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LECTURE 3

HALL EFFECT
DILUTE MAGNETIC
SEMICONDUCTORS (DMS) AND THEIR
APPLICATIONS

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Hall Effect
When a piece of conductor (metal or semi
conductor) carrying a current is placed in a transverse
magnetic field, an electric field is produced inside the
conductor in a direction normal to both the current and
the magnetic field.
This phenomenon is known as the Hall Effect and
the generated voltage is called the Hall voltage.
Y
B

G
D
F

O
E
B

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X
EH

Hall effect

Consider a conventional current flow through the strip


along OX and a magnetic field of induction B is applied along
axis OY.
Case I: If the Material is N-Type Semi Conductor
(or) Metal
If the strip is made up of metal or N-type semiconductor,
the charge carriers in the strip will be electrons.
As conventional current flows along OX, the electrons
must be moving along XO.
If the velocity of the electrons is `v and charge of the
electrons is `e, the force on the electrons due to the magnetic
field
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F = Bev, which acts along OZ.


This causes the electrons to be deflected and the
electrons accumulate at the face ABEF.
Face ABEF will become negative and the face OCDG
becomes positive.
A potential difference is established across faces ABEF
and OCDG, causing a field EH.
Y
B

on
rce
Fo ctron
ele

B
v
F
D

O
E

X
I

A
B

Hall effect for n type semiconductor


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This field gives rise to a force of `eEH on the electrons in


the opposite direction. (i.e, in the negative Z direction)
At equilibrium, eEH = Be (or) EH = B
If J is the current density, then, J = ne
where `n is the concentration of current carriers.
v=

J
ne

Substitute the value of ` in eqn


BJ
EH =
ne
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The Hall Effect is described by means of the Hall


coefficient `RH in terms of current density `J by the relation,
EH = RHBJ
(or) RH = EH/ BJ

RH =

BJ
1
=
neBJ
ne

All the three quantities EH, J and B are measurable,


the Hall coefficient RH and hence the carrier density `n can
be found out.
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Case (ii) If the material is a P-type semi conductor


If the strip is a P-type semiconductor, the charge
carriers in the strip will be holes.
The holes will constitute current in the direction of
conventional current.
Holes move along the direction of the conventional
Y
current itself along ox
B
B

v
on
rce
o
F le
ho

F
D

O
E

X
I

A
B

Hall effect for p type semiconductor

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If `e is the charge of the hole, the force experienced by


the holes due to magnetic field is, F = Be , which acts along
OZ.
This causes the holes to accumulate on the face ABEF
making it positive, and leaving the face OCDG as negative.
P-type semiconductor, RH = 1/pe , where p = the density of
holes.

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Determination of Hall coefficient


The Hall coefficient is determined by measuring
the Hall voltage that generates the Hall field.
If `w is the width of the sample across which the Hall
voltage is measured, then
EH = VH/ w
We know that,

RH = EH/ BJ

Substituting the value of EH in the above eqn


RH = VH/ wBJ

(or) VH = RHwBJ
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If the thickness of the sample is `t, then its cross sectional


area A = wt, and the current density,
I
I
=
J=
A wt

Substitute the value of `J


RH I B
RH w.B.I
VH =
=
(or) RH =
t
wt

VH t
IB

VH will be opposite in sign for P and N type semiconductors.

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A rectangular slab of the given material having


thickness `t and width `w is taken.
A current of `I amperes is passed through this sample by
connecting it to a battery, `Ba.
The sample is placed between two pole pieces of an
electromagnet such that the field `B is perpendicular to I
Y
B
G

I
D

O
F

E
B

Z
Ba

Rh

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X
VH

The hall voltage `VH is then measured by placing


two probes at the two side faces of the slab. If the
magnetic flux density is `B and `VH is the hall voltage, then
the Hall coefficient,
Y
B
G

I
D

O
F

X
VH

Z
Ba

Rh

Experimental setup for the measurement of Hall voltage


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RH = VHt / IB (m3/coulomb)

For n-type material, n- = nee (or)

For p-type material, p = p e h (or)

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e =

h =

ne

=n .RH

p
pe

= p . RH

Applications of Hall effect


(1) Determination of N-type of semiconductor
For a N-type semiconductor, the Hall coefficient
is negative whereas for a P-type semiconductor, it is positive.
Thus from the direction of the Hall voltage developed, one
can find out the type of semiconductor.
(2) Calculation of carrier concentration
Once Hall coefficient RH is measured, the
carrier concentration can be obtained,
n=

1
eR H

( or )

p =

1
eR H

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(3)Determination of mobility
We know that, conductivity, n = n ee (or)
Also, P = p eh (or)

n =

p
pe

= p . RH

Thus by measuring ` and RH, can be calculated.


(4) Measurement of magnetic flux density.
Using a semiconductor sample of known `RH, the
magnetic flux density can be deduced from
RH = VHt / IB

B =

VH t
RH I

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Introduction: Spintronics and DMS


Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor (DMS):
Traditional semiconductors doped with transition
metal
Why Dilute?
Small doping concentration (a few %)
Why Magnetic?
Display ferromagnetisatiom
Why Semiconductor?
While preserving the semiconducting properties

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Introduction: Spintronics and DMS


Spintronics: Spin-based electronics
Idea: a combination of microelectronics and
magnetic storage technique.
Mass Storage

Integrated Circuit

Searching for Materials??


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Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

Electronics

Optics

Spintronics
Magnetism
Magnetic impurity
Semiconductor host
Search for new Materials & Physics
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DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

Integrated circuits and high-frequency devices made of


semiconductors, used for information processing and
communications, have had great success using the charge
of electrons in semiconductors.

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DMS materials
1. (Ga,Mn)As Curie temperature 110K
2. (Ga,Mn)N Curie temperature 800K
3. Mn doped ZnO Curie temperature 400K
4. Co doped TiO Curie temperature 400K

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Mass storage of informationindispensable for


information technologyis carried out by magnetic
recording (hard disks, magnetic tapes, magneto optical
disks) using spin of electrons in ferromagnetic materials.
Dilute or diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS)
also referred to as semi magnetic semiconductors, are
alloys whose lattices are made up in part of
substitutional magnetic atoms.
DMS= Semiconductors with dilute concentration of
magnetic dopants.
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DMS have the general form A1-xMxB, where AB is either


a II VI or III V or IV VI semiconductor and M is a
magnetic element (transition metal ions - Mn, Fe or Co).
II B Zn, Cd, Hg
VI A Se, Te, Po

III A Ga, In, Tl


V A As, Sb

IV A Pb, Sn
VI A Se, Te, Po

The most important feature of these materials is carrier


mediated magnetism which can be easily controlled with
voltage. The advantage is that, unlike the conventional
magnets, DMS are compatible with semiconductors and can
be used as efficient sources for spin injection.

Three types of semiconductors: (A) a magnetic semiconductor(e.g.


some spinels), in which a periodic array of magnetic element is
present, (B) a dilute magnetic semiconductor (e.g. (GaMn)As, (InMn)P,
ZnCoO etc), an alloy between nonmagnetic semiconductor and
magnetic element and (C) a non-magnetic semiconductor (e.g. GaAs,
InP, Cu2O, NiO etc), which contains no magnetic ions.
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Materials
The most common SMSC are II-VI compounds (like CdTe,
ZnSe, CdSe, CdS, etc.), with transition metal ions (e.g. Mn, Fe
or Co) substituting their original cations. There are also
materials based on IV-VI (e.g. PbTe, SnTe) and recently III-V
(e.g. GaAs, InSb) crystals.
The wide variety of both host crystals and magnetic atoms
provides materials which range from wide gap to zero gap
semiconductors, and which reveal many different types of
magnetic interaction.

Formation of DMS
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Several of the properties of these materials may be tuned


by changing the concentration of the magnetic ions.
The most relevant feature of DMS, is the coexistence and
interaction of two different electronic sub systems:
delocalized conduction (s-type) and valence (p-type) band
electrons and localized (d or f-type) electrons of magnetic
ions.
In particular the spd exchange interaction leads to strong
band splitting, which result in giant magneto optical effects .
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The most studied III-V DMS system is GaxMn1-xAs


with x up to 0.07. The solubility limit of magnetic elements in
III-V semiconductors is very low, but in order to have
ferromagnetism in DMS, a sizable amount of magnetic ions
are needed.
This can only be accomplished by means of
nonequilibrium crystal growth techniques, such as low
temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE).
The upper concentration limit of magnetic ions is
around 10 %.
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The highest conclusively reported Tc of DMS is around


110 K for 5 % doped GaAs. It is of great technological
importance to find DMS systems with Tc above room
temperature, before one attempts to make a DMS based
device.
Applications
Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are expected to
play an role in interdisciplinary materials science and future
electronics because charge and spin degrees of freedom
accommodated into a single material exhibits interesting
magnetic, magneto-optical, magnetoelectronic and other
properties.
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It is expected that magnetoelectronic important chips


will be used in quantum computers.
An inherent advantage of magnetoelectronics over
electronics is the fact that magnet tend to stay magnetized for
long.
Hence this arises interest in industries to replace the
semiconductor-based components of computer with magnetic
ones, starting from RAM.
These DMS materials are very attractive for integration of
photonic (light-emitting diodes), electronic (field effect
transistors), and magnetic (memory) devices on a single
substrate.
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Some important application areas of DMS are listed below.


Photonics plus spintronics (Spin+electronics = Spintronics)
Improved spin transistor
Transistors spin toward quantum computing
Magnetic spins to store quantum information
Microscope to view magnetism at atomic level

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Ballistic magneto resistance


Missile guidance
Fast accurate position and motion sensing of
mechanical components in precision aengineering and
in robotics
In automotive sensors

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Importance of DMS based devices


Information is stored (written) into spins as a particular spin
orientation (up or down)
The spins, being attached to mobile electrons, carry the
information along a conductor
The information can be stored or is read at a terminal.
Spintronics devices are attractive for memory storage and
magnetic sensors applications

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Spin-based electronics promises a radical alternative to


charge-based electronics, namely the possibility of logic
operations with much lower power consumption than
equivalent charge-based logic operations

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