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Mobile Operating System

Presented by:
YOGENDRA KUMAR SAHU
(2010IT071089)

IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE


What is Android?
• Android is a software stack
for mobile devices that
includes an OS, middleware
and key applications.
• User applications can be
developed using Android
SDK which supplies a host
of API’s needed for
development using Java
programming language.
IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE
A slice of history

• Google acquired Android Inc.,USA in


2005 with establishing OHA.
• Announced Android in 2007 and
released source code.
• reached version 2.1 releasing
Google’s Nexus.

IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE


The architecture

• consists of five software layers:


1) Linux;

2) Libraries;

3) Runtime;

4) Application Framework; and

5) Applications.


IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE
The architecture
• Linux—the bottom layer is the Linux
OS itself—version 2.6.3x .This
provides process and memory
management, security, networking
and an array of relevant device
drivers.
•  Libraries—
§ reside on top of the OS.
§ includes Google’s version of standard
C system library (libc), called bionic,
and tuned for embedded Linux-based
devices.
§ media and graphics libraries and
IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE
The architecture
• Runtime—
§ on top of the OS, is the Android
runtime—the Dalvik VM.
§ designed specifically for Android and is
register based to conserve memory
and maximize performance.
§ separate instance of the Dalvik VM is
used to execute each Android
application.
§ The underlying OS is used for memory
management and multi-threading.
•  Application framework—
§ provides a number of services to apps
implemented as Java classes.
§ Any application can “publish” its
IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE
capabilities for use by other
The architecture
• Applications—
§ email, SMS, calendar, contacts and
Web browser.
§ Applications are written in Java.
§ processed with the standard Java tools
with a converter being used to
translate to the Dalvik VM byte
codes.
• SQLite:
§ powerful and lightweight
(approx.225kb) relational database
engine (RDBMS).
§ SQLite library is linked in an
application program.
IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE
§ The library can be called dynamically.
Application development

• An Eclipse-based development
environment is available from
Google.
• An Android application consists of a
number of resources that are
bundled into an archive, an Android
package.
• There is no single entry point to a
program (like main()).
IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE
Application development
• There are four types of components
which are instantiated and run as
required :
§ Activities: an executable unit that
performs a specific function and has
a user interface.
§ Services: no user interface and runs
in the background.
§
§ Broadcast receivers: respond to
system wide messages issued by
other applications or the OS.
§
IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE
Advantages of Dalvik
Virtual Machine
• simple Java interpreter machine, developed to run
on low-end memory mobile devices.
• capability to run along an application compilation
enhancing the runtime performance of the
applications.
• DRAWBACKS:
– none-compatibility with Java SE libraries, Java
ME class libraries and Swing Java libraries.
• MERITS:
– minimal-electrical power consumption.
– vast library resources.
– assures the open source status of Android since
Android uses a Java Virtual execution environment
IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE
developed by Google.
Advantages of Dalvik
Virtual Machine

IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE


Security and permissions
• Android is a multi-process system, in which each
application runs in its own process.
• Most security at the process level through
standard Linux facilities.
• Additional securities through “permission”
mechanism that enforces restrictions on the
specific operations that a particular process can
perform.
• In Android security architecture no application, by
default, has permission to perform any
operations that would adversely impact other
applications, the OS, or the user.
• This includes reading or writing the user’s private
data,reading or writing another application’s
files, performing network access.
IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE
Interesting Android
• From Gizmodo's
links:
http://gizmodo.com/5395801/android-20-review-

almost-human
• Learn Android
http://developer.android.com/guide/basics/what-is-

android.html
• Introduction to Android by Jason Chen who is
developer advocate at Google
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x1ZZ-R3p_w8

IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE


About OHA:
 OHA - Open Handset Alliance
 a consortium of several companies including
HTC,Intel,LG,Motorola,NVIDIA,Samsung,T-
Mobile, Google and so on.
 Established by Google after acquiring Android
Inc.,California,USA.
 Declared Android open source.

IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE



THANK
YOU!

IT VI SEM. JABALPUR ENGG. COLLEGE