkar po las kyang I
theg pa gcig cing lugs kyang gcig I
gtso bos bstan pa ' di yang gcig I
gang yang theg pa gsum bstan pa I
nga yi1 thabs la mkhas pa'i dngos I (TRA 39)
BDP yis

I zhes gsungs pa dang I


[Esh 22] nagarjunapadair apy uktam I
dharmadhator asar:bhe1dad yana1bhedo ' sti na prabho I
yanatritayam akhyatar: tvaya sattvavataratal:i II
(TRA 40 = NS 2 1 )
1 EshErn -dad dhyiina- NT -dii dhyiinaklu sgrub kyi zhal snga nas kyang I
chos kyi dbyings la dbyer med phyir I
gtso bo1 theg dbye2 ma mchis kyang I [P 1 30b]
khyod kyis theg pa gsum bstan3 pa I
sems can gzhug pa'i ched du lags I (TRA 40)
BDP bas 2 D dbyer 3 P gsungs
I zhes bstan pa dang I
anyatrapy uktam I
[N 14a] muktis tu silnyatadrtes1 tadarthal:i.2 seabhavanC3al:i I I iti3)
I (TRA 41 = PV II.253cd)
1 EshErn -drtis 2 EshErn -rthii- 3 EshErn --nii ; NT --neti I I

TAITVARATNAVALl

367

gzhan dag nas kyang I


stong pa nyid kyis grol bar ' gyur I
de ma shes pas 1 ' ching bar ' gyur I
bsgom pa lhag ma de don yin I (TRA 4 1 )
B na
I zhes bstan pa [B 223a] yin no I
idai: ca yanatritaya1praka8anai: manyamanasilnyata2 saiva bhagavato
'vagantavya3 I tatha hi I
1 N yanatitaya- 2 N manyamanasunya T anyafijanasunya 3 EshEmNT
vyafz

de lta bu'i theg pa gsum rab tu bstan pa yang I bcom ldan ' das kyis
spyi dang bye brag gi rtog pa'i khyad par gyis sems can gyi don du
rtogs2 par ' gyur ba'i phyir ro1l I de yang I
1 P rtog pa dang bcas pa dang I rtog pa med pas stong pa snyam sems
dpa 'i don rtogs par bya ba 'i phyir ro 2 B brtag
nodahrtai: tvaya kii:cid ekam 1 apy akarai: vibho I
krtsnas ca vaineyajano c2dharmavarei;ia tarpitaJ:i2l I I (TRA 42)
1 N evam 2 Esh dharmavaranataritafz Em dharmavaranatarpi
tafz
gtso bo1 khyod kyi bka' 2 zhig tu I
yi ge gcig kyang ma gsungs la3 I
gdul bya'i ' gro ba ma lus pa4 I
chos kyi char gyis tshim par5 mdzad6 I (TRA 42)
P bas 2 D 'gal 3 DP so 4 DP la 5 P pa 'ang 6 P mdzod
I ces bstan 1 pa dang I
1 DP om.
cintamai;iir ivakampyaJ:i sarvasatkalpavayubhil:i I
tathapi sarvasattvanam aeasapra1pilrakaJ:i I I (TRA 43=KDN 4)
I T aseapra-

368

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


I kun tu1 rtog pa ma lus pas I
I yid bzhin nor ltar ma g.yos kyang I
I de ltar sems can thams cad kyi2 I
I bsam pa ma lus yongs rdzogs byed I (TRA 43)
1 D du 2 P kyis
cakrabhramai:iayoge[T 20b ]na nirvikalpe 'pi tiiyinaJ:i 1 I
<2sambharabheda2lsamarthyiid de8anii sampravartate I I (TRA 44)
1 N tii,yina T tayine 2 Esh sambharo bedha ErnN sambharo vedha
T sambhara vedha'khor lo bskor ba'i sbyor ba yis I
mi rtog1 bzhin du skyob pa yi2 I
tshogs kyi dbye ba2 nus pa yis I
bstan pa rab tu 'jug par ' gyur I (TRA 44)
D rtogs 2 BDP ni 2 B ba 'i
yiiniiniirp. niisti vai nithii yiivac cittarp.1 pravartate I
[Em 9] pariivrtte tu vai2 citte3 na yiinarp. niipi yiiyinaJ:i I I
(TRA 45 = LAS X.458)
1 T citta 2 N ve 3 N vitte LAS citte tu vai paravrtte
ji srid sems ni 'jug bar1 du I
theg pa'i2 mtha' la thug pa med I
sems nyid yongs su gyur pa3 na I
theg pa med cing ' gro ba med I (TRA 45)
DP par 2 D pa 3 B pas
saddharmaratnaghatitii1 viig hy atra grathitamalii I
h.fdaye kriyatiirp. dhiriis tattvaratniivalI mude I I (TRA 46)
1 EshErnN -ghafika
dam chos las grub rin po che I
dri med ngag gi skud pas brgyus I
dga' ba skyed byed rin chen phreng I
brtan pas snying gar gdags par gyis 1 I (TRA 46)
DP bgyi

TATTVARATNAVALl

369

sar:p.grahar:p.1 tu priyatvena vistaradveil).a maya I


bhuri2 <3yan noktam etasmin3) kantavyo4 vistarapriyal,15 I I
(TRA 47)
1 T stiriihan EUi saf(lgrahe 2 EshEUi bhurir 3 EshEui anuttame tas
min N aktamef(ltasmin 4 EshT kantavyaf(l N katavyaf(l 5 EUi priyaf:i T -priya
bdag ni snying po la mos pas I
rgyas par 0bstan pa ma I) lags pa I
rgyas la dgyes pa'i mkhas pa rnams I
bdag la thams cad bzod par mdzod I (TRA 4 7)
B ma bstan gang
vidhaya bhavyarthanaya1 prayatnad imar:p. maya grantham anu
ttarartham I
alambhi yat pul).ya<2m anena2) lokas tathagatatvar:p. labhatam ala
bhyam I I (TRA 48)
1 EUi -niiya 2 T satena
skal ldan gyis ni gsol btab bdag gis ni I
'bad pas bla med don ldan ' di brtsams pas I
bdag gis bsod nams thob par gyur [D 1 20a] pa des I
ma ' ongs sems can de bzhin gshegs thob1 shog I (TRA 48)
DP par
0tattvaratnava1I samapta1J 1 1 krtir iyar:p. pal).<;litavadhlitadvayavajrapada
nam 1 1
1 N tattvaratniivalf sa[N 14b]mapta iti T samapto 'yaf(l tattvaratniivalf
de kho na nyid rin chen1 phreng ba zhes bya ba slob dpon pal).<;lita2
avadhufipa3 gnyis su med pa'i rdo rjes mdzad pa rdzogs so 1 1 <4rgya gar
gyi mkhan po ba dzra pa 1).i dang I bod kyi lo tsa ba dge slong tshul
khrims rgyal bas bsgyur zhing zhus te gtan la phab pa' o4) 1 1 1 1 [P 1 3 l a]
1 DP po che 'i 2 DP om. 3 P -tipa 4 DP nag (P nags) tsho tshul khrims
rgyal bas bsgyur ba 'o

6 . Pancatathiigatamudriivivarm:za

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh) , p. 23-27


AICSB 10 (March 1 988) (Es), p. 1 89- 1 79 (=46-56)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 14b l - 17a5
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fols. 27a5-3 1 al
dPal spungs (B) , vol. Of!l, fo ls. 224b2-227b6
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2242, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fols. 1 20b31 22b3
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3087, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols. 1 3 1b51 34a4
namo vajrasattvaya1 I
1 EshN sarvavide

(I ll de bzhin gshegs pa lnga'i phyag rgya rnam par bshad pa zhes bya ba
bzhugs so lln I rgya gar skad du 1 1 ta tha ga ta pa nyca mu dra2 bi ba ra
r:ia3 I bod skad du I de bzhin gshegs pa lnga'i phyag rgya rnam par bshad
pa I dpal1 rdo rje sems dpa' la phyag 'tshal lo I
1 D om. 2 B dra 2 BDP om.
prafityajata}f parikalpasunyalf sunyalf 1 svabhavena na vastu
santa}f I
nocchedinas citracidekarupa rupadaya}f [T 27b]paficajina j ayanti
I I (PTMV 1 )
1 N sunyii
0rten 'brel1J las skyes2 kun brtags3 stong pa ste I
(4rang bzhin stong pas4l dngos po yod ma yin I
chad min sna tshogs gcig pa'i sems rang bzhin I
gzugs sogs rgyal ba (5lnga tu5l rgyal gyur cig I (PMTV 1 )
D P rkyen 2 D skyes p a 3 D rtag 4 B stong p a 'i rang bzhin 5 P
lngar

372

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

paficaskandhal:i paficatathagatal:i1 I tatra catvaro vijfiana2matratapratipa


danayakobhyei:ia3 mudryante3a I etena <4bahyakara9ar cittamatratvad
grahyabhi:ive4l grahakasunyataya grahyagrahakarahitar paramarthasat
samvinmatrar5 vijfiana<6m eva6l tithate I idam eva arada(7mala7Jcsma
dhyahna8lgaganayamanar9 nirakaravadinar maular jfianar sadhyam10
I tathi:i coktam I
1 N -ta 2 N kijfiiin a- Esh kirri jiiiina- 3 Es T -na 3a T -nti 4 EshN biihyakii
rabhiive 5 Esh sambinmiitrarri N samvinmiitra- T siitasamvinmiitra- 6 T m
ava 7 T om. 8 N -madhyiina- 9 Es -niiyiimarri 10 T medhyarri
I phung po Inga ni de bzhin gshegs pa lnga' o 1 1 de la bzhi ni mam par
shes1 pa tsam du rtogs par bya ba'i phyir mi bskyod pas2 rgyas gdab3
pa'o3a 1 1 de ltar na phyi rol gyi mam pa ni sems tsam yin pas gzung ba'i
dngos po med la I ' dzin pa' ang stong pa ste I gzung [P 1 32a] ba dang
' dzin pa spangs pa'i don dam par4 yod pa mchog tu nyams su myong ba
tsam gyis mam par rig par gnas so 1 1 de nyid ni5 ston ka'i nam mkha'
dag6 pa'i dkyil ltar mam pa7 med par smra bas dngos gzhi'i8 mam par
shes par smra bar grub bo 1 1 de yang9 gsungs pa I
1 B rig 2 B pa 'i 3 DP btab 3a BP par bya 'o 4 DP pa 5 DP om. 6 DP rnam
par dag 7 B la 8 DP gzhi 9 P om.
sunya kalpitarupei:ia nirabhi:isam anakrti I
satsarvitsatamatrar vai pr!hakaracayi:ikulam I I (PMTV 2)
brtags1 pas stong pa'i rang bzhin [B 225a] ni I
snang ba med cing mam pa med I
bden par2 rang rig3 bde ba tsam I
rjes thob rnam pa'i tshogs 'khrul pa'o I (PMTV 2)
D rtag 2 P pa 3 P gi
I zhes gsungs pa dang I
tad uktam I
rupakayau tu pascimav (PTMV 3)
iti I api1 ca
1 EshN tathii

PANCATATHAGATAMUDRA..VIVARAJyA

373

de' ang phyis ni1 gzugs kyi sku gnyis thob bo (PTMV 3 )
1 D la
zhes gsungs pa dang I ' di ltar1 I
1 B las kyang
niprapafico1 nirabhaso dharmakayo mahamuneJ:i I
rupakayau2 tadudbhutau Prthe mayaiva3 tithataJ:i4 II iti5 I I
(PTMV 4)
1 T -paiico 2 T -yo 3 T mayeva 4 Esh T titJ:iate 5 T om.
spros pa med cing snang ba med I
thub pa chen po'i' chos kyi sku I
de las gzugs sku gnyis ' byung ba I
rjes thob sgyu ma bzhin du gnas I (PTMV 4)
DP po
[Es 48) nanv akobhyamudrayaiva siddhatvat 0kimarthar tarhy'l ako
bhyo va[T 28a]jrasa[N 15a]ttvena mudryata ity agamaJ:i I yavat kalpita
karasunyatapratipadanayeti cet I tan na I purvamudrayaiva2 siddhatvat I
tasmad yatha 'kobhyamudrayaiva2a jfianar3 maular prtham anyat ta
tha vajrasattvamudraya vijfianam api prthar4 maulam5 vajram iti syat I
uktar ca vajrasekhare I
1 T om. 2 N -mudrava( ? )va 2a T -mudraya 3 T jiiana 4 N prthaJ:i 5 NT
maula I I
I zhes gsungs pa' o 1 1 ci ste1l mi bskyod pa'i [D 1 2 1 a] phyag rgya nyid
kyis2 grub3 pa nyid yin na I ' o na ci 'i phyir mi bskyod pa la rdo rje sems
dpa'i phyag <4rgyas gdab4l bo zhes gsungs pa'i lung ni ji srid du rtogs
pa'i rnam pas stong par5 byed do zhe na I ma yin te I dang po phyag rgya
nyid kyis2 grub pa'i phyir ro 1 1 de bas na mi bskyod pa'i phyag rgya ye
shes kyi dngos gzhi rang rig las rjes thob gzhan yin la I de bzhin du rdo
rje sems dpa'i phyag rgya rnam par shes pa ni6 rjes thob ste I rdo rje
dngos gzhir ' gyur ro 1 1 rdo rje rtse mo las kyang <6gsungs pa6l I zhes
gsungs so I
1 B gal te 2 P kyi 3 B 'grub 4 D rgyas btab P rgya btab 5 P pa 'i 6 P om.

374

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


d:r<;lha1saram asausiryam acchedyabhedyalakm;am I
adahi2 avinasi3 ca sunyata vajram ucyate I I [Esh 24] iti I I
(PTMV 5 = STS 4)
1 EsEshT drtfhaY(l 2 NT -hf 3 N avi"(lasf T avinasf
snying po brtan zhing khong stong min 1 I
mi chod mi phyed mtshan nyid de I
mi shigs pa dang mi nyams dang2 I
stong nyid rdo rje zhes brjod do I (PTMV 5)
P med 2 B pa 'i
p:rthe rupadi1 cen maulajfianad2 akobhyamudraya I
tad (3vajramudraya sattva13l p:rthe C4hanta mata1 na4l kim I I
(PTMV 6)
1 Es rupadiY(l EshN rupadikaY(l 2 N ma( ?)lajnanad T maulaY(l jna
nad 3 Esh vajrasattvaY(l N vajraya satvaY(l 4 Es 'ham tanna kim
Esh 'ham tanna - - nna kim N hanta na . . nna
dngos gzhi ye shes mi bskyod rgyas I
0rjes thob gzugs la so gs JJ C2yin na2l I
de ni rdo rje ' i phyag rgya yis3 I
rjes thob sems dpar4 cis mi ' dod5 I (PTMV 6)
D gzugs sags rjes thob 2 B shes na DP yin na ni 3 B ste 4 D dpa '
5 DP 'thob

I sattvam api1 p:rtha iti cet tarhi karm:iabhavad ucchedavadaprasarigal,i I


iyate ca I
1 EshN iti
0 1 sems dpa' rjes thob yin no zhe na l 1J 'o na snying rje dngos po2 med
pa'i chad par smra bar3 thal bar ' gyur [B 225b] ro1 zhe na I de ' ang
C4' dod de4l I
1 DP om. 2 D om. 3 DP ba 4 B brjod par bya ste
vajrel)a sunyata prokta1 sattvena jfianamatrata I
tadatmyam anayol,i siddha1 vajrasattvasvabhavatal,i I I (PTMV 7)
1 N proktaJ:i

PANCATATHAGATAMUDRAVIVARAJjA

375

rdo rjes1 stong pa nyid du brjod I


sems dpa' ye shes ts am nyid de I
de dag bdag nyid grub pa ' di2 I
rdo rje sems dpa'i rang bzhin no I (PTMV 7)
BDP rje 2 DP 'dis
silnyatakr:payor bhedaJ:i1 pradipalokayor iva I [N 28b]
silnyatakr:payor aikyar pradipalokayor iva II (PTMV 8)
1 N bheda
stong nyid [P 1 32b] snying rje ' i1 dbye ba nyid I
mar me dang ni snang ba bzhin I
stong nyid snying rje gcig pa nyid2 I
mar me snang ba ji bzhin no I (PTMV 8)
D rje 2 P yang
bhavebhyaJ:i silnyata nanya na ca bhavo ' sti tar vina I
avinabhava0niyamat1J krtakanityayor iva I I (PTMV 9)
1 Esh -miyat N -niyatat T -niyamat
dngos las 1 stong nyid gzhan (2min te2J I
de dang bral ba'i3 dngos yod min I
mi phyed dngos por4 nges pa ste I
byas pa mi rtag pa bzhin no I (PTMV 9)
P nyid 2 D med de 3 D na 4 DP po
kathyamane 0yatha tattve1J ucchedo naiva samvr2teJ:i I
samvr2tivyatireke[N 1 5b]r:ia3 na tattvam upalabhyate I I
(PTMV 10)
1 Esh yathatattve N yatha ta 2 Esh -br- 3 T -na
0 1 med na mi 'byung nges phyir ro I
ji ltar de nyid bstan C2pas na2J l1J
C3ma chad pa nyid3J kun rdzob ste I
kun rdzob dang ni bral ba la I
de kho na nyid dmigs mi4 ' gyur I (PTMV 1 0)
B I ji ltar de nyid bstan pas na I I med na mi 'byung nges pa 'i
phyir ro I 2 D pa la 3 B tshad ma med pa 'i 4 D med

376

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

ityadi vistaraI:i II evarn akobhyavajrasattvayor1 aikyarn iti cet tarhi vi


jfianarupa[Es 50]dyaparityage citradvaitavado jyayan I yad2 uktarn I
1 N -satvaya(?)r 2 N tad
I zhes bya ba la sogs pa1 rgyas par gsungs so 1 1 de2 ltar na mi bskyod pa
dang rdo rje serns dpa' gcig par ' gyur ro zhe na 1 1 'o na ni rnarn par shes
pas gzugs la sogs pa yongs su rni3 gtong4 bas sna tshogs gnyis su med
pa'i rnchog tu ' gyur ro 1 1 de4 gsungs pa I
1 P pas 2 B Ji 3 D ma 4 P btang 4 B de yang
sacitracin 1rnatrarn aseakalpasfmyar hi sakararnatar rnatar me
I
gacchattp:taspar8asarnanarn anye tan rnadhyarnarthar2 pravadanti santaI:i 1 (PTMV 1 1 )
1 Es sacitracit- Esh saccit cin- N saccitacin- 2 N madhyemiirtha T
madhyamiirtha
sna tshogs dang bcas serns tsarn ma lus rtog1 pa yis I
stong pa'i dngos po rnarn bcas pa yi gzhung du2 ' dod I
' gro tshe rtswa la reg pa bzhin du mnyarn pa ste I
dbu rna'i don du skyes bus rab tu srnras pa'o I (PTMV 1 1)
BDP rtogs 2 P gis
citradvaitavadinar tu pararnarthasad iti vijfianarn 1 ape8alarn I grahya
grahakasunyacitra<2dvaita2lkobhyarupajfianasya
vajrasattvarnudraya
vastusatta3nirastatvat I tad uktarn I
1 EshN jniinam 2 N -dvaitrii- 3 T -sattiiyii
I sna tshogs gnyis su med par srnra ba' ang don darn pa'i bden pa zhes
zer te I rnarn par shes pa1 <2yod par ' dod pas rndzes pa ma yin no2l 1 1
gzung ba dang ' dzin [D 1 21b] pas stong pa sna tshogs gnyis su med pa
nyid mi bskyod pa'i rang [B 226a] bzhin <3rnarn par shes pa la3l rdo rje
serns dpa'i4 rgyas btab pas dngos po 'i bden pa bsal lo5 I I de yang6
gsungs pa7 I
1 B la P pa la 2 P dman pa 'o 3 DP gyis rang rig pa las 4 DP dpas 5 D to 6
D om. 7 B pas

PANCATATHAGATAMUDRAVIVARA!:JA

377

riipa[T 29a]di1 kalpasunyar cej jfianam akobhya2mudraya I


tad vajrasattvamudrato vastusatta nirasyate 1 1 (PTMV 1 2)
1 Es rupadi- T rupadif:t 2 N abhyobhyagzugs sogs brtags1 pas stong C2zhe na2) I
ye shes mi bskyod phyag rgya la I
<3des na3) rdor sems rgyas btab pas I
dngos po yod pa bkag pa yin I (PTMV 1 2)
D rtogs 2 BD ba yi 3 P der ni
na ca vijfiaptimatrasya ka1lpitakarasunyata I
kriyate vajrasattvena purvar tasyanavasthiteJ:i2 I I (PTMV 1 3)
1 T . . 2 N tasyatavasthitef:t T tasyatavasthite
rnam par rig pa tsam gyis ni I
rdo rje sems dpar mi bya ste I
dang po nyid nas mi gnas pas I
btags 1 pa thams cad stong pa nyid I (PTMV 1 3)
D rtag P brtags
[Esh 25] tad evar1 paramarthasad iti alyapagame sarvatraprati!hana
rupanabhogayuganaddhadvayavahi2sarvedanasiddha(3madhyamika3)si
ddhantaJ:i sreyan4 I [N 1 6a] ayar ca sadgurupadaprasadad avagamyate I
nanv atra sarvedanasiddhau mayopamadvayavadaprasan<5ge na5) sarva
trapratithanam iti cet I c6tan na6) I
1 T eva 2 Es -di- 3 EshN -madhyamaka- 4 EshN preyan 5 Esh -gena- N -ge
1:1a 6 EshN om.
I de ltar na1 don dam par2 yod pa'i C3gzug rngu3) spangs te4 I thams cad
du mi gnas pa'i rang bzhin lhun gyis grub par <5zung du5) 'jug pa gnyis
su med pa'i rgyun rang rig par grub pa ni dbu <6ma pa'i6) grub pa'i
mtha' phul [P 1 33a] du <7gyur pa'o7) 1 1 ' di ' ang bla ma dam pa'i zhal snga
nas kyi bka' drin las rtogs par bya' o 1 1 ci ste ' dir8 rang rig pas grub na ni
sgyu ma lta bur9 gnyis su med par smra bar thal bar ' gyur te I thams cad
du rab tu mi gnas pa10 ni ma yin no zhe na <1 1 1 ' di ni ma yin te 1 1 1)
1 P om. 2 DP pa 3 B gzugs 4 DP pa ste 5 P zug rngu 6 P ma 'i 7 D phyung
ba 'o 8 D zhes 9 P bu 10 D pas 1 1 BP om.

378

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


yat pratityasamutpannar notpannar 1 tat svabhavataJ:i I
svabhavena2 yan notpannam utpannar nama tat katham I I
(PTMV 14)
1 N om. 2 N -veJJa
ji ltar rten cing 'brel 'byung ba I
de yi rang bzhin ma skyes pas I
ngo bo nyid kyis 1 ma skyes gang I
de la skye zhes ji ltar bya I (PTMV 14)
p kyi

iti II sarvedanar ca prafityasamutpannar tasmat sarvedanam [Es 52]


evapratithitam ajatapadam I tatha ca I
I zhes pas 0so I l 1l nyams su myong ba'ang rkyen las skyes pa ste I de 'i
phyir I nyams su myong ba mi gnas pas 1 1 ma skyes pa yi go 'phang ngo
1 1 de ltar yang I
1 P om.
sarve1danam ajatar [T 29b] vai1a vastusa2ttapi tadrsI I
vajrasattvasvarupar tu jagad eva3 jagau4 muniJ:i I I (PTMV 15)
1 Esh -be- Ia T tops are missing 2 T has an insertion, which was
probably sa 3 T eka 4 N jasau
nyams su myong ba ma skyes pa I
dngos po yod pa' ang de bzhin no I
rdo rje sems dpa' i rang bzhin du I
' gro ba nyid ni thub pas gsungs I (PTMV 1 5)
kir ca mafijusris tathagatena prtaJ:i I katamo ' sav acintyadhatuJ:i I ma
fijusrir aha1 I yo dhatur niscintyo2 na cittagamaniyo na cittaprameyo na
cittacetanaya3 prativeditavyaJ:i4 I asav ucyate ' cintyadhatuJ:i I atha ca pu
nar c5bhagavatcittam5l evacintyadhatuJ:i I tat kasya hetoJ:i I na hy acitte
citte6 cittar sarvidyate I niscitto7 hi cittar cittasya yatharthavabodhat I
atha ca sarvakaro <8bhagavann acintyadhatuJ:i8l I anyatrapy uktam I
1 N ahufi 2 EshN nicito 3 N cittacettanaya T cittaiicetanaya 4 N pravive
vitavyafi T pravicetavyafi 5 Esh bhagavan cittam NT bhagavan cittam 6
Es T om. 7 Es T niscintyata 8 EsEsh bhagavato ' cintyadhatufi N sarvakara
bhagavatacintyadhatufi T sarvakara bhagavann acintyadhatufi

PANCATATHAGATAMUDRAVIVARAJ!A

379

(I I zhes pas so l 1l I yang [B 226b] ' di ltar I 'jam dpal la I de bzhin gshegs
pas dris pa 1 1 ' di2 bsam gyis mi khyab pa'i dbyings gang yin I 'j am dpal
gyis gsol ba I khams gang bsam du med pa'i sems de brjod du med pa
dang I (3tshad med pa'i sems dang 13> sems kyis4 gzhal bya ma yin pa
dang I sems kyis5 sems pa med par6 rab tu bsam par bya ste I ' di ni bsam
gyis mi khyab pa'i dbyings zhes bya' o 1 1 de ltar na bcom ldan ' das sems
nyid bsam gyis mi khyab pa'i dbyings so 1 1 de3 ci 'i phyir zhe na I bsam
gyis mi khyab pa'i dbyings la sems pa yod pa ma yin te I gang gi phyir7
sems ni bsam du med la8 don ji9 lta ba bzhin du rtogs pa'i sems so 1 1 ' on
kyang bcom ldan ' das rnam pa thams cad bsam gyis mi khyab pa'i dbyings so I (31 zhes gsungs so l3l I gzhan du 'ang gsungs pa I
1 D om. 2 B 'dir 3 DP om. 4 D kyi 5 P kyi 6 D pa 7 P om. 8 P pa 'i 9 B ci
avikalpitasaip.kalpa apratithitamanasa 1 I
a[N 1 6b]smrty a2manasikara niralamba namo ' stu te I I
(PTMV 1 6)
1 N -af:z 2 N ukun tu rtog [D 122a] pas ma brtags pa I
rab tu mi gnas pa yi yid I
dran pa med cing yid byed med I
dmigs pa med la phyag 'tshal ' dud I (PTMV 1 6) ces 0pa dang l1J
DP so
candra 1pradipe I
1 EshN catuf:zya}:l pratyayair jayati sa hy ajato na tasya utpada svabhavato ' sti I
ya}:l1 pratyayadhina2 sa sunya ukta}:l3 ya}:l sunyataip. janati4 so
'pramatta}:l I I (PTMV 17)
1 T ya 2 Esh -naf:z 3 uktaf:z T ukta 4 Es jiiniiti
zla ba sgron ma las kyang I
gang zhig rkyen las skyes pa de ma skyes I
de la skye ba'i rang bzhin yod ma yin I
rkyen la1 rag las [P 1 3 3b] gang de stong pa yin2 I

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

380

I gang gis3 stong nyid shes de4 bag yod yin I (PTMV 17) I zhes
pa dang I
1 D las 2 B nyid 3 P zhig 4 D te
[Es 54; Esh 26] aryalankavatare I
bhrantirp.1 vidhuya sarvarp.1a hi nimittarp. jayate2 ya[T 30a]di3 I
saiva tasya bhaved bhrantir asuddharp.4 timirarp. yatha 1 1
(PTMV 1 8)
1 EshN bhranti T I l l ntim la Esh sarva 2 Es }ayati T tops are missing
3 N yahi 4 EshN asuddha'phags pa lang kar gshegs pa las kyang I
gang phyir 'khrul pa kun spangs nas I
gal te mtshan ma skyes na ni I
de nyid 'khrul par ' gyur ba ste1l I
rab rib ma dag pa bzhin no I (PTMV 1 8)
B bas te
tatha ca I
ma bhut sarp.vit1pratithanam ata eva muner2 bhayat I
bhinatti deana dharmam3 uktokta4 sunyatatmana I I (PTMV 1 9)
1 N sambrti- 2 EsNT munir 3 Es deanadharmam 4 T uktvokta N
uktvaka Esh ukta hy a[B 227a] zhes gsungs so 1 1 de bzhin du yang I
[BD: ] I rnam rig la gnas ma gyur cig I
de phyir 'jigs la1 thub pa yis I
chos rnams (2tha dad2l bstan nas3 ni I
stong pa nyid du (4yang bstan to4l I (PTMV 1 9) I zhes C5bya ba5l
dang I
1 D las 2 D phye ste 3 D pa 4 D yang dag bstan 5 D pa
[P:] I rig pas sgro brtags ma skyes pa I
I de nyid kyis ni rgyal ba 'joms I

PANCATATHAGATAMUDRAVIVARAJ!A

381

j chos rnams phye ste bstan p a ni I


I brjod dang brjod pa stong pa yin I (PTMV 1 9) zhes pa dang I
uktar ca hevajre I
0 svabhaven1ladyanutpannar2 na3 satyam na <4mreti ca4l I
(PTMV 20)
1 EsEshNT svabhava caiv- HT (p. 1 64) svabhavam adya
nutpannaf(l 2 N -panna 3 N sa 4 Esh mra tatha
I dgyes pa'i rdo rje las kyang I
I ngo bo nyid kyis ma skyes pa I
I bden pa ma yin rdzun pa' ang min I (PTMV 20)
kir ca I
sarvaf:i samanaf:i1 pravi2bhajyamanaf:i sukmekikakamadhiya3
krtantaf:i I
bauddhasya4 bahyasya vibhagakartri5 na syad ihaika6 yadi
sunyatoktif:i I I (PTMV 2 1 = AM 274)
1 Es T samana- 2 EsN prati- 3 Es silkmam vikiif(lkam adhipa Esh
silnyo ktikiilflkamadhiya N sil . . kikakamadhiya 4 T boddhasya
5 NT vibhagakarttf 6 EsEsh idika N ika
I zhes gsungs 0pa dang1l I gang yang I
1 D so
thams cad mnyam pa nyid du bzhag nas su I
blo ldan phra bar1 lta ba2 grub pa'i mtha' I
sangs rgyas pa dang phyi rol dbye (3byas pas3l I
gang tshe ' dir gcig4 stong pa nyid du brjod I (PTMV 2 1 )
D P bas 2 DP ba 'i 3 DP ba byas 4 P cig
aha ca I ucchedasunyatam apanayan 1 I
1 NT apanayana

3 82

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


tathata:rp. ye tu pasyanti madhyamarthanusarataJ:i I
te vai tattvavido dhanyaJ:i pratyaka:rp. yadi sa:rp.vida1 I I
(PTMV 2 2 = SN 3 1)
1 E5N -daft

I ' di bdag1 gis ni2 stong pa nyid chad pa bsal <2nas bshad pa ste2l I
1 BDP dag 2 P om. 2 BD bar bya ba 'i phyir
gang mthong (Ide ni1l de bzhin nyid I
dbu ma'i don gyi rjes ' brangs nas I 2
de nyid rig <3pa de3l nor ldan I
gang tshe mngon sum rig4 pa' o I (PTMV 22)
B ba de 2 B inserts I gang gis de bzhin nyid mthong ba I 3 B ste
de 'i 4 P rtogs
tad uktam <,lakimvajrapafijare I
sunyatakarni:iabhinna:rp. yatra citta:rp. prabhavyate I
sa1 hi buddhasya dharmasya sanghasyapi hi defana 1 1
(PTMV 23)
1 EshN so
I mkha' ' gro ma 0rdo rje gur1l las kyang I
1 DP dra ba 'i sdom pa
0 stong nyid1l snying rje dbyer med pa I
sems gang gis ni rtogs gyur na I
gang phyir de sangs rgyas dang chos I
dge ' dun du yang bstan pa' o I (PTMV 23 = PA 3) I zhes gsungs
so I
1 P stong nyid stong nyid
tasmat paficakarai:ia:rp. pratitya[N 17a]samutpannana:rp. pa[T 30b]fica
tathagata 1svabhavatvat svabhavasya ca sunyatakarui:iabhinnatvac chun
yatakarui:iabhinna:rp.2 jagad iti sthitarn I eta<3d e3lva sadguror upadefato
dhyanarn avi4cchinnarn I
1 N -gataf:t 2 N -nna 3 T . . 4 T -va-

PANCATATHAGATAMUDRAVIVARAijA

383

I de'i phyir na1 phung po Inga po2 ni rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba3 ste I
de bzhin gshegs pa lnga'i rang bzhin yin pa'i phyir ngo bo nyid kyi4
stong pa dang snying rje gnyis2 dbyer med pas ' gro ba3 mams stong pa
dang snying rje dbyer med par gnas so 1 1 de dag nyid bla c5ma dam pa'i5l
man ngag gis rgyun mi ' chad par bsam gtan bya ste I
1 D ni 2 DP om. 3 P om. 4 BD kyis 5 P ma 'i
nadisrotal).pravahe9a 1 dipajyotil).2prabandhavat I
[Es 56] [labhed dhyanam avicchinnarp.]3 mantratattvanusaratal).4
I I (PTMV 24)
1 EsEsh -tapravahena N -travyavahena T -taf:ip ravahena 2 N jauti- T -Jyoti- 3 Restored from the Tibetan 4 T -re7Ja
0chu bo klung 'babs1> gzhung [B 227b] dang ni I
mar me 'bar ba'i rgyun bzhin du I
sngags kyi de nyid rjes 'brangs nas2 I
rgyun mi ' chad pa' i3 bsam gtan thob I (PTMV 24)
DP chu 'i (D chu) rlabs 'bah pa 'i 2 B na 3 B par
tatha cahur1 nagarjunapadal). I
1 T ahur
[Esh 27] kiltagaram idarp. na ca1 tribhuvanarp. na pri.ll).ino ' mi
ji2nal).
cakrefo ' smi3 na manuo na viaya nakal).i na4 kmadayal).5 j
rilpadya na ca dharmatatmakataya te ma99aleya ime
visvarp. ma99.alacakram akalayatas cetaJ:i <6kim udbhramyasi6l I I
(PTMV 25)
1 EsEshN yat T tu (see YM, fol. 24a4-5) 2 EsN }a- 3 EsEshT
' smin 4 T naf:i 5 EsN hyadayaf:i 6 EshN kimu bhramyasi
I de ltar1 klu sgrub snying po 'i zhal snga nas <2kyis kyang2l I
1 D bzhin 2 D gsungs pa
I ' di ni [D 122b] gzhal yas khang 0yin khams gsum po1l min yul
min dbang po2 'byung ba la sogs min I
I gzugs la sogs pa ma yin srog chags min zhing mi min ' di [P
1 34a] ni1 rgyal <3ba ste3l I

3 84

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


I 'khor lo 'i gtso bo4 chos nyid 0bdag nyid1J yin te des na dkyil
'khor pa yin la I
I khams gs um <5po ' di5J sna tshogs 'khor lor shes na sems ni ci
ste 'khrul bar byed I (PTMV 24) I ces gsungs1 so I (PTMV 25)
1 DP om. 2 DP po min te 3 DP ba 'o 4 DP bo 'di ni 5 P 'di dag
pratityasambhavad eva gandharvapuravat sphutam I
na svabhavasthita:rp. visva:rp. nakasambhojasannibham I I
(PTMV 26)

I rkyen las byung ba'i lha mams ni dri za'i grong khyer lta bur gsal ba 1 1
spros pa sna tshogs rang bzhin gyis gnas pa med de 1 1 nam mkha'i me
tog bzhin du gtan med pa ni ma yin no I (The Tibetan translation is not
metrical) .
ukta:rp. ca hevajre I
ami dharmas1 tu nirvar.ia:rp. mohat sa:rp.sararupir.iaJ:i I (PTMV 27)
iti I
1 Es dharmas
I de ' ang dgyes pa'i rdo rje las 0gsungs pa1l I
1 BP om.
I chos ' di dag ni mya ngan ' das I
I gti mug las ni 'khor ba'i tshul1 I (PTMV 27) I zhes gsungs so I
1 DP chos
[T 3 l a] I I pafica1tathagatamudravivarar.ia:rp. samaptam2 iti I I
1 N paiictis- 2 N samtipta
I de bzhin gshegs pa lnga'i phyag rgya rnam par bshad pa 0zhes bya ba1l
slob dpon chen po dpal1J gnyis su1 med pa'i1 rdo rjes mdzad pa rdzogs
so 1 1 rgya gar gyi mkhan po <2ba dzra pa r.ii'i zhal snga nas2J dang I bod
kyi1J lo tsa ba rma3 ban chos 'bar gyis bsgyur 0zhing zhus te gtan la
phab1l pa'o I I
1 D P om. 2 D P phyag n a rdo rje 3 P sma

7 . Sekanirdea

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh) , p. 28-3 1


AICSB 1 3 (March 1 99 1 ) (Es), p. 289-277 (48-60)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 17a5- 1 9b2
Not found in T
dPal spungs (B) , vol. orri, fols. 25 1b5-254a6
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2252, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fols. 14lb2143a5
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3097, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols. 1 54b8156b5
orp. 0namo buddhaya1l I
1 Es namaJ:i frfvajrasattvaya
[. . .]
karmamudrarp. samasadya dharmamudrarp. vibhavayet I
tasya urdhvarp.1 mahamudra yasyalf samayasambhavalf II
(SN 26)
1 Esh ilrddhvarri N ilrdhva
las kyi phyag rgya la brten nas I
chos kyi phyag rgya rnam par bsgom I
de yi steng du phyag rgya che I
gang las dam tshig yongs 'byung [B 253b] ba' o I (SN 26)
anandalf prati0mudrarp. syur1l mahamudrarp. vina2 punalf I
agamac ca svasarp.vi3ttelf sadguror upadefatalf I I (SN 27)
1 Esh mudrasyaJ:i; suggests -mudrarri syilJ:i or -mudraJ:i syilJ:i N mudrasyaJ:i 2 N vinya 3 Esh --bidga' ba phyag rgya 1 so so la I
phyag rgya chen po ma gtogs2 par I
lung dang rang3 gi rig4 pa dang I

386

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


I bla ma dam pa'i man ngag gis5 I (SN 27)
1 D rgyas 2 D rtogs 3 P ngag 4 D rigs 5 P gi
vicitrarp. karmamudrato vipako jagadatmata I
sthairyarp.1 vilakaifarp. tatra vimardo2 jagadikalfam I I (SN 28)
1 N -rya 2 EshN -rddo
sna tshogs las kyi phyag rgya nyid I
rnam smin ' gro ba'i bdag nyid do I
de la1 mtshan bral brtan pa nyid I
rnam nyed ' gro ba rnam blta2 ba I (SN 28)
P las 2 DP lta
sa[N 1 9a]rvasmi0nn a1)pratithiinarp. mahamudreti kirtyate I
vimalatvat svasarp.vitter2 vicitrader3 na sambhavaJ:i I I (SN 29)
1 N om. 2 Esh -bittef:i 3 N -drer
kun la 0rab tu mi gnas pa I) I
phyag rgya che zhes grags pa yin I
dri ma med phyir rang rig phyir I
rnam pa sna tshogs sogs 'byung min I (SN 29)
B gnas pa ma yin la
[Es 5 8] anabhogarp.1 hi yaj jfianarp. tac cacintyarp. pracakya2te I
sarp.3cintya yad acintyarp. vai tad4 acintyarp. bhaven na hi I I
(SN 3 0 = TRA 29)
1 N -ga 2 Esh -ka- 3 N sa- 4 N tudye shes gang zhig 'bad med pa I
bsam du med ces de brjod do I
0bsams nas1) gang zhig bsam med byed I
de ni bsam du med mi ' gyur I (SN 30)
B bsam gnas
tathatarp.1 ye tu pasyanti madhyamarthanusarataJ:i I
te vai tattvavido dhanyalf pratyakarp.2 yadi sarp.vida3 I I (SN 3 1 )
I EshN -tii 2 N -ka 3 Es sarrzvidiif:i

SEKANIRDESA

3 87

dbu ma'i don gyi rjes 'brangs nas I


gang gis1 de bzhin nyid mthong nas I
mngon sum gang tshe rig gyur pa I
de nyid rig de2 de nor ldan I (SN 3 1 )
DP zhig 2 B de 'i
yavan1 sarvasamaropal:J. sa sarval:J.2 sarvatha na hi I
madhyamartho niraropas tatrapoha3vidhi4 kutal:J. I I
(SN 3 2 = TRA 28)
1 N yavit Es yavat Esh yo vit 2 N -rva 3 Esh tatraroha- N tatraro
pa- 4 N -ddhf
ji srid sgro btags thams cad ni I
thams cad kun tu 0med gyur1l la2
sgro btags med pa dbu ma'i don3
der4 ni dgag sgrub gang zhig yod (SN 32)
BP skye 'gyur 2 P na 3 P don gyi rjes 4 D de
jfianajfieyasamarope1 manyana2 tatra nanyatha I
sarvar3 tatha <4yatha purvar4l yatha buddhis tatha na hi I I
(SN 33)
1 Es -jfieyasamaropo 2 Es manyuna 3 EsEsh sarvas 4 EsEsh yatha
purvarrt
I shes dang shes byar ming ' dogs pa I
I snyam pa de ni gzhan ma yin I
I ji ltar de ltar kun sngon nas 1 I
I ji ltar blo bzhin de ltar min I (SN 33)
1 P na
yenajatar jagad buddhar buddhil:J. uddhaiva bodhatal:J. I
nijar tasya jagat satyam anabhogena dhimatal:J. I I
(SN 3 4 = TRA 30)
ma skyes ' gro bar gang yin blo I
dag par sangs rgyas kyis nges bstan I
' gro kun de yi rang bzhin bden 1 I
blo dang ldan pas 'bad med par I [D 143a] (SN 34)
B ldan DP 'dren

388

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


[Esh 3 1] avibhavitasarbandho vikalpo ' sau prafityajaJ:i I
tad ea eva nirvai;tar1 <2ma krthas2l citta vibhramam I I (SN 35)
1 Esh -7Je N -7Ja 2 Es notkr:;as Esh no krthiif:t N no krtha
rnam rtog de1 nyid rten cing 'byung I
'brel pa bsgom pa ma yin no I
' di nyid mya ngan ' das pa ste I
sems nyid 'khrul par ma byed cig I (SN 35)
DP 'di
pratipake sthito naiva tattvasakto1 'pi naiva yaJ:i I
garddhyar2 naiva phale yasya mahamudrar sa vi3ndati I I
(SN 36)
1 EshN -sakto 2 EshN -rddhaf(l 3 Esh bignyen po 'i phyogs la mi gnas [P 156b] shing I
de nyid [B 254a] la yang mi chags la1 I
gang gi 'bras bu ' ang mi ' dod pa I
de yis2 phyag rgya chen po shes I (SN 36)
DP pa 2 P yi

[. . .]
1 sekanirdefaJ:i1 samaptaJ:i I I
1 Esh -nir7Jayaf:t
I dbang bskur ba nges par bstan pa zhes bya ba I slob dpon rgyal ba mai
tri pas mdzad pa rdzogs so 1 1 rgya gar gyi mkhan po 0kr i;ta1J pa i;t<;li ta 2
dang I <3bod kyi3l lo tsa ba tshul khrims rgyal bas bsgyur <3zhing zhus te
gtan la phab pa' o3l I I
1 D kri SlJ-a 2 B inserts the gloss : nag po p a mkhas pa 3 D P om.

8 . Caturmudranvaya

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh) , p. 32-35


AICSB 1 1 (March 1 989) (Es), p. 253-238 (92- 1 07)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 1 9b2-22b2
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fols. 38al -4lb6 (Fol. 38 is not missing, only fol.
1 8 . Fol. 38 was probably mistaken for fol. 18 and misplaced between
fols. 1 7 and 1 9 . The last two sentences and the colophon, which must be
on fol. 42, are missing.)
dPal spungs (B), vol. orri, fols. 1 5 1 a5- 1 54b5 .
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D) , no. 2225 , rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fols. 77a3-79b2
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3069, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols. 82al-84b5
I I 0namal,t vajrasattvaya1) I I
1 Es orri namal:z frfvajrasattvaya EshN om.
bod skad du I phyag rgya bzhi 0rjes su bstan pa zhes bya ba I) I C2dpal rdo
rje sems dpa' la21 phyag 'tshal lo I
1 DP gtan la dbab pa 2 DP beam ldan 'das 'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur pa
la
EVA1 I
1 T om.
vajrasattva:r prar.iamyadau viuddhajfianatanmayam1 I
mudranvayal,t samasena kriyate atmabuddhaye I I (CMA 1 )
1 N -tatmayarri T -madvayam
rnam dag 0ye shes de bdag nyid1) I
C2dang por rdor sems phyag 'tshal nas2J I
phyag rgya dgod pa mdor bsdus pa I
bdag nyid go bya'i don du 'bri3 j (CMA 1 )
B rang bzhin de rang bzhin 2 P rdo rje sems dpa ' phyag byas
nas 3 B bya

390

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

iha hi mudra1nvayavibhrantya mil<;lhamanaso2 bhramanti bhavan;tave


dul;ikhital;i3 I tear sukhena c4caturmudrarthapratipattaye4) tantranusare
i:ia5 mahasukhasadhanar6 prasadhyate I caturmudreti karmamudra dhar
mamudra mahamudra samayamudra ceti7 I
1 T caturmudra- 2 T manasa 3 N duhkhita T suduhkhitah 4 T catur
mudrapratipattaye 5 T mantranayanusarelJ-a- 6 T -praadhaafl 7 EsEshN
om.
I ' dir1 phyag rgya2 dgod pa la <3 'khrul zhing yid rmongs3) pas srid pa'i
rgya mtshor <4sdug bsngal zhing 'khyams pa4) de [B 1 5 1 b] dag gis bde
blag tu phyag rgya bzhi 'i don rtogs5 par bya'i phyir rgyud kyi rjes su
' brangs nas bde ba chen po 'i <6sgrub pa'i thabs rab tu bsgrub6) par bya' o
I I phyag rgya bzhi zhes bya b a ni las kyi phyag rgya dang I chos kyi
phyag rgya dang I phyag rgya chen po dang I dam tshig gi phyag rgya' o I
1 DP 'di na 2 B rgya bzhi 3 DP yid rnam par 'khrul zhing (D cing P
shing) rmongs 4 BD 'khyams shing shin tu sdug bsngal ba 5 DP khong du
chud 6 BD dngos grub myur du sgrub pa 'i thabs don rab dang ldan brt
sam
[Karmamudra]
tatra karmamudrayal;i svarilpar nirilpyate I karma1 kayavakcittacinta I 2
pradhana I mudra kalpanasvarilpa I
1 EshN karma ya 2 EsEshN insert tatde la las kyi phyag rgya'i1 <2rang gi ngo bo dpyad2) par bya ste I las ni3
lus dang I ngag dang I yid kyi bsam pa ste I gtso bo' o 1 1 phyag rgya ni
<4brtag pa'i rang bzhin no4) I
1 B rgya ni DP rgya brtag 2 D om. 3 DP kyi 4 B rang gi ngo bo brtag pa ' o
ni
tasyar {karmamudrayam} 1 ananda jayante kai:iabhedena bhe
dital;i I
kai:iajfianat sukha2jfianam evarkare pratithitam I I
(CMA 2 = HT 11.3 .5)
1 See my annotation to the translation 2 T sukharri

CATURMUDRANVAYA

391

I 1 las kyi phyag rgya de las skad cig ma'i dbye bas phye b a ' i dga' ba
dag skye bar ' gyur ro I (not metrical)
1 B inserts de
skad cig shes pas1 bde2 ye3 shes I
e var <4rnam par rab tu gnas4) I (CMA 2)
DP pa 'i 2 DP de 3 D yi 4 P la ni rab tu gnas
[Es 94] anandas catvaraf.i I 0anandaf.i paramanandaf.i sahajanando vira
mana[N 20a]ndaf.i1) I anyatha I
1 T anandapa[T 38b]ramanandasahajanandaviravananda

0 1 zhes so 1 1) I dga' ba <2ni bzhi ste I dga' 2) ba dang I mchog tu dga' ba


dang I lhan cig skyes pa'i dga' ba dang I <3dga' bral gyi dga' ba' o3> 1 1
gzhan du na I [D 77b]
1 DP om. 2 DP bzhi ni dga ' 3 P dga ' bra! lo
paramaviramayor1 madhye lakyar vlkya2 d:rc;lhlkuru I
(CMA 3)
1 T paraviramayor (note that the reading of N is hypermetrical) 2
N vfkyaf[l
I mchog dang dga' bral 0dag gi dbusll I
I mtshon <2byar brtags pas brtan par bya2) I (CMA 3)
1 B bdus dag tu 2 B zhing ltos la bstan par gyis
iti yad uktam tat sargatar na bhavati 1 I catvaraf.i kaIJ.af.i2 I vicitravipa
kavilakal).avimardaf.i3 I madhye vilakal).ar dattva seke4 boddhavyam I
hathayoge punaf.i5 sahajavilakal).ayor ante sthitir boddhavya6 I seke7
hathayoge cedar nirditar bhagavata8 I
1 T bhavatfti 2 N km:1a 3 EshN -vimardda T -vimardda 4 N eke 5 T na
puna 6 N boddhavya 7 Esh seka- 8 T bhagavata
I zhes 0ji skad du bstan1J pa de 'thad par mi ' gyur ro 1 1 <2zhes pa'o 12>
skad cig ma bzhi ni rnam pa sna tshogs pa dang I rnam par smin pa dang
I mtshan nyid dang2 bral ba dang I rnam par nyed pa' o 1 1 mtshan nyid
dang bral ba dbus su bstan pa ni dbang las shes par bya' o 1 1 <3yang drag
po3> btsan thabs kyi sbyor ba la3" mtshan nyid dang bral ba dang I lhan
cig skyes <4pa'i dga' ba4J tha mar gnas par rtogs c5par bya'o5J 1 1 <6zhes

392

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

dbang dang drag po 'i sbyor ba ni ' dir bcom ldan 'das kyis rgyas par6)
bstan to I
1 DP gsungs 2 DP om. 3 DP dbang 3" BDP ni 4 DP pa 5 DP so 6 DP beam
ldan 'das kyis (P kyi) dbang [P 82b] btsan thabs kyi sbyor bas
sahaja:r tat1 sarva:r sahajacchayanukaritvat sahajam ity abhidhiyate I
sahajacchaya2 sahajasadrfa:r jfiana:r3 pratipadayafiti sahaja:r prajfia
jfianam3 I ata eva prajfiajfiane sahajasyotpattir nasti I yasmat3" sahaja:r
nama svarupa:r sarvadharma9am4 akrtrimasvalaka9am5 iti yavat I ta
smat karmamudra:r prapya niyandaphalam utpadyate I
1 EsEshN sat 2 T sahajacchayiinukiirf 3 N -na 30 Esh yasyii N yasyii 4 T
dharmii!Jiim 5 EsN akrtimalak$a!Jam T akrtif!1 svalak$a!Jam
I 0lhan cig skyes pa ni de thams cad du lhan cig skyes pa'i grib ma'i rjes
su byed pa'i phyir I [B 1 52a] lhan cig skyes pa zhes brjod do1) I I lhan cig
skyes pa'i grib ma ni lhan cig skyes <2pa dang ' dra ba'i2) ye shes khong
du chud par byed pas shes rab ye shes ni lhan cig skyes pa'o 1 1 de 'i
phyir <3shes rab3) ye shes las lhan cig skyes pa <4skye ba med do4) 1 1 gang
gi phyir lhan cig skyes pa zhes bya ba'i rang bzhin ni chos thams cad
kyi5 ma bcos pa'i6 rang gi mtshan nyid ces bya ba'i bar du' o I I de 'i
phyir las kyi phyag rgya la brten nas rgyu mthun pa'i 'bras bu skyed7
par byed do I
1 DP de thams cad ni lhan cig skyes pa ste j lhan cig skyes pa 'i grib ma 'i
rjes su byed pa la lhan cig skyes pa shes (D zhes) bya 'o 2 DP pa 'i rgyu
mthun pa 'i 3 DP nges par shes rab 4 DP 'byung ba ma yin te 5 BDP om. 6
B par 7 DP thob
[Es 96] sadrfal:J.1 syando niyandal:J. I sadrsya:r2 yatha darpa9arpitamuk
hasya3 pratibimba:r mukha:r na bhavati I na purvasiddha:r napy adhuna
[Esh 33] siddham I tad eva <4mukhapratibimba:r sadrsyamatram4) apada
yati tathapi lokal:J. svamukha:r drtam iti5 bhrantya sa:rtuta bhavanti I
tathaivacaryal:J. kumatayal:J.6 prajfiajfianam asadya sahajam anubhutam iti
krtva sa:rtoam utpadayanti I sa:rtutas ca santo7 dharmamudraya va
rttam api na jananti I
1 EsEshN sadrsa 2 N sadrsya 3 T darpanarpitamukhasya EsEshN dar
pa!Jiirpitaf!1 mukhasya 4 T mukhaf!1 pratibi[T 39a]mbaJ?l sadrsyamiitriim
5 EsEshN iti krtva 6 Esh kumatadii 7 T om.

CATURMUDRANVA YA

393

( Jr gyu mthun pa1) ni rgyu dang ' dra bar 'byung bas na 0rgyu mthun pa1)
ste I ji ltar me long (2dang bzhin2) la brten nas bzhin3 gyi gzugs brnyan
'byung ba <4ni bzhin nyid ma yin te4) I (5sngon yang ma grub5) la I da ltar
yang <6ma grub pa'i6) phyir ro 1 1 (7de ni7) bzhin8 gyi gzugs brnyan9 00rgyu
mthun tsam mthong la10) 1 1 ' on kyang 'jig rten pa rnams rang gi2 bzhin
mthong ngo11 zhes 'khrul pas dga' bar ' gyur ro I I de bzhin du1 1 slob
dpon blo gros dman pa rnams12 shes rab ye shes bsgrubs nas13 lhan cig
skyes pa'i 04rang bzhin14) nyams su myong zhes (15zer nas15) dga' ba
skye bar ' gyur ro 1 1 de la dga' zhing mgu bas ni chos kyi phyag rgya'i
gtam yang mi shes so I
1 B 'dra ba 2 B om. 3 DP byad bzhin 4 B de ni bzhin du mi 'gyur te D ni
gzhan nyid ma yin te 5 DP sngon du grub pa ma yin 6 DP grub pa ma yin
pa 'i 7 B da ltar 8 D nges par gzhan P nges par bzhin 9 B ni 10 B dra ba
tsam du rtogs pa 'o 11 DP om. 12 BDP rnams kyang 13 DP na 14 B ye shes
15 P brjod cing I
dharmamudram ajanananarp.1 kevalaya karmamudraya krtrimaya ka
tha[N 20b]m (2akrtrimabhuta:rp_ sahajakhyam2) utpadyate I sva2ajatiyat
karal).at sva2ajatiyasyaiva3 karyasyotpattir4 bhavati na tu vijatiyat5 I yatha
sanb1jat salyailkurasyotpattir6 bhavati na tu7 kodravasya8 I tatha dharma
mudraya akftrimaya1;9 sakasad akrtrima:rp_ sahajam utpadyate I tasmad
dharmamudraiva10 0 1karal).am abhede1 1) bhedopacarel).a mahamudrayal;
[T 39b] 12 I [Es 98] kasmat tarhi bhagavatoktam I
1 Es ajiinatiiY[l EshN ajiiniinii T ajiiniiniin 2 T akrtrimam anubhuta
sahajiikhyajiiiinam 2a Esh sa- 3 N svajiitfya eva 4 N kiiryasyotpatti T
kiiryakiiryotpatti 5 T anyasya dvijiitfyatviit 6 EsEsh siilyankurotpattir N
siilyankurutpattir 7 Es -nu 8 Esh -vyasya 9 N -mayiif:i 10 N dharmamudre
va 11 T kiirm:ia 12 T once again writes: lll ddharmamudraiva kiirm:ia
bhedopacii . . . .
I chos kyi phyag rgya ma shes par1 las kyi phyag rgya bcos m a 'ba' zhig
las <2ma bcos pa'i2) lhan cig skyes pa'i (3rang bzhin3) ji ltar 'byung4 zhing
skye bar ' gyur I rigs mthun pa'i rgyu las rigs mthun [D 78a] pa'i 'bras
bu skye bar ' gyur gyi I rigs mi mthun pa las ni ma yin no 1 1 ji ltar sa lu 'i
sa bon las sa lu 'i myu gu skye bar ' gyur gyi I <5ko dra las ni5) ma yin no I
I de bzhin du <6chos kyi phyag rgya ma bcos [B 1 52b] pa'i6) rang bzhin
las ma bcos pa'i lhan cig skyes (7pa'i rang bzhin skye ' o7) 1 1 de'i phyir
<8chos kyi phyag rgya nyid la mi phyed par spyad pa nyid na I 'bras bu

394

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

phyag rgya chen po 'byung bar ' gyur ro8l I I de ltar na gang gi phyir
bcom ldan ' das kyis gsungs pa I
1 DP pas 2 DP om. 3 DP rang bzhin bcos ma ma yin pa 4 D 'gyur 5 B khre
dang hu tse las ni DP drug cu pa las 6 DP ma bcos pa 'i chos kyi phyag
rgya 'i 7 DP pa [P 83a] 'byung go 8 B chos kyi phyag rgya de nyid las mi
phyed pa 'i phyag rgya chen po skye bar 'gyur ro DP chos kyi phyag
rgya 'i rgyu nyid la dbyer med par spyod pas phyag rgya chen po 'i rgyur
'gyur ro I
ekarakrti yad divyarp. 0madhye varp.kara1Jbhi1itam I
alayarp. sarvasaukhyanarp. buddha2ratnakaral)<,iakam II iti I
(CMA 4 = HT II.3 .4)
1 T ma I ll ra- 2 Esh buddhaf!l
e yi cha byad bzang po gang1 I
dbus su warp.2 gyis rnam par brgyan I
(3sangs rgyas rin chen za ma tog
bde ba thams cad kyi ni gnas 1 1 zhes pa' o3l 1 1 (CMA 4)
DP la 2 P baf!l 3 P bde ba thams cad kyi (P kyis) ni gnas 1 1 sangs
rgyas rin chen za ma tog 1 1 ces pa ni
Obuddharatnakaral)<,iakam iti l1J buddhacchayanukaritvat karal)<,iakarp.
sthanam adharal). I tasmat karmailganaya anandasandoharatnakararp.2 sa
roruham I tatra3 (3amanthamanthana3albolakakkolarasasarp.yogenavadhi1tyal).4 sarp.vrtibodhicittarp.5 mal)yantargatarp.6 yada bhavet tada kal)ika
namapara7sahajakhyarp. jfianam utpadyate I na tat (8sahajarp. nisyandam
eva8l I tat svari1pel)a prajfiajfiananandatrayakal)acatutayanvitarp.9 seke
00hathayoge ca10J karmamudraya niyandaphalam1 1 uktam I [N 2 1 a] 1 1
karmamudranisyandaphalanirdeal). 12 prathamal). 1 1
1 EsEshT om. N buddhaf!l ratnakarm:ujakam iti 2 T iinandaf:i sandoha
ratniikara- 3 EshN tat 3a Esh svaccham iisthiinaJ?1 N manthamanthiinaJ?1 4
EsEshNT -ii 5 EsEshNT -citta- 6 N mm:iyantargamtaf!l T mm:iye 'ntarga
tam 7 T -niimniipara- 8 EsEsh sahajanisyandaf:i NT sahajanisyandaf!l 9
Esh -trayaf:i km:ia- T -trayaf!l laka'!a- 10 T I l l yoge na 11 T nisyandaf!l
phalam 12 Esh nisyandanirddeaf:i N -niyandaf:i nirdeaf:i T -niyanda
phalanirdeaf:i
0sangs rgyas rin chen za ma tog zhes pa ni1J sangs rgyas kyi grib ma'i
rjes su byed (2pa'i phyir2> za ma tog (3ni gnas sam gzhi' o3l 1 1 de 'i phyir

CATURMUDRANVA YA

395

las kyi phyag rgya yan lag can las4 (5dga' ba ni yid du ' ong ba'i rin po
che 'i 'byung gnas dang mtsho skyes kyis te 1 1 de la bo la dang ka kko
Ia5l srub cing bsrubs pa6 yang dag pa'i sbyor bas 0kun rdzob byang
(8chub kyi8l sems (9a va dhil fi9J nas ji srid nor bu 'i nang du song ba de
ni7J 00de yi10J skad cig 0 1ma'i ming gi mchog ma yin par11l lhan cig
skyes pa zhes bya ba'i ye shes skad cig tsam skye bar ' gyur gyi I de ni 12
lhan cig skyes pa ni ma yin te I rgyu13 mthun pa' o 1 1 4de ni14J rang bzhin
shes rab ye shes 05dang l15l dga' ba gsum dang I skad cig ma bzhi dang
c1 6ldan pa' o I dbang (17dang I drag po btsan thabs kyi sbyor ba ni17J las kyi
phyag rgya'i rgyu dang16J mthun pa'i 'bras (18bu skye bar ' gyur ro18J 1 1
las kyi phyag 09rgya dang rgyu mthun pa'i 'bras20 bu rgyas par bstan pa
ste I dang po ' o19l I I
1 D om. B sangs rgyas rin chen zhes pa ni 2 B pa 'o II DP pa 'i phyir ro I I 3
B ces pa ni gnas dang gzhi 'o 4 B om. 5 B rin po che 'i 'byung gnas dang
mtsho skyes las dga ' ba yid du 'ong ba 'i padma 'i rgyun skye ba 'o 1 1 de
la bo la dang ka kko la DP dga ' ba yid du 'ong ba ni rin chen 'byung
gnas dang mtsho skyes kyis te I de ni rdo rje dang padma 6 DP pa 'i 7 B a
va dha tf nas kun rdzob byang chub kyi sems nor bu 'i nang du son pa las
skye bar 'gyur ro 8 D om. 9 D a ba dha tf P a ba dhu te 10 B de ni D de 'i
11 B ma 'i ming gi mchog DP ma zhes bya ste I de 12 DP om. 13 BDP rgyu
mi 14 B rgyu mthun pa 'i DP de 'i 15 DP kyi 16 DP btsan thabs kyi sbyor ba
las ni 17 B rgya la brten nas 18 P bur gsungs so 19 DP rgya 'i dbang nges
par bstan pa ste dang po ' o 20 B gras
[Dharmamudra]
[Es 1 00] or dharma[T 40a]mudra I dharmadhatusvarilpa niprapafica
nirvikalpakrtrimotpadarahita karm:iasvabhava paramanandaikasundaro
payabhilta pravahanityatvena sahaj asvabhavaya1 [Esh 34] prajfiaya2 sa
hajodayatvenabhinna ya sa dharmamudrety3 abhidhlyate I
1 EsEsh sahajasvabhiivii yii 2 EsEsh prajiiiiyiil:z 3 N rdhamudrety

396

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

I I or chos kyi phyag rgya ni chos kyi dbyings kyi rang bzhin te I spros
pa dang bral ba I 0rtog pa med pal) I ma bcod pa I skye ba dang bral ba I
snying rje ' i rang bzhin mchog tu2 dga' bas gcig [B 153a] tu mdzes c3pa'i
thabs su ' gyur ba3) I rgyun gyis4 rtag pa nyid5 I lhan cig skyes pa'i rang
bzhin gyis6 shes rab dang lhan cig7 c8pa las 'byung ba I dbyer med pa8l
gang yin pa de ni chos kyi phyag c9rgya zhes bya' o9) I
1 DP rnam par mi rtog pa 2 B gi 3 DP pa I thabs kyi ngo bar gyur pa 4 P
gyi 5 DP om. 6 D gyi 7 D cig skyes 8 B skyes pa phyag rgya chen par
'char ba dang tha mi dad pa 9 DP rgyar rig par bya 'o
anyal laka1:iar1 tasyaJ.:i sarkulajfianandhakare tara9ikira9asadr8ar2 gu
rupade8atas C3tr9atuamatrabhranti8alyavarjitar3l boddhavyam3aJ I saka
lakitij alapavana4huta8anair mahabhuta5sar5avalitar trailokyaika6sva
bhavar nistarangar7 sunyatakarn9abhinnar s boddhavyam9 I uktar ca
bhagavata I
1 N lakm:ia 2 N -sadrsiif!I 3 EshN tniatusamatatrapibhrantifalyavarjjitaf!I
3" Esh bodhyavyam T bodham 4 N -1J,a- 5 EsEshNT om. -bhuta- 5" Esh -Sa6 T trailokaika- 7 EshN nistaraliga- 8 EsEshN insert ca 9 Esh bodhyavyam
I 0gzhan yang de 'i mtshan nyid ni1l 1 1 c2mi shes pa'i2l mun pas kun nas
dkrugs pa la nyi ma'i ' od zer dang ' dra ba3 bla ma'i man ngag nyid
kyis4 'khrul pa rtswa5 rdul tsam [D 78b] gyi zug rngu rnam par spangs
nas C6rtogs pa' o 16) I C?sa dang I chu dang I me dang I rlung ste7l I khams
bzhi'i nus pas beings pa'i 'jig rten gsum po ma lus pa gcig pa'i8 rang
bzhin rba9 rlabs med pa'i9 stong pa nyid dang snying rje dbyer med par
shes par bya' o I bcom ldan ' das kyis kyang gsungs pa I
1 B de 'i mtshan nyid ni gzhan no 2 DP dper na 3 B ba 'i DP bar 4 DP kyi
(D kyis) mi shes pa 'i mun pas [P 83b] kun nas 'khrugs pa 'i 5 P rtsa 6 B I
log rtog 7 B chu dang I me dang I rlung ste 8 DP gi 9 D dba ' 10 B pa
lalana prajfiasvabhavena rasanopayasarsthita1 I
avadhu2ti madhyadese 3 grahyagrahakavarjita I I
(CMA 5 = HT I. 1 . 14)
1 T -piiyena saf!Isthitii 2 Esh -dhu- 3 EsEshNT insert tu (which
makes it unmetrical)
rkyang1 ma shes rab rang bzhin la2 I
ro ma thabs kyis3 yang dag gnas I
sdig spangs ma ni dbus C4nyid du4l I

CATURMUDRANVA YA

397

I gzung dang ' dzin pa rnam par spangs I (CMA 5)


1 DP mdzes 2 B dang 3 P kyi 4 DP gnas dang
et annipm;ie1napi tathatakarer.ia2 sannikrtakarar.iatvena3 margo jfiatavyaJ:i
I margajfiane sadaranirantarar4 margabhyasan nirodhasya sahajasva
bhiivasya sakatkrtitvar (5bhavati I [Es 1 02] tatha5l coktam I
1 Es -JJe- 2 T tathiikiireJJa 3 T -kiiraJJa I l l [T 40b] na 4 NT siidaraniranta
ra- 5 T bhava Il l thii
I 0 ' di la nan tu byas par gyur pas1l de bzhin nyid kyi rnam pa nye ba'i
rgyur gyur pa de ni lam du shes par bya' o I I lam du shes par2 3 gus pas
rgyun mi ' chad <4par lam goms par byas pas ' gogs pa4l lhan5 cig skyes
pa'i rang bzhin mngon du byed par ' gyur ro I de bzhin du6 (7gsungs pa l 7 l
1 P de ltar rah tu 'bad pas kyang I 2 DP pas 3 BP insert rtag tu 4 DP pa ni
lam mo 1 1 'gog pa ni 5 B dang lhan 6 B om. 7 P gzhag
napaneyam atal;i kircit prakeptavyar na kir[N 2 1b]cana I
dratavyar 0bhutato bhutar1l bhuta2dars1 vimucyate II (CMA 6)
1 N bhutate bhuta T bhutato bhutii 2 N om. bhuta' di las 1 bsal bya ci yang med I
bsnan2 par bya ba cung zad med I
yang dag nyid la yang dag blta3 I
yang dag mthong na4 rnam par grol I (CMA 6)
BDP la 2 D gzhag 3 DP lta 4 DP nas
lalana rasana tayor madhyadese nivasiny avadhufi I saivadhigata1 saka
lapadarthasahaj asvabhavaikacittavrttel;i sadgurupa2dea<3tas ca3l I dhar
mamudra mahamudraya abhedena hetubhuta II dharmamudravipakapha
lanirdeo dvifiyaJ:i II
1 EsEshNT -ta- 2 T sadguror upa- 3 EsEshNT -to

398

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

0zhes bstan to l 1J I rkyang2 ma 0dang ro ma de gnyis kyi3J dbus su gnas


pa de1 ni sdig spangs ma' o 1 1 de nyid la4 (5don thams cad lhan cig skyes
pa'i bdag nyid du5l sems rtse gcig <6tu 'jug pa dang6l bla ma dam pa'i
man ngag gis7l rtogs par 'gyur ro 1 1 chos kyi phyag rgya ni phyag rgya
chen po8 dbyer med pa'i rgyur gyur pa'o 1 1 chos kyi phyag rgya ni1
mam par smin pa'i 'bras bur nges par bstan pa ste I gnyis pa' o I I
1 D P om. 2 D P mdzes 3 DP ro ma dag g i 4 B rtogs pa las 5 B lhag par
mos pas ni lhan cig [B 153b] skyes pa 'i rang bzhin gyi don thams cad
khong du chud par DP lhag par mos pas lhan cig skyes pa 'i rang bzhin
gyi don go 'phangs ma lus par 6 DP pa dang I 7 B nyid las 8 P po 'i
[Mahamudra]
al). mahamudreti I mahafi1 casau mudra ceti mahamudra2 I 3 nil).4svabhava
jfieyadyavarar,iavivarjita aradamalamadhyahnagaganasarpkasa5 sakala
sar:padadharabhiita bhavanirvar,tai6kasvariipa I analambanakaru[T 4 1 a]
r,iasarira7 mahasukhaikariipa I tatha ca I
1 Esh -ti 2 N mahamudra ceti 3 EsEshN insert mahamudra 4 N ni- 5 N sa
radamanamadhyanagaganasarrikasa 6 N -nai- 7 N -sarfra T -sarfra
I I al). phyag rgya chen po zhes bya ba ni phyag rgya' ang yin la chen
po ' ang yin pas phyag rgya chen po ste I rang bzhin med pa nyid shes
0bya la sogs pa'i sgrib pa1l spangs pa I ston ka'i2 nyi ma phyed kyi nam
mkha' ltar dri ma med pa I phun sum tshogs pa mtha' dag (3 ' dzin pa'i3J
gzhir gyur pa I 'khor ba dang mya ngan gyi mtha' las ' das pa gcig pa'i
rang bzhin I dmigs pa med pa4 snying <5rje chen po'i lus l5J bde da chen
<6po gcig pu'i gzugs so6l 1 1 de ltar yang7l I
1 B bya 'i sgrib pa la so gs pa 2 B kha 'i 3 DP gi 4 B pa 'i lus I pa 5 P rje 'i [P
84a] lus 6 D po 'i rang bzhin no P bde ba chen po 'i rang bzhin no 7 P de
bzhin du
amanasikara 1 dharmal). kuala manasikara dharma akualal). I
1 T amanasikara
yid la 0mi byed1l pa'i chos ni dge ba' o I
yid la byed pa'i chos ni2 mi dge ba'o3 I I zhes gsungs pa dang I
P byed pa med 2 DP om. 3 DP ba 'i

CATURMUDRANvA YA

399

pravacane ca1 I
1 T na
avikalpitasarpkalpa aprati!hitamanasa I
asmrty amanasikara1 niralamba namo ' stu te I I (CMA 7)
1 N -rah
0gsung rab las kyang 1 1)
1 D om.
kun tu rtog pa1 ma brtags pa I
rab tu mi gnas pa yi yid I
dran pa med cing yid byed med2 I
dmigs pa med la phyag 'tshal [D 79a] ' dud3 I (CMA 7)
BD pas 2 P min 3 B bstod
[Esh 35] iti ya ( ! ) sa1 mahamudrety abhidhiyate I taya mahamudrayacin
tyasvarupaya samayamudrakhyarp2 phalarp jayate I mahamudravaima
lyaphala3nirdefas tr[N 22a]tiyal:t ii
1 N !fa 2 Es -khya- 3 EshN om. phala
I ces bya ba gang yin pa de phyag rgya chen po yin par rig par bya' o 1 1
de 'i phyir phyag rgya chen po bsam gyis mi khyab pa' i rang bzhin las
dam tshig gi phyag rgya 0zhes bya bas1) mchog gi ' bras bu skye bar
' gyur ro 1 1 phyag rgya chen po dri ma med pa'i ' bras bu2 nges par bstan
pa ste I gsum pa' o I I
1 DP om. 2 B bur

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

400

[Sarnayarnudra]
[Es 1 04] hur sarnayarnudreti I sarnbhoganirrnai:iakayakarasvabhavena
svacchakarei:ia ca sattvarthaya vajradharasya herukakarei:ia1 visphura
i:iar yat sa sarnayarnudreti vya2padisyate I tar ca sarna0yarnudrar
grhitva3l cakrakarei:ia4 paficavidhar jfianar c5paficavidhar parika
lpya5ldarsasarnatapratyavekai:iac6krtyanuthanasuvisuddhadharrnadha
tubhir6l adiyogarnai:i<;ialarajagri7karrnarajagri7binduyogaC8sukrnayoga
i8llf sarnayarnudracakrar bhavayanty acaryalf I tena te krtapui:iya bha
vanti I
1 T herukadyakiira;,a 2 Esh co- 3 T the lower part of the letters is missing
4 T I l l a 5 EshNT paiicavidhaf!l parikalpyii ii- 6 T kia [T 4lb] I l l . . su
visuddhadha 1 1 1 7 Esh -fri- 8 T om.
I I hur darn tshig gi phyag rgya zhes bya ba ni longs spyod rdzogs pa
dang sprul pa'i sku'i rnarn pa'i rang [B 1 54a] bzhin dang ba'i1l ngo bo
nyid serns can gyi don gyi phyir rdo rje ' dzin pa2 he ru ka'i3 rnarn par
spros pa de ni darn tshig gi phyag rgyar ' dod do 1 1 darn tshig gi phyag
rgya c4de blangs nas4l 'khor ba'i rnarn pa ye shes C5marn pa Inga dang5l
cho ga C6marn pa lngar6l yongs su brtag pa ni me long lta bu dang I
rnnyarn pa nyid dang I so sor rtog pa dang I bya ba nan tan dang I chos
kyi dbyings shin tu rnarn par dag pa rnarns dang I sbyor ba dang po
dang I dkyil 'khor rgyal rnchog dang I las rgyal rnchog dang I thig le' i
rnal 'byor dang I phra rno 'i rnal 'byor gyis7 ni8 darn tshig gi phyag
rgya'i 'khor lo bsgorn9 pa'i slob dpon des ni bsod narns byas par ' gyur
ro I
1 BDP dang po 'i 2 B la dang 3 B ka la sogs pa 'i 4 DP blangs te zhes bya
ba ni 5 DP lnga 'i 6 DP om. 7 B pas 8 DP om. 9 B ste I de sgom
tatas ca na dharrnarnudraphalalabhino bhavanti I
niyatarthakarai:iat1 niyatasyaiva karyasyotpattilf I I (CMA 8 )
1 T niyatiirtakiina
iti vacanat I
I des kyang ni1 chos kyi phyag rgya'i 'bras bu 'thob par mi ' gyur ro I
1 DP om.

CATURMUDRANVA YA

40 1

I nges pa'i don gyi rgyu las nges pa' i I


I 'bras bu de nyid skye bar ' gyur ro I (CMA 8)
zhes bya ba'i tha tshig go I
tasmat sahaj asiddharasanuvedhena1 sthiracaladayo ye2 bhava2" balapari
kalpitas3 te sarbodhikarm:iatam4 upayanti I (5etena trailokyar6 cakrar
subhavitam7 bhavati [Es 106] I tatha coktar bhagavata5) I
I EshNT -rasan na vedhena Es rasad vedhena 2 Es om. EshN yena va 2"
Esh om. 3 EshN kalpita 4 N smr1bodhika<na> tam T saf!!bodhikan ca tam
5 EshN om. 6 Es T (missing in N) trailokya- 7 Es subhaitaf(l T svabhavi
tam
Ode'i phyir1) (2lhan cig skyes pa grub pa'i ros rjes su phug nas brtan pa
dang g.yo ba'i dngos po gang byis pas yongs su brtags pa de ' ang de dag
lhan cig skyes pa'i2J byang chub kyi3 gser du ' gyur 1 1 ' dis4 ni 'jig rten
gsum5 'khor (6lo 'i rnam par shin tu bsgom par [P 84b] ' gyur ro6l I 7 I de
skad du (8yang I bcom ldan ' das kyis gsungs pa8l I
1 B de lta bas na 2 P brtan pa dang g.yo ba ' i dngos po gang byis pas kun
tu brtags pa de dag lhan cig skyes pa 'i ros phug na de 3 BP kyi sems 4 P
'dir 5 P gsum gyi 6 P lo yang dag par bsgoms par 'gyur te 7 B inserts I
gang gsung ba I 'di ni gnas gsum ma yin gzhal yas khang pa yin 1 1 srog
chags ma yin 'di ni rgyal ba yin 1 1 'khor lo 'i bdag po nga yin mi min yul
min dbang po ma yin te 1 1 sa la sags pa 'ang ma yin gzugs la sags pa 'ang
min I I chos nyid bdag nyid de nyid dkyil 'khor yin te dkyil 'khor [B
1 54b] ba yang yin 1 1 sna tshogs dkyil 'khor 'khor lor shes na sems ni ci
ste 'khrul bar byed 1 1 ces bstan to I 8 P om.
na mantrajapo na tapo na homo na mar:iqaleyar na ca mar:i<;lalar
ca I
sa mantrajapal) sa tapal) sa homas tan mar:i<;laleyar1 tan mar:i<;la
lar ca I I (CMA 9 = HT I. 10.43)
1 Es ma1J4alevaf!1 T ma!Jcj,aleyaf(l
0sngags zlos1) med cing dka' thub2 sbyin sreg med I
dkyil 'khor med cing3 dkyil 'khor pa yang med4 I
<5sngags zlos de yin5l dka' thub sbyin sreg de6 I
de ni dkyil 'khor (7yin te7l dkyil 'khor pa' ang de ' o I (CMA 9) I

402

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


c8zhes gsungs so8J I
1 DP bsngags bzlas 2 DP thub med cing (D de) 3 DP de 4 DP yod
ma yin 5 P de ni sngags bzlas de ni 6 DP de ' o 7 B de yin 8 DP om.
samasatas cittarp.1 samajarupi2 I (CMA 10 = HT I. 1 0.44)
1 NT citta- 2 Es -rupf
I mdor bsdus na ni sems su ' dus pa'i tshul can no I (CMA 1 0)

iti I [N 22b] samasatal;i sarvadharmalJam ekakarato yad uta mahasukha1karatal;i I cittam iti bodhicittam I samajarupiti dharmamudramahamu
drabhiekarupar yaj2 jfianar C3tat samaja3l abhidhiyate I I samayamudra
puruakaraphalanirdesas caturthal;i samaptal;i I I
1 From here on missing in T 2 Es om. Esh va N ya 3 EsEsh satsamajety N
satsamajaty T tat samaja
I zhes beam ldan ' das kyis gsungs pa'o1 1 1 mdor bsdus zhes2 pa ni chos
thams cad C3gcig gi3J C4rnam pa ste I gang zhe na bde ba chen po 'i rang
bzhin no4J 1 1 sems C2zhes bya ba2l ni byang chub kyi sems so 1 1 ' dus c5pa'i
tshul5J C6zhes pa6l ni chos kyi phyag rgya dang phyag rgya chen po' i
(7dbang [79b] gyi tshul7J gyis 8 ye shes gang yin p a de ni9 ' dus pa'i tshul
du2 mngon par brjod do 1 1 dam tshig gi phyag rgya skyes bu byed pa'i
'bras bur nges par bstan pa ste I bzhi pa' o II
1 P so 2 DP om. 3 B om. P gis 4 B bde ba chen po 'i rnam par gcig pa nyid
do 5 B pa 6 D om. 7 B tshul D dbang 8 D inserts ni 9 DP nyid
I phyag rgya bzhi 1rjes su bstan pa zhes bya ba1 slob dpon 2klu sgrub kyi
zhal snga nas mdzad pa rim pa bzhi 'i no pi ka2 rdzogs so I I
1 P gtan la dbab pa 2 P chen p o klu sgrub snying pas mdzad pa 10 D bu

9 . Sekatatparyasaf(lgraha

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh) , p. 36-39


AICSB 1 1 (March 1 989) (Es), p. 237-225 (= 1 08- 1 20)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 22b2-25b3
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fols. 3 1 a l -? (from fol. 34 missing)
dPal spungs (B) , vol. Olfl, fols. 227b6-23 1bl
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2243 , rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fols . 1 22b4124b7
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3088, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols . 1 34a4136b6
namo buddhaya 1 I
1 T sarvajfiliya
I rgya gar skad du 1 1 e ka 0ta tpa rya1) sar gra ha I bod skad du I dbang
gi dgos pa mdor bsdus pa I [B 228a] I <2sangs rgyas2) la phyag ' tshal lo I
<31 'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur pa la phyag 'tshal lo 13)
1 B ta kii ryalfl D ta kii ryalfl P ta ka ryalfl 2 P rdo rje sems dpa ' 3 BP om.
kalyar.iamitravaca1 ko 'pi samahima2 jaya3ty anavaga4hyaJ:t4" I
karatalagatam5 iva tattvar <6yad vacam aviayar6) dhatte I I
(STS 1 )
1 EshN -viiriili- T -viiciilfl 2 Esh samiidhimii- N samiihimii- 3 EshN
-pa- 4 EshN -grii- 4" T -hyuf:i 5 T karatalam 6 Esh atpaficam avi
amalfl N yadviificamaviamalfl
dge ba'i bshes gnyen bka' ni rtogs dka' bas I
tshig gi yul1 ma yin pa gang yin pa'i I
de nyid <21ag pa'i mthil du yod pa2l bzhin I
che ba' i bdag nyid gang yin de ni rgyal gyur cig I (STS 1 )
D P lam 2 D log pa 'i lam du ston pa

404

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


vajradi0ryottarnajfianal) seka1ltatparya2sargraharn I
viditva kurrnahe ' nekasekagranthad3 yathagarnarn I I (STS 2)
1 Esh -ryyat tu saf(lfiianaseka- N -caryottamajna 1 1 1 1 naseka- T
ryottamajniitaseka- 2 N -r:fa 3 Esh -granthan N -granthana T se
kagranthan
rdo rje slob dpon rnchog1 shes pas I
dbang bskur dgos pa rndor bsdus pa I
dbang bskur gzhung ni du ma las I
ji ltar rtogs pa bzhin du bya2 I (STS 2)
BDP chog 2 B brtsam
pratharnar kalasabhieko1 dvitiyar guhyarn uttarnarn I
prajfiajfianar trtiyar vai caturthar C2tat pu2lnas tatha I I (STS 3)
1 T -kaf(l. The first line is hyperrnetrical. 2 T I l l
burn pa'i dbang ni dang p o ste I
gsang ba rnchog ni gnyis pa yin I
shes rab ye shes gsurn pa ste I
de ltar de bzhin bzhi pa yang I (STS 3)

[The Six Vase Empowerments]


asyarthal) I pratharnar kalasabhieka iti I udakarnukutavajraghm:itana
rnacaryalakai:ial)1 at kalasabhiekal) I bahyavarii:ieva2 bahyarnalasyavi
dyarnalasya3 kalanaya sificyate4 'neneti sekal) I earp. sarveC5ar ka5lla8avyaparat kalasabhiekasarjfia I avaivartikabhiekas6 caite attathaga
tasvabha[N 23a]vatvat I
1 N -gha7:ttm:iamacaryalak:fm:iaf:t T gha7:ttiinamacaryalak:fa1:la I l l 2 EshN 1:laiva 3 EshNT -vidyamala- 4 Es T sicyate Esh sineate N :fif(lcate 5 T I l l 6 T bhi:feka
I zhes bya ba'i don ni ' di yin te I burn pa'i dbang ni dang po ste 1 1 zhes
bya ba ni chu dang I cod pan dang I rdo rje dang I dril bu dang I ming
dang I slob dpon gyi rntshan nyid can1 drug po ' di dag ni burn pa'i
dbang ngo 1 1 phyi rol gyi chus ni phyi rol [P 1 34b] gyi dri ma 'khrud pa
ltar ma rig pa'i dri ma 'khrud pa'i phyir dang I dag C2cing 'khrud par
byed pas na2l dbang bskur ba zhes bya' o 1 1 C3 'di dag tharns cad l a burn

SEKATATPARYASA!'(JGRAHA

405

p a'i bya ba 'jug pas bum pa'i dbang zhes bya' o 1 1 drug po ' di dag ni3)
phyir mi ldog pa'i dbang zhes kyang bya ste I de bzhin gshegs pa drug
gi <4rang bzhin4) yin pa'i phyir ro I
1 BD can dang 2 DP par bya ba 'di yis ni 3 D de dag nyid la yang P de
dag nyid la 4 DP ngo bo
(l tatha hi1) I [T 3 lb] udakabhieka2 adarajfianatmako [Es 1 10] 'ko
bhya3svabhavaJ:i I mu4kutabhiekal;t samatajfianatmako5 ratnasambhava
svabhaval;t I vajrabhiekal;t pratyavekm;iajfianatmako6 ' mitabhasvabha
val;t I adhipatyabhiekal;t krtyanuthanaC7jfiana7)riipo 'moghasiddhisva
bhavaJ:i8 I nama(9bhieko9l 'vidyanirodhad vidyanugata 10su 1 1vifoddha
dharmadhatujfianatmako vairocanasvariipal;t I a02caryabhieka<13s tu va
jra13J 04sattva14lsvabhaval;t I atra ca paficabhieko vidya15bhiekaJ:i16 12J
paficasu locanadividyayal;t17 vyaparat I I
1 Esh tathahi T tatha Il l 2 T Il l 3 T ' bhyabhya (there i s correction mark
above the first bhya) 4 NT ma- 5 T -atma 6 N pratyavek$m:iajnana T I l l
k$aJ:ldjnana 7 EsEshN om. 8 T -svarilpa/:l 9 T 1 1 1 1 0 T vidyanugo- 1 1 N om.
su- 12 N om. 13 T va( ?) I l l 14 EshN -jnana- 15 N ' vidya- 16 Esh om.
vidyabhi$ekaf:i 17 N -vidyaya T vidya-

I de ' ang chu 'i dbang ni me long lta bu'i [D 1 23a] ye shes kyi bdag nyid
mi bskyod pa'i ngo bo nyid do 1 1 cod pan gyi dbang ni mnyam pa nyid
kyi ye shes kyi bdag nyid rin chen 'byung ldan gyi ngo bo nyid do 1 1 rdo
rje'i dbang ni so sor rtog [B 228b] pa'i ye shes kyi bdag nyid snang ba
mtha' yas kyi ngo bo nyid do 1 1 bdag po 'i dbang ni bya ba nan tan gyi
ye shes kyi bdag nyid don yod grub pa'i ngo bo nyid do I I ming gi
dbang ni ma rig pa ' gog pas1 rig pa'i2 rjes su ' gro ba'i3 chos kyi dbyings
shin tu rnam par dag pa'i ye shes kyi bdag nyid rnam par snang mdzad
kyi ngo bo nyid do I I slob dpon gyi dbang <4bskur ba4l ni rdo rje sems
dpa'i ngo bo nyid do 1 1 ' di dag las dbang bskur ba Inga ni rig pa'i dbang
bskur ba zhes bya ste I sangs rgyas spyan la sogs pa'i5 rig ma lnga' i bya
ba yin pa'i phyir ro I
1 BDP pa 'i 2 DP pa 'i ye shes 3 B ba 4 DP om. 5 DP pa

406

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

[The Water Empowerment]


atra 0cavi n dyamalakalanayakobhyarupef.1a2 vajracaryef,la vairocanaru
palambini3 siye salilabhieko deyalf I e<4varp. sa4)rvatraharp.karalf I
1 T 1 1 1 2 T -svarilpe7Ja 3 EshN -rilpiivalambini T -rilpiilambina 4 T I l l
I ' dir m a rig pa'i dri m a 'khrud 0pa'i phyir1) rdo rje slob dpon mi
bskyod pa'i gzugs su gnas pas I slob ma rnam par snang mdzad kyi
gzugs su dmigs pa la chu'i dbang bskur2 sbyin par bya 'o 1 1 de lta bu 'i
nga rgyal thams cad du bya' o I
1 B par byed pas rig pa 'i dbang ngo 1 1 2 B bskur ba
[The Crown Empowerment]
agamibuddh0abhavocit1lof.11ahljabhuto [Esh 37] mu2kutabhiekal). I
1 Es -abhiivas cit- Esh -abhiivo acitt- N -abhiivo citto (delete -abhiivas
cit-?) 2 N maI ma ' ongs pa na sangs rgyas kyi dbu'i1 gtsug tor gyi ngo bo sa bon du
gyur pa'i cod pan gyi dbang bskur ba'o I
1 DP dbu
[The Vajra Empowerment]
[Es 1 1 2] dvadasailguliparimaf.1ena dvada[T 32a]sa1ilgaprafityasamutpa
daviuddhya vajram I yatra madhyav:rtte2 niruttaradharmatasucako3
hurp.ka[N 23b Jralf I tasyarthalf I ha iti hetuviyuktalf I u4 ity uhapagatalf I
arp. ity <5apratithital). sarve dharma5l iti I
1 T . . 2 Esh -vrtter 3 N -silciko T -silci 4 N om. 5 Esh aprati$titasarvadhar
ma EsNT aprati$?itaf:t sarvadharma
yatra bhavasarojamukhat1 sphuranti paficara2rupif,1o munayalf I
paficaskandhavisuddhya nikranta bhavaariref,la I I (STS 4)
1 Esh -sarodbhavamukhiit N -sarodbhamukhiit 2 T paiiciikiira-

SEKATATPARYASAJ1GRAHA

407

iha ca madhyarabhimukhataya1 paryantarai:iar2 sarve3 rupadayo vijfia


natmaka iti siicyate4 I ete ca sarve sarvatmaka iti nivedayitur5 sarvatrai
va6 caturasrl7 II
1 Esh mukhata N -mukhato 2 Esh uparyadharelJa N paryadharalJii T par
yan tiira . . Yfl 3 EsEshN sarva- T . . rva- 4 EsEshNT sucyante 5 N niveyiturri
6 N sarvatreva 7 Esh caturafrf T caturasraf:t
I rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba'i ngo bo yan lag bcu gnyis rnam par dag
pas1 sor bcu gnyis kyi2 tshad tsam gyi rdo C3rje de 'i3l dbus kyi lte ba
zlum po 'i nang du bla na med pa'i chos nyid mtshon par byed pa'i yi ge
hiir ngo 1 1 ' di'i don ni ' di yin te I ha zhes bya ba ni rgyu dang bral ba'o
1 1 u zhes bya ba ni rtog pa dang bral ba' o 1 1 ar4 zhes bya ba ni chos
thams cad rab tu mi gnas5 pa'o 1 1 ' dir yang srid pa'i mtsho skyes kyi6
kha nas spros7 c8pa'i thub pa' o 1 1 rtse8J lnga pa'i gzugs [P 1 3 5 a] can [B
229a] ni9 phung po lnga10 rnam par dag pa las nges par ' byung ba'i srid
pa'i gzugs can no 1 11 I 02'dir yang12l phyogs kyi rtse mo rnams dbus kyi
rtse mo la phyogs pa ni gzugs la sogs pa thams cad rnam par shes pa'i
bdag nyid du mtshon par byed pa yin no I I de ltar thams cad kyang
thams cad kyi bdag nyid can13 du shes par bya 04ba'i phyir14J kun kyang
zur bzhi pa nyid do I
1 P pa 2 DP pa 'i 3 B rje 'i P rje 4 P OYfl 5 BP gnas pa med 6 DP om. 7 D
'p hros 8 BD pa 'i rtse mo 9 B gyi 10 D lnga 'i 11 Not recognized as a quota
tion 12 B 'di 'ang 13 D om. P not clear 14 D ste
atha te dharmasya budha1 hurnadanivedita2tmarupasya I
paficapi3 vimukti4kayal:i paryante canyatra visphuritaI:i II
(STS 5)
1 EshNT buddhii 2 T om. -tii. 3 EsEshN paiiciisi- 4 EsEshNT vimuk
tasunyatanimittaprai:iihita1vabodhanarthar sarvatra phullakatrayam2 I ete
cadarasamatapratyavekai:iakrtya3nuthac4nasuvi4l[T 32b]foddhadhar
madhatulakai:iapaficajfianatmaka gurupadefato jfieyal:i I abhedyajfiana
sucakar ca samudayarthal:i I
1 N sunyatiinimittiipra1Jihihitii- Esh sunyatiinimittiif:t pra1Jihitatii- 2 N phu
llikiitryam Esh hullakiitrayam 3 EshN -tvii- 4 T I l l
I de ltar1 n a rdo rje chos2 rtogs p a ' i mkhas pas hur g i sgra nges par
sgrog pa'i rang c3bzhin gyi3J gzugs kyi4 rnam par [D 1 23b] grol ba sku

408

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

lnga'i mthar thug pa so sor kun tu' ang spro bar byed pa'o 15 I stong pa
nyid dang I mtshan ma med pa6 dang I smon pa med pa nyid du rtogs par
bya ba'i phyir kun la' ang me tog gsum gsum mo 1 1 de ltar na me long
lta bu dang I mnyam pa nyid dang I so sor rtog pa dang I bya ba nan tan
dang I chos kyi dbyings shin tu rnam par dag pa'i mtshan nyid can gyi7
ye shes lnga'i bdag nyid can du bla ma'i man ngag gis8 shes par bya'o 1 1
dbyer med pa'i ye shes mtshon pa zhes bya ba ni bsdus pa'i don yin no I
I de ' ang I
1 DP lta bas 2 BD chos thams cad 3 D gi P rang gi 4 DP kyis 5 Not recog
nized as a quotation 6 D pa nyid 7 P gyis 8 DP las
[Es 1 14] drc;lha1saram asausiryam acchedyabhedyalakai:iam I
adahi2 avinasi2 ca sunyata vajram ucyate I I iti3 I I
( STS 6 = PTMV 5)
1 EsEsh dr<fhaY(l T dr 1 1 1 2 EsNT -f 3 EshNT om.
snying po brtan zhing khong stong med I
mi chod mi phyed mtshan nyid can I
mi tshig1 pa dang mi nyams pa'i I
stong nyid2 rdo rje zhes brjod do I ( STS 6) I zhes pa dang I
B shigs P 'tshig 2 D pa
abhedyar1 vajram iti ca2 hevajre I asya ca vajrabhiekasya vidhanam
utpadya3manabhe[N 24a]dyajfianabijadhanam iva4 vidhatum I I
1 EshT -dya- 2 EsN om. 3 EshNT utpasya- 4 Es eva
dpal1 dgyes pa'i rdo rje las kyang I mi phyed rdo rje zhes bshad do 1 1
zhes gsungs so2 1 1 rdo rje'i dbang bskur ba'i cho ga ' dis ni dbyer med
pa'i ye shes C3skyed pa'i3) sa [B 229b] bon gyi gnas dang ' dra ba nyid
ster ba' o I
1 DP om. 2 DP pa dang 3 B bskyed pa 'i don D skyes pa 'i
[The B ell Empowerment]
evar vajraghai:itapi purvabhisardhanena dvadasanguliparimai:iadho
mukhambhoj avajrasamapattir1 niJ.:i.svabhavena la sarvadharmasvabha
var2 pratipadayitum3 I abhedyajfiananidanati:ir4 dharmodayasya bodha
yiC5tum urdhvadho5lbhage ca vajravaliyugalamalini I tridhatukasvabha-

SEKATATPARYASAly!GRAHA

409

vakutagaratam asya khyapayitur harardhahara6prakaraI:t I ata eva pa


fic atathagatankital:t ! [T 33a] sunyatakarm:iabhinnajfianakaral).atam7 ave
dayic8tum upari8l prajfiamukhakhyanam I
1 EshN -tti la T nisvanena 2 NT -va 3 T -yitrf 4 EshN -nigadatiilfl 5 Esh tum murddhiidho- N tum murddhiiddho- T -tumurddhiidho- 6 NT -rah. 7
T "_jfiiiniikiiratiimave 8 Esh tum apari1:1ata N tulJlm apari
I de bzhin du dril bu'i yang dgos pa snga ma bzhin du1 sor bcu gnyis kyi
tshad tsam ste I padma yin pas kha thur du bltas pa'o 1 1 sgra sgrog2 pa ni
rdo rje dang snyoms par 'jug pa ste I chos thams cad rang bzhin med par
rab tu rtogs3 par bya ba'i phyir ro 1 1 dbyer med pa'i ye shes kyi gnas
chos kyi 'byung gnas rtogs par bya ba' i phyir steng dang ' og gi cha la
rdo rje ' i phreng ba zung gis mdzes par byas pa yin no 1 1 khams gsum
pa'i ngo bo nyid [P 135b] kyi gzhal yas khang nyid du bstan par bya
ba'i phyir drwa4 ba dang drwa4 ba phyed pa'i rnam pa' o 1 1 de ' i phyir de
bzhin gshegs pa lnga'i5 0mtshan mas1l mtshan pa'o I I stong pa nyid
dang snying rje dbyer med pa'i ye shes kyi byed6 ba nyid kyis dbyer
med par bstan pa'i phyir steng7 du shes rab 8 kyi gdong bstan pa yin no I
1 DP om. 2 BD sgrogs 3 B bsgrub 4 D dra 5 D lngas 6 B dbye 7 P de 'i
steng 8 B inserts ye shes
asya ca dharmadhatusvarupasya jfianasya vairocanadipaficatathagatat
makatar1 ca [Esh 3 8] riipadipaficaskandhasvabhavatar ca prthivyadipa
ficadhaturupatar ca kathayitum urdhvar paficaraviracana2 I atrapi ma
dhyasthitarabhimukhadyabhisardhanar3 purvavat I athabhiekam ana
ya svanantya3a vajraghal).taya4 kurvitanuttaraseadharmaC5bodhyadhi5lka
rakam I iha pra6dha[Es 1 1 6]nyakhyapanaya7 hetukac7ataprati7alpadanaya
ca kara[N 24b]l).abhutam api vajraghal).tabhi8ekam ullanghya9 pratha
mar vajra1bhiekadanam I
1 T -tas 2 N -1:1a T -iikiiraviraca1:1a 3 T -sandhiina 3a N svanantmii T
svananbhyii 4 N -gha1:1?iiyii T -gha1:1?hayii 5 N -boddhyaddhi- Esh bodhiid
vi- 6 N pra- 7 N --nyayii T -niiyii ?a N -tatvam 8 NT -gha1:1?iibhi 9 N
ullanghyalJl T ullaghya 10 T bujriiI 0de lta bu 'i1l chos kyi dbyings gyi ye shes kyi bdag nyid rnam par
snang mdzad la sogs pa de bzhin gshegs pa lnga'i c2rang bzhin dang2l
gzugs la sogs pa phung po lnga'i rang bzhin dang I sa la sogs pa c3khams
lnga'i rang bzhin du3l bstan pa'i phyir steng rtse mo lngas mdzes par
byas pa yin no 1 1 C4' dir yang rtse mo dbus ma la mngon du4l phyogs pa'i

410

EDITION O F THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

dgos pa snga ma bzhin no 1 1 de lta bas na ' di ltar brjod pa'i sgra dang
bla [D 1 24a] na med pa'i chos nyid ma lus par5 rtogs par byes pa'i
rgyur gyur pas6 dril bu' o I I ' dir gang7 <8gtso bor8l bstan par bya ba'i
phyir dang I rgyu nyid du9 bsgrub <10par bya ba'i10l [B 230a] phyir byed
par11 ' gyur ba yin na' ang dril bu 'i dbang bskur ba bzhag nas I dang por
rdo rje ' i dbang bskur ba sbyin par 02bya ba yin no12J I
1 P 'di yang 2 B ngo bo 3 P 'byung ba lnga 'i rang bzhin dang I khams
lnga po 'i ngo bor 4 DP de la dbus la 5 DP pa 6 DP pa 'i 7 DP yang 8 DP
gtsor 9 B om. 10 DP pa 'i 1 1 P rgyur 12 DP bya 'o
[The Name Empowerment]
sarvadharmanamata1 iti pratipadanarthai: bhaviyanmun1ndrapado2cita
nama(3nidanavadanarthai:3l ca purvanamavyapanaye[T 33b]na4 svade
vatakulagotranusarei:ia nama5bhiekal). I
1 EsEsh sarvadharmii niimatii 2 N -to- 3 T -nidiivadhiiniirthan 4 T -yene
na 5 T niimyaI chos thams cad ming med pa nyid du rab tu 0rtogs par bya ba'i phyir
dang1l <2phyis 'byung ba'i thub pa'i dbang po 'i2l c3ming thob par bya ba'i
phyir3l sngar gyi ming bzhag4 nas I rang gi rigs kyi Iha nyid kyi rigs
dang rjes su mthun pa'i <5rjes su 'brangs nas5l ming gi dbang bskur ba' o6
I
1 P bsgrub pa 'i don 2 B byung bar 'gyur bas thub pa ' i 3 B go 'phang la
ming gi gleng gzhi pa 'i gnas kyi ming sbyin pa 'i phyir 4 P gzhag 5 BD
om. 6 DP ba ro
[The Master Empowerment]
acaryabhiekas ca vajrasamayaghai:itasamayamudra0samaya%havyata
nujfiavratavyakarai:iasvasalakai:iaI:i 1" I ital).2 prabh:rty asai:skrta3bheda
yuganaddhavahi<4bodha4lsamayas tvam iti bodhayitui: vajrasamayal). I
catura4"s1tidha<4brmaskandha4blsahasradharas5 tvam iti pratipadanaya
ghai:itasamayal). I svetadevatasvabhavas tvam iti khyapayitui: mudrasa
mayal). I mai:i<;lalatattvai: mai:i<;lalaviuddhilakai:iai:6 devatatattvai:7 de
vatavisuddhilakai:iam acaryaparikarma ca mar:i<;lalasadhanajfianai: pa
ficapradipa8pafi8"camrtabhakai:iai: ca <9bhavyata I tattvai:9l ca 00nail).-

41 1

SEKATATPARYASA1)1GRAHA

svabh avyam eam10l utpannakramapakataf.l I dharmacakrapravartana


rtham anujfia I [Es 1 1 8] bahyavratani[T 34a]rakarai:iarthar vajravrat
adanam I [N 25a] pthivya1 1disvabhavatasucanaya vyakarai:iam I tatha hi
bhuvo dharadef.112 svaf.l svariipaqi13 bhur bhuya iti hi bhiir bhuvaf.l svar
ity asyarthaf.l I sarvavarai:iavinirmuktaf.114 sarvabuddhabodhisattvasa
mas15 tvam itaf.l prabhrti bodhanartham asvasaf.l I
1 T I ll 1a N - l!al:t T -f!af!l 2 N ita 3 EshN asaf!!skrto 4 Esh -bodhidharma- N bodharma- 4" N -ra- 4b N -rme skandhe 5 EsEshNT -paras 6 T -k!faf!a 7 T
- tatve 8 Esh -af[l S a EshN om. -pan- 9 E sh bh avyatatattvam 10 N nazsvabhavyam e!fam T naisvabhavyatmataya 11 N -vyal:t 12 N dharadenvel:t
13 N rilpaf!! 14 N vimuktam 15 Esh samayas N samol:t
-

I slob dpon gyi dbang bskur ba ni I rdo rje ' i dam tshig dang I dril bu'i
dam tshig dang I phyag rgya'i dam tshig dang I snod du bya ba1 dang I
rjes su gnang ba dang I brtul2 zhugs dang I lung bstan pa dang I dbugs
dbyung ba'i mtshan nyid do I I legs par lus ' dus byas pa 'di nas bzung
nas ' dus ma byas pa3 dbyer med cing zung du 'jug pa rtogs pa ni khyod
kyi dam tshig go 1 1 zhes rtogs par bya ba ni rdo rje ' i dam tshig go 1 1
chos kyi phung po brgyad khri bzhi stong khyod kyis4 bsgrag5 par bya' o
1 1 zhes rtogs par bya b a ni dril bu'i dam [ P 1 36a] tshig g o I I khyod
nyid5a rang gi lha'i6 ngo bo nyid do 1 1 zhes rtogs par bya ba ni phyag
rgya'i dam tshig go 1 1 dkyil 'khor kyi de (7kho na7l nyid dang I dkyil
'khor gyi rnam par <lag pa'i mtshan nyid dang I lha' i de (7kho na7l nyid
dang I lha'is rnam par <lag pa'i mtshan nyid dang I slob dpon gyi lassa
dang I dkyil 'khor C9sgrub pa'i9l thabs kyi [B 230b] ye shes dang I sgron
ma lnga dang bdud rtsi lnga bza' ba ni snod du bya ba' o I rdzogs pa'i
rim pa'i phyogs la ni de <lag nyid9a dngos po med par goms10 par bya ' o I
I rjes su gnang11 ba ni chos kyi 'khor lo bskor bar bya ba'i C12don to12l 1 1
phyi rol gyi brtul zhugs spang bar bya ba'i phyir ni 02ardo rje12al brtul
zhugs sbyin pa' o 1 1 sa13 la sogs pa'i ngo bo nyid du mtshon par bya ba'i
phyir ni lung bstan pa' o 1 1 de la14 bhur ni sa ' dzin pa dang15 I C16bhu ni
chu la sogs pa I vaf.l svaf.l ni rang gi ngo bo nyid do I I bhiir17 bhuvaf.l
svaf.116J zhes bya ba o s ' di'i don yin no l 1sJ sgrib pa kun las nges par grol
ba sangs rgyas dang byang chub sems dpa' thams cad kyis khyod la19
bzhed pa'o I ' di nas [D 1 24b] bzung nas zhes bya ba de ni rtogs par bya
ba'i don de dbugs dbyung ba' o I
1 B ba 'i dam tshig 2 B rdo rje 'i brtuI 3 B pa 'i chos nyid 4 P kyi 5 P
bsgrags 5" D kyi 6 B Iha 'i 'dod pa 'i D 'dod pa 'i Iha 'i 7 P om. s D om. S a
D mtshan nyid 9 B sgrub par bya ba 'i D kyi sgrub pa 'i 9a D gi 10 DP nges

412

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

11 P snang 12 P phyir ro 12a BDP om. 13 B bhu rbhu vaf:i svaf:i 14 B 'ang 15
DP la sags pa ' o 16 DP sa ni rang gi ngo bo ste I bhur bha sva 17 BDP
bhur 18 B ni 19 P om.
[The Secret Empowerment]
prajfiasraddhaketn1caral).artharp. s arnayarak al).artharp. ca s arnanakalo
bhayasarp.paditabodhicittapradanarp. guhyabhiekal). I prajfiopayaguhya
bhyarp. da1payata iti vyutpattil;t I
1 Esh dfI shes rab dang dad pa'i zhing du bya ba'i phyir dang I darn tshig bsrung
bar bya ba'i phyir dang1 I <2thabs dang shes rab2l gnyis ka3 dus rnnyarn
du <4bsgrubs pa'i4l byang chub kyi serns rab tu sbyin <5par bya ba5l ni
gsang ba'i dbang bskur ba ste I thabs dang shes rab kyi gsang ba dag
sbyin par bya' o 1 1 zhes khyod kyis6 khong du chud par bya ' o I
1 D om. 2 DP om. 3 D gas 4 DP bsrung ba 'i 5 DP pa 6 P kyi
[The Prajiiii Wisdom Empowerment]
prajfiajfianarn ity atra [Esh 39] vyutpattidvayarn I prajfiaya1 jfianarn I pra
jfiaiva2 jfianarn I tatra grahyagrahakakaradharalfi buddhis catur3dhatupa
ficaskandha<3arupadi3alac.lviayatrni4kanganasvabhava prajfia I tasya ni
rnittabhutaya bodhicittarp.5 jfianarn iti purva vyutpattil;t I akaradvayasu
nya saiva jfianarn6 ity apara vyutpattil;t I
1 Esh prajiiayii 2 EsEshNT prajiiaiva biihyii- 3 N catu- 3a N -svarilpa- 4
Esh -tma- 5 EsEshN tta- 6 EsEshN vijiiiinam

SEKATATPARYASAJGRAHA

413

I shes rab ye shes ni ' dir gnyis su shes1 par bya ste I shes rab kyi ye shes
sam I shes rab nyid ye shes so 1 1 de la gzung ba dang ' dzin pa'i rnam par
rtog pa'i blo2 khams bzhi dang I phung po lnga dang I gzugs la sogs pa
yul drug gi bdag nyid can gyi yan lag dang C3nying lag3l [B 23 l a] gi ngo
bo ni shes rab ste I de 'i4 rgyu mtshan du gyur pa las byung ba byang
chub kyi sems so 1 1 zhes khong du chud par bya' o I [P 1 36b] I gzhan dag
ni de nyid rnam pa gnyis pos C5stong pa nyid5J don dam pa'i rnam par
shes C6pa'i don6l khong du chud par bya' o I zhes zer ro I
1 D med 2 BP blos 3 P yan lag can 4 D de 5 P stong pa nyid stong pa nyid
6 D pas P pa
[The Fourth Empowerment]
[Es 1 20] prajiiajiianalakitasaptangayuktasadhyar caturthartham ity eke
I prajiiajiianam evabhyasyamanasaradamalagaganasarkafar caturtha
rtham ity apare I prajiiajiianam eva prakrtirupar vikararupar pra[N
25b ]k:rtisamutpadatmakar yuganaddhadvayavahisuviuddhasvabhavar
caturthartham ity apare I pakantarai:ii ca vistarabhay0ad no1lcyante I I
1 Esh -ya nnoI shes rab ye shes kyis1 mtshon par gyur pa2 yan lag bdun dang ldan pa'i
bsgrub par bya ba bzhi pa'i don yin no 1 1 zhes gzhan dag ' dod do 1 1
gzhan dag ni shes rab ye shes nyid3 goms par byas pa las ston ka'i dri
ma med pa'i nam mkha'i dkyil lta bu 4 ni bzhi pa'i don yin no 1 1 zhes
zer ro 1 1 yang gzhan dag ni shes rab ye shes kyi rang bzhin gnyug ma'i5
rnam par gyur pa'i gzugs I rten cing ' brel bar 'byung ba'i bdag nyid
C6can l6J zung du 'jug par7 'byung bar C4gyur pa l4J shin tu rnam par dag
pa'i rang bzhin ni bzhi pa'i don yin no 1 1 zhes zer ro I phyogs gzhan
dang gzhan ni gzhung csmang gis dog nas8l ma brjod do I
1 P kyi 2 B pa ' ang 3 B kyi dbang de nyid P om. 4 B inserts rnam pa med
pa 'i shes pa 5 P mar ni 6 P can gyi 7 DP pa 8 P mangs pa 'i 'jigs pas
atiguhyasekasargrahavidhanamilitena pm:iyayutaloke1na I
nikhilajagato ' stu vimalasphutasugatasubhaite kantil_l2 I I
(STS 7)
1 N om. -ke- 2 N -nti

414

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


shin tu 0gsang ba'i dbang1) chog bsdus pa las I
bdag gis2 bsod nams gang snyed thob pa des I
' gro ba kun gyis3 bde bar gshegs pa yi I
dri med gsal ba'i bzod pa thob par shog I (STS 7)
DP dbang bskur 2 P gi 3 P gyi

I I samaptas cayar sekatatparyasargraha iti I krtir iyar par,H;litavadhuta


sryadvayavajrapadanam iti 1 1
I dbang gi dgos p a mdor bsdus p a mkhas p a chen po nges par sbyangs
pa 0gnyis med1) rdo rjes mdzad pa rdzogs so 1 1 rgya gar gyi mkhan po2
ba dzra pa r,ii3 dang I c4bod kyi lo tsa ba tshul khrims rgyal bas bsgyur
zhing [B 23 1b] zhus te gtan la phab pa'o4) II
1 DP gnyis su med pa 'i 2 DP po bla ma 3 DP 7!-i 'i zhal snga nas 4 DP lo
tsa ba mtshur ston gyis bsgyur ba 'o

1 0 . [Vajrasattva-]Paiictiktira

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh), p. 40-43


AICSB 1 1 (March 1 989) (Es), p. 223-2 1 1 (=1 22- 1 34)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 25b3-28b5
Not found in T
dPal spungs (B) , vol. OIJ1, fols. 246al -249a5
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D) , no. 2245, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fols . 1 34b3 1 36b6
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3090, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols . 1 47a8149b6
namo buddhaya I
I rgya gar skad du I panydza sva bha va I bod skad du I rang bzhin Inga
pa1 I dpal rdo rje sems dpa' la phyag tshal lo I
1 D ma
vajrasattvar namaskrtya niprapaficam anuttaram I
paficakaram ahar vakye1 c2samakipya ca2l bodhaye I I (PA 1)
1 N vake 2 N samacchipya
spros [P 14 7b] pa med cing bla na med I
rdo rje sems 0dpar phyag ' tshal nas1l I
mdor bsdus slob mas rtogs bya'i phyir I (PA 1 )
rnam p a Inga yi bdag nyid bshad I
DP dpa ' la phyag 'tshal
01J1 al:z hl11J1 anena sthanatmayogarakar1 krtva sugandhadiliptabhubha
ge caturasradimar:i<;Ialamadhye paficatathagataJ::i paficayoginyaJ::i pujani
yaJ::i 1 . . .
1 N raka (a ?)

j or aJ::i hur I zhes pa ' dis bdag dang I gnas dang I rnal 'byor1 bsrung bar
byas la I dri zhim po la sogs pas2 byugs pa'i sa'i cha gm bzhi pa la sogs

416

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

pa'i dkyil 'khor gyi dbus su de bzhin gshegs pa lnga dang rnal ' byor ma
lnga rnams la mchod de I de la dbus su kha dog sna tshogs pa'i paI!l
yongs su gyur pa las sna tshogs padma ' dab ma brgyad pa kha bye ba'i
lte ba'i steng du raI!l dmar po yongs su gyur pa las nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor
1 B 'byor pa 2 P pa 'i
[Akobhya]
tatra madhye visvavarl).apal!lkaraparil)atavisvatadalavikasitakamalava
ratakopari raktarepha1paril).atasiiryamal).c;lalasthanilahiiI!lkaranipanno1a
dvibhuja ekamukho bhiisparfamudradharo vajraparyali.ki dvatriI!18a2lla
kal).asityanu3vya[N 26a]fijanalaI!lkrtasariro dasabalavaisaradyadigul).a
gal).aikanilaya1;4 sauirya5maI!lsasthirahitaJ; pratibhasamatradarpal).apra
tibimbasamo6 na satyaI!l na mratimaitryatma7katvat krl).avarl).a1;8 kr
l).avajracihnal; suvifoddhadharmadhatuvijfianaskandhasvabhaval; sira
tul).c;lamul).c;litakaayavagul).thitavigraho vajrasattvali.kitasira vajrasattva
svabhaval; sunyatakarul).abhinnaJ:i9 I
1 N reha 1" N -nna 2 N -trisa- 3 N -sftyana- 4 N -ya 5 EshN -sfrya- 6 N
saromiitran 7 EsN -maitriitma- Esh maitryiitmya- 8 N krJJaJ:i varJJaJ:i 9 Esh
siratuJJamuJJitakaJ:i N siratuJJamuJJtakaJ:i
. . . la gnas pa'i hiiI!l sngon po las 1 mi bskyod pa C2sngon po2l zhal gcig
phyag gnyis pa I sa gnon gyi phyag rgya mdzad3 pa I rdo rje ' i skyil
krung bcas pa I mtshan sum cu rtsa gnyis dang dpe byad bzang po
brgyad cus brgyan pa'i sku I stobs bcu dang mi 'jigs pa la sogs pa'i yon
tan gyi tshogs kyi gnas I bu ga dang I sha dang I ms pa spangs pa I rab tu
snang ba tsam ste I me long gi gzugs brnyan dang mtshungs pa I bden pa
ma yin pa I rdzun4 pa ma yin pa I byams [D 1 35a] pa chen [B 246b] po 'i
bdag nyid yin pa'i phyir kha dog nag po I rdo rje nag po 'i phyag mtshan
can I chos kyi dbyings rnam par dag pa I phung po lnga'i rang bzhin te I
skra dang kha spu bregs pa I chos gos gyon pa'i sku I spyi bor rdo rje
sems dpas mtshan pa I rdo rje sems dpa'i rang bzhin stong pa nyid dang
snying rje dbyer med pa'o I
1 P lngas 2 DP om. 3 P 'dzin 4 DP brdzun
[Es 1 24] ata eva hetuphalatmakal; sarvakaravaropetasiinyatalakal).o
' saI!lskrta0tathata1ltmakatvad dharmakayal; pratibhasamatratvat sam-

[VAJRASATTVA-]PANCAKARA

417

bhog akayal:i kalpitavijfianatmakatvad2 nirmar.iakayal:i kayatritayaika


rasatvat svabhavikakayaI:i I tad uktam I
1 EshN -tathiigatii- 2 Es kalpitanirmiifJ,akiiyatviid Esh kalpitanirmii1J-a
kaya1J1 N alpitanirmii1J-akiiyan

j de nyid rgyu dang 'bras bu 'i bdag nyid rnam pa thams cad kyi1 mchog
dang ldan pa' i stong pa nyid kyi mtshan nyid ' dus ma byas shing I de
bzhin nyid kyi bdag nyid yin pa'i phyir chos kyi sku ' o 1 1 rab tu snang ba
tsam yin pa'i phyir longs spyod rdzogs pa'i sku ' o j j brtags pa'i rnam
par shes pa'i ngo bo yin pa'i phyir sprul pa'i sku ' o 1 1 de skad du gsungs
pa ]
1 DP om.
asarskrtamano dhanno bodhal:i1 sambhogalakar.ial:i j
tad eva (2nirmitas citral:i2J nijalf3 sarvasvabhavatal:i J I
(PA 2 = MV 1 9) iti l
1 Esh copa(f:i)- 2 Esh nirmita1J1 citra1J1 N nirmita citra 3 Esh bljal:z N
bijal:z
' dus ma byas sems chos kyi sku j
rtogs1 pa longs spyod rdzogs mtshan nyid j
sna tshogs de nyid sprul pa'o j
gnyug ma [P 148a] kun gyi rang bzhin no j (PA 2) zhes pa'o j
B rtag P brtags
vikalpader1 asprsyatvad vajrakuli I vajrakulas ca lokair2 na sprsyate3 I
dveavajrodaka4sisiramadhyahnakatusruty [Esh 4 1 ] aka8aabdacavarga5
ako[N 26b]bhyaviuddha ami bahya6dhyatmikavyavastha7 iti j kayaca
tutavavyavastha catrapi purvavat j 01J18 al:z vajradhrk huf!l asya japa
mantral:i I
1 N vikalpiidir 2 N lokai 3 N sprsyatel:z 4 Esh dveiivajras ca N dveiiva
jra cal:z 5 Esh -cavargo 6 N biihkii- 7 EshN -vyavastheyam 8 Esh om. Of!l

j rnam par rtog pa la sogs pas mi reg1 pa'i phyir rdo rje 'i rigs can dang j
rdo rje ' i rigs de 'jig rten pa rnams kyis mi reg pa'i phyir ro j j zhe sdang
j rdo rje chu dang j grang ba dang j nyi ma phyed dang j ro tsha ba dang I
thos pa dang j nam mkha' dang j sgra dang j tsa'i sde tshan te2 j ' di dag
ni mi bskyod pa'i rnam par dag pa j phyi rol dang nang gi bdag nyid kyi

418

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

mam par gzhag pa' o 1 1 ' dir yang sku bzhi'i mam par gzhag pa ni snga
ma bzhin no 1 1 or alJ ba dzra dhrk3 hu:r I ' di ni (4bzla ba'i4l sngags so I
1 D rig 2 B no I 3 B dhr kra 4 DP bzlas pa 'i
[Vajrasattva]
[Es 1 26] vajrasattvas tu hu:rkarajanma 8uklo1 dvibhuja ekavaktro2 va
jravajraghal).tadharo manalJsvabhavalJ kaayarasafariralJ aradrtuvifo
ddho yaralavadyatmako3 'rdharatratalJ prabhatakalaparyanto dharma
dhatuparanama4 I
1 N -klai 2 N -kto 3 N yaraltivtidyatmako 4 N -ntimtif:z
I rdo rje sems dpa' yang hu:r 0dkar [B 247a] po1l las skyes pa dkar po
zhal gcig phyag gnyis pa I rdo rje dang1 dril bu ' dzin pa I yid kyi rang
bzhin I <2stong pa'i rgyas btab pa I ro bska ba'i lus2l I ston ka' i dus kyi
mam par dag pa I ya ra la wa la sogs pa'i bdag nyid can3 I nam phyed
nas nam langs pa'i bar te I chos kyi dbyings zhes bya ba ming gzhan no I
1 DP om. 2 P ro ska ba 'i lus stong pa 'i rgyas btab pa 'i yid kyi rang bzhin
ro ska ba 'i !us 3 D om.
[Vairocana]
atalJ purvadale1 candramal).c;lalopary o:rkaraj alJ 8uklavarl).avairocana1J
8uklacakra2cihno bodhyagr13mudradharo rupaskandhasvabhavo moha
svarupo vic;l4vi8uddhas tathagatakuly adarfatvena pratithito hemanta
rtuvifoddho madhurarasafar1ralJ5 kavargavyapi prabhatasandhyatma
ka6yasvabhava1J I Of!l tif:z jinajik7 huf!l ity8 asya japamantralJ I
1 N dadale 2 Esh -cakra(vajra)- 3 Esh -aligi- 4 Esh vita- 5 N -rasasararaf:z
6 N -tmaf:z kti- 7 Esh -jika 8 N tya
I shar gyi ' dab ma la zla ba'i dkyil 'khor gyi steng du or 0dkar po1l las
skyes pa'i mam par snang mdzad rndog dkar po I 'khor lo dkar po 'i
phyag mtshan dang I byang chub mchog gi phyag rgya can I gzugs kyi
phung po' i2 rang bzhin dang I gti mug gi c31us kyi3J rang bzhin [D 1 3 5b]
dang I bshang ba'i mam par dag pa dang I de bzhin gshegs pa'i rigs can
dang I me long lta bu'i ye shes rab tu gnas pa dang I dgun4 gyi dus kyi
mam par dag pa dang I ro mngar ba'i lus dang I ka' i sde tshan dang I

{VAJRASAITVA-]PANCAKARA

419

snga dro 'i thun gyi bdag nyid dang I lus kyi rang bzhin no I or aJ:i dzi na
dzik5 hiir [ zhes bya ba 6 ni sngags so I
1 DP om. 2 DP po 3 P om. 4 P rgun 5 B dzi kra 6 D inserts 'di
[Ratnasambhava]
dak il).adale suryamal).<;lalopari trarkarajaJ:i p!tavarl).O ratnasambhavo ra
tnacihno1 varadamudradharo [N 27a] vedanaskandhasvabhavaJ:i2 pifona
arlro raktatmako3 ratnakull samatajfianavan vasantarturupo4 [Es 128]
laval).afar!ra tavargavyap1 tffiyacaturtha5praharatmakaJ:i I Orri iifl ratna
dhrk harri asya japamantraJ:i I
1 EshN -hna 2 Esh vedaniisvabhiiva- N vedaniiskandhasvabhiiva 3 N -bo 4
EShN -pa- 5 N -rthah
.
I lho 'i ' dab mar1 nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor gyi steng du trarp.2 (3ser po3) las
skyes pa'i rin chen 'byung ldan kha dog ser po I rin po che 'i phyag mts
han dang I mchog sbyin gyi phyag rgya ' dzin pa I tshor ba'i phung po'i
rang bzhin can3 I phra mo'i (4lus dang4) I khrag gi bdag nyid I rin po che'i
rigs I mnyam pa nyid kyi (5ye shes kyi5) rang bzhin dang ldan pa I dpyid
kyi dus kyi (6rang bzhin6) I [P 148b] lan tshva'i [B 147b] lus kyi rang
bzhin I ta'i sde tshan gyis khyab pa I thun tshod gsum pa'i bdag nyid do I
I ' di'i sngags ni I or aJ:i rat na dhrk7 hur I zhes pa' o
1 DP ma 'i 2 P trarri 3 DP om. 4 P rang bzhin 5 P om. 6 BD rnam par dag
pa 7 BD dhr kra
[Amitabha]
tataJ:i pascimadale ravimal).<;lalopari raktahr!J:ikara1sambhuto raktavarl).o
'mitabhaJ:i padmacihnaJ:i samadhimudradharaJ:i sarjfiaskandhasvabhavo
ragafar!raJ:i fokratmakaJ:i padmakull pratyavekal).ajfianalakal).O gr!
marturupa am1arasa8ar1ras tavarga2tma pradoavan I japamantras ca
yam Orri iifl3 iirolik4 harri I
1 Esh -karrira2 N -rgta- 3 N a- 4 ESh zzka
-

I de 'i nub kyi ' dab ma la nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor gyi steng du hr!J:i dmar po
las yang dag par byung ba'i ' od dpag med kha dog dmar po I padma'i
phyag mtshan dang I ting nge 'dzin gyi phyag rgya ' dzin pa I ' du shes

420

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

kyi phung po 'i rang bzhin dang I ' dod chags kyi lus dang I khu ba'i bdag
nyid dang I padma'i rigs can dang I so sor rtog pa'i ye shes kyi mtshan
nyid dang I
sos ka'i1 dus kyi rang bzhin dang I ro skyur ba'i lus I ta' i sde tshan gyi
bdag nyid2 I nub mo 'i thun dang po ' o 1 1 ' di'i C3bzla ba'i3l sngags ni I or
al). a4 ro lik5 hiir I zhes pa'o I
1 P ga 'i 2 DP nyid do 3 DP bzlas pa 'i 4 B om. 5 B ! kra P Zig
[Amoghasiddhi]
tata uttaradale siiryarnar.19-alopari syamakharkaraj al). [syamavan:io 'mo
ghasiddhil).] 1 pisitatmakal).2 [khaQ.gacihno 'bhayarnudradharal). sarsk:rta
skandhasvabhaval). karmakuliryafariral). k:rtanuthanalakar.10 varar
turpal).] 1 tiktarasatmakal). [Esh 42] pavargavifoddho 'rdharatrasvabhaval).
I asya ca mantra]). Of!I ii prajnadhrk huf!I iti3 I
1 Restored from the Tibetan 2 Es piSitiima (Es fills in the missing words
before and after pisitama from the Tibetan) Esh [syamavan:w 'mo
ghasiddhi visvavajracihniibhayamudriidhara saf!Isiiraskandhasvabhii
vo vararturupaM pisitapa N pisitapa 3 N miti
I de' i byang gi ' dab ma la nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor gyi steng du khar ljang
gu las skyes pa'i don yod grub pa ljang gu I sha'i rang bzhin I ral gri' i
phyag mtshan dang I mi 'jigs p a ' i phyag rgya ' dzin p a I ' du byed kyi
phung po 'i bdag nyid dang I las kyi rigs dang I phrag dog gi rang bzhin I
bya ba nan tan gyi ye shes dang I char gyi dus kyi rang bzhin C1dang l 1J ro
kha ba'i rang bzhin I pa'i sde tshan gyi rnam par dag pa dang I nam phy
ed kyi dus C2kyi rang2l bzhin no I ' di'i bzla ba'i sngags ni I or al). pra
dznya dh:rk3 hiir I zhes pa'o
1 P om. 2 BP om. 3 B dhr kra
[The Five Tathagatas]
[Es 1 30] ete vajraparyankino dvibhujaikavaktral).1 sof.11asiratu2r.iQ.arnu
r.i9ital).3 [N 27b] kaayava4gur.ithita5 dvatrirfallakar.ias1tyanuvyafijana
lark:rta6 dafabalavaisaradyadigur.iaga7r.iaikanilayal). saui8ryamarsasthi
rahita darpar.iapratibimbopamal).9 satyasatyadisarkalpanapagama10vima-

[VAJRASATTVA-IPANCA.KARA

42 1

lapr atibhi.isamatrakas ambhogavigrahi.iJ:i kayatritayaikarasatasv abhi.ivika


kayam upadayasarskrta0 1tathata 11)tma02kadharma 12)kayakalpitavijfiana
kayabhinna 13
1 N -ktiif:i 2 N -thu- 3 EshN -mu7J,tj,ita- 4 N kiiiiva- 5 EshN -ta- 6 EshN -krta7 N -gu- 8 EshN -f- 9 EshN -pamii na 10 N -gamaf!l 11 Esh -tathii- 12 EshN
-karma- 13 EshN -kiiyiivyabhinnii
I de dag ni rdo rje ' i skyil krung can I zhal gcig phyag gnyis pa I gtsug tor
can I skra dang kha spu bregs [B 248a] pa I chos gos gyon pa I mtshan
sum cu rtsa gnyis dang dpe byad bzang po brgyad cus brgyan [D 136a]
pa I stobs bcu dang mi 'jigs pa la sogs pa'i yon tan gyi gzhir gyur pa I bu
ga dang I sha dang I rus pa spangs pa I me long gi gzugs brnyan lta bu
ste I bden pa dang rdzun pa la sogs pa'i1 (2rtog pa2) mtha' dag dang bral
ba I dri ma med par rab tu snang ba tsam ste I longs spyod rdzogs pa'i
sku'o I sku gsum ro gcig pa ngo bo nyid kyi sku ' o 1 1 ' dus ma2 byas pa'i
de bzhin nyid kyi bdag nyid chos kyi sku'o I brtags pa'i rnam par shes
pa'i sku tha mi dad pa' o I
1 D pa 2 DP om.
rupavedanasa 1rjfiasarskaraskandhi.itmaka vairocanaratnasambhavami
tabhi.imoghasiddhayo vijfianamatrateti pratipadanayakobhyea2 mudrya
nta ity akobhyankitasirasaJ:i3 I vijnanasya naiJ:isvabhi.ivyar4 sunyataka
rul).ayos tadatmakatvar ca pratipadayitum akobhyo 'pi vajrasattvena
mudryate I etena hetuphalatmakar bhavanirva(51).aika5)rasatamatrar ja
gad iti pratipaditar bhavati I [Es 132] tathi.i6 ca I
. . 4 EsE shN naz'h. sva-bh avyasya
, . . N -szrasz
5
I N -sa- 2 E sE sh -na 3 E sh - szrasz
N -TJeka- 6 N tatha
I gzugs dang I tshor ba dang I ' du [P 149a] shes dang I ' du byed kyi
phung po 'i bdag nyid rnam par snang mdzad dang I rin chen ' byung
ldan dang I ' od dpag med pa1 dang I don yod grub pa2 rnam par shes pa
tsam du rtogs par bya ba'i phyir mi bskyod pas3 rgyas btab pa yin te I mi
bskyod pas dbu la brgyan pa'o 1 1 rnam par shes pa'i rang bzhin med pa
stong pa dang snying rje'i de'i4 bdag nyid du rtogs par bya ba'i phyir mi
bskyod pa la' ang rdo rje sems dpas5 rgyas btab pa yin te I de dag gis
rgyu dang 'bras bu'i bdag nyid srid pa dang mya ngan las ' das pa ro
gcig pa tsam du ' gro ba ' di dag rtogs par ' gyur ro 1 1 de ltar yang I
1 DP om. 2 P om. 3 B pa 'i 4 BDP om. 5 BP dpa 'i

422

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


srmyatakarul).abhinnai yatra citta111 prabhavyate I
sii hi buddhasya dharmasya sailghasyiipi hi [N 28a] deana I I
(PA 3)
stong nyid snying rje dbyer med pa I
gang la sems ni mam bsgoms na 1 I
de ni sangs rgyas dang ni chos I
dge ' dun du yang [B 248b] bstan pa'o I (PA 3) I
D pa
guc;le1 madhuratii ciigner ul).atvai prak:rtir2 yathii I
sunyatii sarvadharmiil).iiI tathii prakftir iyate I I (PA 4)
1 N gubhe 2 N prati
bu ram mngar zhing me tsha ba I
ji bzhin pa yi rang bzhin te I
chos mams thams cad stong pa nyid I
de bzhin rang bzhin 'dod pa yin I (PA 4)

tathii ca I
bhavasyaiva parij:fianai nirviil).am iti kathyate I I (PA 5)
I de ltar yang
srid pa dag ni yongs shes na I
mya ngan ' das1 zhes de la brjod I (PA 5)
P orn.
[Locanii]
a1gneyakol).adale candramal).c;lalopari 8uklaliii2karaja 8uklavarl).ii3 loca
nii caku4cihnii p:rthvidhiitusvarupa tathiigatakulodbhavii moharaktii I
asya5 bijam 01J1. af:i lli1J1.6 hii1J'l svaha iti I
1 N a- 2 Esh -lo1J1. - 3 Esh -n:ia 4 EsEsh cakra- 5 N asya 6 Esh lo1J1.
I me 'i mtshams kyi ' dab ma la zla ba'i dkyil 'khor gyi steng du lai dkar
po las skyes pa'i spyan ma kha dog dkar mo I mig gi mtshan ma can I

[VAJRASATTVA-]PANCAKARA

423

sa 'i khams kyi rang bzhin I de bzhin gshegs pa'i rigs las byung ba I gti
mu g la1 dga' ba ma'o 1 1 ' di'i sa bon dang sngags ni I oqi al:J. laqi hum sva
h a I zhes2 pa'o I
1 DP om. 2 BP shes

[Mamaki]
[Esh 43] nair1rtyaqi candramar:ic;lalopari krr:iamaqikarabij asambhuta ma
maki krr:iavarr:ia krr:iavajracihnabdhatusvabhava vajrakula dvqarakta I
asya bijam OY(l iil:i miiY(l hilY(l sviihii iti I
1 N naiI bden bral du zla ba'i dkyil 'khor gyi steng du maqi1 nag po 'i sa bon las
yang dag par byung ba'i2 ma ma ki kha dog nag3 mo I rdo rje nag po' i
mtshan m a can I chu'i khams kyi rang bzhin I rdo rje'i rigs I zhe sdang la
dga' ba ma' o 1 1 ' di'i sa bon dang sngags ni I oqi al:J. maqi4 [D 1 36b] huqi
sva ha I zhes pa'o5 I
1 D maqi P lam 2 DP ba 3 P om. 4 DP maY(l 5 D bya 'o
[Pai:ic;laravasini]
vayavyaqi candramar:ic;lalopari paqikarabijasambhuta par:ic;laravasini ra
ktavarr:ia1 padmacihna2 tejodhatusvarupa padmakula ragarakta I asya bi
jam OY(l iil:i piiY(l hilY(l sviihii iti I
1 EshN raktii raktavarr,iii 2 EshN -cihnaI rlung gi phyogs su zla ba'i dkyil 'khor gyi steng du parp.1 gi sa bon las
yang dag par byung ba'i2 gos dkar mo can zhes bya ba' i ming can kha
dog dmar mo3 I padma'i mtshan ma can I me 'i khams kyi rang bzhin I
padma'i rigs I ' dod chags la4 dga' ba ma' o 1 1 ' di'i sa bon dang sngags ni
I oqi al:J. paqi 1 [P 149b] huqi sva ha I zhes pa' o I
1 DP paY(l 2 DP ba 3 DP po 4 D baY(l P om.

424

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

[Tara]
[Es 1 34] aisanyarp. candramai:ic;lalopari kanaka1syamatarp.karaparii:iita ta
rii:t12 syamavari:ia syama3nllotpalacihna vayudhatu[N 28b]svariipa kar
makulerya4rakta I asya bijam Of!l a taf!l huf!l svaha I
1 Es om. kanaka- 2 N tarm:ia 3 Es om. syama- 4 Esh -r$aI dbang ldan gyi phyogs su zla ba'i dkyil 'khor gyi steng du 0tarp. sngo
bsangs1J yongs su gyur pa las sgrol ma kha dog sngo bsangs I u tpa la
sngon po 'i mtshan ma can I [B 249a] I rlung gi khams kyi rang bzhin I
las kyi rigs I phrag dog la2 dga' ba ma' o 1 1 ' di'i3 sa bon dang sngags ni I
orp. aJ:i tarp.4 hiirp. sva ha I zhes pa'o I
1 D sngo bsangs tf P sngo bsangs traf!1 2 D om. 3 P de 'i 4 P traf!1
[Vajradhatvisvari]
etas1 catasraJ:i oc;iasabdikasa2dharai:iariipayauvanasalinyo yatha8obha
sarp.sthitaJ:i3 piirvavat kayacatutayatmika manohladinyaJ:i sakalajina4gu
i:iadharabhiitaJ:i paficatathagatasvariipaJ:i I asarp.5 madhya alisvabhava va
jrasattvasvarupii:ii vajradhatv1Svar16 nayika7 I iyam eva bhagavafi tathata
sunyata prajnaparamita bhutakotir8 nairatmyeti vyapadisyate I
1 N eta 2 N $Otrasabdika asa- 3 EsEsh -ta 4 N -na- 5 N asyilf!l 6 N dhatesvarf 7 N l'}ayika 8 EshN -koti-

I de la Iha mo bzhi ni lo bcu drug Ion pa I thun mong ma yin par 1 mdzes
pa I gzugs dang lang tsho dang ldan pa I ji ltar mdzes par1 yang dag par
gnas pa' o 1 1 sku bzhi'i bdag nyid ni2 sngon bzhin <3no I l3l yid du ' ong ba
I rgyal ba'i yon tan thams cad kyi gzhir4 gyur pa I de bzhin gshegs pa
lnga'i rang bzhin can I de dag gi5 dbus su a li'i rang bzhin rdo rje sems
dpa'i gzugs I ' di ni rdo rje dbyings dang po nas grub pa' o I
1 B pas 2 DP om. 3 D om. 4 DP rang bzhin 5 P dbus
na grantha1krtikaualyam2 apadayitum ea3 me I
prayatnaJ:i kirp. ca sarp.kipya bodhayeyarp. sisiin4 iti I I (PA 6)
1 Es grantha N granthaf!l 2 N -kaualam 3 N a$a 4 N sisrn

[VAJRASATTVA-]PANC4KARA

425

I gzhung ' di byas pa'i dge ba gang1 phyir 'bad pa cung zad mdor bsdus
slob mas rtogs bya'i phyir I
1 P rtogs
iti vidhivad udirya sattvahetol). sakalajinagamayuktisargatar1
hi I
akhilam (2iha ubhar2l samaptar bhavatu tato jana3 ea vajrasa
ttval).4 1 1 iti5 I (PA 7)
1 N -ta 2 EsEsh ihasubhalfl 3 EsN Jina 4 N -sattvam 5 Esh om.
I cho ga ' di1 ni bsdus pas sems can rnams la phan pa yun ring du 1 1 rgyal
ba kun gyi lung dang rigs2 par ldan pa'i phyir 1 1 ma lus dge ba ' di ni
bdag gis3 thos pas ' gro ba rnams ni rgyal gyur cig I
1 P 'dir 2 B rig 3 P gi
I I paficakaral). samapta iti1 I I

I EsEsh om.

I ' di ni rdo rje sems dpa'i rang bzhin Inga pa dpal gnyis med rdo rjes
mdzad pa rdzogs so 11 a mr ta2 de bas zhus te gsol ba btab nas brtsams
1 1n
1 B om. 2 DP om.

1 1 . Miiyiinirukti

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh), p. 44


AICSB 1 2 (March 1 990) (Es) , p. 3 1 3-3 1 1 (52-54)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 28b5-29b l
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fols . 23b5-24b3
dPal spungs (B) , vol. orri, fo ls. 2 1 3 a6-2 14a3
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D) , no. 2234, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fol. 1 10b6- 1 1 l a7
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P) , no. 3078, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fol. 1 2 1 a4- 1 22a6
0namo buddhaya1) I
EshN namaf:i sarvavide
rgya gar skad du I ma ya ni ru kti nama I bod skad du I sgyu ma nges par
bstan pa zhes bya ba I 'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur [B 2 1 3b] pa la phyag
'tshal lo I
mayeva niJ:isvabhavar cej jagad adhyakato1 budhaJ:i I
kimartham iha muhyanti2 jananto3 'pi sukhaayaJ:i4 I I (MN 1 )
1 Esh -ka[m] N -ka- 2 N -hyati 3 Esh }ananto (na) N -nananto
4 Esh sukhasu ya N sukhasuyaf:i T sukhasaya
[B :] I sgyu ma lta bur rang bzhin med I
' gro ba mkhas pa yis ni rtogs I
de yang bde ba'i bsam pas shes I
' gro ' di ci phyir rmongs par ' gyur I (MN 1 )
[DP:] I ' gro rnams sgyu ma j i bzhin du I
I dngos med tshe na mngon 1 sangs rgyas I
I mkhas pas bde ba' i bsam pa yis I
I ' gro ' di ci phyir grol ma byas I (MN 1 )
1 D dngos

428

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


mayavi [N 29a] kurute mayar jvaladaga1rabhasvaram2 I
kasya cit satyam abhati ma[T 24a]ya mayaiva tadvidal:t I I (MN 2)
1 EshN -kii- 2 N -ram
sgyu ma mkhan byas sgyu ma yi1 I
khyim ni rab tu 'bar ba la I
kha cig la ni bden [D 1 1 l a] par snang I
sgyu ma mkhan2 bzhin mkhas pas rig I (MN 2)
D ni 2 B ngan
mayadratur1 vinabhogar ye kamal:t2 svayam agatal:t3 I
mayaya tan asau bhmikte4 yan maya sarvasargata II (MN 3)
1 EsEsh miiyiituter N miiyiitutur 2 N -mii- 3 N -tafi 4 N bhukle
sgyu mar mthong bas 'bad med par I
' dod pa 0gang de rang1l 'ong2 ' gyur I
' di la thams cad sgyu mar2 spyod I
gang kun sgyu mar rtogs pa'i phyir I (MN 3)
B de rang gang 2 D 'ang 3 DP ma
0alikatam rte hanta mayayar sasvatar vada I
dharmadhator ajatatvan na cocchedal:t prasajyate l l 1J (MN 4)
1 EshN om.
khyod kyis 0brdzun par1l ma rtogs par I
sgyu ma rtag par smra bar gyis I
chos kyi2 dbyings ni2 ma skyes3 phyir I
chad par thal bar mi ' gyur ro I (MN 4)
B sgyu mar 2 DP om. 3 D skyes pa yi P skyes pa 'i
0dharme 'jatanirodhe vai jac;latvar nanugacchati f 1J
sunyato jayate dharmas2 tasmad anya na dharmata II (MN 5)
1 EshN om. 2 T dharmaf[l
chos rnams ma skyes mi ' gag1 phyir I
bems por gyur pa ma yin no I
chos rnams stong nyid las2 skyes pas3 I
stong las chos nyid4 gzhan5 ma yin I (MN 5)
P 'gog 2 D la 3 DP pa 'i 4 B om. 5 B gzhan yod

MAYANIRUKTI

429

ata eva hi sarvajfiyaip.1 buddhasya na vihanyate I


ana2ropavasat sarvaip. dharmacakraip.3 pravartate 1 1 (MN 6)
1 N sarvajfiaf(l T sarvajfiaY(l 2 N anya- 3 N -cakra
de 'i1 phyir2 (3kun nas3l kun mkhyen gyis I
sangs rgyas (4nyid las nyams mi mdzad4) I
'bad med dbang gis thams cad du I
chos kyi 'khor lo bskor ba' ang 'jug I (MN 6)
D de yi 2 D phyir na 3 D om. 4 DP nyams par mi mdzad do
[Es 54] padaprasarikaip.1 tyaktva2 kiptva manadikalpanam I
caryaya vicared yogi susthi(3to ' stha3lnayogatal:J. I I (MN 7)
1 N -ka 2 T tyakta 3 Esh -taf:t stharkang pa brkyang ba spangs nas ni I
nga rgyal la sogs btang nas kyang I
gnas med gnas la legs gnas te I
rnal 'byor pa yi chos la spyod1 I (MN 7)
B spyad
khanapanarasaip. prapya 8uddham udghuya1 bhaaya I
C2caryaip. na2l vicared yas tu nasau saip.bodhibhajanal:J. 1 1 (MN 8)
1 N udyuya 2 T caryanta
bza' dang btung ba'i ro rnyed nas I
dag pa nyid kyi gtam smra zhing I
gang zhig spyad pa mi spyod pa I
rdzogs pa'i byang chub snod1 ' di min I (MN 8)
P spyod
vaca vakti janas 1 tattvaip. caryam apy anumodate I
vittyanuthanasaip.pattya saip.panno durlabho2 janal:J. II (MN 9)
1 T janaY(lS 2 EshN vallabho T durlabha
skye bo de nyid gtam smra zhing I
spyod pa ' di la yi rang byed I
rig pa sgrub pa nyams len pa'i I
'byor pa'i skye ba rnyed par dka' I (MN 9)

430

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


mahI[T 24b] ayya1 dio vaso bhikabhaktmp. ca bhojanam I
ajatadharmatakantil:i2 lqpanabhogavahinI I I (MN 1 0)
I EsEsh mahf sayyii 2 Esh -tii kiintiJ:t N -tiikhyiintiJ:t
sa yi mal la phyogs [B 2 14a] kyi gos I
slong1 mo ' i zas ni za ba dang I
skye med chos la bzod pa dang I
'bad med brtse2 la3 'jug pa'o I (MN 10)
P slongs 2 B rtse 3 DP ba
0janmp. j ayanti1l ye dharma jiyante2 te 'pi caryaya I
etatphalam3 ihadhyaam4 astfup.5 tavad6 anuttaram7 I I (MN 1 1)
1 Esh janajanmani (ja) N janarri ja I l l yani ja T janafi janayanti 2
Esh jiiyante N jfvante 3 EsEsh etat phalam 4 N ihiipy akam Esh
ihiipya[sti] 5 Esh kamii NT iistii 6 N -vad 7 EsEsh anuttarii N
anuttariirri
chos gang skye bo la 1 rgyal ba I
de la2 rgyal ba de spyod pa I
de yi 'bras bu tshe ' dir ltos I
bla med 'bras bu smos ci dgos I (MN 1 1 )
BDP las 2 BP las
mayar1 vivrtya yat pul).ymp. sulabdhmp. sadhucetasa I
tenadvai2tapadmp. yantu3 loka4 lokottare sthital).5 I I (MN 1 2)
1 N miiii T miiyii 2 N teniidai 3 T yiitu 4 N om. T loko 5 NT -taJ:t
sgyu ma1 bstan pa'i bsod nams gang I
dge ba'i sems kyis gang thob des I
gnyis med 'jig rten las ' das pa'i2 I
go 'phang 'jig rten gyis thob shog I (MN 1 2)
B mar 2 DP pa

I I mayaniruktil:i sama[N 29b]pta 1 1 1


1 Esh inserts iti N -samii . . eti
I I sgyu ma nges par bstan pa slob dpon gnyis med rdo rjes mdzad pa
rdzogs so 1 1 rgya gar gyi mkhan po ba dzra pa 1,1.i dang I bod kyi1l lo tsa

MAYANIRUKTI

43 1

ba dge slong tshul khrims rgyal bas2 bsgyur C3zhing zhus te gtan la
phab3) pa' o I I
1 DP om. 2 B b a 3 DP om.

1 2. Svapnanirukti

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh) , p. 45


AICSB 1 3 (March 199 1 ) (Es), p. 269-267 (68-70)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 29b l -30al
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fol. 23a2-b5
dPal spungs (B), vol. orri, fol. 2 14a3-b5
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2233, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fol. 1 1 l a7-b6
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3077, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols. 1 20b61 2 1 a4
nama9 sarvajfiaya1 I
1 T samajniiya
I rgya gar skad du I sva pna 1 nir de sha I bod skad du I rmi lam [D 1 1 1 b]
nges par bstan pa I sangs rgyas la phyag 'tshal lo I
1 B bna
vinaye 0cabhidharme ca1l siltreu jinapuilgavai9 I
dharma92 svapnopama93 khyata C4vispatarp tat prakathyate4l I I
(SvN 1 )
1 Esh -vabhi(suvii)dharmqu N -suciibhidharme c a 2 N dharmii
3 N -ma 4 EshN vispatiirtharri (N -arrin) tat kathyate
' dul ba dang ni chos mngon dang I
mdo las rgyal ba skyes mchog gis I
rmi lam lta bur chos gsungs pa I
gsal bar ' di1 ni bstan pa yin I (SvN 1 )
B P 'dir
svapnarp1 satyam asatyarp va C2ciccitrarp va2l cid eva3 va I
maya vathapra4tithanarp satarp kim iha sarpmatam I I (SvN 2)
1 T svapna 2 EshN om. 3 EshN vid eva T cid eka 4 Esh yathii pra- N
. . thiipra-

434

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


rmi lam bden nam rdzun pa' am I
sna tshogs sems sam rnam med sems I
sgyu ma' am yang na mi gnas pa1 I
dam pa ' dir2 ni gang zhig ' dod I (SvN 2)
BP pas D las 2 DP ltar
svapnar1 satyam abodhena tadbodhe2 yaty3 alikatam I
prathame C4avatar jfianar4l dvitiye nastita bhavet I I (SvN 3)
I EsN svapna 2 Es tad bodhe 3 N yiivaty 4 Es siiSvatajniinaY(l Esh
[tu] svata[fll jniinaf!l N svatajniinaY(l T siisvatiiY(l (corrected to
siiSvataY(l by a second hand?)
ma rtogs 0par ni IJ rmi lam bden I
rtogs na de ni rdzun2 ' gyur3 te I
dang por4 rtag par shes pa5 ste I
gnyis pa chad par ' gyur6 ba yin I (SvN 3)
D pa ni P pa na 2 DP brdzun 3 B gyur 4 B po 5 P bya 6 P gyur
prabodhat1 kalpitapohe2 nanubhiitir3 apo4hyate I
sacciccitra5prakasatma c6yad asty6l anubhavo mahan I I (SvN 4)
1 T prayodhiit 2 Esh kalpitii yohe N kalpitiipahe 3 N niinubhiirir 4
N -yo- 5 EshN saccitra- 6 Esh yad ya[d a]sty
rab tu sad pas rtog pa sel I
nyams su myong ba1 [B 2 14b] sel ma yin I
sems bcas sna tshogs gsal2 bdag nyid I
gang zhig nyams su cher myong ba I (SvN 4)
B bas 2 BP sel
[Es 70] ka9adhvarsy alayad maulat1 pravrttibhyo2 vicitrata I
tas ca tatra [T 23b]tadakaras C3cid evaitat3l tad iyate I I (SvN 5)
1 T moliit 2 N pravrrttibhyo 3 Esh cid desita1J1 N cideitat
skad cig 'jig1 pa kun gzhi2 rtsa3 I
sna tshogs snang ba4 'jug pa rnams I
de dang der ni rnam par brtag5 I
sems ' di nyid ni ' di ltar ' dod I (SvN 5)
EDP 'jug 2 D gzhig 3 B tsam 4 B bar 5 D gnas

SVAPNANIRUKTI

435

svapnat svapnar yadaiva 1 syac ciccitralikata tada2 I


naiva satyam asadvitter3 na cocchedal;i prakafatal;i II (SvN 6)
1 EshN yadeva 2 N tatada 3 Es asad vitter
gal te rmi lam rmi lam nyid I
sems dngos sna tshogs de tshe rdzun1 I
yod dang med pa 'jug med pas2 I
gsal ba la ni chad pa [P 121b] med I (SvN 6)
DP brdzun 2 DP pa
kim anamni1 krtar nama namni2 mayeti va krtam I
namni na yujyate nama na3 pratitha tv anamani I I (SvN 7)
1 EshN anyanni- 2 Esh [na]mni N namamni 3 EshN aci ste ming med la ming btags I
ming ni sgyu ma nyid du ' dod1 I
ming la ming ni rigs ma yin I
ming ni mi gnas pa <2nyid do2) I (SvN 7)
DP dogs 2 DP yin no
Clatv iha dvitayar heyar1) catvaro bodhaye matal;i I
svapnatulyam idar visvam ittham uktar2 jinottamail;i I I (SvN 8)
1 Esh a?nivahadvitayaY(l [ca] N a<j,ni( ? )vahadvitayaY(l T atv
iha dvitfyaY(l heyaY(l 2 N ukta
' dir ni drug las gnyis <1dor bya1l I
bzhi ni rtogs par bya c2bar ' dod2) I
sna tshogs ' di dag rmi lam mtshungs I
de ltar rgyal ba mchog gis gsungs I (SvN 8)
DP der byos 2 DP ba 'o
kir casthanam ato viddhi bau1ddhasarvasvam uttamam I
sarvittya sadgu[N 30a]ror yatnac caryaya ca viseatal;i I I
(SvN 9)
1 EsEshNT buClmi gnas1) gzhung ni rtogs bya ste I
sangs rgyas <2pa kun nor2) yin pas I
rang rig dang ni bla ma'i bka' I

436

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


I lung gi khyad par gyis shes so I (SvN 9)
1 B myang 'das 2 B kun gyi mchog

I I svapnaniruktiI:i1 samapta2 I I
1 N -nirukti 2 EshN samiipteti
I rmi lam nges par bstan pa slob dpon a va dhil ti pal) gnyis med rdo
rjes mdzad pa rdzogs so 1 1 (2rgya gar gyi mkhan po2) ba dzra pa :i;ii dang
(31 bod kyi lo tsa ba3) tshul khrims rgyal bas bsgyur (4zhing zhus pa'o4) I I
1 D P om. 2 DP bla ma 3 DP dge slang 4 D ba 'o

1 3 . Tattvaprakasa

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh), p. 46-47


AICSB 1 3 (March 1 99 1 ) (Es), p. 265-26 1 (72-76)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 30al -b4
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fols. 24b3-25b5
dPal spungs (B) , vol. Of!l, fols. 223b2-224b2
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 224 1 , rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fol. 1 20al -b3
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3086, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fol. 1 3 1 a l -b5
namo buddhaya 1 I
1 T vajrasatviiya
I rgya gar skad du I ta ttva pra 0ka sa ll na ma I bod skad du I de kho na
nyid rab tu bstan pa zhes bya ba I 'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur pa la 'phyag
'tshal lo I
1 BD ka sa P ga sa
prajfiopayatmakar vande1 bu2ddhatrikayarupi1fam I
prabhavaj3 ja4yate yasya bhava5nirva1fam uttamam 1 1 (TP 1 )
1 N vande 2 Esh ba- 3 N -vii 4 EshN jnii- 5 NT bhavo
sangs rgyas sku gsum ngo bo can I
gang gi mthu las skyes gyur pa I
srid dang mya ngan ' das pa1 mchog I
shes rab thabs bdag la phyag 'tshal2 I (TP 1 )
B pa 'i 2 DP 'tshal lo
kefoifc;iu 1kar yathakase taimiro manute janal;i I
C2tathavidyatamaschanno jagad atyanta3balial;i ll2l (TP 2)
1 EshN - fJ,t;lii - 2 EshN om. 3 T utya ..
skye bo rab rib1 can dag la I
mkha' la skra shad snang ba ltar I
de bzhin ma rig mun bsgribs pa'i I

438

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


I byis pa rnams ni ' gro snyam sems I (TP 2)
I D bi
u8uddhad:rter2 yathii kesa bhrantair aka8alakita}.13 I
bhava bhanti tatha sarve yogina},l foddhadarsina}.1 1 1 11 (TP 3)
1 EshN om. 2 T -drte 3 T -ta
'khrul pas mkha' la mtshon pa yi1 I
skra la dag pa'i mig gis blta2 I
mthong ba dag pa'i3 rnal 'byor pas I
srid pa thams cad de ltar rtogs I (TP 3)
P yis 2 DP lta 3 B la D pha 'i
kefo9c;lu1kam ahar vilqe2 hantaka8ar3 nirikya[T 25a]tam4 I
foddhad:rtis tada brilyan5 neti bhranta matis tava6 I I (TP 4)
1 EshN -1Jil- 2 EsEsh vakye T vfkye 3 EsEshN -sa- T -se- 4 Esh
nirakrtam N nirakrtam 5 Es bhuyan Esh [bhu]yan N yan 6 EsN
tava Esh tava(M
kye lags nam mkha'i dkyil ltos dang I
skra shad1 ' dzings pa bdag gis mthong I
C2dag pa'i2J mig can des smras pa I
yod min khyod kyi blo gros 'khrul I (TP 4)
P bshad 2 B dge ba 'i
taimira1bhrantyapohaya Pfthe2 nety uktavan asau I
prakasetarasilnyatvad vidhyapohau3 na tattvata}.1 1 1 (TP 5)
1 N tainira- 2 EsEshNT prto 3 NT vidhyapohau
rab rib kyis 'khrul bsal ba 'i phyir I
phyi nas yod min zhes brjod kyi I
gsal1 dang mi gsal1 stong pa'i phyir I
de nyid C2du ni2l dgag sgrub med I (TP 5)
B bsal 2 P dus na
[Es 74] evam anasravad1 dharmat2 sattvarthas tu pravartate3 I
bhoganirma9akayabhyar pratityapra9idhanata}.l I I (TP 6)
I EsN anasravad T anasrava 2 T dharma 3 Esh -rttate

TATIVAPRAKASA

439

de bzhin zag pa med chos rnams I


longs spyod sprnl1 pa'i sku dag gis2 I
rten 'brel smon lam dag gis ni I [B 224a]
sems can don du rab tu 'jug I (TP 6)
B rdzogs 2 BD gi
tau ca tasman na bhinnau ca tayos tu tatsva1bhavatal). I
tadatmyarp. nijarp.2 siddharp. syad <3bhedas citsa:rigahanaye3J I I
(TP 7)
1 Esh tat sva- N ta 2 T nija 3 N bhedacit smigahiivaye EshT bhe
das citsangahiinaye
. .

de dag de las tha dad min I


de dag de yi rang bzhin phyir I
de dag 0ma bcos lhun gyis1l grub I
de dbyes sems kyi dog2 pa sel I (TP 7)
P rang bzhin ma bcos 2 DP dogs
ne1yate yady anutpado bhinno vyavrttito bhavet2 I
yogacaramatac3d a3lnyo madhyamarthal). katharp. bhavet I I (TP 8)
1 N te- 2 T -vat 3 Esh -[da]- N I ll
gal te skye med mi 1 ' dod na I
ldog pas dngos la tha dad pas I
rnal 'byor spyod gzhung las gzhan pa'i I
dbu ma'i don du ji ltar ' gyur I (TP 8)
P min
catukotipraha9ya ced madhyamartho visiyate I
vijfiane 'pi prasa:rigal). syat tasam atrapi hanital). II (TP 9)
gal te mtha' bzhi rnam spangs pas I
dbu ma'i don ni khyad 'phags na I
rnam rig la yang thal bar ' gyur I
de yang ' di dag rnam spang phyir I (TP 9)

440

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


catukotivinirmukta:rp. jfiana:rp. 0vastusa[N 30b ]d advayam IJ I
kalpasunyam analamba:rp.2 vidur vijfianavadinaQ. 1 1 (TP 10)
1 Es vastu sadadvayam Esh vastu samucchrayam N vastu sa Ill
dvayafJ1 2 Esh -mbyafJ1
mtha' bzhi las ni rnam grol ba'i I
shes pa gnyis med rdzas bden pa I
brtags pas stong zhing gnyis su med I
rnam rig smra ba'i mkhas pas rig I (TP 10)
[Es 76] bhutakoter ato visva:rp. prafityaiva1 prajayate I (T 25b]
vastusunyam2 ajata:rp. tat3 kevala:rp. namamatrakam I I (TP 1 1)
1 N pratii.taiva 2 N -an 3 EsEsh tu
[P 1 3 1b] I yang dag mtha' las sna tshogs ' di I
I rten cing 'brel las 'byung bar ' gyur I
I de ni ma skyes [D 1 20b] rdzas kyis stong I
I ma ' dres1 ming tsam pa nyid do I (TP 1 1)
1 P 'dris
bhedenakhyaya1 sarvajfiaQ. svadhithanaprabhasvarau I
[Esh 47] yady2 ekam anayor3 brute tenocchedo4 niralqtaQ. 1 1
(TP 1 2)
1 Esh -nii.khyii.na- N -nii.khya 2 EsN yad 3 T anayo 4 EsN -de T da
bdag byin dabs 1 dang ' od gsal ba' i I
dbye ba kun mkhyen gyis gsungs pa I
gang tshe de dag gcig bstan2 pa I
des ni chad par lta ba spangs3 I (TP 1 2)
B brlabs 2 B bsten 3 B spang
phalatattvavipakeu yasya 1 saiigo na vidyate I
tasyanabhogayogena bauddha:rp.2 nipadyate padam I I (TP 13)
1 T yasyii.- 2 Esh bodhii.d N bodhan
'bras bu de nyid mi mthun phyogs I
gang la chags pa yod min pa 1 I
'bad med sbyor ba de yis ni I

TATTVAPRAKASA

44 1

I sangs rgyas go 'phang nges rdzogs byed I (TP 1 3)


1 B pas
aryanagarjunair itar buddhadharmanusarataI:i I
dharmatattvam anutpado 0vyakrtas te1l tathagatail:t I I (TP 14)
1 EsEshN vy ttkrtas te
de bzhin gshegs pas lung bstan pa'i I
'phags pa klu sgrub kyis bzhed pa I
sangs rgyas chos kyi rjes 'brang1 nyid I
chos kyi de nyid ma sky es pa' 02 I (TP 14)
P 'brangs 2 B par
krtva tattvaprakafar yat 0pui:iya1lm asaditar maya I
tenastu sakalo loko yuganaddhasya bhajanaI:i2 I I (TP 1 5)
1 Esh [p UJ:tya]- N -a - 2 T bhajanam
de nyid rab 0bstan byas pa1l las I
bdag gis bsod nams gang thob pa I
des ni 'jig rten ma lus pa I
zung du 'jug pa'i [B 224b] snod gyur cig I (TP 1 5)
DP tu bstan byas
I I tattvaprakaal:t samaptaI:i I I
I de kho na nyid rab tu bstan pa zhes bya ba slob dpon mkhas pa a va
dhil tI pa gnyis su med pa'i rdo rjes1l mdzad pa rdzogs so 1 1 <2<\gya gar
gyi mkhan po3l ba dzra pa i:ii dang I <4bod kyi4l lo tsa ba <5dge slang tshul
khrims rgyal bas5l bsgyur <4zhing zhus pa' o4l2l 11
1 P gnyis med rdo rjes 2 D om. 3 P pa 7JrJi ta 4 P om. 5 P rma ban chos
'bar gyis

1 4 . Aprati:jfhiinaprakiisa

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh), p. 48


AICSB 13 (March 1 99 1 ) (Es), p. 259-257 (78-80)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 30b4-3 1 a5
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fols. 25b5-26b2
dPal spungs (B) , vol. Of!1, fo ls. 208a4-209al
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2235, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fol. 1 1 2a6-b7
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3079, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fol. 1 22a6-b7
I I namo buddhaya I I
I rgya gar skad du I a pra 0ti tha na1l pra <2ka sha2l na3 m a I bod skad du I
rab tu mi gnas pa gsal bar bstan4 pa zhes bya ba I 'jam dpal gzhon nur
gyur pa la phyag 'tshal lo I
1 BD tJ:ii ta P sa ha 2 BP ka sa 3 B na 4 D ston
vitter yad apratithanar bauddha1sarvasvam iyate I
kir canabhogayogena yadi sattvarthakarita I I (APP 1 )
1 N baudhashes pa rab tu mi gnas pa I [D 1 l 2b]
sangs rgyas pa nor thams cad ' dod I
' on kyang 'bad med sbyor ba yis I
gang tshe sems can don byed na' o I (APP 1 )
Oyady apo1lhavidhi jatau tado2cchedavidhisthitil:i I
sadajataniruddhe3 tu janmocchedau4 pasor vacal:i I I (APP 2)
1 N yadi po- 2 EshN -to- 3 Esh sada jata niruddhe T - niruddha 4
Esh }anmocchedo N jatmocchedo
gang phyir gzhan sel sgrub1 las skyes2 I
de ni rtag dang chad la gnas I
rtag tu ma skyes mi ' gag nyid I

444

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


I skye dang ' gag pa byol song [B 208b] tshig3 I (APP 2)
1 B bsgrubs 2 P skyas 3 B yin
svasarp.[T 26a]vittir atho manarp. vitte.Q. sattvarp. tad iyate I
sarvollekha1vihinatvat sattvarp.2 tatra na pealam 1 1 (APP 3)
1 EshN sarvviilekhya- T sarva
gal te rang rig tshad ma na 1 I
rig de sems can ' dod pa2 yin I
<3snang ba3l thams cad <4spangs pa'i4l [P 1 22b] phyir I
sems can bden pa ma yin no I (APP 3)
BD ni 2 B ma 3 B rnam pa 4 D spang ba 'i
Prthe yadIyate sa[N 3 1 a]ttvarp. sattvarp. vastu tada na hi I
pratijfiocchedabadhiirtham1 anullekharp.2 tadocyate3 I I (APP 4)
1 Esh -viidhiirtham T -viihyiirtham 2 EsEshN anulekharri 3 Esh tad
ucyate T tadocyatiim
rjes1 la sems can ' dod ce na I
de tshe sems can rdzas yod min I
dam bca'2 gcod pa gnod pa'i don I
rjes su btags3 pa zhes brjod do I (APP 4)
P rdzas 2 BDP bcas 2 BD rtag
vedanarp. vidyate maule1 prthe2 tadavabhasanat I
nirvik:a3lparp. bhaved iidau jfianarp. <41ad grahakarp.4l tata.Q. 1 1
(APP 5 )
1 Esh maulau 2 T pru 3 T .. 4 N tarrid grahakan
dngos gzhi la yang rig pa yod I
rjes la de ltar snang ba'i phyir I
dang po Clrnam par mi rtog ' gyur1l I
de las ' dzin pa'i shes pa po2 I (APP 5)
DP mi rtog par 'gyur zhing (D gyis) 2 P po 'o
[Es 80] afitana1gatadiniirp. cittaniirp. sthityasambhavat I
nai.Q.sva2bhavyam atas teiirp. jagada3 jagatiirp. prabhu.Q. 1 1 (APP 6)
1 N atftiinarri 2 Esh -sva- 3 N gada

APRATl$THANAPRAKASA

445

' das dang ma ' ongs la so gs pa' i 1 I


sems ni gnas pa yod (2pa min2l I
des na de bdag3 med par ni I
' gro la ' gro ba'i mgon pos bstan I (APP 6)
P pa 'o 2 DP ma yin 3 BDP dag
utpada1 eva dharmar:iam acintyo2 nijasarpvida3 I
sa eva sunyata prokta nanu4cchedanugamini I I (APP 7)
1 EshN utpadam 2 Esh acintya NT acinto 3 Es -sambida 4 Es T na
nyochos 0rnams kyi IJ ni skye ba nyid I
rang rig2 gnyug ma bsam mi khyab I
de nyid stong pa nyid ces brjod I
chad pa'i rjes ' gro ma yin no I (APP 7)
B kyi don P rnams kyis 2 DP nyid
apratithanato bijad apratitha:rp. bhaved phalam I
tayina:rp. tad vara:rp. tattva:rp. krtri1mat krtri'ma:rp. yatha I I (APP 8)
1 NT krtirab tu mi gnas sa bon las I
'bras bu rab tu mi gnas 'byung
skyob pa'i1 de nyid dam pa ste
bcos ma'i bcos ma de bzhin no (APP 8)
BD pa
dhyanam asti na cety eva:rp. na brumo ' sailga1carir:iam I
pratityotpadato2 yasmat3 sadodeti yatharasam4 II (APP 9)
1 Esh miga- N 'liga- 2 T -yotpadato 3 T yasma 4 EsEsh yatha rasaf:i
N yatharasa T [T 26b] I ll rasam
de bzhin bsam gtan yod med ces I
chags med spyod la brjod du med I
gang phyir rten1 nas 'byung ba rnams I
nyams myong ji2 bzhin rtag tu skye I (APP 9)
P brten 2 P de

446

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


prafityotpadyate yad yad1 tad tac <2cic citram2l advayam3 I
bhedas tu sunyaciccitrair dharma4saibhoganirmitaiJ:i 1 1
(APP 1 0)
1 NT yan 2 Esh [ cet] cittam 3 N advaya 4 N ddhadharma- T
ddharma-

rten1 nas 'byung ba gang dang gang I


de de gnyis med sna tshogs sems I
stong dang sna tshogs sems dbye bas I
chos dang longs spyod sprul pa nyid2 I (APP 1 0)
P brten 2 B med
apratitham 1 vidhayaitad2 yad alabhi ubhai maya I
tenapratithatai3 yatu jagat sarvopabhogataJ:i II (APP 1 1)
1 T aprati 1 1 1 2 N vidhayetatar T I l l yaitad 3 T -pratithitarri
bdag gis mi gnas brjod pa las I
dge1 ba bsags pa gang yod des I
nye bar spyod pa thams cad dang I
' gro rnams mi gnas thob par shog I (APP 1 1)
D bde
1 1 apratithanaprakaaJ:i samaptaJ:i1 1 1
1 T sa I l l
I rab tu mi gnas p a gsal bar bstan p a slob dpon gnyis [ B 209a] med rdo
rjes mdzad pa rdzogs so 1 1 rgya gar gyi mkhan po1l ba dzra pa l)i dang I
(2bod kyi lo tsa ba dge slong tshul khrims rgyal bas2l bsgyur ba'o I I
1 D P om. 2 DP nag tshos

1 5 . Yuganaddhaprakasa

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh), p. 49


AICSB 1 2 (March 1 990) (Es) , p. 309-307 (56-58)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 3 1 a5-32al
Tokyo Manuscript (T), fols. 26b3-27a5
dPal spungs (B) , vol. Of!l, fo l. 206al -b4
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2237, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fol. 1 1 3 a7-b6
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 308 1 , rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fol. 1 23a8-b8
rgya gar skad du I Clyu ga na ddha pra ka a1l na ma I bod skad du I zung
du 'jug pa rab tu gsal bar2 bstan pa zhes bya ba I 'jam dpal [P 1 23b]
gzhon nur gyur pa la phyag 'tshal lo I
1 BD yu ga na da pra ka sa P dzu ga na dva pra ka sa 2 D ba
ya ya sphiirtir asau Stiddha buddha ced avikarata I
vikaral). pratyayair 0jatas te 'pi1l tair ity ajatata I I (YNP 1 )
1 Esh jnanatarpi- N jata [N 3 1 b] . . te pi T jatas te 'p i
gang dang gang snang de 1 dag par I
rtogs par gyur na mi ' gyur nyid I
rkyen las skyes pa de ' gyur ba I [D 1 1 3b]
de yang rkyen las de ma skyes I (YNP 1 )
B 'di
riipe 0na vi1ldyate riipaqi na va cakui vidyate I
na caitat tajjavijfiane daruva2hnikatha yatha II (YNP 2)
1 T 1 1 1 2 Esh baI gzugs la 1 gzugs2 ni yod min pa I
I mig la yang ni yod ma yin I
I de skyes rnam shes la yang min I
I ji ltar (3me dang gtsub shing3l bzhin I (YNP 2)
1 BP las 2 P gzungs 3 D gtsub shing mi bsten P gtsub shing me
stan

448

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


manthane mathaniye va na va pu 1ruahastayoJ::i I
prak siddho vidyate vahniJ::i pratityarthaJ::i2 sa jayate I I (YNP 3)
1 T . . 2 Esh pratftyii 'rthaf:i NT -rtho
gtsub shing dang ni gtsub gtan dang I
skyes bu 'i lag par ma brten par I
sngon1 du me ni grub pa med I
de ni ' di dag brten2 las 'byung I (YNP 3)
B mngon 2 D bsten
kirp. mohaJ::i svasutat1 pftrvarp. sute2 va sa prajayate I
suta3 eva na pftrvarp.4 ced atas tasya na vastuta 1 1 (YNP 4)
1 EsEshNT svasutiin 2 Esh silte 3 Esh silta T . . 4 N pilrva
bdag gi 1 bu las2 sngar rmongs sam I
' on te bu las rmongs par ' gyur I
bu nyid las3 ni sngar <4zhe na4> I
de ni rdzas su yod ma yin I (YNP 4)
B ni D gis 2 BDP bas 3 DP la 4 DP zhen pa
[Es 58] evarp. pratyaya1matratvad dharma9arp. niJ::i s vabhavata2 I
tayaiva viharan yogi natikra[T 27a]mati sarp.varam I I (YNP 5)
1 N pratya- 2 N -tiif:i
de ltar rkyen ni 'ba' zhig phyir I
chos mams rang bzhin med pa nyid I
de la gnas pa'i mal 'byor pas I
bde mchog las ni nyams mi ' gyur I (YNP 5)
hanya1danarp. na sarvatra vyavaharas tu vartate2 I
mayeva niJ::i s vabhavo ' sau pratityotpa<3dabo3)dhataJ::i I I (YNP 6)
1 Esh bhiinyii- N hiivya- 2 T varttate 3 N -databothams cad blang dang dor med kyang I
tha snyad du ni 'jug par ' gyur I
' di dag sgyu ma bzhin dngos med I
rkyen las 'byung bar rtogs pa'i phyir I (YNP 6)

YUGANADDHAPRAKASA

449

nai}.lsvabhavyad ajatatvar pratyayad aniruddhata I


bhavabhavav1 ato na sto2 yuganaddhar3 tu bhasate I I (YNP 7)
1 T -bhiivo 2 T stau 3 T naddhas
ma skyes phyir na rang bzhin med I
rkyen las 'byung ba mi1 ' gag nyid I
dngos dang dngos med nyams2 pas na I
zung du 'jug pa snang [B 206b] bar ' gyur I (YNP 7)
B med 2 BD mnyam
silnyata1krpayor aikyar2 vidheyar na svakalpata}.l I
silnyataya}.l prakaasya prakrtya yuganaddhata I I (YNP 8)
1 N unyatii 2 N ekya
stong nyid1 snying rje gcig gyur pa I
rang gi rtog pas byas pa min I
stong pa nyid dang rab gsal ba I
rang bzhin zung du 'jug pa nyid I (YNP 8)
DP pa
sarvakaravarodaragambhiranijasilnyatam I
sakad avaiti1 buddhanar piljar2 kuryat suyogavan II (YNP 9)
1 EshNT aveti 2 NT pujii
rnam pa kun mchog rgyas ldan pa'i I
zab mo gnyug ma'i 0stong pa1) nyid I
mngon sum rig pa sangs rgyas kyi2 I
mchod pa legs sbyar3 byed pa yin I (YNP 9)
BDP snying po 2 BDP kyis 3 DP sbyor
kayena manasa1 vaca sada pra2tithita}.l sudhI}.13 I
<4caryar kuryan na kuryad va4l carya[N 32a]carI sa ucyate I I
(YNP 1 0)
1 N masii 2 Esh 'p ra- 3 N sudhf 4 Esh caryiirrz kuryiit na vii kuryiit
N caryii kuriita vii kuryiita vii T caryii kuryiin na kuryiid vii
lus dang ngag dang sems kyis 1 ni2 I
rtag tu blo bzang rab gnas na I
spyod pa byed dam3 mi byed kyang4 I

450

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


I de la spyod pa byed ces brjod I (YNP 1 0)
1 D kyi 2 B kyang 3 D dang 4 B par

I yuganaddhaprakafaJ:i1 samaptaI:i I I
1 N -am
I zung du 'jug pa rab tu gsal bar1 bstan pa zhes bya ba slob dpon a va
dhu <2fi pa gnyis med rdo rjes21 mdzad pa rdzogs so I I c3rgya gar gyi
mkhan po31 ba dzra pa l)i dang I (4bod kyi lo tsa ba tshul khrims rgyal bas
bsgyur zhing zhus4l pa'o I I
1 D b a P p a 2 D P tis 3 D P om. 4 D P nag ts hos bsgyur

1 6 . lvfahasukhaprakasa

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh) , p. 50-5 1


AICSB 1 2 (March 1 990) (Es), p. 305-301 (60-64)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 32al -33a2
Tokyo Manuscript (T), available from line 7c on a folio misplaced after
fol. no. 3
dPal spungs (B) , vol. Olfl, fols. 21 5b2-2 1 6b4
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2239, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fols. 1 14b21 1 5a6
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3084, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols. 1 24b61 26b6
rgya gar skad du I ma ha su kha pra (lka sha1l I bod skad du I bde ba chen
po gsal ba I sangs rgyas la phyag 'tshal lo I
1 BDP ka sa
vajrasattvar namaskrtya prajfiopayasva1rupi:t;tam I
mahasukhadvayar vakye vastutattvar samasatal;i I I (MSP 1 )
1 N o m. .svathabs 0dang shes rab rang bzhin1l gyi I
rdo rje sems c2dpar phyag 'tshal te2l I
dngos po 'i3 de nyid mdor bsdus par4 I
bde C5chen gnyis su med par5l bshad I (MSP 1 )
DP shes ngo b o nyid can 2 P dpa ' la btud nas 3 DP p o 4 B pa 'i
DP pa 5 P ba chen po bdag gis
utpattibhavana caika dvitiyotpannabhavana I
ubhayor bhavana tasmat tadatmy(lam iha1l kathyate I I (MSP 2)
1 Esh -a[mi]ha N -eha
bskyed pa'i1 rim ni1 bsgom pa gcig2 I
gnyis pa rdzogs rim bsgom pa' o I
de' i3 phyir c4gnyis ka bsgom pa nyid4J I

452

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


I <5de'i bdag nyid ni5) ' dir brjod bya I (MSP 2)
1 DP om. 2 DP gcig yin te 3 P de 4 DP gnyi ga bsgom pa ni 5 BP
de ni bdag gis D de 'i bdag nyid
apratityodayo nasti dharma:Q.iim iti niscitam 1 I
prafityoditariipatvat HUl\1jaMAl\12jau tatha na kim I I (MSP 3)
1 N scitam 2 Es MJ.
I chos mams rkyen med pa ru ni I
[P 1 26a] 1 I skye ba med2 par nges pa ste I
I rten cing 'brel ' byung rang bzhin phyir I
I hill skyes mai skyes de3 cis min I (MSP 3)
1 P The inserted text from gsang sngags . . ( 1 24b8) up to 'bring
po ni sangs rgyas nyid du 'gyur ba 'o ( 126a2) is from the Tatt
varatnavalf 2 P min 3 D des
.

sunyatabodhito bijai b1jad bimbai prajayate1 I


bimbe ca nyasavinyasau2 tasmat sarvarp.3 pratityajam I I (MSP 4)
1 N prajayayate 2 Esh -vinyasau(sa) N vinyasa 3 N sarva
stong nyid byang chub (llas sa bon1) I
sa bon las ni gzugs skyes2 ' gyur I
gzugs su ' ang3 dgod dang <4mam par dgod4) I
de 'i5 phyir thams cad <6brten nas6) skyes I (MSP 4)
B sa hon las 2 B skyer 3 DP la 'ang 4 P de dgod bya 5 DP de 6
DP rkyen las
bahyadvandva1samapattir iti ya deana muneI:i I
savantaraprabodhaya spatarp. tantreu budhyate I I (MSP 5)
1 EsEshN -dvanda
phyi rol gnyis ni1 snyoms 'jug pa I
thub pa yis ni nyer bstan gang I
de ni nang gi rtogs don du I
rgyud du gsal bar shes par bya I (MSP 5)
P gnyis
sukhabhave na bodhil:i syan mata ya sukharupi:Q.I I
astitve ca mahan sa:rigaJ:i sarp.sarodayahetukaJ:i I I (MSP 6)

MAHASUKHAPRAKASA

453

bde ba'i1 ngo bo nyid ' dod gang I


bde ba2 [B 2 1 6a] med na byang chub min I
yod na' ang chags pa chen po ste I
'khor bar skye ba'i rgyu nyid do I (MSP 6)
DP ba 2 B dngos
[Es 62] adisantasukha:rp. viddhi yat sukha:rp. pratyayodbhavam I
avastukam ato brilmo [T1] na sukham asti2 nasti ca I I (MSP 7)
1 T available from here 2 EshN ato
rten cing 'brel 'byung bde ba gang I
gdod1 nas zhi2 ba'i bde bar rtogs I
de phyir dngos po med par brjod I
bde ba yod min med pa' ang min I (MSP 7)
DP bzod 2 P zhing
tattva:rp. tavad anutpado1 dharmai:iarp paramarthatal) I
satalikaprakasa2 tu vijfieya foddhaC3sa:rp.v:r3)[N 32b]til)4 I I (MSP 8)
1 N -yos 2 Esh -sat 3 T 1 1 1 4 NT .. J:i
re zhig de ni ma 1 skyes pa I
chos rnams kyi2 ni don dam nyid I
(3bde ba brdzun3l par C4gsal ba ni4J I
dag pa'i kun rdzob C5rnam shes bya5) I (MSP 8)
P om. 2 P kyis 3 B bden pa rdzun 4 BP mi gsal ba 5 D tu shes pas
P pas
satyadvayam I ida:rp. foddha:rp. silnyata yogisa:rp.v:rtil)2 I
dvayor advayata sadhya k:rtvanarthavisarjanam3 I I (MSP 9)
1 Esh -dva[ya]m N -dvarrzm 2 EshN -brtif:i 3 N -visarjm;,arrz T
krtva 'narthakisarjanarrz
bden pa gnyis 1 c2' di rnam par dag2) I
C3stong nyid rnal 'byor kun rdzob bo3) I
C4gnyis po gnyis med bsgrub bya ste4) I
C5don med rnam par spang byas nas5l I (MSP 9)
P nyid 2 B kyi dag pa 'di D ni rnam par dag 3 DP kun rdzob
stong nyid rnal 'byor pa 4 DP de ni gnyis su med par bsgrub 5
DP don dam par spangs byas so

454

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


mantrasa:rp.stha0nayo1lgatma sate2 majjati dhidhanaJ:i3 I
mayopama:rp. tato ' dvaita:rp. visva:rp. pasyati tadram I I (MSP 10)
I T 1 1 1 2 Esh sato N sato 3 T -mataf:i
sngags dang dbyibs kyi sbyor 0bdag nyid1l I
blo ldan bde ba2 der song nas I
de nas <3sna tshogs sgyu ma bzhin I
gnyis su [D 1 55a] med par de ltar mthong3l I (MSP 1 0)
B ba dag 2 B bar 3 B sgyu ltar gnyis med pas 1 1 sna tshogs der
ni blta bar bya
bhutakoti:rp.1 tato vito2 yu3ganaddha(4padar4l gataJ:i I
yuganaddha5sthito yogi sattvarthaika6paro bhavet II (MSP 1 1)
1 Esh -kotif:t N -kofi 2 EshN vitva T vi 3 T 4 N padasali- T
prasali- 5 T -naddhe 6 N -ekao o

0 0

0de nas1l yang dag mthar 'jug cing I


zung 'jug go 'phang rtogs par ' gyur I
zung 'jug la gnas rnal 'byor pa I
sems can don la gcig tu brtson I (MSP 1 1)
B der ni
[Esh 51] sa1tacid devatakara:rp. visvacakra0"m u1lpayakam I
prajna ca2 sunyata prokta sadhya:rp.3 tadatmyam4 iyate 1 1
(MSP 1 2)
I Esh sa- la T 2 T tu 3 EsEshNT sadhya- 4 T tadatman
0 0

bde sems Iha yi rnal ' byor pa I


sna tshogs 'khor lo [P 1 26b] thabs yin te I
shes rab stong pa nyid du brjod I
de yi1 bdag nyid2 bsgrub byar ' dod I (MSP 1 2)
BDP ni 2 B gi
prajfiopayatmaka:rp.1 tattva:rp. ba2hyabhyantarauddhitaJ:i I
<3buddhva sama3lsato mantrI4 sukhito ' sthanayogataJ:i I I (MSP 1 3)
1 Esh -tmyakaf!l 2 Esh va- 3 T 1 1 1 4 N mantf
I shes rab thabs 0bdag de kho na1l I
c2I phyi rol nang gi dag pa ste l2l 3

MAHASUKHAPRAKASA

455

bde ba gnas med rnal 'byor gyi4 I


c5sngags pas mdor bsdus5) shes par bya I (MSP 1 3)
DP kyi bdag nyid de 2 P om. 3 D lines a and b are in reverse or
der 4 DP pas 5 DP mdor bsdus 'di ltar
[Es 64] prafityotpadamatratvan naiva sattvar na sunyata I
sphiirtis1 ca dec2vatakara niJ:t2)svabhava svabhavataJ:t I I (MSP 14)
1 N -ttis 2 N -vatakiirii 1Jil:i- T 1 1 1 [T verso]
rten cing 'brel 'byung tsam nyid1 phyir I
C2yod pa2) ma yin stong nyid3 min I
C4gsal ba lha yi rnam pa yang I
rang bzhin med pa'i rang bzhin te4l I (MSP 14)
B gyi 2 B bden nyid 3 B pa 4 P rang bzhin med pa 'i rang bzhin
can 1 1 snang ba lha yi rnal 'byor yin
yatha yatha bhavet spMrtiJ:t sa tatha sunyatatmika.1 I
dvaitadvaitamano C2yac ca2) tatra tad C3vasanaphalam3) I I
(MSP 1 5)
1 N -ka/:l 2 T yamca 3 T va 1 1 1 lar(l
ji lta ji ltar snang gyur pa I
de [B 2 1 6b] ltar1 de ni stong nyid bdag I
gnyis dang gnyis C2su med shes gang21 I
de c3dang de ni3l bag chags 'bras4 I (MSP 1 5 )
P lta 2 D P med shes pa gang 3 P ni de y i 4 BD bral
herukaharkrtir yogi herukartha1pratithitaJ:t I
bhavars2 casau guriin krtva kea[N 33a]r1va bhramen mahim3 I I
(MSP 1 6)
1 Esh -rthe 2 NT -viis 3 EshN mahf
0rnal 'byor he ru'i nga rgyal byed1l I
c2he ru ka'i don la rab gnas2l I
dngos ' di bla mar byas nas su I
C3blo ldan seng ge bzhin du gnas3l I (MSP 1 6)
D he ru ka don la rab gnas P he ru ka yi rnam byed pas 2 P om.
3 P seng ge lta bur sa stengs rgyu

456

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


8u0ddhar u1lddhya jinanar2 parita iha sada visvam abhati ya
sya jatar nadau na ruddhar svaparavigm:ianakalpako<3tipra3lhl1J-am4 I
satalika5prakaar bhavaamasamata6dvaitarupar hi nunar7 ca
kre cakradhipo ' sau jinaguC89ani81layo vajraqako munindraJ:i I I
(MSP 1 7 )
1 T Il l 2 N jinam 3 T I l l 4 EshN -prahfnam 5 Esh satalfkalfl NT
satalfkalfl 6 T -fiia- 7 N nyuna1J1 8 T I l l
I 0gang zhig rgyal ba rnams kyi dag pa rnam pa'l sna tshogs ' di
<2dag kun nas rtag tu snang2l I
I gdod3 nas ma skyes mi 'gag4 bskal pa bye bar rang dang gzhan
du rtog pa spangs pa yi I
I <5bde ba bdzun51 par snang ba srid zhi6 mnyam pa nyid du gnyis
med (7ngo bo ' dir nges pa7l I
I <8 'khor lo 'i bdag po ' di ni8l rgyal ba'i yon tan <9gzhir gyur9l
10rdo rje mkha' ' gro thub pa'i dbang10 I (MSP 17)
1 B dag pas dag pa 'i rgyal ba rnams kyis yangs su D gang zhig
rgyal ba rnams kyi dag pa 2 B ni rtag tu brjod med gang 3 DP
gzod 4 D 'jig P 'jigs 5 B bden dang rdzun D bden pa brdzun 6 D
dang zhi bar P zhi ba 7 DP rang bzhin phyir 8 P 'di ni 'khor lo 'i
bdag po 9 D om. P du 10 DP thub dbang rdo rje mkha ' 'gro nges
par 'gyur I

I I maha1sukhapraka8aJ:i samaptaJ:i I I
1 T mahanmahaI bde ba chen po gsal ba slob dpon a va dhu tI pa dpal' gnyis su med pa'i
rdo rjes mdzad pa rdzogs so 1 1 bla ma ba dzra pa 9i dang I rma2 ban gyis
bsgyur ba'o II
1 B om. 2 P sma

1 7 . Tattvavimsika

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh), p. 52-53


AICSB 12 (March 1 990) (Es), p. 299-293 (66-72)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 33a2-34a4
Tokyo manuscript (T), fols. 2lb2-23a2
dPal spungs (B) , vol. OIJl, fols. 250b2-25 1b5
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2250, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fols. 1 40a51 4 l a3
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3095, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols . 1 53bl 1 54a8
namal:i sarvajfiaya 1 I
1 T buddhaya

1 1 rgya gar skad du I ta ttva ma ha ya na 0bi:rp. sa ti1l I bod skad du I de kho


na nyid theg pa chen po nyi shu pa I rje btsun sangs rgyas la phyag
'tshal lo I
1 B bing sha ka ralJl si
prajfia citrar vipakas1 ca vimardas2 ca vilakar:iam I
asyas tattvam ato viddhi3 yenasi jagato4 vibhul:i I I (TV 1 )
1 N vipakaf!1s 2 N vimarda1J1S 3 N vidhi 4 T jagatam
shes rab sna tshogs mam par smin I
0rnam nyed1l dang ni C2mtshan nyid2l bral I
' di yis3 de nyid shes par ' dod I
gang phyir ' gro ba khyab pa'i bdag I (TV 1 )
D rnam med P snang med 2 P rnam nyed 3 D P yi
prajfia bhava1samas casau trikayar tu triyanakam I
saiva cakrar sukhopayam yogin12 tad ahai:p. param I I (TV 2)
1 EsEshNT bhava!:z 2 EshN yogina- T yo 'nyas

458

EDIDON OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


shes rab srid dang mnyam bdag nyid I
sku gsum theg pa gsum po ' di1 I
de nyid 'khor lo bde ba' i thabs I
de ni rnal 'byor bdag dang gzhan I (TV 2)
B ni D 'dis
mafijuvajro mahamaya vajra<;lakas1 tathapare I
prajfiaiva bhedato bhati muktil).2 saiva jinatmika3 I I (TV 3)
1 T -rj,aka 2 T yuktil:z 3 N jinatmika!:z
'jam pa'i1 rdo rje sgyu ma che I
rdo rje mkha' ' gro de bzhin gzhan I
snang ba'i bye brag shes rab nyid I
de nyid rgyal ba'i2 bdag nyid grol I (TV 3)
D dpal 2 B bas
acintyar cintitar caiva advayar dvayam eva1 ca I
sarvakaravaropetar bhavabhavau grahagrahau I I (TV 4)
1Ne
. .

0gnyis dang gnyis su med p a nyid I


bsam gyis mi khyab sems dpa' nyid1l I
rnam pa kun gyi mchog ldan pa I
dngos dang [D 141b] dngos med gzung dang ' dzin I (TV 4)
DP bsam gyis mi khyab sems dpa ' (D pa) nyid 1 1 gnyis dang
gnyis med de bzhin no
[Es 68] vijfiana1pagatar cittar niralambam anuttaram I
santar suddhar ni[T 22a]rabhasar vittil:_i2 prajfieti kirtita3
(TV 5)
1 N vijiiaya- Esh vijiiaya- 2 T vitti 3 T -tal:z
rnam par shes pas bor ba'i sems I
dmigs pa med cing bla na med I
dag cing zhi ba snang ba med I
[B 25 1 a] I rig pa shes rab ces su grags I (TV 5)

TATTVA V!Iy!SIKA

459

praveas ca bhaved asyarp.1 vispato2 mantrasastratal:i3 I


nana yasmad4 upayo 'tra m:rdu5madhyadhi6matratal:i I I (TV 6)
1 Esh asya N abhyo T asya 2 Esh vidhya$(a- N vi [N 33b] .. pa$(a
T vispa$(af!l 3 Es mantraJ:tlif!l tataft Esh -manaslif!! tataft N ma
naslif!! tataft 4 Esh dharmmad 5 N mrda- 6 Esh -iidi' di la zhugs par gyur pa ni I
0sngags kyi bstan bcos1l rnam par gsal I
gang phyir sna tshogs pa yi thabs I
0 'di la chung 'bring chen po yis1l I (TV 6)
D gsang sngags chos kyis 2 B chung dang 'bring dang chen
po 'o
karmasamayamudrabhyarp. cakrarp. nipadya bhavital:i1 I
dhyayanti m:rdavo bodhirp. uddhatattve2 bahirmukhal:i I I (TV 7)
1 EshN bhavataft T bhavitaft 2 EsEshN -ttvaB: I las dang dam tshig phyag rgya dag I
dag pa de nyid kha phyir ltas I
'khor lo rdzogs par bsgom pa ni I
tha ma'i byang chub bsam gtan no I (TV 7)
DP: I las dang dam tshig phyag rgya dag I
'khor lo rdzogs par bsgom1 pa nyid I
tha ma'i byang chub bsam gtan de I
dag pa'i de nyid kha phyir bltas2 I (TV 7)
D sgom 2 P ltas
jfianamudrasamapannarp. mafijuvajradi1nayakam I
na satyarp. na m:rakaram atmanarp. madhyayoginal:i I (TV 8)
I T -iidhiye shes phyag rgya snyoms 'jug pas1 I
'jam pa'i2 rdo rje la sogs gtso I
bden min <3brdzun gyi rnam pa min3l I
'bring po 'i rnal 'byor bdag nyid yin I (TV 8)
B pa 2 B dpal 3 B rdzun min rnam pa ' ang ste

460

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


svadhithanapadai jfiatur ye aktas 1 tattvato <2na hi2l I
<3margo 'yam3l desitas tear kramato bodhisiddhaye I I (TV 9)
1 Esh -ktafl N -kta 2 Esh nahi 3 EshT margopa- N margo upabdag byin brlabs pa'i go 'phang shes I
gang phyir de nyid nus pa med I
de rnams la ni yang dag bstan I
rim gyis byang chub bsgrub pa'o I (TV 9)
devatabhinivesas ced1 vasanatra kathai <2na hi2l I
vasanaiva3 viuddha cet sarvatraiva tu sa tatha I I (TV 1 0)
1 T cid 2 Esh nahi 3 Esh vasana 'tra
lha rnams 0mngon par1l dgod ce na I
de2 la bag chags ji3 ste med I
bag chags nyid ni rnam dag na I
thams cad du yang de bzhin no I (TV 10)
B ji ltar 2 DP 'di 3 D ci P ca
[Es 70; Esh 53] drta1tattval). punar yogI mahamudraparayaI,J.al). I
sarvabhavasvabhavena vihared uttamendriyaJ:i. 1 1 (TV 1 1 )
1 T drtasslar [P 1 54a] yang rnal 'byor de nyid mthong I
phyag rgya che la mchog tu gzhol I
dngos po kun gyi rang bzhin gyis1 I
dbang po mchog gis gnas par bya I (TV 1 1)
D gyi
prakftya1 yat sukhrup.2 labdhar sarvasarkalpavarjitam I
tad evedai [T 22b] jagad yasmat tasmat sarvam anavilam I I
(TV 1 2)
I EsEshNT prakrtau 2 Esh subharri
0rang bzhin gyis ni1l bde thob gang2 I
<3kun tu3l rtog pa thams cad spangs I
gang phyir ' gro ba <4 di de nyid4l I
de phyir thams cad rtog pa med I (TV 1 2)
DP ngo bo nyid kyis 2 DP pas 3 DP mam par 4 D de nyid yin

TAT1VAV!Jr1SIKA

46 1

bahya:rp.1 vastu manograhya:rp. bhranta:rp.2 na bhasate yataf.l I


svapnanganeva3 vispata:rp. cinmatram4 arthakari tat I I (TV 13)
1 NT bahya 2 N bhiintan 3 T -naiva 4 cinmiitrarrzm
phyi rol dngos 0yid kyis1) gzung ba2 I
gang las3 'khrul pa snang mi ' gyur I
rmi lam <4bud med4) gsal ba nyid I
C5don byed pa yang sems tsam mo5) I (TV 1 3 )
B p o yid 2 D P la 3 BDP la 4 B yan lag 5 D P sems can don ni
byed pa ste
cittamatra:rp. bhaved bodher mata:rp. cittam acittakam I
svasa:rp.vittir acitta:rp. ca vittir gurum apekate 1 1 (TV 1 4)
1 I sems tsam du ' gyur byang chub la2 I
sems kyi <3 ' dod pa3) sems ma yin I
rang gis rig pa [B 25 1 b] sems min te I
rig pa <4bla ma la ltos ' gyur4) I (TV 1 4)
D inserts thams cad dngos pa 'i rang bzhin 'di 2 BP pa D po 3 B
kyi gzhung 4 B la ni bla ma dgos
[N 34a] sunyata1 sarvavastiina:rp. kasya nama na sa:rp.mata I
sarvabhavasvabhavo ' sau kata pratyatmavedyataf.l II (TV 15)
1 T I l l yatii
dngos po1 kun gyi stong pa nyid I
(2gang gi ming ni mi 'dod pa2) I
dngos po kun gyi rang bzhin ' di I
so sor rtogs par dka' ba yin I (TV 1 5)
DP med 2 P ming 'di mi 'dad pa ni gang
[Es 72] ana1ladisahayena bhakta:rp. yatheha tal).<;iulaf.l I
tathataya2 tatha uddha avidya yati vidyatam3 II (TV 1 6)
1 EshN -ni- 2 Es T tathiitayii EshN tathatiiyii 3 T uddhatiim
me1 la sogs pa ' dus pa na I
ji ltar ' di ni 'bras las zan I
de ltar de bzhin nyid dag la I

462

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


I ma rig pa ni rig par ' gyur I (TV 1 6)
1 B gang med DP de
yasya cinta1 bhaved dhyanarp tasyacintyarp2 bhaved na kim3 I
acintyatma4 bhaved5 yogi buddhair6 jagadudahrtaI:i I I (TV 17)
1 N citta 2 T -ntyarri 3 N karyi 4 Esh acintatma 5 T tato 6 Esh budd
her N buddhar
gang la bsam pa1 bsam gtan yin I
de la bsam mi khyab ci2 min I
bsam3 mi [D 1 4 1 a] khyab bdag4 rnal 'byor pa I
,
sangs rgyas kyis ni cs gro la bstan5l I (TV 17)
BD pas 2 B cis DP kyis 3 DP bsam gyis 4 B dag DP om. 5 D grol
ba bstan P grol ba brtan
cakram1 asau bhaved yogi mahamudra sa eva hi I
dharmasambhoganirmai:iaI:i2 sarvakaraJ:i3 sa eva hi I I (TV 1 8)
1 N . kram 2 Es -1Jaf:i 3 N -ra T -ra
.

' di ni 'khor 101 rnal 'byor yin I


gang phyir c2' di ni phyag rgya che2l
chos dang longs spyod sprul pa ste
gang phyir C3rnam pa kun de nyid3l (TV 1 8)
BDP lo 'i 2 P phyag rgya che de nyid 3 DP de ni rnams kun yin
krtakrtyo nira8as1 ca sarvasailgabahir2mukhaI:i I
[T 23a] caturiryapathair3 yukto buddho4 'yarp buddhasarpmataI:i
I I (TV 1 9)
1 N -tarris 2 Esh -vahir- N -bahi- 3 N -thai 4 Esh -ddha
bya ba by as pa 1 bsam dang bral I
dog2 pa kun las3 kha phyir bltas I
spyod lam rnam C4pa bzhi ldan pa4l I
sangs rgyas ' di ni sangs rgyas bzhed I (TV 19)
DP pas 2 DP dogs 3 DP la 4 B bzhi ji ltar ldan

TATTVA VI/'vfSIKA

463

advayenadvayar1 ktva2 yad asadi3 ubhar maya I


jagad advayam adyaiva4 bhuyat5 tena mahasukham I I (TV 20)
1 Esh advayena dvayaf!I N advayena dvaya- 2 N saf!Ikrtva 3 E5hN
asadi 4 N adyeva 5 N bhiiyaf!I
gnyis med gnyis su med par1 byas I
bdag gis thob pa'i bsod nams kyis I
da2 ni ' gro ba gnyis med nyid I
de yis3 bde ba chen por shog I (TV 20)
DP pas 2 B des DP de 3 P yi
I I tattvavirsika samapta I I iti1 I I
1 EshNT om.
I a va dhu ti pa dpal gnyis su med pa'i rdo rjes mdzad pa rdzogs so 1 1 rje
btsun dhi ri srI dznya na'i zhal snga nas dang I lo tsa ba seng dkar sha
kya ' od kyis bsgyur ba' o I I

1 8 . Mahiiyiinavirrisikii

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh) , p. 54-55


AICSB 12 (March 1 990) (Es), p. 29 1 -287 (=74-78)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 34a5-35a4
Not found in T
dPal spungs (B) , vol. Of!l, fols. 249a5-250b2
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2248, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fols . 1 37b71 38b4
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P) , no. 3093, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols. 1 50b81 5 1b6
I rgya gar skad du I ma ha ya1 na 2vir shi ka2 I bod skad du I theg pa
chen po nyi shu pa I snying po 'i sku la phyag 'tshal lo I
1 P ya 2 B bing sha ti DP bif!l sa ti
nijakayam ahar vande1 asarskrtam alaka:9am I
sarvakaravaropetar yugana2ddhapadasargatam I I (MV 1 )
1 N vandhe 2 N om. -na- (hypermetrical)
zung 'jug go 'phang yang dag son I
rnam pa kun [P 1 5 1 a] gyi mchog ldan pa I
mtshan nyid med cing ' dus ma by as I
gnyug [B 249b] ma'i sku la 0bdag phyag 'tshal1) I (MV 1 )
D P phyag [D 1 3 8a] 'tshal lo
dharmasarbhoganirmar:i.e1 yan nijarp.2 tatsvabhavataJ:i3 I
tad asya darfanar yuktar samyaksarbodhisiddhaye 1 1 (MV 2)
1 EsEshN -JJti 2 N nija- 3 EsEsh tat svabhavataJ:t
0chos dang longs spyod sprul pa la I
gang yang gnyug ma de'i rang1> I
de la ' di mthong C2ldan pa yis2) I

466

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


I yang dag rdzogs pa'i byang chub ' grub I (MV 2)
1 DP bzhin (D om.) 'di ni chos dang longs spyod sprul 1 1 snying
po de yi rang bzhin pas 2 B bar ldan pa 'i
darsanar ca bhaved asya anaropad vipasyana I
mantrayiiniinusarea tad idar vakyate ' dhuna I I (MV 3)
' di la mthong bar gyur ba yis I
sgro ma btags pas lhag par mthong I
gsang sngags theg pa'i rjes 'brangs nas I
0da ni de ' dir1l bshad par bya I (MV 3)
P de 'dir da !tar
na matar1 sasvatar visvar na cocchedi samihi[N 34b]tam2 I
sasvatocchedino yugmar nanubhayar vinobhayam 1 1
(MV 4 = TRA 28)
1 EsEsh nedaY(l N netaY(l (see TRA 26) 2 Es cocchedisamfhitam
sna tshogs rtag1 pa'i lugs2 ni med I
chad par sems pa'ang med pa ste I
rtag dang chad pa gnyis ka med I
gnyis <3ka ma yin gnyis med min3l I (MV 4=TRA 28)
D rtogs 2 DP gzhung 3 P po med pas gnyis min te
catukotivinirmuktar tattvar tattvavido viduJ:i I
catukotivisuddhar tu catu1kotisamasritam I I (MV 5)
1 N om. -tumtha' bzhi <1rnam grol de nyid ni JJ I
<2de nyid rig pa2l mkhas pas shes3 I
mtha' bzhi rnam par dag pa nyid I
mtha' bzhi la ni rnam par brten I (MV 5)
B las ni rnam grol ba D mtha ' bzhi ni rnam grol 'di nyid ni 2 B
de nyid de ni 3 P rig
khasamam asamar santam adimadhyantavarjitam I
acintyar cittakar caiva sarvabhavasvabhavakam I I (MV 6)

MAHAYANA Vlly!SIKA

467

nam mkha' dang mnyam zhi ba ste1 I


thog ma dbus C2mtha' rnam par2l spangs I
bsam C3gyis mi khyab3l sems nyid ni I
dngos po kun gyi rang bzhin no I (MV 6)
DP dang 2 P dang tha ma 3 B mi khyab pa 'i
[Es 76] j agadekarasar buddhva prabhasvaram anavilam I
sarvasarkalpanil,18arke1 viharadhvarp.2 yathasu3kham I I (MV 7)
1 EsEshN -nil:tarrikii 2 Esh -ddharri 3 N -gaI ' gro ba ro gcig par rtogs na I
I rnyog1 pa med cing ' od gsal ba' o I
I kun C2tu rtog2l pas 'jigs med na I
I ji ltar bde bar3 khyod gnas byos I (MV 7)
1 P rtog 2 B rtog chags 3 BP ba
na klesa bodhito bhinna na bodhau kleasarbhaval,l I
bhrantital,l kleasarkalpo bhrantil,l prakrtinirmala1 I I (MV 8 )
1 N -liih
byang chub nyon mongs tha dad med I
nyon mongs byang chub las mi 'byung I
'khrul pa1 nyon mongs rtog pa ste I
'khrul pa'i C2rang bzhin2l dri ma med I (MV 8)
D pas 2 D ngo bo
Irya ca kayikar karma vacikar 1 dharmadefana I
samadanar manal,lkarma2 nirvikalpasya dhimataI,i I I (MV 9)
1 N -ka 2 Esh mana!:z karma
lus kyi las ni 1 spyod lam yin2 I
ngag gi las ni chos C3 ' chad pa3> I
yid kyi las ni1 C4yang dag4l ' dzin I
c5rnam par mi rtog blo ldan pa'o5> I (MV 9)
DP su 2 DP ste 3 P ston te 4 B yi dam 5 B blo ldan gyis ni rtog
pa bral

468

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


j agan mayety asau 0maya maya1) mayeti ma krtha1J2 I
c3maya moho3) mahabhrantir bhrantir bhrantil:i4 sata:q:i matii
(MV 1 0)
1 EshN om. 2 N -thii 3 Esh miiyiimoho 4 EsEsh bhiiti N bhriiti
' gro ba sgyu ma 0zhes sgyu1) ' di2 I
sgyu mas sgyu mar3 mi bya ste I
sgyu ma4 rmongs pa5 'khrul pa che I
'khrul ' gyur 'khrul pa dam pa'i [B 250] lugs I (MV 1 0)
DP sgyu ma 2 B ni 3 DP ma 4 B mas 5 DP pas
vijfiayaiva:q:i yathiirupa:q:i buddhiidina:q:i samasatal:i I
bhufijanalJ1 sarvathii sarva:q:i tattvavedI prasidhyati I I (MV 1 1)
1 N -na
ji ltar rang bzhin rnam shes na I
sangs rgyas la sogs bsdus1 pa'o1a
C2kun nas kun tu longs spyod na2)
de nyid rig pa3 rab C4 grub ' gyur4) (MV 1 1 )
B sdud la D ste 2 B rnam pa thams cad kun longs spyod 3 BDP
par 4 P tu 'grub
[Esh 55] dharmaskandhasahasrqu bu1dhyata:q:i nama sunyata2 I
bu3ddhii nasau paramarsad vinasartha:q:i4 bhaved guroI:i I I
(MV 1 2)
1 EsEshN ba- 2 N -tiil:z 3 EsEsh ba- 4 N vinii martham
chos kyi phung po stong phrag gis I
rtogs1 pa zhes bya stong C2nyid do2) I
rtogs3 pa ' di ni c4dpyad pas4) min I
bla mas c5dpyad pa bral bar5) ' gyur I (MV 1 2)
D rtog 2 P pa nyid 3 D rtag 4 P spyad pa 5 D dpyad pa min par P
spyad pa min par
sarvakaraI:i sukha:q:i tattva:q:i sa:q:ikalpoparatel:i sataI:i 1 I
sunyata na sukha:q:i tattva:q:i nacintya:q:i2 na sukha:q:i sukham
(MV 1 3)
1 EshN sa te 2 EshN na cintyam

MAHA YANAV!ly!SIKA

469

skyes bu rnam rtog bral ba ni I


rnam 0kun bde ba'i de nyid do1) I
stong nyid bde de'i de nyid min I
I bsam mi khyab min bde [P 1 5 lb] ba min I (MV 1 3)
1 P pa kun gyi bde de nyid 2 B inserts I kun tu rtog las pha rol te I
[Es 78] yena buddham anaroparp. na drtarp.1 paramarthataJ:i I
adrte yujyate tasya vrttam pascad yatha ta[N 35a]tha I I (MV 14)
1 N drta

I 0gang yang1) sangs rgyas sgro ma btags I


I <2don dam pa la2) mthong ba med I
I (3mthong ba med par de sbyor shes I
I ji ltar de ltar phyi nas spyod3) I (MV 14)
1 P des na 2 DP de (P di) ni don dam 3 DP gang la spyod pa ji
ltar bde 1 1 de lta rig pa mthong ba med
na dvayarp. nadvayarp. yasya na bodhiJ:i sadvilakal).a I
nira8o1 ' sau mahayogi sarvakaragatirp.gataJ:i2 I I (MV 15)
1 N -sau 2 EsEsh -ti1J1 gataf:t
gnyis 0su med pa gnyis med min1) I
byang chub dag pa' i mtshan nyid med I
<2rnal 'byor chen po bsam dang bral2) I [D 1 3 8b]
rnam pa thams cad (3khong du chud3) I (MV 15)
B min gnyis ni ma yin pa 'i 2 DP re ba med 'di rnal 'byor che 3
DP rtogs pa 'o
adikarma yathoddi1tarp. kartavyarp. sarvayogi2bhiJ:i I
sunyatakaru9abhinnarp. yad bodhau jnanam iyate 1 1
(MV 1 6 = KDN 8)
1 Esh -di- 2 EshN --ni<1dang po 'i las ni ji ltar gsungs1) I
rnal 'byor kun2 gyis3 c4bya ba yin4) I
stong nyid5 snying rje dbyer med pa6 I
(7de ni7) sangs rgyas ye shes ' dod I (MV 1 6) <31 ces pa' o 1 8)
DP ji !tar gsungs pa dang po 'i las 2 B pa 3 B yis DP gyi 4 B
thams cad bya 5 DP dang 6 B pas 7 B gang yang 8 DP om.

470

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


lqpayal;i sfmyata nanya karUQ.liparanlimika1 I
saiskrtya na vayai briirno briirnas ced2 yuganaddhatal;i I I
(MV 17)
1 Es karwyii, paranamika Esh karw:ia kharanayika N karw:iapara
"f:tliyika 2 N ce
stong 0nyid las gzhan brtse ba min ll I
snying rje yi2 ni ming gzhan yin I
c3 ' dus byas su ni bdag mi brjod3l I
brjod na4 zung du 'jug c5pa nyid5l I (MV 1 7)
DP las snying rje gzhan min te 2 P yis 3 DP bdag gis 'dus byas
su mi brjod 4 DP pa 5 DP par ro
ghata1der grahaQ.e2 yasya dhyanasatatyayogatal;i I
bhaved asau mahabuddhal;i sarviikaraikavigrahal;i I I (MV 1 8)
1 Es -ta- 2 EsEsh -"t:t air N -"t:t er
bum pa la so gs 0 dzin pa la 1J I
mal 'byor c2de yis bsam gtan gyis2l I
' dis ni sangs rgyas chen por ' gyur I
mam pa kun gyi lus gcig pu3 I
B gzugs gang gis 2 P kun gyi bsam gtan bya 3 DP pa 'o (MV 1 8)
asaiskftamano1 dharmo bodh al;i sai2bhogalakaQ.al;i I
tad eva nirmitas citral;i nijal;i sarvasvabhavatal;i3 I I
(MV 1 9 = PA 2)
1 EsEsh asalJlskrtamana N asalJlskrtano 2 N sa- 3 Es -kafl
' dus ma byas yid1 chos yin te I
rtogs pa2 longs spyod rdzogs c3pa'i mtshan3l I
c4sna tshos sems ni4l sprul pa'o I
gnyug [B 250b] ma C5thams cad5l rang bzhin no I (MV 1 9)
DP sems 2 DP pa 'i 3 P mtshan nyid 4 B de nyid sna tshogs 5 P
kun gyi
yad anena samasadi puQ.yai puQ.yavata maya I
tenastu sakalo loko buddhabodhiparliyaQ.al;i 1 1 (MV 20)

MAHAYANA V!Jv!SIKA

47 1

B : I gang ' di bsdus la sogs pa yis I


bdag gi bsod nams bsam 'phel bas I
de yis 'jig rten mtha' dag ni I
sangs rgyas byang chub thob par shog I (MV 20)
DP: I de ltar ' di yis thob pa ni I
bsod nams ldan pa'i bsod nams kyis I
de ni 'jig rten ma lus pa I
sangs rgyas byang chub thob par shog I (MV 20)
I I mahayanavii-sika samapta1 I I
1 N -ptal:i
I ces1 theg pa chen po nyi shu pa <2zhes bya ba2) <3pa l).<;ii ta gnyis su med
pa'i3) rdo rjes mdzad pa rdzogs so 1 1 4 rgya gar gyi mkhan po <5ba dzra
pa l).i'i zhal snga nas5) dang I bod kyi lo tsa ba <6mtshur dge slong dznya
na a ka ras bsgyur ba' o6) I I
1 D om. 2 D om. 3 P slob dpon gnyis med 4 D P inserts I I pa ri pa ta pra
dznya sha ra sa ma dhya na I 5 DP de ba ka ra tsa ndra 4 DP dge slang
sha kya brtson 'grus kyis bsgyur cing gtan la dbab pa 'o I I

1 9 . Nirvedhapaiicaka
Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh) , p. 56
AICSB 13 (March 1 99 1 ) (Es) , p. 255-253 (82-84)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fol. 35a4-b3
Tokyo Manuscript (T), ?b5-6 (first two lines at the end of a folio mis
placed after fol. no. 3)
dPal spungs (B) , vol. OY(l, fol. 2 12a5-b6
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D) , no. 2238 , rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fol. 1 14a3-b2
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3083, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fol. 1 24a6-b5
0namal). sarvajfiaya 1 1)
1 EsEshN om.
rgya gar skyad du I 0nir bhe da1) pa nyca ka I bod skad du I mi phyed pa
Inga pa I sangs rgyas la phyag 'tshal lo I
1 P ni rbe te
0buddhar buddhar1) jagac chuddhar buddhabodhena2 bandhu
na3 I
adi8uddha4 mahabuddha5 kir buddhar buddhasasanam6 I I
(NVP 1 )
1 T I l l 2 Esh dvandhabodhe n a 3 Esh vandhanaf:i N bandhanaf:i 4
EshN -ddho 5 EshN -buddhaf:i T . . 6 EsN -ne T -na
sangs rgyas rtogs na ' gro ba dag I
sangs rgyas rtogs pa can rtsa lag I
e ma' o sangs rgyas gdod 1 nas dag I
sangs rgyas bstan pa ji ltar rtogs I (NVP 1 )
D P gzod
idar nivrttapratipaka1tattvaphalavikalpasya
svabhavikar vacal). I
1 T breaks off here 2 N sahajaf:i Esh saha}aY(l

sahaja2nirvedhabhajal).

474

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

I ' di ni gnyen po dang I de kho na nyid1 dang I 'bras bu rnams2 [B 1 22b]


la rnam par rtog pa bzlog pa ni rang bzhin gyis dbyer med pa can te I
ngo bo nyid bstan pa' o I
1 P om. 2 DP om.
jfianam anavilar I sunyam anabhogakrpatmakam I
pratitya jayate tac ca svabhavabhavavarjitam I I (NVP 2)
1 N anavila
ye shes rnyog1 med stong pa ste2 I
lhun grub snying rje ' i bdag nyid can I
de yang C3rten ' brel las skyes te3) I
dngos dang dngos med rnam par spangs I (NVP 2)
B rtog 2 B nyid 3 DP rkyen las skyes pa ste
anena nirvedhapratirupam akhyati I
I ' dis1 ni C2shin tu2l c3 mi phyed par3) rtogs pa'i [P 1 24b] C4rang gi ngo bo
nyid bshad pa' o4l I
1 D 'dir 2 D om. 3 DP dbyer med 4 P rang bzhin bstan pa 'o
dharmal).ar sunyata1 vayu2 krPa vayu3 gar1yas1 I
vayu2 sarvarasamarthyar c4vayu uddha4l ca sarvrtiJ:15 I I
(NVP 3 )
1 N sunyata 2 Esh vayu 3 Esh vayur 4 Esh vayusuddha 5 N sam
vrtti Esh sarribrt*
chos rnams stong pa Clngo mtshar1) che I
snying rje shin tu ngo mtshar che I
c2bde mchog nus pa ngo mtshar che2) I
kun rdzob dag pa C3ngo mtshar che3) I (NVP 3)
P ya mtshan 2 DP 'khor lo sdom pa 'i nus pa mtshar 3 DP shin tu
mtshar
[Es 84] ane[N 35b]na nirbharasahajodgaram1 udgi2rati I
1 Esh -bharam 2 Esh -gf-

NIRVEDHAPANCAKA

475

I ' dis ni shin tu 0dbyer med pa1J lhan cig skyes (2pa las byung ba'i2l mthu
b shad pa'o I
1 P 'jungs pas 2 DP pa 'i
ha kir brumaJ:i kathar brumo brumo va kva nu te janaJ:i I
bu1ddhavrttir bhaved yeam anabhogartha1salinI I I (NVP 4)
1 Esh va- 2 EshN -arthafl
ha ci 0smra ba1l ji ltar bshad I
bshad na2 skye bo su yis3 go I
rtogs par gyur na mi ' gyur nyid I
lhun gyis grub pa nyid du snang I (NVP 4)
DP brjod pa 2 B pas 3 P yi
etena karm;aya 'prati!hitanirvacaniya1dharmagambhlranayadhimukti
kapuruadurlabhatam avedayati I
1 Esh -niiya
I ' dis ni snying rjes rab tu mi gnas pa'i chos1 zab mo 'i 2 tshul la (3lhag
par3l mos pa'i skyes bu rnyed par4 dka' bar bstan pa nyid do I
1 B tshig 1 1 2 B inserts chos kyi 3 DP om. 4 D pa
sva1karmasutrabijad dhi marmacchedi phalar mama I
naparadhyo2 maya hirsro (3 py evar vayu sahe janar I I 3J
(NVP 5)
1 Esh sa- 2 Es niiparebhyo 3 EsEshN 'py evaY(l sahite
rang gi las kyi sa bon skud1 I
gnad gcod pa yi 'bras bu gang I [D 1 14b]
bdag gis gzhan la mi 'tshe2 ste I
e ma' o de nyid kyis ni3 bzod I (NVP 5)
D sku 2 DP gtse 3 B kyang
anena svakarmasutragrathitopahatamatisakalasattvaparigrahar kurva1).01 bodhisattvanar hrdayam aca1e2 I
1 N kuviiJ:tO 2 Es iica$te

476

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS

I ' dis ni rang gi las kyi skud pa'i mdud pas bkris pa'i blo dang ldan pa' i
sems can thams cad 0yongs s u ' dzin par bya ba'i phyir byang chub
sems dpa' rnams kyi1l thugs la dgongs pa'o I
1 P byang chub sems dpa ' yangs su 'dzin par byed cing
I I nirvedhapaficakar samaptam I I
I mi phyed p a lnga p a slob dpon mai tri 1 pas mdzad p a rdzogs s o 1 1 rgya
gar gyi mkhan po ba dzra pa 1).i dang I c2bod kyi2l lo tsa ba rma ban gyis
bsgyur ba'o I I
1 P tris 2 DP om.

20. Madhyama!fatka

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh) , p. 57


AICSB 13 (March 1 99 1 ) (Es) , p. 25 1 (86)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fols. 35b3-36a3
Not found in T
dPal spungs (B) , vol. Of!l, fol. 209b 1 -6
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D) , no. 2230, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fol. 1 10a2-6
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3074, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols. 1 1 9a8-b6
rgya gar skad du I ma dhya ma a ta ka 1 I bod skad du I dbu ma drug pa
[P 1 1 9b] sangs rgyas la phyag 'tshal lo I
DP om.
catukotivinirmuktar jfianar 1 vastusad advayam I
kalpasunyam analambar2 vidul;l sakaravadinal;l I I (M 1 )
1 EShN 1 nana- 2 ESh byaf!l
- -

mtha' bzhi las ni rnam grol ba'i I


shes pa skad cig ma yod de I
rtog pas stong zhing dmigs pa med I
rnam bcas smra bas 1 shes par bya I (M 1 )
D P bar
svasar0vitter anu 1lcchedan nlladinam abhasanat I
nimittanam2 anutpadan madhyama pratipan mata I I (M 2)
1 N -vitte IJU- 2 nimitaniif!lm
chad pa ma yin rang rig ni I
sngon po la sogs 0rnam par snang1l I
de ni mtshan nyid kyis ma skyes I
dbu ma pa yi lam du ' dod I (M 2)
DP par snang ba

478

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


catukotivinirmuktaJ:i1 c2praka8o 'lika2llakm:.i aJ:i I
mayopamadvayas caia siddha[N 36a3]nto manasangataJ:i I I
(MS 3)
1 N -muktaf!1 2 Esh prakiisiilfka- 3 in the reduplicated text
mtha' bzhi las ni mam grol ba'i I
gsal ba rdzun1 pa'i mtshan nyid de I
de2 ni sgyu ma ltar gnyis med I
tshad mar ldan pa'i grub mtha' o I (MS 3)
DP brdzun 2 B dpe
vastusilnya tu ya vittir1 nirakara nirafijana I
madhyama pratipat saiva tatprthe 8uddhasarvrtiJ:i2 I I (MS 4)
1 N vitti 2 Esh suddhasarribrtif:z N saddhasamvrttif:z
dngos po stong par rig pa gang I
snang ba med cing sgrib g.yogs med I
de nyid dbu ma pa yi lam I
rjes thob dag pa'i kun rdzob yin I (MS 4)
prakafo vaprakafo va tattvato nopalabhyate I
sarvatha 'jatarilpatvan madhyamam apare viduJ:i 1 I I (MS 5)
N repeats verses MS 3-5
gsal ba' am ni mi gsal ba I
de nyid la ni dmigs su med I
rnam kun ma skyes pa'i1 rang bzhin I
gzhan dag dbu ma pa ru 'dod I (MS 5)
DP pa
[N 36a2] catukotivinirmuktaJ:i1 prakafo devatatmakaJ:i I
sa2tadvayasvabhavas ca prafityotpada3matrakaJ:i I I (MS 6)
1 N -vimuktaf:z 2 N sa- 3 N pratyotpiida
mtha' bzhi las ni rnam grol ba' i I
gsal ba Iha yi bdag nyid can I
gnyis med mchog tu bde ba'i dngos I
rten cing 'brel 'byung tsam bdag nyid I (MS 6)

MADHYAMA!;ATKA

479

I I madhyarna1atkalf2 sarnaptalf 1 1 1 krtir iyarp. rnahapai:ic_litavadhutasr1rna


da3dvayavajrapadanarn iti 1 1
1 N -maka- 2 Esh -tka 3 N om. -daI dbu ma drug pa zhes bya ba slob dpon rnkhas pa mai 0tri pas1l mdzad
pa rdzogs so 1 1 bla ma ba dzra pa i:ii dang I nags tshos bsgyur ba' o I I
1 D tris

2 1 . Premapaiicaka

Edition Shastri ( 1 927) (Esh) , p. 58


AICSB 1 2 (March 1 990) (Es) , p. 285-283 (80-82)
NGMPP B 22/24 (N), fol. 36a3-6
Tokyo manuscript (T), ? 38al (fols. 34-37 are missing, but not 3 8 .
The latter was probably mistaken for fol. 1 8 and placed between fols.
1 7 and 1 9)
-

X:

Y:

dPal spungs (B), vol. Of!! , fols. 207b5-208a4


Derge bsTan ' gyur (D) , no. 2246, rgyud 'grel, vol. wi, fols.
1 36b6- 1 37a3
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 309 1 , rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fols.
149b6- 1 50a3
dPal spungs (B), vol. O f!l , fol. 2 1 3al-6
Derge bsTan ' gyur (D), no. 2237, vol. wi, fol. 1 1 3b6- 1 14a3
Peking bsTan ' gyur (P), no. 3082, rgyud 'grel, vol. mi, fol.
1 24a l -6

[X] Thabs dang shes rab rtse ba Inga pa


I rgya gar skad du I pra dznyo pa ya pre1 ma2 pa nyca ka3 I bod skad du I
thabs dang shes rab rtse ba Inga pa I dpal rdo rje sems dpa' la phyag
'tshal lo I
1 B pra D be 2 DP ya 3 DP om.
[Y] Dga' gcugs Inga pa:

i rgya gar skad du I pri 9a pa nyca ka 1 1 bod skad du I dga' gcugs Inga pa
I 0sangs rgyas1l [B 2 1 3b] la phyag 'tshal lo I
1 B 'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur pa
1 pratibhaso varaJ:i kantaJ:i prafityotpadamatrakaJ:i I
na syad yadi mrtaiva syac chunyata kamini mata I I (PP 1 )
1 T folio no. 3 7 is missing

482

EDITION OF THE SANSKRIT AND TIBETAN TEXTS


[X] I rab tu snang ba'i mchog rtse ba I
rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba tsam I
gal te med gyur 'ching ' gyur nyid I
stong nyid yod pa'i ' dod can1 ma I (PP 1)
DP tsam
[Y] I snang ba'i1 mchog tu gcugs pa ni I
I rten cing ' brel 'byung tsam nyid de I
I med par gyur na stong pa nyid I
I ' dod pa mo dngos ' ching bar ' gyur I (PP 1 )
1 DP ba
sunyatativara kanta murtya nirupama tu ya I
pthag yadi kadacit syad dagdha]J1 syat kantanayaka]J I I (PP 2)
1 EshN baddhaJ:z (T not available)
[X] I stong nyid shin tu mchog rtse ba'i I
[B 208a] I 0gang gis1) lus ni dpe med pa I
I gal te brgya la tha dad gyur I
I rtse ba'i [D 1 37a] gtso bo tha dad ' gyur I (PP 2)
1 B rang gi D gang gi
[Y] I stong nyid shin tu mchog rtse ba'i I
I mdza' bo dpe med gzugs ldan gang I
I de dang brgya la byed na ni I [D 1 14a]
I dga' bde 'i1 gtso bo brlag par 'gyur I (PP 2)
1 D ba de ' i P ba de yi
[Es 82] dampafi failkitau tasmad guror upasthitau pura]J I
nijapritya tayos tena1 sahajar prema karitam 11 (PP 3)
1 N tea
[X] de phyir 0dogs pa1l khyo shug2 gnyis I
I bla ma dam pa'i spyan sngar gnas I
I gnyug ma'i rtse ba de dang des3 ]
[ lhan cig skyes pa'i4 brtse5 bar mdzad6 ] (PP 3)
1 B dog pas 2 P zhugs 3 DP de 'i 4 BP pas 5 BDP rtse 6 BDP
mdzod

PREMAPANCAKA

[Y] I de phyir 0dogs pa1l khyo shug2 gnyis I


bla ma dam pa'i spyan sngar gnas I
de yis de dag sngon bzhin du I
dga' bas lhan cig gcugs par mdzad3 I (PP 3)
B dog pas DP dogs pas 2 P zhugs 3 D mdzod
vayu sadgurupai:ic;ii0tyam aho1J kaufalam Idrfam I
nijabheda2niralambav ubhau jatav anuttarau I I (PP 4)
1 Es -tyaytl maha- Esh -tyamaha- 2 Esh -bedha- N -vedha[X] I e <1ma ho1l bla ma dam pa mkhas I
I ngo mtshar ' di ' dra'i thabs mkhas [P 150a] pa I
I gnyug ma dbyer med dmigs pa med I
I bla na med par2 c3gnyis ka skyes3l I (PP 4)
1 D ma ' o 2 D pa 3 D gnyi ga ste
[Y] I e 0ma ho1l bla ma mchog mkhas ni I
' di lta bu la mkhas pa mtshar I
C2gnyug ma2l gnyis med dmigs pa med I
bla na med par gnyis ka sky es I (PP 4)
DP ma 'o 2 DP rang bzhin
sarvalakai:iasarpu0ri:iav anta1ldvay