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Where did the Renaissance Start and Why?

The Renaissance is the rebirth of Art, Culture, and Literacy from the
1300s to the 1500s.

It started in Florence Italy.

Reason it starts in Florence:


1. Wealth
2. Location and contact with the Muslim World.

Leonardo da Vinci- Art work, Renaissance Man

Who was he: da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and
mathematician.

Famous Art Work: Last Supper and the Mona Lisa.


Why is he called the Renaissance Man: He had multiple skills and was
good at all of them.

Shakespeare-Style of plays
Who was he: An English poet and playwright between 1590 and 1613.

What are his Styles of Plays: He wrote comedies, historical plays, and
tragedies.

Example: Romeo and Juliet

The Protestant Reformation


The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political,
intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic belief in
Europe, and led to the formation of many modern day Christian
religions.

Martin Luther
Martin Luther, was a German Monk who is upset about the selling of
indulgence by the Catholic Church and voices his dissatisfaction in his
writings know as the 95 theses. This leads to the Protestant
Reformation and eventually the restructuring of the Catholic Church

John Calvin
John Calvin, trained as a priest and lawyer and was also unhappy with
the Catholic Church. He leaves the Church and creates his own religion
based around his idea of predestination.

The Spanish Inquisition-What was the Consequence?

This was a court set up by the Catholic Church to get people to recant
their ideas by torturing them :

It gave the Catholic Church control through fear, not only in religion,
but also in politics. This led to fear and dislike of the Church.

Columbian Exchange-Impact on Britain, Africa, and the


Americas

This is the Global trading network of goods between Europe and its
colonies, named after Christopher Columbus:
Britain: Wealth and they become a World Power

Africa: Destroyed their economy becomes reliant on Europe for its


survival.
Americas: Gives them slave labor leads to wealth.

Triangular Trade-Impact on Africa and Europe


This was a colonial trade route among Europe and its colonies, the
West Indies, and Africa in which goods were exchanged for slaves:
Africa: Destroyed their economy becomes reliant on Europe for its
survival, leads to the lost of population, and destruction of a number of
tribes.

Europe: Allows for Colonization of the Americas and Wealth.

Middle Passage-What is it?


This is when the enslaved Africans were placed on the boats for
transport and packed in like cargo, many did not survive the sea voyage
due to disease or brutal mistreatment:

What was the Scientific Revolution


This was the emergence of modern science during the early modern
period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy,
biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views
of society and nature.

Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton was an established physicist and mathematician, and is
credited as one of the great minds of the 17th century Scientific
Revolution. With discoveries in optics, motion and mathematics,
Newton developed the principles of modern physics. He is most
famous for his law of gravitation.

Natural Law
A body of principles that are considered to be inherent in nature and
have universal application in determining whether human conduct is
right or wrong.

Social Contract
This is an implicit agreement among the members of a society to
cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual
freedom for state protection. Theories of a social contract became
popular in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries among theorists such as
Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as a means
of explaining the origin of government and the obligations of subjects.

Which Enlighten Philosophers had the greatest impact on the


development of the U.S. Constitution

Thomas Hobbes-Social Contract


John Locke-Natural Rights, Social Contract
Montesquieu-Separation of Powers (3 Branches of Government)
Voltaire-Bill of Rights

Heliocentric
The theory that places the Sun as the center of the universe, and the
planets orbiting around it. The heliocentric model replaced
Geocentrism, which is the belief that the Earth is the center of the
universe.

The Glorious Revolution-William and Mary


What is it: the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of
English Parliamentarians with the Dutch leader William III of Orange
William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army
led to his ascending of the English throne.
Who were William and Mary: They overthrow Marys father James II to
become the English Monarchy in the late 1600s.

Napoleonic Code
The is the French civil code established under Napolon I in 1804. The
code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion,
and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified.

Maximilien Robespierre
He was a lawyer and politician who becomes the leader of the
Committee of Public Safety and become the chief architect of the Reign
of Terror:

Napoleon Bonaparte
He proclaims himself the Emperor of France, he gets France out of the
turmoil that followed the revolution, but loses the War against his
European neighbors and is forced to abdicate his position:

Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing
processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820
and 1840.

How did the Industrial Revolution impact the cities


(Urbanization) and labor(unions)
As industry grows and factories get larger the majority of jobs are in
cities this leads to Urbanization and overpopulation. It also leads to
harsh working conditions in the factories. To combat this Labor Unions
are developed to fight for workers rights.

Communism-Karl Marx
Communism is a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating
class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly
owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities
and needs.

Karl Marx was a German Philosopher who wrote the pamphlet the
Communist Manifesto, which led to the early idea of Communism:

Imperialism-Impact on Africa
This is the expansion of European powers and their conquest and
colonization of African and Asian societies, mainly from the sixteenth
through the nineteenth century

Imperialism leads to the domination of Africas political, economic, and


cultural life by many European Nations.

Direct Control-Imperialism
In a direct rule, a colony would be governed by foreign officials while
no self-rule was given to natives. The goal was assimilation of the
colony into an empire. Government institutions were based on
European governments.

Indirect Control-Imperialism
In an indirectly ruled colony, local government officials might be used,
while the native upper-class was given limited self-rule over the
colony. The goal was to Westernize future leaders of a colony in order
to perpetuate a powers control.

Sphere of Influence-British Empire (India,


China
When a foreign power exercises control over another countrys trade
and economy. China was divided into various spheres-of -influence by
European powers so that they could obtain exclusive trade rights with
Chinese ports. Often, Europeans would abuse trade with China because
of Extraterritoriality rights granted to Europe.
In India the British tried indirect rule until the Sepoy Rebellion and
them implement a more direct rule.

Political Structure of East Asia-Meiji


Restoration
The Meiji reformers wanted to replace the rigid feudal order with a
completely new political and social system and to build a modern
industrial economy. They felt that if they didnt westernize they would
be overrun by western nations like China was.

Open Door Policy


This is a formal agreement among the European powers on the principle of
maintaining an Open Door for trade and commercial activity under their
influence. Proposed by U.S. Secretary of State Hay in the late 1800s.
Secretary Hay of the U.S. sent the first of the Open Door Notes on
September 6, 1899, to the other great powers that had an interest in China,
including Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany, and Japan. These nations
maintained significant physical and commercial presences in China, and were
protective of their various spheres of influence and trading privileges there,
and elsewhere in Asia.
Hay proposed a free, open market and equal trading opportunity for
merchants of all nationalities operating in China, based in part on the most
favored nation clauses already established

Boxer Rebellion
In 1900, in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion (or the Boxer
Uprising), a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the
Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China
against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there.

Tokugawa Shogunate
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the Tokugawa bakufu and the
Edo bakufu, was the last feudal Japanese military government which
existed between 1603 and 1868.

Causes of World War I(Imperialism, Nationalism,


Militarism, Alliances)
Imperialism: a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military
force. As quality territories start to disappear the Imperial nations compete for those that left,
causes tension.
Nationalism: the policy or doctrine of asserting the interests of one's own nation viewed as
separate from the interests of other nations. As Nations felt that their interest were more important
then others they would do what was best for them and not care if it effected others. In the late
1800s Otto von Bismarck unifies Germany and becomes the first German Chancellor, he wanted to
build a powerful State with a Unified National identity.

Militarism: the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong
military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
Alliance: a union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or
organizations. As tension starts to build by the imperial nations during the late 1800s, groups of
nations signed treaties to protect themselves in case of war. When war between Serbia and AustriaHungry breaks out these Alliances draw the major world powers into war.

What event sparks the fighting of World War I


Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand: On June 28, 1914 the heir
to the Austrian-Hungry throw and his wife was assassinated in
Sarajevo, Bosnia by a Serbian Nationalist. This led to Austria-Hungry
declaring war on Serbia and sparks the Frist World War.

Reason for U.S. involvement in WWI (3)


Sinking of the Lusitania: The Germans use unrestricted submarine warfare to try to
stop the Allies from getting supplies. They mistakenly attack a British Luxury Liner,
and kill over a thousand civilians among them are 128 U.S. citizens. This turns U.S.
public opinion against Germany and put pressure on the President to get in the
War.
Giving of Credit to the Allies: U.S. businesses allow Britain and France to buy goods
on credit. As the war drags on they fear that the Allies are going to lose so they
pressure the President to declare War on The Central Powers.
Zimmermann Note: In 1917 a diplomatic proposal from the German Empire
offering a military alliance with Mexico, in the event of the United States entering
World War I against Germany. When the War was won the Germans would give the
land taken from Mexico by the U.S. in the Mexican American War back to them.

Trench Warfare
This is a strategy used during World War I, in which the armies attacked
each other from fortified ditches. This style of fighting led to a
stalemate and prolonged the War.

Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the
end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the
Germans, took territory from the Central Powers, and redrew
boundaries.

Russian Revolution-Bolsheviks, LeninCommunism


This was a series of revolutions in the Russian Empire during 1917. The
events destroyed the old government, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to
step down and was replaced with a provisional government.
Bolsheviks: A member of the majority faction of the Russian Social
Democratic Party, which was renamed the Communist Party after
seizing power in the October Revolution of 1917.

Lenin: Leads the Bolsheviks in the November Revolution and becomes


for first Communist leader of Russia.

Adolf Hitler
He is the leader of the Nazi Party and becomes Chancellor of Germany
in 1933. He does away with the Weimar Republic and declares himself
as premier leader of Germany. In 1939 he invades Poland and starts
World War II.

Joseph Stalin
He becomes the Communist leader of the Soviet Union after the death
of Lenin. At the beginning of World War II he signs a Non-aggression
pact with Hitler, but is drawn into the war when Germany breaks the
Non-aggression pact.

Non-aggression Pact
This is an agreement between nations not to fight each other if a war is
declared.

Reasons for U.S. involvement in World War II


The Bombing of the U.S. Naval Base at Hawaii on December 7, 1941
forced the U.S. to declare war on the Axis Powers.

D-Day Invasion: What was it and it takes place


where?
This was the Joint Allied attack on June 6, 1944 into France at
Normandy.

Holocaust: What was it and Which groups of


people are targeted?
This was the systematic murder or genocide of Jews, Gypsies, Slavs, the
disabled, homosexuals and those deemed enemies of Germany by the
Nazis before and during WWII:

Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that
produced the first atomic bombs during World War II. Most of the work
and testing of the atomic bomb was done in New Mexico.

Atomic Bomb dropped on which Japanese Islands?


Hiroshima on August 6, 1945
Nagasaki on August 9, 1945

United Nations
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization
established 24 October 1945 to promote international co-operation.
The organization was created following the Second World War to
prevent another such conflict.

Cold War (Marshall Plan, Division of Germany)


This was the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the U.S. and
the Soviet Union after World War II:

Marshall Plan: U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall issued a call for a comprehensive program
to rebuild Europe. Fanned by the fear of Communist expansion and the rapid deterioration of
European economies in the winter of 19461947, Congress passed the Economic Cooperation Act in
March 1948 and approved funding that would eventually rise to over $12 billion for the rebuilding
of Western Europe.
Division of Germany: After Germany's defeat in the Second World War, the four main allies in
Europe - the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and France - took part in a joint
occupation of the German state. With the original understanding that the country would eventually
be reunified, the Allied Powers agreed to share the responsibility of administering Germany and its
capital, Berlin, and each took responsibility for a certain portion of the defeated nation. This
arrangement ultimately evolved into the division of Germany into a Western and an Eastern sector,
thereby contributing to the Cold War division of Europe.

Arms Race
The nuclear arms race was central to the Cold War. Many feared where
the Cold War was going with the belief that the more nuclear weapons
you had, the more powerful you were. Both America and Russia
massively built up their stockpiles of nuclear weapons. This further
increased the tension between the two Superpowers.

N.A.T.O.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization: an organization formed in
Washington, D.C. (1949), comprising the 12 nations of the Atlantic Pact
together with Greece, Turkey, and the Federal Republic of Germany, for
the purpose of collective defense against aggression.

Warsaw Pact
In response to the development of N.A.T.O. the Soviet Union and it
Satellites formed the Warsaw Pact: organization formed in Warsaw,
Poland (1955), comprising Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the U.S.S.R., for collective defense
under a joint military command.

Wars in Asia(Chinese Civil War-Mao Zedong Communism, Korean War,


Vietnam)
Chinese Civil War: Mao Zedong led the Chinese Communist to Victory in the Chinese Civil War in the
years following World War II. China becomes the second largest Communist Nation in the during
this time period.
Korean War: After WWII, the U.S. and Soviet Union agreed to temporarily divide Korea at the 38th
parallel. The Soviets see this as a chance to create a new Communist Nation and place Kim IL Sung
in command of North Korea. They then recognize North Korea as a new Nation and refuse to
participate in open elections. In 1950 the North Korea attacks the South, the United Nations led by
the U.S. back South Korea, China backs North Korea and the War is fought for 3 years and becomes
a stalemate. With North Korea remaining a Communist nation and South becoming a Democratic
nation.
Vietnam: A war in Southeast Asia, which was waged from 1954 to 1975 between communist North
Vietnam and noncommunist South Vietnam, two parts of what was once the French colony of
Indochina. Vietnamese communists attempted to take over the South, both by invasion from the
North and by guerrilla warfare conducted within the South by the Viet Cong. The U.S. gets involved
because of its policy of Containment and fear of the Domino effect. The U.S. society becomes
dishearten with the war the U.S. pulls out in 1975 and Vietnam becomes a Communist nation.

Containment
U.S. Containment policy was the first major policy during the Cold War
and used numerous strategies (Truman Doctrine, Marshall plan etc.)to
prevent the spread of Communism abroad. The Idea behind this was to
treat Communism like a diseases that there was no cure for, and
quarantine it so it did not spread.

Domino Theory
This was a Theory developed by the U.S. during the Cold War, the idea
behind it was that if one East Asian country fall to Communism, the
nations surrounding it would also fall to Communism. This theory is
why the U.S. gets involved in Vietnam.

Fall of the Berlin Wall


The Berlin Wall was a concrete wall that separated East Berlin and West
Berlin from 1961 to 1989, built by the Communist East German
government to prevent its citizens from fleeing to the West. Its fall in
1989 is one of the first major events in the fall of Communism in
Europe and eventfully the end of the Cold War.

Mohandas Gandhis non-violence Movement for


Indias Independence
Mohandas Gandhi was an Indian civil rights leader who used nonviolence to fight for the independence of India from Britain, which he
gains in 1948.
He used a number of non-violence strategies in his struggle, such as
boycotts, fasting, and protest marches. U.S. civil rights leaders, such as
Martin Luther King JR., and Cesar Chavez used many of Gandhis
strategies in their fight for civil liberties.

Globalization: What is it and give an example

Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people,


companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international
trade and investment and aided by information technology.
The European Union is an economic and political union of 28 countries that are
located primarily in Europe.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (N.A.F.T.A.) is a trade bloc in North
America.
One shirt sold in the United States could have been made from Chinese cotton by
workers in Thailand. Then it could have been shipped on a French freighter that
had a Spanish crew.
A McDonald's in Japan and other countries shows the growth of companies over
the entire world.

NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement

NAFTA is an agreement among the United States, Canada and Mexico


designed to remove tariff barriers between the three countries. It has
been beneficial for the U.S. and Canada, but has yet to have significant
positive results in Mexico.

Global Threat of Terrorism


Terrorism is the deliberate use of random violence, especially against
civilians, to achieve political goals. Throughout history smaller and
weaker nations have used terrorism to defend themselves against a
more powerful enemy, but since the 1970s groups not officially
affiliated with nations have increased the use of Terrorism.

Apartheid-South Africa
was a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through
legislation by the National Party (NP), the governing party from 1948 to
1994.