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THIS BOOK

IS

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STATE

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ppnviNfF

Brtftlr

COUNTY
PAPKH
srHnoi

Enter information
in

spaces

to the left as

district

nTHFP

instructed

CONDITION
Year
ISSUED TO

Used

ISSUED

RETURNED

PUPILS to whom this textbook is issued must not write on any page
or mark any part of it in any way, consumable textbooks excepted.
1.

Teachers should see thai the pupil's


every book issued.

name

is

clearly written in ink in the spaces

2. The following terms should be used in recording the condition of the book:
Poorj Bad.

above

New; Good;

in

Fair;

General
Architectural
Drafting

ARCHITECTURAL
DRAFTING
WILLIAM

E.

WYATT

Practical Arts Division


J.

Sterling

Head

Morton High School

Cicero, Illinois

B
CHAS.

A.

BENNETT

Peoria, Illinois 61614

CO., INC.

Copyright 1969, 1976

By William

E.

Wyatt

All rights reserved.

87002-072-2
Library of Congress Catalog No. 75-964.

Printed

in

the United States of America

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes
his

thanks to the

firms,

to express

many

and associations

persons,

have

that

Kroehler Mfg. Co.

Newspapers
Long Bell Division.
Life

International Paper Co.

been of assistance during preparation of this book. When drawings

Meadow

or photographs supplied by others

Morgan Sash and Door Co.

are

presented, a credit line ac-

Many

companies each

illustration.

illustrations are

based upon infor-

Steel Products Co.

Mosaic Tile Co.


Mueller Climatrol.

Worthington Industries

mation supplied by others and


acknowlis
their contribution

National Assn. of

edged herewith.

National

Alan

demons

Home

Builders

National

Homes
Lumber Mfg. Assn.
Woodwork Mfg. Assn.

Paratone

Inc.

National

Albert Benda

Paul Roise

American Plywood Association


American Standard Products
Anaconda American Brass Co.

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co.

Artcrest Products Co., Inc.

California

Redwood

Carpet Institute

Association

Inc.

P.

M. Bolton and Associates

Plumbing- Heating-Cooling
Information Bureau
Portland

Cement Association

Robert Borlik

Charles Bruning Co.

Rohm and Haas

Charles Voighl

Scholz

Cicero, Illinois

Simpson Logging Co.

Commonwealth Edison Co.

Steel City Electric Co.

Erwyn H. James
Eugene Dietzgen Co.
Federal Housing Administration
First Federal Savings & Loan
Berwyn, Illinois
Formica Corporation

Co.

Inc.

Steel Joist Institute

Symons Mfg. Co.


The Ceco Corporation
Unit Structures Inc.

United States Plywood Co.


West Coast Lumberman's Assn.
Western Wood Products Assn.
Weyerhaeuser Company
Wire Reinforcement Institute

Forest Studios

Fred Reuten

Homes

Inc.

Frederick Post Co.

General Electric Co.


Honeywell Corporation
Jack Williams
John Deere Corporation

Special Credit:

The author wishes


his special

to express

thanks to Mr.

Raymond

Kueffel and Esser Co.

Hagood, Mr. Patrick McFall, and


Mr. George Voyta for their drafting assistance on illustrations for

Knape and Vogt Mfg. Co.

this

Joseph T. Ryerson and Son,


Kitchen Maid Corporation

Inc.

book.

INTRODUCTION
This book

is

in three parts:

as a

ings

Part

presents information

II

necessary for building planning

Part

presents information

III

necessary

drawing
it is

is

drawn

working plan. Pictorial drawand working plans illustrat-

ing specific points are often multi-

color

and are not intended

for

use on building plans exactly as

and design.

printed entirely in blue,

principles.

When

multi-color.

Part I describes building materials and explains construction

drawing building

for

shown. Naturally, any applicable


information can be used on your
plan, but

it

will generally require

plans.

modification.

must be

building

materials,

the smallest scale

terminology

for a given item.

and

before

possible to

their

draw

tech-

nical plans requiring such infor-

mation.

Most

and
homes

discussions

illustrations are related to

or

less

symbols shown

all

are

to a scale of

this

is

Vi"=

l'-O"

the size most often

drawings. Individual drawings for

complex than

the building plans in Chapter 49


are

Drawing

drawn

to their smallest allow-

principles for

heavy con-

able size for working drawings.

same

as for light

They

struction are the

construction

except

that

many

must be mastered.
Many explanations in this book
are lengthy, but no discussion
details

presents

For example,
Chapter 38

in

used on floor plan and elevation

buildings of heavy construction.

more

drawn

because

recommended

be-

other light construction

cause these are

in the

construction

principles,
it is

with

familiar

working drawings
book are usually drawn to

Illustrative

the author's belief that a

It is

person

all

there

is

to

know about

a given subject! Rather, the

book

gives a broad overview of

many

different areas.

Examination of the book reveals that some drawings are in


a single color while others are in

are only half the size nor-

mally used, so they

fit

on book

pages.

Questions following chapters


are designed to cover each major
topic presented,

and are an

in-

valuable study guide.


Spelling words and terms are

end of chapters.
good draftsman must be able
listed at the

spell properly, as well as

stand his terms.

A
to

under-

Table of Contents
Acknowledgments

Introduction

Steel Joists, 68; Questions to Reinforce Knowl-

edge,

Table of Contents

Terms

Chapter

to Spell

6: Sill

and Know, 70.

and Floor Construction... 71

71; Termite Shield, Floor Joists, 73; Framing,


74; Douglas Fir, Southern Yellow Pine Floor Joists,
75; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Words to
Sills,

List of

11

Color Illustrations

Spell

PART ONE
Structure-An Architectural

1: Laying

Top Plate, 81; Studding, 82; Base Blocks, 84; Framing Diagrams, 85;
Headers Exterior Openings, 86; Header Schedule, Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Words to
Spell and Know, 87.

Wall Section, Sole Plate, 79;

Out and Excavating

14

Selection of Building Location on the Lot, 14; Local

Ordinances and Zoning Laws, 15; Plot Plan, 18;


Staking Out, 20; Excavating, 22; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know, 25.

Stone Bonds, 95; Concrete Block


Bonds, 96; Building Stone, 96; Purchase of Stone,
98; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 99; Terms
to Spell and Know, 100.
Brick, 94; Brick,

Forms, 27; Mixing and Pouring Concrete, 29; Concrete Block Shapes, 32, 33; Concrete Blocks, 34;
Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell
and Know, 35.

Chapter 9: Ceiling Joists and Roof


Construction
Methods

3: Footings

and Foundations

88

Chapter 8: Masonry Wall Construction

26

Chapter 2: Concrete

Chapter

79

Chapter 7: Frame Wall Construction

Obligation
Chapter

and Know, 78.

36

Douglas

of Roof Framing,
Fir,

101

101; Ceiling Joists-

Southern Yellow Pine, 103; Securing

Ceiling Joists to Wall, 104; Roof Types, 105; Roof

Load Bearing

Ability of Soils, 36; Footing

37-39;

Line,

Frost

Knowledge, Terms

40;

Shapes,

Shapes Frequently Used, 106; Low Slope Roof

Questions to Reinforce

to Spell

Joists or Rafters,

and Know, 46.

Chapter 4: Poured Concrete Slabs

109; Rafters, 110;

Names

of

Common Rafter Lengths in


Inches, 112; Roof Truss, 113; Preliminary Design
for Nailed Glued Trusses, 1 14; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know, 115.
Roof Parts, 111;

47

Suspended Concrete Floors, 49; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know, 52.

116

Chapter 10: Roofing


Chapter

5:

Structural Metal

Welded Wire Fabric, 53; Wire Sizes, 54; Kinds and


Use of Beams, Reinforcing Bars, 55; Fiber Stress
20,000# per square inch, 56, 57; Sample Weight
Calculations, Standard Shapes, 58; Standard Steel
Pipe Columns, 62; Weights, Dimensions and Data,
Beams, 63; Elements of Equal
Standard Steel
Angles, 64; Elements of Unequal Angles, 65; Standard Steel Angles Weights, Dimensions and Data
Equal and Unequal Leg Angles, 66; ChannelsAmerican Standard, Steel Angle Irons to Support
Four-Inch Masonry Walls, 67; Ryerson Open Web
I

53

Roof Coverings,
119; Slate, 121; Flashing, 123; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 124, 125; Terms to Spell and
Know, 125.
Definition of Roof Sheathing,

16;

Chapter 11: Post, Plank and Beam


126
Construction
Framing Systems, 126; Beam Shape, 127, 128;
Maximum Spans for Floor Beams, Roof Beams,
129; Typical Glued Laminated Beam and Purlin
Sizes, 130; Roof Decking, 131; Questions to Rein-

force Knowledge,

Terms

to Spell

and Know, 134.

General Architectural Drawing

Chapter 12: Modular Construction

135

137; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 143, 144;


to Spell and Know, 144.

145

Door Sizes, 146; Multiple Application of Same Door Type; 147; Door
Jambs, 151; Thresholds, 154; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 155, 156; Terms to Spell and
Classification of Doors, 145;

to Spell

Closed Cornice, 228; Attic Ventilation, 230; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and
Know, 233.

tions to Reinforce Knowledge,

Chapter 15: Stairs and Stair Framing

169

Stringers, 169; Stair Types, 171-174; Stair Uses


and Locations, Structural Details, 175; Calculating
Number and Size of Treads and Risers, 176; QuesSpell

Terms

to Spell

and

PART TWO

to

Chapter 16: Insulation

Terms

Know, 241.

function and beauty- essentials


of Planning

and Know, 178.

Method

234

Chapter 22: Exterior Wall Coverings


Wall Sheathing, 234; Horizontal Siding, 235; Ques-

and Know, 168.

tions to Reinforce Knowledge, 177, 178;

226

Exterior Trim

165; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge,

Terms

219

Chapter 21: Roof Overhang and

Chapter 14: Windows and Glass


157
Window Types, 157-162; Mullions, 162; Window
Glass, 164; Window Insulating Glass Standard
167, 168;

and Know,

Chimneys, 219-221; Fireplaces, 222-225; Fireplace Opening and Liner Dimensions, 223; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and
Know, 225.

156.

Sizes,

to Spell

Chapter 20: Chimneys and Fireplaces

Terms

Know

Terms

218.

Modular Coordination, Building Material Sizes,

Chapter 13: Doors and Door Frames

Reinforce Knowledge,

179

244; Duties, Fees, 245; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and
Know 246.
for, Training,

Chapter 24: The Drafter

184

Chapter 17: Electrical Requirements

244

Chapter 23: The Architect


Need

Heat Transfer, 179; Classifications of


Insulation, 180; Sound Conditioning, 182; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and
Know, 183.
of

247

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 247.

Units of Measure, 184; Abbreviations for Units of

Chapter 25: Design for Today's Living

Measure, 185; Number of Wires Required, 186;


Required Lighting Outlets and Switches, 187;
Lighting Fixtures, 190; Questions to Reinforce
Knowledge, 192, 193; Terms to Spell and Know,
193.

Chapter 18: Plumbing

194

Water Distribution System, 194; Waste Removal,


196; Recommended Minimum Standards for Individual Sewage-Disposal System, 198-200; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and
Know, 201.

Chapter 19: Climate Control


Gravity Warm Air, 203; Hot Water and Steam

Chapter 26: Determining Needs and


Wishes of the Client
Specific

206; Radiant Heating, 208; Determining Heating


Requirements, 210; Heat Loss Data, 211; Reciprocals, 212; Calculating Building Heat Loss, 213;
Room Heat Loss Schedule, Approximate B.T.U./H.
Furnace Capacities and Sizes, 215; Questions to

261

Information the Architect Must Know,

262.

202
Heat,

248

Elements of Beauty and Design, 249; Application


of Design, 252; Steps in the Development of a
Floor Plan, 253; Practical Considerations, 256;
Areas of a Home, 257; Planning the Exterior, 258;
Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 259, 260;
Terms to Spell and Know, 260.

Chapter 27: Room-By-Room Planning


Entries and Halls, 263; Living Rooms, Dining
Rooms, 265; Den or Study, 267; Bedrooms, 268;
Bathrooms, 269-273; Kitchens, 274-278; Designing the Kitchen, 278; Wall Units, Cooking Top or
Sink Units, 279; Base Units, 280, 281; Utility and
Pantry Units, 281; FHA Minimum Kitchen Stan-

263

Table of Contents
dards, 282; Multi-Purpose Rooms, 284; Garage

Chapter 35: Sections

or Carport, 285; Questions to Reinforce Knowl-

edge, 286-288;

Terms

to Spell

350

Sections, Full Section, 350; Half Section, Offset


Cutting Plane, 351; Questions to Reinforce Knowl-

and Know, 288.

edge, Terms to Spell and Know, 353.

289

Chapter 28: Furniture


Sketches of Furniture Most Often Used
289-292.

in

Chapter 36: Pictorial Drawings

Homes,

Directions

Chapter 29: Community Factors to be


Considered

293

Kinds of Communities: Urban, Suburban, Small


Town, Rural; Utility Services, 293; Real Estate
Taxes, Transportation, Stores and Shopping Centers, Fire Protection, 294; Schools, Churches,
Parks, Recreation and Cultural Opportunities, 295;
Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 297.

Orientation, 300; Plot Plans, 303; Questions to Re-

Terms

to Spell

for

Two-Point

Exterior

Perspective,

358; Perspective for One-Point, 375; Questions


to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and

Know, 376.

Chapter 37: Sketches and Rendering

377

Wash, 379; Graded Wash, 381; Wet-lnto-Wet,


382; Opaque Water Colors, 383; Items for ConFlat

sideration

298

Chapter 30: Site Planning


inforce Knowledge,

354

Isometric Arcs and Circles, 355; Oblique Drawing,


356; Cabinet Drawing, Perspective Drawing, 357;

dering,

Questions

Terms

in

Rendering, 386; Procedure for Ren-

Introduction to Rendering Details, 393;


to

to

Reinforce

Know and

Spell,

Knowledge,
402.

400-402;

and Know, 306.

Chapter 38: Architectural Symbols

PART THREE
From Ideas to Reality

Part

1.

Part

2.

Part 3.
Part 4.

Chapter 31: Drafting Tools and Techniques


308
for Developing Skill
Drawing Tables and Boards, 309; Instruments,
310; Handling Paper and Pencil, 312; Beginning
to Draw,

Line Weights, 314; Architect's Scales,

317; Tools for Curved and Irregular Forms, 319;


Drawing Aids, 322; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 327, 328; Terms to Spell and Know, 329.

Part

5.

Part 6. Supply Pipes,


Part 7.

Part 8.

403

403-406
Window Symbols, 407-411
Door Symbols, 412, 413
Plumbing Symbols, 414, 415
Radiators, 415
Structural Details,

416

Heat Ducts and Registers, 417


Electrical Symbols, 417-419

Chapter 39: DIMENSIONS and Notes

420

Extension and Construction Lines, 420; Dimension Lines and Dimensions, 422; Dimensioning
Floor Plans, 432; Dimensioning and Notes for Ele-

330

Chapter 32: Drafting Mediums

Tracing Paper, Cloth, and Film, 330; Grids, 331;


Water Color Paper, Poster and Illustration Board,
332; Matte Board, 333; Questions to Reinforce

Knowledge, 333, 334; Terms to Spell and Know,


334.

vations, 436; Dimensioning, 437; Metric Measure-

ment, 439; Metric Measure Building Plans for a


Small Home, 442; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 455; Terms to Spell and Know, 456.

Chapter 40: Organization of Building


Plans

335

Chapter 33: Architectural Lettering


Lettering Styles, 335; Width of Letters, 337; Lettering Hints, 338; Applique Lettering, 339; Pres-

sure Sensitive Lettering, 340; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 341.

457

Standard Sheet Sizes, Trim Lines, Borders, Lines,


457; Titles, 458; Sheet Layout, Schedules, 459;
Lintel, Door, and Room Schedule, Questions to
Reinforce Knowledge, 460, 461.

Chapter 41: Drawing Plot Plans

462

Drawing Scale, Determining Plot Plan


Shape, Positioning Plan on a Drawing Sheet, BePlot Plan,

Chapter 34: Orthographic Projection and


342
Architectural Drawing
Orthographic Projection, 342; Curved Parts, 346;
Auxiliary Views, Orthographic Views and Building
Plans, 347; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge,
348; Terms to Spell and Know, 349.

ginning the Drawing, Building Lines, 462; Building


Outlines, Construction Outside the Building, 463;

Contour Lines, Utilities, 464; Elevations Above Sea


Level, Dimensions for Plot Plans, Lettering, Condensed Outline to Reinforce Knowledge, 465.

Genera/ Architectural Drafting

Chapter 42: Drawing Floor Plans

How a

"floor plan"

is

466

Structural Elevation Details, Exterior Elevation Details,

Viewed, Drawing Scale, Page,

Stairs,

Chimney

Condensed Outline

to Reinforce

Knowledge,

487.

Technical Data, 466; Drawing Wall Outlines, Door,


Window, and Opening Locations, Wall Object Lines,

Chapter 47: Drawing Framing Plans

488

or Fireplace, Closet Parts, 467;

Drawing Scale, Sheet Size, Floor Framing Plan,


Ceiling Joist Framing Plan, Roof Framing Plan,
488; Steel or Concrete Framing Plans, Wall Framing Diagrams, Condensed Outline to Reinforce
Knowledge, 490, 491.

Drawing Kitchen Equipment, Utility or Laundry


Rooms, Bathrooms, Built-in Storage, Room and
Area Lighting, 468; Lettering, Symbols, Exterior
Items on Floor Plan, Room Heat Source, Ceiling
Joists, Access to Attic or Crawl Space, Elevation
Indicators, 469; Cutting Planes, Condensed Outline to Reinforce Knowledge, 470, 471.

Chapter 48: Mechanical Plans

492

492; Plumbing Plans, 493; Heating and Air Conditioning Plans, 494; Schematic
Diagrams, Condensed Outline to Reinforce KnowlElectrical Plans,

Chapter 43: Drawing Basement or Footing


472
and Foundation Plans

edge, 495.

Drawing Scale, Sheet Size, Construction Materials


and Methods, Beginning the Drawing, Drawing

Chapter 49: Working Plans for a


Contemporary Home

Wall Footings, Wall Openings, 472; Pilasters, Area-

ways, Chimney or Fireplace, Stairway, Access to


Crawl Space, Broaden Wall Outlines, Floor Sup-

497

and Foundation Plan, 500,


Window Schedule, 502; Door

Plot Plan, 499; Footing

ports, Furnace,

501; Basement Plan,

ties,

Schedule, Lintel Schedule, 503; Floor Plan, 504;


Electrical Floor Plan, 506, 507; Front and Rear

Water Heater, 473; Laundry FaciiPlumbing, Electrical Outlets, Dimensioning,


Lettering, 474; Symbols, Room Heat Source, Floor
Joists, Checking the Plan, Cutting Planes and
Identifying Codes, Finishing the Drawing, Condensed Outline to Reinforce Knowledge, 475,476.

and Right Elevation, 509; Roof


Framing Diagram, 510-513; Laundry Chute Detail,

Elevation, 508; Left

514, 515; Outdoor Fireplace and Patio Detail, 516;

Removable Fire Pan Detail, 517; Bathroom Detail,


518-520; Typical Closet Detail, 521; Kitchen Detail, 522, 523; Fireplace Detail, 526; Stair Detail,
527.

Chapter 44: Drawing Exterior Elevations.. 477


What Are

Elevations?,

Drawing Scale, Locating

Elevations on Drawing Sheet, 477; Beginning the


Drawing, Floor Line, Ceiling Line, First Floor Joists,

528
Chapter 50: Reproduction of Drawings
Blueprints and Semi-dry Prints, 528; Ammonia

Grade Line, Footings, Walls in Elevation, Determining Which Roof Elevation to Draw First, Beginning
to Draw the Gable End, 478; Hip Roof, Drawing a
Chimney Terminating on the Roof, 479; Chimney
Pot, Liner, or Cap; Saddle, Gutters and Downspouts, Gable Louver or Ventilator, Window and
Door Line, Door and Window Openings, Object
Lines for Walls and Sills, 480; Dimensions for Elevations, Symbols of Wall Materials, Cutting Planes,
Condensed Outline to Reinforce Knowledge, 481,
482.

Chapter 45: Drawing Building Sections

Vapor Machines, 529; Storage and Retrieval, Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, 532; Terms to Spell
and Know, 533.

Chapter 51: Specifications

and Know, 532.

Chapter 52: Estimating

543

Approximate Methods, 543; Abbreviations of Lumber Terms, 544; Mensuration, Frequently Used
Conversions, Weights and Measures, Acreage and
Areas, Square Tracts of Land, 545; Estimating by
Determining Exact Quantities, 546; Estimating
Materials and Labor, 547, 548; Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell and Know, 549.

483

Drawing Scale, Section Through a Typical Wall,


Other Wall Sections, Sections for Different Levels,
483; Sections for Finished Attic, Stairwell, Fireplace, Kitchen Cabinets, Bathroom Cabinets,
Closets, Sections Through Doors and Windows,
484; Miscellaneous Section Drawings, Condensed
Outline to Reinforce Knowledge, 485.

Chapter 46: Drawing Elevation Details

534

General Coverage, 534; Short Form, 535-542;


Questions to Reinforce Knowledge, Terms to Spell

Chapter 53: Architectural Models

550

Presentation Models, 550; Building Frame Walls,

486

556; The Entourage, 562.

Kitchen Elevations, Bathroom Elevations, Shelves


or Cabinets, Fireplace Walls, 486; Roof Framing,

Index

10

565

Color

Illustrations

Curtain walls with sandwich panels between vertical

Relationships of surfaces

kitchen features laundry equipment


cealed behind folding doors, 275

Built-in

"L" shaped
Storage accessories
planning area, 276

kitchen

a corridor layout,

Hard surfaced materials make

this utility

con-

ings, 383
Opaque water-color rendering done

in

tones of gray,

384

277

Airbrush rendering, 385

room easy

An eight

284

unit

apartment building, 388

Ink line drawings with water-color washes,

389

Pen and ink rendering with water-color washes, 390

296
showing building outlines and planting

Plot plan

Presentation

loca-

plot plan

floor

plan

rendered with water-color

washes, 397

302

Rendered
Plot plan

wash renderings, 380

Professional and student opaque water-color render-

Beautiful, conveniently located schools are an asset,

tions,

identification of surfaces,

Diluted and strong water-color

built-in

A kitchen design adapted from


to maintain,

345

members, 239

A second wash presentation, 398

showing roof outlines, 303

Rendering and plan, 498

showing building outlines, 304

company

Rendering of the large home, 331

Presentation model of a light

House plans for the home, including maid's quarters,


shown on preceding page, 332

Views of a finished model with entourage, 562

building,

Various views of presentation model, 563

11

551

..

Part
STRUCTURE
AN ARCHITECTURAL
OBLIGATION

4.

Laying Out and Excavating


Concrete
Footings and Foundations
Poured Concrete Slabs

5.

Structural Metal

6.

Sill

2.

3.

7.

8.
9.

10.

and Floor Construction


Frame Wall Construction
Masonry Wall Construction
Ceiling Joists and Floor Construction
Roofings

and Beam Construction


Modular Construction
Doors and Door Frames
Windows and Glass
Stairs and Stair Framing

11. Post (Plank)


12.
13.
14.
15.

16. Insulation
17.

18.
1

9.

20.
21

Electrical

Plumbing
Climate Control

Chimneys and Fireplaces


Roof Overhang and Exterior Trim

22. Exterior Wall

Coverings

13

One

a
Laying Out and Excavating
Selection of Building Location on the Lot
In choosing a building location,

you must know the exact

VtA

'/l6

Vt

SECTION

property boundaries of the building


the

site. It is not enough to take


word of the person from whom

the property

He may

is

tea

being purchased.

be entirely honest

in his

when he

SECTION

Vi

SECTION

describes the
boundaries of the property. But

beliefs

way to be absolutely sure


have a survey of the property

the only
is

to

made, following the

legal descrip-

tion as given in the abstract.

An

abstract gives the exact legal de-

scription of property, stating

boundaries

as

measured from
and merid-

A SECTION OF LAND

latitudes, longitudes,
ians.

Much

of the country

is

di-

IS

vided by government survey into


sections of one square mile each.
Sections

are

divided

sections of halves

into

sub-

and quarters.

These are divided into further


halves and quarters. A legal description of property and its use
might read as follows:
The property known and described as
Lots nineteen (19) and twenty (20)
in Block two (2) in J. C. McCartney
and Co. Subdivision of the South
half of the

ONE MILE SQUARE

Southeast quarter of the

The indicated divisions are described as follows:


V2
Va

Ve
V\b

=
=
=

South half of section.


Northeast quarter of section.

South half of northwest quarter of section.

Northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section.

South half of the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section.

'/64

Northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section.

'/3

Divisions of

14

one section

of land (1 sq. mi.)

1:

Laying Out and Excavating


Northwest quarter and the East half
of the

Northeast quarter of the South-

property and a record of the


payments may be recorded.

hearings, the rezoning will either

re-

be approved or denied.

west quarter of the Northeast quarter.


Section 20. Township 39 North. Resubdivision of Blocks one (1) to five
(5). is to

be zoned as a Second Com-

Restrictions

regulations

An owner may add any

abstract also

shows previ-

use.

Future owners are bound

used.

to

them. For example, an owner

dates acquired and transferred to

require

new owners. Amounts of money

of masonry construction. The cost

of the

transaction are usually stated.

and quality of future buildings


may be predetermined. Uses of

Money borrowed

the

other considerations

or

against the

may

total

is

also

property

area of the property, and the

edges of the building to the prop-

builder wishes to introduce an-

zoning laws. Most communities

other kind of structure, he

regulations

certain

stating

be located. For example,

apply to the governing body to

may

have the property rezoned into a


different class. The case will be

would

it

not be possible to build an indusplant

trial

in

new

may

where

types of structures

residential

reviewed and public hearings will


be held to give all property
area an opportunity

neighborhood. Zones are usually

owners

classified as (1) first residential-

to express their wishes. After the

in the

instances
is

deter-

ordinance.

local

governing

All

construc-

tion requirements are usually as-

check the local ordinances and

have

many

In

lines.

mined by

zoned and a

is

be

practice

the build-

the height of buildings

and Zoning Laws


If the

the

ordinance to state the

ordinances

Before construction can begin,

common

to

distance one must allow from the

erty

y
Local Ordinances

define

ing can occupy in relation to the

be specified.

N=

ordinances,

usually

amount of ground area

future buildings to be

property

It

for a local

may

ous owners of the property, and

all

zoning

methods of construction

restric-

tion he desires regulating future

mercial District.

An

Besides

Deed

sembled and published in booklet


form called the building code.
Determining Building Location

Other homes in the area help


determine the location of a new
house

on

the

property.

If

all

other structures are built in a row,


a given distance from the front

of

the

lot.

should be

new

the

in line

structure

with them.

single family, (2) second residential multi-family. (3) apartments,


(4)

first

commercial,

commercial.

(6)

(5)

second

heavy industrial. These names


and ratings may vary from one

(7)

locality

were

to another.

built

zoning

NOTICE

industrial.

light

Many

P.M., on
Cicero,

ordinances

July

96,

in

Town

the Cicero

of Cicero's Zoning Board of Appeals at 7:30

Town

4937 West 25th

Hall, located at

Street,

at which time the following proposal will be considered:

That property known and described as Lot 36 and the East Vi of Lot 35 in Block
3 in Householder's Addition to Morton Pork in the East Vi of Section 28, Township
39 North, Range 13, East of the Third Principal Meridian in Cook County, Illinois,
commonly known as 4808 West 24th Place, Cicero, Illinois, be rezoned from First

were estabone may find

Residential to First Commercial.

a variety of buildings, constructed


for many different purposes.

Monday,

Illinois,

areas

up before adequate

lished. In these areas

public hearing will be held by the

Other

areas have been zoned after con-

Ordinance
is hereby given that a copy of the proposed amendment to the Zoning
be available for inspection by any interested person at the meeting effecting such classiNotice

will

fication.

struction of at least a part of the

Zoning Board of Appeals

buildings. In these older areas

of the

may be
into

difficult

to

tell

Town of Cicero
WILLIAM MAGUIRE

it

exactly

Secretary

which zoning category prop-

erty should be placed.

Public newspaper notice of rezoning request

15

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Laws

new con-

to

that extends over this

to

usually prohibit

struction

On the other hand, a setback


behind other structures will tend
to obstruct the view from the new
line.

building.

When

planning the location

of a structure

it

is

well to take

Many

16

may

take years before the area

again have the harmonious,

enriched look of belonging, unless

value of the property because

large

it

an established look. Many


large developers move into an
area and proceed to remove all
shrubs, hills, and even
trees,

gives

it

and other

existing

lawns.

finished

the

of the building can be adjusted

it

will

saving in cost but can add to the

times the location

into consideration trees

growth.

allow existing natural features


remain. This not only is a

When

area

barren wasteland.

The beauty

of this

home

is

they

looks
If this

are

like

happens

sums

are spent

on sodding.

transplanting,

or terracing.

natural terrain

may

basic

landscape

possible.

examples of construction
the

The

offer the best

in

Some
which

natural landscape has been

preserved are shown on these two


pages.

enhanced by nature's landscaping.

Preserving existing trees around a building site adds beauty to the structure.

17
This

modern plywood home blends well with

its

natural setting.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

working plot plans are included


in Chapter 41.

Plot Plan

Establishing the

Grade

The grade or
The working drawings should
show a plot plan giving the outline and shape of the property.
This plan

is

dimensioned, showing

locations of

and easements

alleys,

Generally

sidewalks,

all streets,

the

for utilities.

property

owner

can use easement space for yards


and gardens, but the utility com-

pany

still

reserves the

access for placement

of

right

of

and repair

utility services.

The

and outline of
buildings to be placed on the property should be drawn on the plot
plan. Dimensions from each of
location

the

relationship of

building to ground

important.

The grade

very

is

line

is

the

point at which the earth touches


the foundation of the building.

One

usually selects the highest

point

on the perimeter of the

building
the

when

starting to lay out


location.

building's

mensions applying
line are taken from

All

to the

di-

grade

of the basement in

many new

careful not to place the building

too close to the ground because

and other
be shown

location. Trees, shrubs,

obstructions

when
upon
lines

should

their presence has a bearing

Contour
showing the elevations above
the construction.

sea level of the property are in-

cluded on some plot plans.


Additional methods of showing

the less waterproofing

is

Some codes determine

required.

the maxi-

mum depth if the basement rooms

and other items to be constructed.


These are dimensioned when it
necessary to determine their

to prevent mois-

are to be used for living purposes.

also includes all drive-

is

made

and termite damage.


If one places the building
high above grade, it is likely to
look as though it were built on
However, if families live
stilts.
in basement apartments, the structure may be built high enough
so the basement windows will be
above ground. The less underground depth a basement has,

this reference

ways, sidewalks, patios, terraces,

The plan

is

ture, rot

point or bench mark, as it is


sometimes called.
Recent preference in building
has tended to keep the floor line
close to the grade. The omission

homes has been one of the primary reasons. Yet one must be

the property boundaries are given.

vision

of the danger of dampness and


rot.

Most communities have

ulations governing
floors or

wood

the

reg-

distance

parts of a building

must be above grade. The FHA


Federal Housing Adminstration
places a

minimum of 8 inches
wood parts must

as the distance

be above grade. There are exceptions to this rule, if

18

adequate pro-

Yet development of new building


materials

purposes,

has,

for

all

practical

made this code obsolete.

Recent developments have enabled

buildings

to

be

placed

below grade.
When the grade is being established, adjoining terrain must
be given consideration. The
ground should slope away in all
directions. Otherwise, water from
entirely

adjoining

property

may

drain

and cause erosion, or it


may back up against foundation
and basement walls and cause
moisture problems inside. One
must also consider what surface
water from a new site is going
to do to adjoining property.
across

NAME OF

STREET

Plot plan.

19

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Staking Out
When

staking out a building,

the distance of setback from the


front property line

is

usually de-

mainder of the building. Single


batter boards, as shown, may be
used for marking offsets or indentations. The corners must be exlevel,

or

of the building.

Then

drive a small

stake in the ground at the exact

end of the
small tack or nail can

front corner of each

building.

then be driven into the stake to

mark the exact location. The stakes


should

be

driven

with the ground.

almost

flush

batter board,

such as the one shown, should

method of
of

right

an application
Pythagorean theorem,

the

which

using

establishing

This

triangle.

After the outlines of the building have been established, thev

can be marked on the ground

across to represent the front edge

is

di-

square.

with marking lime. The line or

square;

line

is

employing the 6-8-10

actly

first.

both

in

rections, the building

transit

stretched

termined

checked diagonally

staging

any right triangle


the square of the hypotenuse is
states: In

sum of
of the other two
equal to the

is

removed

for excavation.

Very simple rectangular

is

struc-

tures, as in the illustration,

may

be staked out as a single section,

the squares

all at the same time. However,


most structures must be staked

See

out in sections, or different parts

sides.

or

at a time,

illustration.

Taut, or tightly stretched, lines

because of the irregu-

of the outlines of the build-

larity

the two

of "staging." or carpenter's twine,

ing.

front corners, using 2x4 stakes of

a suitable length, tapered at one

are fastened over the batter


boards to outline sections of the

end with a hatchet or power saw.

footing.

The

fastened by cutting notches in the

bay windows, recessed entries,


areaways, and porches, require
special laying out and forming.
The shape of a building should

then be constructed

batter

boards

at

should

be

These

lines are usually-

Additional

offsets,

placed no closer than 4 feet from

batter

the outside edge of the footing

edges of the footing, by looping

cause

around the boards, and


tying. The strings can also be fastened around nails driven in the

more material and labor


struct.

boards.

ing footings

line.

Then

1x6 boards are used to

connect the stakes. The top edges


of the lx6's should be straightlevel

grade

and equi-distant above the


line.

Next an approximate layout


of the footing is measured off and
batter boards set up for the re-

boards to line with the

string

The diagonal method


for checking the square.
lustration.

reads the

If the

is

good

See

il-

tape measure

same when

the area

is

for

be kept as simple as possible beirregular

This

is

shapes

require
to con-

not only true for

excavation and forming and pouralso

for

building.

and foundations, but

all

other parts of the

The

layout of a building

with irregular outlines, and sections,

is

shown.

"L" shaped batter boards.

Straight batter board.

20

as

Laying Out and Excavating

Il
Batter boards and string layout for a

rectangular building.

Using the

method

6-8-

10 right-triangle

to check

squareness

of a building corner.

y/A

II

<v, / /

/ /
/ / /

Checking

for squareness, using the di-

agonal method.
Batter boards and string layout for an
irregular

shaped building.

Batter boards and string layout for an irregular shaped building.

21

Excavating at a construction

site.

Excavating
The excavated

earth

is

trans-

ported far enough from the immediate vicinity of the building


site to

prevent interference with

construction
interfere

work and

so as not to

w ith deliveries and stock-

piling of materials.

Top
modity
for

in

most regions and


price. For

premium

sells

this

and the subshould be piled in two sepa-

reason the top


soil

very scarce com-

soil is a

soil

rate locations.

It is

not always easy

to get the contractor to

do

backfill

this

as

of the time involved:


therefore it should be stated

in

because

clearly in the plans

and

specifica-

and should be

possible.

Backfill

as clean

with

trash

can be a haven for termites


and may cause both water pockets
and settling around the foundait

tions.

tion wall.

While the earth is being moved


and while construction is in progress, care should be taken to keep

of the

soil

of

site is

made. Firm clay makes an

the

excavated

material

free

The

terrain

and the condition

should be checked carefully before actual selection of a

debris and rubble. At least a por-

ideal base for a building of light-

tion of the earth will be used as

weight construction, whereas a

22

ing equipment performs

many operations

during construction

upon

construction

would require excavating an area

dependent

piles or footings to

considerably larger than the size

the conditions of the soil to be

extend to bedrock. Rock formations near the surface might require blasting and heavy equip-

of the building.

removed.

ment for removal, which would


add considerably to the cost.

to use a shovel and other


hand tools. However, much of the
hand labor has been eliminated
and replaced with power tools
such as trenchers, crane and dragline, backhoes, and bulldozers.

building

of heavy

would need

sand were encountered, added width would be required for the footings. ExcavaIf

loose

might be much more difficult


because sand from surrounding
areas would tend to fill in. This
tion

can be done in
different ways. The old

Excavating

manv
way is

See illustrations.

The method of excavation


23

is

it

is

sides

not

to a large extent

If the soil

is

uncommon

quite firm,
to use

the

of the excavation as the

outside form for pouring concrete.

more

typical for light con-

struction. In

heavy construction,

This

is

the earth

is

removed from

a larger

area than the building will oc-

cupy, and forms are constructed


to retain the concrete for footings

and foundations.

-fiSs

Leveling the construction site with a landscape rake.

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge


1.

What

is

the purpose of having

a building that

a survey of the property before con-

3.

What
What

is

an abstract?

is

meant by a

is

meant by deed

section

of land?
4.

What
What

6.

How

0.

is

is

a zoning ordinance?
it

possible to have a

zoning ordinance changed?


7.

What

8.

How do

if

be constructed?

may be

an area before construction

What

is

the value of a plot

2.

What

is

meant by the term

an

14.

area help determine the location of

15.

Why

in

13.

6.

What

ground than formerly?


is

meant by

is

meant by the term

is
is

meant by "grade"?
a bench mark?

are floors usually built

24

the term

7.

What

"staking out"?

19.

What
What

20.

How

8.

is

a batter board?

is

staging?

does the Pythagorean

theorem apply

plan?

"legal description"?

a building code?
other buildings

extra expenses

closer to the

"terrain"?

a developer completely

What
What

is

to

started?
1

is

is

can existing trees affect

What

incurred
clears

re-

strictions?
5.

How

building construction?

struction begins?
2.

9.

to laying out

a build-

ing?

What

is

meant by the term

"diagonal method"?
22.

Why should rubble and debris

be kept from

backfill material?

!!_!
'(

v
i

a!T]

ft

i^Hll
**Mj

'
'

-mm-

Excavating a trench with a backhoe-loader.

Terms To Spell and

Know

property

neighborhood

terrace

adjoining

boundaries

apartment

easement

erosion

purchased

commercial

utilities

basement

abstract

locality

obstructions

staking

surveyor

height

bearing

batter

regulations

barren

contour

transit

community

terrain

elevation

Pythagorean

structure

approaches

legal

industrial

site

foundation

residential

driveway

perimeter

25

hypotenuse
staging

"l

Concrete
Ingredients of Concrete

The

chief ingredients of con-

cement a mixture of
lime and powdered clay sand,
crushed stone or gravel, and
are

crete

somewhat, depending upon the

upon

desired plasticity of the concrete

product. Note:

Under no circum-

to

stances should

the concrete be

or

allowed to freeze during the setting

mix.
the

The more water one adds


mixture the more plastic
the

pliable

material

becomes.

the strength of the finished

period. If the temperature

is

near

However, additional water

freezing, yet concrete

be done, the mix

ingredi-

weakens the finished concrete.


Use only enough to allow the
mixture to reach corners and

ents will vary with the job the

recesses of the form. Six gallons

added to the mixture, generate


heat which helps prevent freezing; and temporary shelters may

water.
Proportions of Mix

The proportions of the


concrete

is

Generally

to perform.

speaking, the

more cement

in the

mixture, the stronger

it

Cement

expensive;

is

relatively

therefore only

enough

will be.

is

used to

assure that the concrete will per-

For ordinary concrete, such as in basement floors,


drives, and sidewalks, the mix
usually consists of one 94 pound
bag of cement to every 2Vi cu. ft.
of clean sand and 3 cu. ft. of
form

job.

its

%"

crushed stone or

washed

gravel.

The

screened,

FHA

mini-

of water per bag of cement


quantity

Note: Any water

in the

the free

water

includes

Damp

sand and gravel.

is

the

recommended.

usually

mixture
in

the

materials,

of course, would require the addition of less water than would dry

before
icals

available

are

The
in

setting time

However, extreme warmth can

Concrete

may

to support loads.

weighs

about

not be required
Concrete usually

145

pounds per

crete

may become

the desired finish


is

in

weight per cubic

added protection,

is

not only

unwashed but

contain a large quantity

Effects of Temperature
and Moisture

The amount of water

at
will

vary

It

It

about
If

is

for

with

canvas

also a

or

for

proper

good idea

the concrete

five

the

as

it

This will help to

moisture

the

retain

curing.

dampen

slag.

of sand and other foreign matter


such as twigs and clay.

are

and blastfurnace

to cover

such

material

lava slag, cinders,

The more common

before

achieved.

weather and,

hot

very

cubic foot. In order to reduce the


foot, lightweight

solid

is

necessary to add more water

gravel.

may

faster

cause a problem because the con-

Washed

also

much

than in cold.

Lightweight Aggregates

sisalkraft paper.

which

heat

materials.

fused with ordinary road gravel,

is

warm weather

the place of the crushed stone or

gravel should not be con-

and

concrete,

the

aggregates are sometimes used in

is

when

that,

supplied from portable heaters.

one part

requirement

heated

be built around, or covers placed


over,

cement, three parts sand, and five


parts gravel or crushed stone.

mum

may be

poured. Also chem-

is

it

work must

daily

to

for

days during curing.

temperature

is

either

Besides water, the temperature

too cold or too hot during the

which concrete is poured and


a tremendous effect

curing process,

cured has

26

damage and

ing of the surface

may

flak-

result.

2:

Concrete

Forms
Being

while

it

is

semi-liquid, eonerete

have

must

mix

"container"

taking shape. Such conforms.

tainers are called

Forms

made of lumber, plywood,


hardboards, or metal. They may

are

on the construcready-made forms


in place on the job.

either be built
tion

or

site

can be

set

Most larger jobs require the use


of both. For large straight
foundation walls the manufactured forms are convenient. For

columns,

posts,

special

shapes,

usually

are

footings,

job-built

more

and
ones

satisfactory.

round posts are to be


poured, the forms are usually
made from cardboard tubes.

NOTE:

If

After the concrete


set,

is

thoroughly

the forms are then

Manufactured concrete forms.

removed

or "stripped." If walls are being

poured, the forms are held to the

shape by wire or strap


After the forms are removed,

correct
ties.

these wires
crete

remain

in

the

con-

and are sometimes objec-

tionable to the appearance of the

Most ties can be


broken back beneath the finished
surface by turning them. The
cavity where the tie is removed
should be filled or "painted"
finished work.

Reinforcing

The
and a

strength of the concrete

and
improved

resistance to cracking

shifting position can be

by the addition of metal reinforcement.

27

Concrete forms being raised

in

place with a crane.


Symons Manufacturing Co

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

This
rod, the

pendent

either

has been welded into square or

smooth metal

rectangular mesh. Examples are

reinforcement

deformed not

is

diameter of which

upon

the

is

de-

amount of

strength required, or wire which

summarized

illustrated

and

Chapter

Structural Metal. Re-

5,

in

inforcing in slab concrete should

be kept near the bottom. While


the

pouring

is

in

workman should
similar device
slightly so

it

to

will

progress,

use a
lift

be

the

hoe or

the mesh
embedded

firmly in the concrete. Reinforc-

up
from the bottom of the excavation
if they are to be of any value.
ing rods must also be held

Wire mesh reinforcement

Steel stair forms being prepared


for installation.

Complex forms

for a

foundation wall

Deformed reinforcing

bar.

2:

Concrete

Mixing and Pouring Concrete


was

This
livered

originally

bags;

in

gravel were

the

dumped

On some

it

is still

handled

de-

sand and

near the

where the concrete was


mixed.

hand

The cement was

operation.

site

be

to

and the entire


mixed thoroughly

The con-

shoveled

then

is

is
it

ported

to be used.

in

On

smaller

probably be trans-

will

a conveyor,

with a hoe or shovel.


crete

crete

jobs

manner.

in this

always possible to

not

larger jobs

from a bucket;
is

is

very small jobs

The workman shovels the dry ingredients into a wooden or metal


mixing box; the water is added
contents

It

reach the point where the con-

wheelbarrow.

On

may be placed on
or pumped through

it

large flexible hoses that can be

moved

as

the

work

progresses.

For high work, cranes or lifts


are employed.
Concrete being poured from a
ready-mix truck

is

shown.

Concrete

is

often transported to upper

levels by conveyor.

into

wheelbarrow and transported to


the point where it is to be used.
This method is laborious and
time consuming on larger jobs.
A concrete mixer, usually
equipped with a gasoline engine,
helped make the mixing of concrete less of a chore. The mixer
of today is usually mounted on the
back of a truck. The ingredients
are measured into

hoppers located
ply point.

The

it

from large

at a central

concrete

while the truck

is

the construction

is

sup-

mixed

on the road
site.

When

to

the

is
placed, the customer
can specify what mix he desires.

order

If the

concrete arrives at the con-

struction site with a low pouring

multistory building formed for pouring.

consistency water from a tank on


the truck

is

added

as required.

The mixer has a short trough


attached for dumping the concrete to the job. Several exten-

sions for the trough are kept

on

the truck to enable the operator


to reach

work

struction job

points. If the conis

large

enough

to

warrant, large hoppers and mixers

may

be

set

up

at the site.

29

Forms being set

for the foundation of a large house.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Vibrating

straight,

When concrete is being poured,

is

may

tion the striations are to run.

prevent the mix from completely


the space. Voids or pockets

filling

may weaken the structure or allow


water to pass through

wall.

Vibrating the fresh concrete with


poles helps settle the mix. These
poles have motors or compressed

attached

hoses

air

Vibrating

them.

form

helps

material.

concrete

being poured

is

flat surface,

tamped with

sometimes

is

it

a "jitterbug" to set-

the coarse aggregate below the

Remaining

cement, and sand

when
Note:

be smooth

is

troweled.

tamping

Excessive

cause the aggregate to


the

bottom of the

slab,

will

settle

to

reducing

the strength of the concrete.

poured on a flat surface, the mix


must be leveled to the desired
height. The straightedge used is

The screed

screed.

moved back and


surface,

forth across the

dragging

screeds are

the

concrete

Motor driven
sometimes used on

large jobs.

Topping

finish

topping

after

is

set,

coat will not adhere

The

break away,

likely to

leaving the rough aggregate ex-

The

posed.

must

topping

be

exposing gravel or crushed

A smooth surface

is

usually

Topping the concrete with


and

a mixture of cement, sand,

on

purposes

some concrete work,

it is

desirable

to leave the aggregate protruding

above the surface. This is called


"exposed aggregate" concrete.
The rough surface, as shown, is
achieved by leveling the concrete
in the customary manner, except
that

it is

retarder

not troweled.
is

after the screeding

is

The sub-surface of
hardens

A chemical

placed on the concrete

completed.

the concrete

in the usual

manner but

placed over the base coat while

the retarder prevents the surface

mix is still plastic or pliable.


However, if the base coat is relatively smooth, a rich mixture of
dry cement and sand may be
sprinkled directly on and troweled

from hardening. After the sub-

surface

to

The

surface

insure

monolithic

surface

has

set,

the

in

the

on

circular motion,

Retarders can also be added to

partly hard-

cause of expansion and contrac-

A wood

float,

in the illustration,

used to achieve

to changes in temperaTherefore lines are usually

due

tion
ture.

scored in the surface to allow the


concrete to

"move"

in

unobjec-

tionable places. If the surface

effort.

Textured surfaces are some-

shown

Large, uninterrupted areas of


concrete are likely to crack be-

shorter time, with less

times desired.

set-

in a

ened concrete. On large jobs this


is too time-consuming. Troweling
machines accomplish the job in

much

hardened con-

ordinary concrete to slow the

Expansion Joints

moved

is

crete below.

Troweling

with a hand trowel,

surface

aggregate to remain firmly

attached

ting time.

Smaller surfaces are smoothed

the

washed with a hose, which removes the top mix but allows

slab.

manual

During the leveling process,


aggregate may work to the sur-

desired.

added

is

properly to the base coat.

stone.

one-piece

or

topping

the base coat of concrete has

is

to the desired level.

face,

monolithic

must be troweled until moisture


from the mix is worked to the

After the concrete has been

has

to the desired finish.

Screeding

called

For decorative
is

the

concrete

the

aggregate,

will

finish.

one method of achieving


a smooth finish, but much faulty
construction has resulted from
such attempts. A good product
water

the

surface.

used for a textured

float

for a floor, walk, or other large,

tle

Exposed Aggregate
Wood

finish. If the

more dense

When

vibrate

to

is

swept with a coarse broom, the


brush strokes going in the direc-

either the stiffness of the mixture

or air trapped in the form

grooved face

shallow,

desired, the troweled surface

this.

The

as

can be
float re-

places the trowel during the finishing operation.

30

If a

striated-

is

quite large, expansion joints are

used to allow for expansion and


contraction.
filled

These

joints

are

with tar or a fibrous material

which has been impregnated with


tar.

The

joints are placed so as

2:

Concrete

Exposed aggregate concrete

is

used for

When

this patio floor.

not to present an objectionable

terials

appearance.

concrete, consider 25 cubic feet

Purchased by the Cubic Yard

as one cubic yard instead of the


customary 27 cubic feet. One de-

Concrete

is

purchased by the

is

the cause.

sires to figure a

figuring

job as close as is
is better to have

cubic yard. Imagine a piece of

possible, but

concrete 3'x3'x3'. This represents

too much concrete than not


enough. Serious delays and faulty
construction can result from or-

one cubic yard. Concrete will not


usually pour out full measure.
Loss of the water by evaporation
and absorption into adjacent ma-

dering too

it

little

continuous pour.
31

concrete for a

Expansion

joints

control

cracking

concrete surfaces.

BULLNOSE BLOCK
Standard concrete block

size.

(See page 34)

BULLNOSE CORNER BLOCK

Vl

STANDARD BLOCK,

CORNER BLOCK

CORE

BULLNOSE JAMB BLOCK

CORNER BLOCK
STANDARD BLOCK,

CORE

Vi

HEIGHT BLOCK

DOUBLE CORNER BLOCK


Typical concrete block shapes.

32

OFFSET BLOCK

SOFFIT BLOCK

I
OFFSET BLOCK

OFFSET BLOCK
PILASTER BLOCK

LINTEL

JAMB BLOCK

HEADER BLOCK
Typical concrete block shapes.

33

PARTITION

OR SOLID BLOCK

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Concrete Blocks
Concrete can also be purchased

mortar joint and

is

the usual aggregate, but

made

with other

%"

block

less

on
is

all

to

is

called

actual size

measurements.
allow for the
still

lay

up

the

given size. The reathe 16" measurement

at the

Cinder and haydite


added to make a lightweight
block. These are not designed to

sons
will

be load bearing, or supporting.

shapes of concrete blocks. Pat-

support only their own


Beams support the floors
and walls. The block are used to

terns for laying of concrete blocks

wall off areas in a building and

frequently used patterns for laying

Concrete

concrete blocks are shown in


Chapter 8.
Concrete blocks are purchased
by the hundred or, on smaller
jobs, by the individual unit.

to

vertical Installations.

is

The

materials.

will

form outer

walls.

blocks can be purchased which

Exposed aggregate panels are frequently


used for

the nominal size.

are

weight.

III.

8"x8"xl6". This

gravel

They

Federal Savings, Berwyn

is

The reason

blocks are also

First

blocks

form of ready-made blocks.


These are composed of cement,
sand, and a fine aggregate. Small
in the

have decorative aggregates such


as marble or granite chips.

The standard

size

of concrete

for

be discussed

There

are

later.

many

sizes

and

are limited only by the imagination of the designer.

Extensive use of concrete adds to the beauty of this home.

Samples of

2:

Concrete

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge


1

From what materials

Why

2.

ordi-

20.

vary the proportions of the ingredi-

What

is

21.

road

tween

22.
the

difference be-

gravel

and

23.

When

concrete

is

not

24.

re-

how

gregates are sometimes used?

to

What two

happen

concrete

if

are

things

How

is

poured

are the ingredients of

kept

warm

What

while

it

8.

it

is

meant by the term

What

is

meant by

the term

What

is

meant by

the term

is

the

is

the

name

of the item

concrete

in

What
it

is

a broom

and

finish,

What

is

exposed aggregate

What

is

a retarder, and

why

27. From what materials are ordinary concrete blocks

What

crete blocks?

are

made?

lightweight

When

What

material

What
used

10.

is

sometimes

are some of the ma-

12.
1

3.

in

What

What
What

Why

away from

is

is
is

is

the

reinforcing

are they used?

bottom of the ex-

How

can the consistency of

What

difficulties

from having voids


1

7.

What

is

in

can

result

the concrete?

meant by the term

vibrating the concrete?


18.

What

is

meant by the term

tamping the concrete?


1

9.

31.

What

is

the standard size of

a concrete block?

Terms To Spell and

What

Know

concrete

columns

flaking

ingredients

reinforcement

hardboard

fibrous

plastic

deformed

texture

impregnated

aggregates

wheelbarrow

striated

evaporation

sisalkraft

hopper

retarder

absorption

curing

consistency

screeding

trough

expansion

mesh?

reinforcing rod held

concrete be varied?
16.

concrete purchased?

reinforcing rod?

14. Describe a ready-mix truck.


5.

is

the process of re-

cavation?

What are decorative concrete

form construction?

called?
1

How

30.

place

moving the forms from the concrete

29.

blocks?
con-

posts?

terials

Concrete privacy screen.

curing?

used as a form when pouring round

9.

Awooc

achieved?

used?

28.

holds

that

26.

in

use?
7.

What

concrete?

is

warmed and

concrete
for

level-

Portland Ceinenf

is

25.
likely

freezing conditions?
6.

used for

machine troweling?

quired to be load bearing, what ag-

5.

is

monolithic concrete?

washed

gravel?
4.

tool

topping?

ents of concrete?
3.

What

ing concrete?

sometimes

one

does

is

made?

nary concrete usually

is

the process of level-

ing the concrete called?

35

Extra strength forms are frequently necessary for heavy construction.

Footings and Foundations


When

Footing and Foundation Size

Two factors which influence the


size

of a footing and foundation

port, the
in the

are:

Load-bearing

Weight

ability

of the

soil.

determining the weight

which one

same

LOAD BEARING

must sup-

lineal foot

weight of

all

ABILITY OF SOILS

materials

foot of building

SOIL TYPES

must

Rocks or Gravel

of

the

structure

as

Minimum Requirements

For large construction projects


the load-bearing ability of the
soil should be determined by an
engineer. For most light construction the accompanying table will

Coarse

Sand Compact

Stiff

Clay

Fine

Sand Dry

matical calculations to determine

Fine

Sand Damp

light construction

not necessary to

the sizes to be used.

Housing

it

The Federal

Administration

Medium Clay

requirements for firm

soil

FOUNDATION

Definition of a Footing
footing

is

the concrete or

other solid, enlarged base which

supports the foundation, a col-

umn,

pier, or other weight.

The

footing helps distribute the load.

Definition of a Foundation

foundation

is

that portion

of the walls of a building which


is below the floor joist. Usually
most of the foundation is beneath

the finished grade.

KEY

Keyed footing and foundation.

36

miniSoft Clay

^
A

make mathe-

For most
is

mum

be adequate.

for

Footings and Foundations

distributed.

IONS SQ.

10

Hard Pan

be considered.

FT.

and Foundations

3: Footings

Footing Shapes
For lightweight, thin-walled
such as garages and

buildings

may

storage sheds, the load

When

footing thickness and foundation

width are the same, the footing width


may be determined by the 30 60

be

at

as

wide as the ma-

least

be supported.

terials to

ing

foundation must

must be

at

least

wide as the foundation

minimum

The

foot-

twice
wall.

as

The

thickness of a bearing

foundation of poured concrete is


6". However, local codes frequently

require

the

of a

use

greater thickness. For frame


buildings an 8" thickness is often
used. Masonry veneer and solid
masonry buildings may require

be poured. Because of

than the foundation. If slightly

struction

and pour

is

difficult.

It

more weight must be supported,


and the earth is firm, it is permissible to use a flared footing. The
foundation is dug to the desired
depth and the base is widened

is

with a shovel to give a slightly

floating slab. This type construc-

typical foundation

The

footing

tion are usually

at

The

the sections meet.

is

rec-

and founda-

poured

separate

parts or settling

may

footing

to

help

the floor of a building

be of concrete, the

to

floor,

foundation, and footing are some-

poured

times

as

single-unit

used more often

is

in moderwhere it is not necadd a great amount of

ate climates

essary to

insulation.

The

insulation

is

of the foundation wall and must

may

cause the

footing and foundation to sepa-

may be

of necessity.

joint can

enter the area between the two

key

When

in cases

placed on the exterior perimeter

cause two problems: Water

used onlv

where

times. This forms a joint

rate.

is

tion

larger base.

tangular.
the

may

desired,

the irregular shape, the form con-

The

that

tion

is

and founda-

require the use of a footing other

method.
state

not

stronger support

If a

a monolithic footing

placed

in the

remedy

these

problems.

extend
(Note:

top of the floor.


exposed and does not

the

to
It is

present a desirable appearance.)

The

insulation

is

then faced with

asbestos board or other inorganic


material.

(See next two pages.)

10" or 12" foundation thickness.

The width of
foundation

a concrete

wall

block
8"

should

be

minimum. The thickness

Two-piece footing
and foundation.

or

height of the footing should be


the

same

as

the

width of the

foundation.
The 30 -60 method of deter-

mining the
the

thickness

footing

or

width

height

is

and
also

sometimes used. An example of


this method is shown.
Monolithic

Individual building codes differ

widely as to required

sizes.

drawn the

build-

Before a plan

is

ing code for the locality should

2 x

On

a flared footing the effective bearing

width should be at least twice the foundation width.

be consulted.

37

footing

and foundation.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

FOOTING SHAPES
ROCK LATH

BEVEL SIDING

PLASTER

BASEBOARD
BASE SHOE

SHEATHING

Poured footing and foundation for frame dwelling.

FINISHED FLOOR

SUBFLOOR

Frame building with poured


footing, concrete block
foundation,

ANCHOR

and concrete

BOLT

slab floor.

CONCRETE
BLOCK
FOUNDATION

REINFORCING

RODS

WATERPROOFING
HEAT DUCT

ANCHOR BOLT
INSULATION

ASBESTOS BOARD

38

Combined

floating slab, foun-

dation,

and footing.

3: Footings

and Foundations

VAPOR
BARRIER

^- RIGID

INSULATION

Footing and foundation for


joists

wood

and masonry veneer wall.

Poured footing and foundation for frame


veneer house with a slab floor.

CONCRETE BLOCK
FURRING STRIP
LATH

AND

PLASTER

BASEBOARD

footing and foundation for a solid

masonry

building.

GROUND
/

LEVEL

EARTH

39

Frost depths.

Frost Line
The depth of the footing is
determined by the depth to which
the ground is likely to freeze.
Freezing and thawing cause the
expand and contract.
the ground freezes below the

ground
If

to

footing

it

force the wall to

will

move, which will cause cracking.


The accompanying map shows

minimum
States,

depth

footing depths for dif-

of

sections

ferent

frost

ever, this

cannot be used as an

tion

workmen can move


difficulty. If damp-

that

vary

from

ness

stan-

for draining the area should be

depths

codes

must be con-

before plans are drawn.

The

mum

FHA

places the mini-

height of basement ceilings

at 6'- 10". If the

ceiling heights.

and

recommended government
sulted

National lumber Manufacturing Associc

allow adequate air circula-

local

dards. Local codes

Basement

be-

organic material.) This space

all

will

likely to occur.

distance

Many

specify

,s-

maximum

The minimum

tween the bottom of wood floor


joists and the ground is 24". (The
earth should be scraped free of

How-

is

absolute guide.

United

the

based upon the

Unexcavated Areas

basement

to be
finished as habitable rooms, 7'-6"

or 8'-0"

is

more

is

desirable.

40

about without
is

made.

likely to occur, provision

Many

builders place a 3"

slab of concrete over the


excavated area. Note: A screed
is
it

used to level the concrete but


to a smooth
is not troweled

finish.

Space between the earth and

and Foundations

3: Footings

Stepped footings and foundations


are frequently required when
building on uneven terrain.

Pier data for unexcavated areas.

must not be confused

floor joist

with height above grade.


in

Footing

If the

terrain

This allows the concrete to bond

not always possible to


level

base

for

foundation.

Then

must conform
ground,

always kept

make

and

footing

shape of the
the

level.

is

the

to the

although

it

footing

the'

To

base

is

vary the

footing to minimize cracking and


shifting of the concrete.

Two

They

rods are usually adequate.

should not be placed above the

Rod may

also

be placed

in

the foundation walls to increase

tance between steps should be no

than 2'-0". The horizontal


or

thickness
footing.

The

should be
the

be

should

height
vertical

at least

same width

4"

together.

in

If all

poured

the Pour

one time and breaks

or splices must be

as

other

footing,

and

as the footing.

pilaster
wall.

It

is

a post built into

may

occur

made

they should

not

To be

effective,

pilaster

occur

The

breaks should be kept clean and

41

is

placed on the inside of the build-

when

additional weight must

beam

if

span a basement, a pilaster might be used


to support the end of the beam.
is

to

in the

close to a step or pilaster.

should be thoroughly

the

in

foundation wall or the support-

large

the concrete cannot be


at

same

thick,

A
the

be supported. For example,


Breaks

the

member

Pilaster

ing,

their strength.

step heights should not exceed 2'-0". The horizontal dis-

portion

is

ing walls above the foundation.

center of the footing.

height, place steps in the footing.

The

less

the

addition of reinforcing rod to the

uneven,

is

made.

before

Reinforcement

Most construction requires the


Steps

next pour

Fooling and Foundation

dampened

Foundation Wall Materials

Although poured concrete

is

used commonly for foundation


walls,

it

is

relatively

expensive.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

a lightweight foundation of this


type.

The

as for

installation

wood

Hard

is

the

same

posts.

varieties

of stone and

brick are also used as foundation

Both

materials.
likely

materials

cessive moisture if soft


rous.

tile

ex-

and po-

drain around founda-

tions of these types

are

from

disintegrate

to

is

necessary.

stone foundation or retaining

wall can be battered or sloped, as

shown, to gain added strength.


Pilaster

Concrete Block

and beam pocket

Concrete block

is

used quite

mamust be comwith mortar. Metal

extensively as a foundation
terial.

In special cases, other materials

and methods can

substitute.

earlier

made

shown in the ilrecommended be-

reinforcing, as

methods,

tops of the posts are

joints

pletely filled

One

sometimes used today, is to dig round


holes in firm earth and place
wooden posts in the holes. The
of the

The

lustration,

is

tween alternate courses of block


to help minimize cracking. Hollow
block walls are less waterproof

level,

than

solid

concrete,

so

more

so the building can be constructed

upon them.

In pole construction,

these posts also act as the vertical

framework for the walls. Cypress,


and redwood are materials well suited for this method
of construction. Other kinds of
cedar,

wood may be used

but they re-

quire the addition of a pressuretreated

preservative,

such

as

creosote, to retard decay.

Wood
to

last

piles can be expected


about thirty years. The

part of the pile subjected to the


weather deteriorates much more

rapidly than that below grade or


in water. A shallow
foundation wall can be used to
cap the tops of the poles to pro-

submerged

long their

life.

Wood

This wall also acts

as a level base for the


crete posts are

sills. Consometimes used for

42

sill

supported on concrete posts.

and Foundations

3: Footings

waterproofing

is

required to keep

the moisture from penetrating.

Drain Tile

When
as a

the

foundation serves

basement

wall, or if water
might not drain properly otherwise, a 4" inside-diameter drain

should be placed around the

tile

perimeter of the building. The


tile is placed at the same level
as the footing, and about 6" outit. The tile should be laid
bed of gravel or crushed
stone. The joints between the tile
should be left open about %".

side of
in

These are covered with strips of


building paper or roll roofing to
prevent gravel above the tile from
entering
tile

The

it.

may be

material for the

field clay, concrete,

or

bituminous fiber. The drain tile


should be connected to the sanitary
hibits

sewer (unless a code proit), a storm sewer, or a dry

The

between the tile


sewer or other
drain should be cemented.

well.

leading

joints

to

the

When

basement

floor

does not

extend to the footing, the dram


tile is

placed near the

as the

When

basement

floor

extends to a foot-

ing,

the drain

tile

is

positioned adjacent to
the footing.

floor.

sami

level

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Waterproofing Foundation Walls

As was

stated earlier, concrete

can be made more dense by addof

adulterants

ing

terials to the

the wall

ma-

other

may make

mix. This

more waterproof, but

it

should not be the only measure


taken. Also, some building codes
prohibit the use of adulterants.

Coatings of waterproof materials


are placed on the outside of the
foundation wall.

One

known methods

is

layer, or layers, of tar

of the best
to

mop

on the out-

The

side of the foundation wall.

use of plastic film between the


is an excellent newer
method. A 1" coating of cement
mortar is specified by some codes.
Others require cement in addi-

layers

tion to tar.

At the juncture of the wall


and footing, extra care should be
taken.

The

be rounded

tar or

mortar should

in the

corner to form

a cove which will flow water

from the
page 43.

Many

joint.

See

away

illustration,

products are available

that are advertised to waterproof

Some of

a wall from the inside.


these

may work

to

degree.

However, such waterproofing

is

not usually very satisfactory. If

water
wall,

penetrates

pressure

the

masonry
against

exerted

the protective coat will probably

cause the wall to scale and

Outside
built

up

waterproofing
in

layers

blister.

may be

and has the

wall to help resist pressure.

Areaways
to

or

Window Wells

Concrete areaway

The purpose of an areaway is


keep the earth away from an

opening, such as a window, in

44

and Foundations

3: Footings

foundation wall. The areaway may be made of metal or


the

concrete.

inside width should

Its

more than the wall


opening. The top of a window
in a foundation wall must be
be about

1'

above the grade line; the distance


the areaway extends from the

same as
window below

building should be the


the depth of the

The minimum

grade.

distance

from the edge of the building is


l'-O"; the areaway should extend

below the window sill at least


The bottom of the areaway
should be covered with gravel or
crushed stone. Provisions should
6".

be made for draining surface


water from the well. If the bottom
of the well
a guard

more than

is

2'

At least two anchor bolts secure each

deep,

portion of the box

sill

to the foundation.

should be provided.

rail

Above Grade

Height

Unless special provisions have

been made
rot

and

for protection against

termites, the top of the

foundation should be a minimum


of 8" above the finished grade.

No wood

parts should be closer

than 8" to the ground. Offsets

may

be placed

in the top

of the

foundation to allow masonry to


end even with the grade. An ex-

ample

is

shown on

the footing

and

foundation detail on page 39.

'/8"x3"x3" steel plate.

through

bolt

head of the bolt

into

poured concrete

wall at least 6" and into a masonry wall at least 15".

When

anchor

bolts are placed in piefs, a hole


slightly larger

than the diameter

of the bolt should be drilled in a

so

the

in contact with

between each

Vents should

brick.

be provied with a screen of not


less

than eight squares per lineal

The minimum amount of

inch.

foundation walls no more


than 8'-0" apart (on center).

ventilation for crawl spaces

Every board to be anchored must


have at least two bolts.

feet

in the

or unexcabeneath a building
to

remove

moisture and circulate the

and

is

not ventilated,

of ground area. Vents should

be placed near the corners of the

manner

air. If

mold

rot will result.

It

is

not

necessary

to

it

is

directly into a

When

the wall

is

of

from some of the vertical

joints,

or place a series of bricks in a


vertical position with

45

open spaces

if

basement and one

half the space between the floor


joist

possible to omit mortar

place

the building's crawl space opens

and crawl space

floor

is

usually 8"xl6", and cast of iron

brick

as to

foundation vents in the wall

Vents for foundation walls are


or aluminum.

provide adequate cross ventilation.

The crawl space

the area

is

square foot for each 150 square

building in such a

Foundation Vents

must have ventilation

Bolts

Anchor bolts help tie the framework of the building to the


foundation. They should be at
in diameter. They should
least
extend

is

Place the

plate

the steel plate. Bolts are placed

vated area

Anchor

the

8"xl6" foundation

vents.

open.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge


1

What
What
What

2.
3.

is

a footing?

is

a foundation?

most common

the

is

14.

material for a footing? Others?

What

4.

15.

used

frequently

for

What two

factors determine

What

the

is

re-

quirement for foundation thickness?

between the width

the difference

of the footing?

width of the foundation wall and the

21.

What

30 -60

22.

meant by the term

is

method

What

0.

a key

is

When

of

determining

meant when one says

What
it

used?

flared

What

footing?

are

its

What

minimum

thick-

is

Why

is

a pilaster?
frequently

cypress

How

can the

life

of

wood

If

brick

soft

wall

used for a

is

what

is

likely

to

of

applied on

is

a foundation wall?

Why?
drain

What

tile

placed around the exterior

of the building.

What is the minimum diswood building, the foun-

tance, on a

dation should extend above grade?

Why?
meant by the term

is

monolithic footing and foundation?


13.

What

side

25.

is

advantages?
12.

the

is

24. Explain the function of the


is

placed between the footing

is

hori-

between steps?

23. Waterproofing

which

and foundation?
1 1

What

minimum

the

is

happen?

footing size?
1

What

foundation

thickness or height of the footing?


9.

height

posts be extended?

the relationship between the

is

maximum

used as a pile?

To meet minimum standards,

8.

what

9.

20.

and the width

of the foundation wall

used?

it

the

steps?

on normal-weight construction, what


is

is

ness of the concrete connecting the

To meet minimum standards,

7.

7.

18.

FHA minimum

What

is

zontal distance

the size of a footing?


6.

6.

meant by stepped

is

Why

of the steps?

foundation walls?
5.

must one be concerned

What

footing?

are two kinds of con-

forms

crete

Why

with this line?

is

26.

How

does one determine the

number of anchor
27.

the frost line?

Terms to Spell and

What

is

bolts

needed?

a foundation vent?

Know
termite

lineal

preservative

flared

creosote

anchor

thawing

submerged

ventilation

pilaster

juncture

pier

cypress

penetrate

ceiling

cedar

bituminous

horizontal

redwood

areaway

vertical

46

<&
Poured Concrete Slabs
Prepared Earth as a Base
If

concrete

the outside of a building, or

moisture

does not

have

if

be poured over lose

be

It

in

may be poured

smooth, firm earth.

state,

If the earth

tamped

or

should

is

on

directly

has been disturbed from


ural

to

compacted

its

be

nat-

A
any

thin,

shape, such as a

floor,

concrete slab

broad,

flat

For
is

is

The

size

size.

Note:

would con-

smaller than the stated

is

is

only

wasted

size.

For

5
l

/s"x3 5/8"

in

planing

and smoothing down before you


purchase

^5

if

and comshould be noted on


leveled,

habitable

in

a vapor or moisture barrier be-

At

the

and the concrete.


time the most

fill

present

may

is

sheet

be obtained

to 40' in width, thus

minimizing the number of splices

needed. Note:

An adhesive

to insure waterproofing.

concrete slab serves


inside of a build-

material

usually

is

Recommended

concrete.

sand,

up

material

should be applied to joint splices

between the earth and

placed

in rolls

used

The vapor
a

floors

require

structures

Fill

on the

some

ing,

gravel,

is

clean

or crushed stone.

barrier also

makes

pouring and finishing of the concrete less difficult. If concrete

is

poured directly onto the fill, the


porous material tends to absorb
water, thus

making

achieve the desired

it

harder to

finish.

Cinders are sometimes used but


they tend to deteriorate, leaving

right

materials

help

Reinforcement

The

voids beneath the concrete.

the

level

Most building codes require


the

addition of wire

fabric

to

They also absorb surface


water and help drain it away from

concrete

the floor.

vent separation, thus holding the

surface.

The

it.

earth beneath a floor

this

When

only approxi-

of
For

stated.

the working plans.

as a floor

form to the dimensions of the


lumber being used as a form.
Dimension lumber is usually

the other

pacted

if

filled,

the

actual size

example, a 2x4

be

to

surface.

is

the floor will cause the top side to

plastic film. This

clearly

in

under side of

become damp. Concrete

widely

applications

4" nominal

nominal

the

for a building the preparation


is

Water

porous.

is

contact with

the earth

Under-Floor

thickness of a concrete

drawn

plans are being

any

porch,

flat

most

minimum

mate.

When

Barriers

Concrete

tween the

verj costly.

is

or

walk,

other broad,

This

is

driveway,

slab

and pump a mixture of cement, earth, and water


under it to make it level again.

example,

Definition of Concrete Slab

holes

drill

Vapor

the

the concrete

well

to eliminate

then necessary to

is

As

fill.

the concrete will crack.

settles,

fill

considered on the inside, the concrete

Concrete should never

settling.

be used on

to

is

the

minimum

under-floor

erably 6",

if

fill

thickness
is

4",

load bearing.

47

of

pref-

slabs.

If

the

concrete

cracks, the wire fabric will pre-

crack to a

minimum.

Electrically

welded fabric with 6"x6" spacing


is

frequently used.

DIAGONAL CROSS-BRIDGING

EXTENDED ENDS

WELDED CONNECTION

CONTINUOUS
HORIZONTAL BRIDGING

BEAM ANCHOR

PIPES

AND DUCTS

Steel Joisf Institute

Steel joist assemblies.

48

4:

Poured Concrete Slabs

Suspended Concrete
Floors
Concrete

floors, in

addition to

being fireproof, give a structure a

found with no
method of construction.
rigidity

Many

times

it

is

of concrete

floors

other

desired to lay
locations

in

other than on or below grade.

When

used above grade, a


method of supporting the con-

crete

is

Open web bar

necessary.

joists as

shown

in the illustration

are sometimes used to span the

area where the floor

The
is

is

desired.

and spacing of the joist


determined by the span and
size

Ribbed metal used as a base for


above-grade concrete floor.

the load to be supported. Cor-

rugated

or ribbed

metal

is

at-

tached across the joist as a base


for the concrete.

Other materials also serve as a

the metal for the deck might be


8'-0"

long,

plus

2'

increments

base for the concrete. Lumber,

board

over this basic length. The length

plywood, or

shown, are also available.

of manufactured sheet materials

quently used.

For most

are fabricated in even foot

of

measures. By utilizing these

across the joist. Fiber boards

materials for floor


as

Manufactured
and roof decks,

bar

joist

light

construction,

spacing on 24" centers

we keep waste

makes maximum use of other

lengths,

building materials. For example.

minimum.

Pan type forms can add

to both structure

full

to a

fiber

plywood

best

for

floor are

should

is

is

fre-

exterior grain

roof decks

great live load

and beauty. Beams and

The

be

placed

work
where no

to be supported.

poured as one unit

with steel forms.


The Ceco Corporation,

Scilingo Pholo

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Two kinds of loads must be


supported by the floor and roof
decks: (1) A dead load is the
actual

load

live

is

is

usually quite expensive. In addi-

it.

to the time and materials


needed for the forms, some arrangement must be made for

weight in addi-

supporting them in their proper

weight of the materials

in the floor, or bearing


(2)

floor or roof of this type

upon

tion

Wood

For example,
people, furniture, and auto-

place.

mobiles are

beneath the form to hold it while


the concrete is being poured and

tion to the materials.

live loads.

Precast Joist

cured.
Precast joists are manufactured

away from

in a plant

Reinforcing

rod

(prestressed)

is

or metal posts with

cross T's at the top are placed

These

posts

are

Precast

joist.

called

shoring.

the job
under tension
site.

placed in a form,

and the concrete is poured around


the rod. Examples of precast
joists are

shown.

Monolithic

When
is

desired,

a single

Beam and

Floor

a one-piece floor system


it

form

is

possible to build

for the floors

and

beams. Necessary reinforcing is


wired in place and the concrete is
poured as for an ordinary slab.

However, the mix must be

vi-

brated and worked into place so


the exposed under

smooth

and

have

side will

Precast joists support. Concrete floors

be

finished

appearance.

Monolithic

beam and

floor.

Steel

dome pans form

a monolithic concrete floor


of

system that can also serve as a finished

ceiling

rooms below.
The Ceco Corporation, M. Scilingo Photo

/f

y < 1

^Bt^*z~~^*'

^Si^rt

4_
Ski

.1

Q|gP'"^^kl: ".-I

ft^-^L^
i

* *j

>*->-*
-p

51

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Crawl Spaces

When

for Pipes

a concrete floor

used,

is

place major plumbing and wiring

beneath

such a manner that

in

it

is

readily accessible for repair

and

service, using a pipe trench

it

or crawl space as shown.

A3"

concrete floor for the trench will

greatly improve working con-

and help eliminate moisunder the floor.

ditions
ture

Lightweight Aggregates for

and Roof Construction

Floor

from

Insulation

can

temperature

sound and
improved

be

with the addition of a layer of


lightweight aggregate as shown.
It is

not usually load supporting.

Added

would be remust

thickness

quired

if

the floor or roof

Pipe trench details.

support a

live load.

Ordinary roof systems use lightweight aggregates exclusively.


1

0.

What

a good material to

is

use as a vapor barrier?


are two advantages of

21.

What

22.

Why

and
1

2.

What
What

mended

for

is

a concrete slab?

is

the thickness recom-

Why

is

3.

What

meant by the term

is

What

a 2x4 not actually

14.

bar

When may

concrete be

What

joist to

15.

determines

the

size

materials

that

Name

four

might be used over the


port the concrete floor.

over loose
6.

Why

commonly used?
are

is

What

is

Why

24" on

sup-

joist to

Why may

lightweight
in

ag-

ordinary roof

systems?

the

minimum

expanded

planing

corrugated
increments

cinders

plywood

other spacings might also be satis-

vapor

fiber

factory?

barrier

precast

adhesive

prestressed

electrically

monolithic

7.

18.

thick-

a vapor barrier?

applications

What

poor

fill?

Know

settling

6.

is

What

is

joist

center a

spacing?

meant by

the term

dead load?

ness of under-floor
9.

cinders

fill?

What

23.

good

choice for bar

What is under-floor fill? What

choice for
8.

concrete not poured

fill?

materials are
7.

is

a pipe trench?
a floor advisable for

Terms to Spefi and

use?

firm earth?

Why

is
is

gregate be used

an open web bar

is

poured directly on undisturbed or

5.

meant by the term

a pipe trench?

fill?

2.

is

joist?

2"x4"?
4.

suspended concrete floor?

load-supporting

live

concrete slab?
3.

What

What

having a barrier between the floor

Questions to Reinforce

Knowledge

20.

prestressed joist?

What

is

meant by

the term

load?

live
1

9.

What

shoring

rigidity

wiring
is

a precast joist?

52

board

Structural Metal

Scope
local

Structural metal
part

is

any metal

adds strength to the

that

building.

It

usually supports or

distributes weight other than

its

Because of the technical

own.

nature of the topic

it is

impossible

do more than acquaint you


with the problems involved. Most
cities and codes do not permit
to

the

draftsman

strength

make

to

calculations.

actual

When

codes

before

establishing

strength requirements and structural

shapes and

sizes,

the desired standards.

meet

to

Each

local

the load

available, one may consult


is
government recommendations or

It is readily apparent that many


assumptions must be made and/
or considered before actual struc-

published industry standards.

To

As previously

he

stated, all build-

responsibility for the calculations.

must support the weight of superimposed or live loads.


Before one can determine the
size of any structural part he must
know its weight and the weight

the

in

chapter are satisfactory for

preliminary calculations, but exgineering data

to

is

be verified be-

their

Factors That Influence

not design all struc-

complete mathe-

matical calculations. This


result

in

would

much unnecessary du-

plication of work.

Many

require-

ments have been previously determined from similar construction

and the

results

porated

into

It

is

have been incor-

tables

and

structural parts

charts.

very important to check

find the weight of materials,

one cannot weigh samples of


building materials! Therefore
manufacturers supply

pertinent

data concerning

products

and

this

their

information

rated into tables

is

incorpo-

and charts

to

be

used for planning purposes, before construction starts.

at the begin-

Welded Wire Fabric


Welded wire fabric is a

pre-

ning stages of planning. For ex-

fabricated steel reinforcing

ma-

is

tural parts, using

or the dead load.

some

of the load to be supported. This

fore construction proceeds.

One does

own weight

In addition,

can be planned.

tural parts

Assumptions

ing parts must support at least

The tables and charts shown

and columns, and whether


is quiescent (no movement) or is subject to movement.
tions

code will have its own strength


and size requirements. If no code

must be checked and


approved by a registered architect
or engineer, who then assumes
does, they

determining beam size, one must


also know what proportion of the
weight is distributed to founda-

difficult to

ample,

if

one

know
is

to support floor joists,


first

know

all

that will bear

beam

designing a

he must

of the materials

upon

and

the joists,

the weight of these materials.

beam

itself

be taken into consideration.

53

drawn
due to

manufactured of cold-

steel. It is
its

a rigid material,

electrically

nections at

all

welded con-

wire intersections,

must

and has the ability


light and heavy
styles. Its main advantages are
speed of installation and ease of
handling on the job. It is espe-

When

cially suitable as a reinforcement.

must also determine the


number, and weight of all
to bear upon the beam.
weight of the

He

terial. It is

size,

joists

The

yet

it is

ductile

to lie flat in

both

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

GAGE AND SPACING


OF
ONGITUDINAL WIRES

STANDARD PROJECTION
OF TRANSVERSE WIRES
JOT MORE THAN 111
1"

J
i

<

o a
u_

=x

O
>
One-way monolithic concrete slab

.ENGTH OF SHEET TIP TO


OF LONGITUDINAL WIRES

Welded wire
floors, roofs, walls,

good

rule for wire spacing,

usually require wire reinforce-

regardless of wire size or pattern

ment.

formed by

Heavy mats with wires in excess of Vi" eliminate the necessity

individual

reinforcing

rods which must be wired together


at

all

rod intersections; this in-

creases possible uses of welded

wire fabric.
wires
fect

is

Built-in

spacing of

a time saver, assuring per-

alignment of members.

When

a slab

is

on grade,

cross wires

is

that wire

spacing should not exceed twice


the thickness of the slab

and max-

imum

It

spacing

tomary

12".

is

to limit

cus-

is

spacing of both

longitudinal and transverse wires

maximum of 6" in slabs less


than 6" thick. Reinforcing fabric
should not be carried through

loca-

It

should extend to within 2 to 4

welded wire fabric will


depend on the slab thickness. In
slabs 6" or more in thickness,

of the

the fabric should be placed at a

way

minimum depth of 2" below the


and a maximum depth

bination

surface

equal to h the slab thickness. For


x

fabric detailing sheet.

may

Reinforcement Sizes

Wire gage sizes as used in


welded wire fabric are not to be
confused
sizes.

with

ber sizes, so confusion could possibly

result.

sizes is

shown

and edges

inches of the joints


slab.

Suspended concrete or onefloors and roofs used in com-

frame,

with
steel

structural

WIRE

Gage No.

0000000
000000
00000
0000
000
00

steel
1

joists,

precast

poured-in place beams,

joist

or

and

Vt

pan

or

other

construction-

different

involves

engineering

concept.

additional

engineering

data

be No. 10 gage for basement floors

should be consulted prior to their

9
10

and sidewalks; No. 6 gage for


driveways and filling stations; and
No. 4 gage for heavy duty in-

comparison

of

in the table below.

ence indicates that the minimum


of welded wire fabric should

sizes

rod

reinforcing

Both materials have num-

be placed in the middle. Experi-

dustrial floors.

-+-B

to a

construction or expansion joints.

tion of

slabs less than 6", the fabric

"*"

and

other concrete structural elements

of using

floor.

TIP

Concrete

an

entirely

Therefore

design.'

11

12

'Adapted from Building Design Handbook,


Wire Reinforcement

Institute.

54

SIZE

Diamete
.5000
.4900
.4615
.4305
.3938
.3625
.3310
.3065
.2830
.2625
.2500
.2437
.2253
.2070
.1920
.1770
.1620
.1483
.1350
.1250
.1055

5: Structural

Metals

kind* ami Use of

llciims

must support. To simplify the


all
weights have
been based on the tables shown

calculations,

To Support Floors

latter

has a

For planning purposes, assume


you are designing a wood frame

width

or

beams

will

building, dimensions of which are

weights and will withstand greater

building

lateral or sidewise pressure.

the weights are as follows:

30'x48'. This building

two

stories as

tration.

The

shown

have

to

is

in the illus-

Weight Beam

floor joists are placed

span

is

too great for continu-

ous wood floor

they must be spliced.


is

ordinarily

The

made above

girder or steel

bearing

the

therefore

joists,

splice

wood

beam, and beneath


of the

walls

area

above. Excessive deflection or sagging of the floor joists will occur


if

the bearing wall

is

not placed

Two kinds of steel beams are


commonly used. These are: American Standard
beams and Wide
Flange beams. The main differ-

Using the section through the

shown

in the illustration,

to Support

load-supporting

joists or wall

no beam

walls

Live load

beneath the spliced

are located

is

When

necessary.

is

The beam

required.

is

placed

at

right

angles

to

is

48'.

If

Local

codes

usually

"

"

"

live load

40

"

"

"

Dead load

]Q

"

"

"

Net load

SO

20

Dead load

]0

"

"

"

Net load

30

"

"

"

Roof

bearing upon

specify

of weight that

and other building

parts

mission to

joists or

beam

Walls
Live load

Dead load

10 pounds per square foot

that the

is

REINFORCING BARS
r

Bar Size

Diameter

'A

rd.

.250
.375
.500
.625
.750
.875
1.000
1.128
1.270
1.410
1.693
2.257

No.
3

Vs

rd

Vl

<6

V,

rd

V*

rd

rd

9
10
1

rd

"I

sq

*
' 1 '/

sq

*lVi sq

14

1'/2

sq

18

sq

/a" bars are plain round; Ve" bars, plain

ound or deformed.
Ml bars are round. These sizes are equivaent

in

quare

cross section area to the standard

new

billet

reinforcing

bar

sizes

ndicated.

iZD
Weight distributed to a center beam.

55

"

interior wall for trans-

ence between the two

"

'

Live load

(See page 59.)

minimum amounts
floors

50

Ceiling

the

placed as shown in the


foundation illustration, the span

joists.

10

Net load
Second floor

not de-

signed to be load supporting, a

beam

40 pounds pet square foot

Dead load

of the area above,

wall beneath the joists

is

above the beam.

Is

in this text.

first floor

When

across the short dimension. This


30'

much wider horizontal


Wide flange
support much greater

flange.

Part

One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

o
n

a a a

a a

a a a

3 3

a a a

a s

ce

a a a

a a

o
CO

n
0

a a

a a

a a

s a a

1 S

a a

a a

3 S

a a

.5

<A

0)

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

si!

a 3

SS

a s

a a

5 1

a a a

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s s a a

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n

1
5
o"
s
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CO

i.

-8

0)

Q.

Z
-

*
CI

<

ct

a a a a

a a

O
CI

3 3

a a a a

a a

CO

= 2

SS

a s

5 1

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I

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a a a a

5 S

a a

t>

5 2

a a

S 2

21
O
qls
%

8=

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a.

si

I 1

s 3

a a
a a a

s a
2i

B 1

g o

= I

a 3

s |

a a

a a a

a a

a a a

c%

a a

a a a

2 5

III

5 S

HI

-j

^
Ik

3 3

a a

a a

a a

5 %

1 s

s a

aa

a a a a

3 1

a a

a a

s a

1 s

a a

is

a a

So

1
5

5 5

2 3

5 2

3 2

Sr

a a

CO

3 3 s a 3 5

5 S

a s

a a K 1

S 3 a s

3 5

3 3

a a

a a

11

s a

1 s

a a

11
11

a a

2 s

5 s

35 ss

1 a

si SI ja

a:

* 3
z
o

S 5
s:

K 1

a a
a a

I i
s a a a

a a

a a

11

s!

III 11

^
-

56

5: Sfructural

Metals

o
n

*
1

i I

5 5 5

5 5

S 5 2

5 5

k c 1

a s

2 5 2

s;g si

5 s
O
J;

* g

->

Vw^

o
'

'

>

525 o22 S2| 22


555
SSI g|i 22
S
11511 S5 |S5 5 2| ||| ||
58!!! ss~ sis is? S|| ss
2

o-

w
fc

-I
2*
I

O
n
to

**.2

O
O

S 5

a
_

1 z

CN,^^

e^*->w-.--.

f S S

5 5

2 5 5

g 1 g
11

=>

1 1 S S
o p = o o

e o o

2 2 5

SSS2S

3 5 S

-.

s.

2
4
o

5 5 5

<
IA
1

5 5 5

=5

e>

g?2S

5 K

=>

<=

o o

""

oS

Hio

5S

S?

o o

=><=>

o
ao

s
c

^
Ik

5 2

5 5

ill cjsK|| ;;s 115

3 5

5 5 5

5 5 5

2 5

^ o

<e

X
S
t

1 s

2 5

=,

SSS
is?

5 2 2

5 5

1 1

= 1

s s s

K s s

gj

5 5

1 1

as

SSS

i:

s s S B

5
"

2|32S is; ?11||1 III

la 1|I|
5 2 o S o oo

* 3

5 S

2 = 1

"s

57

S 5 S
:

S5S
S S

s:

2 c s

SS
s

:?2

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation


SAMPLE WEIGHT CALCULATION

30'

48'

ratios

tables

Area

1,440 square feet of floor

Width x length

Local code 16 Kips

area for each floor


8'

48'

can be determined and the


still be used, as follows:

Tables

384 square feet of wall

(vertical thickness), the loads

24' span

20 Kips

feet

16

30 Kips

20

x Kips

I6x

600 or x

37.5 Kips

weight

total

Weight of

first floor

Weight of second
Weight of

floor

ceiling

beam

Roof bearing to

72,000 pounds

72,000 pounds

43,000 pounds

00,000 pounds

one-fifth; for rapidly

The

For fluctuating loads causing


vibration, especially

are long as

in the tables

duced

should be

re-

mov-

ing loads, or where loads are


suddenly applied with slight impact, the loads shown should be
reduced one-third.

30 feet

area for each wall

Weight per square fool x number of square

shown

feet

if

compared

the

beams

to

depth

of structural

illustration

metal shapes,

names of

below,

gives

the

structural metal shapes

187,000 pounds

One

half weight bears

on center beam

93,500 pounds

Weight of

3,840 pounds

Weight of second wall

=
=

Weight beoring upon beam

101,180 pounds

first

wall

STANDARD SHAPES

3,840 pounds

This

^^

weight appears quite large, but one

must remember that two stories are


volved

in

SLOPE

SLOPE 5%

in-

2 IN

12

the calculations.

-w

The

tables

on pages 56 and 57
FILLET

give the greatest safe load (uni-

formly distributed over the entire

beam

length) which the steel

beams

will carry.

Mfe
WIDE-FLANGE BEAM
PARALLEL FLANGES

STANDARD BEAM

WIDE-FLANGE BEAM

The building on

page 55 has a uniformly

distrib-

uted load.

The

loads are given in

safe

One kip equals

1,000 pounds.

The loads shown

in the tables

kips.

include the weight of the beam,

which must be deducted

to

obtain

= FLANGE

D = DEPTH

W = WEB

the net load.

The

loads

shown are based on

a fiber stress, or pressure they will

STANDARD CHANNEL

withstand, of 20,000 pounds per

square inch. This stress


reliable

where

for ordinary

the

loads

are

is

SHIP

CHANNEL

quiescent

no movement) as in
most buildings. It is a good idea
check strength requirements of

because some require


materials of greater or less
strength. However, proportions or
local codes,

8.

conditions

(subject to

to

CAR

entirely

FILLET

s]

L.?J
TEE
Structural metal shapes.

58

IVlLLE

J::

Mefals

S: Strucfural

48'

0" FOUNDATION WALL


y

r
r

BE

AM

SP \N

30'0"x48'0" foundation and

and

parts.

beams

It

is

assumed

that the

are stiffened sideways to

prevent buckling

in the

compres-

must

framing plan with continuous span center beam.

floor

page 60 show different load distributions and the percentage of


weight they

support as com-

will

allowable

pared

to

the

be reduced as shown in the following table, observing that the


laterally or sideways unsupported

shown

in

the

length of beams shall not exceed


40 times the width of the com-

Calculating

pression flange.

The illustration on this page


shows a foundation plan 30'x48';

sion flange; otherwise, loads

The allowable

or

deflection

sagging for plastered ceilings


'/j6o

of the span. This limit

is

is

(See pages 56 and 57.)

and

the

The

deflection will

the load

same
beam.

in the

on the

beam

is

placed the 48' direc-

inside

edge.

To

however, the span has been shown as


the entire building length. Note
that after the procedure is
the

mastered,

calculations,

only

the

true

beam

span should be used for making


the calculations.

Unbraced

Proportion

length

to be

Beam

used

Unbraced

Proportion

Length

to be

of

Beam

used

ratio as

Distribution of Loads

The

Strength

Size

of

be reduced

Beam

opposite

the

simplify

not

reached on the span lengths shown


in the tables.

loads

preceding tables.

(If no posts support the


beam, the span is 48'.) Actual
span is the distance from one
inside edge of the foundation to
tion.

following illustrations on

5 X flange width

20 x flange width
25 X flange width

00%
92%
85%

tab. load

30 X flange width
35 X flange width

tab. load

40 x

tab. load

Percentages of calculated loads when

59

beam

flange width

77%
69%
62%

tab. load
tab. load
tab. load

lengths are laterally unbraced.

One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Part

ooooooooo

the pound, so

advisable to

is

it

use the smallest size that will do


the job.

building has no base-

If the

ment and
Safe load = that given
mum bending moment at

tables.

in

Safe load

Ma

in

given

in

in

used,

it

is

codes specify

Many local
minimum distance

between

proximate

10 that given

are

piers

advisable to place them on ap-

tables.

Wl

Deflection
Deflection as

Vi that

tables.

tables.

piers

is

8'

centers.

piers.

large

number of

not objectionable because

the space between the floor joist

00000000a

EnI

Safe load =

in

basement may be objectionable.

2.4 that given

given

Vt that

point of support

in

Deflections

tables.

3.2 that given

-*|

/
in

companying

tables

12

1
H
in tables.

Maximum bending moment between


loads = 'h Wa.

Load distribution.

From

previous

weight

the

beam was

calculations,

upon

bearing

the

figured to be 101,180

pounds. This

is

the colored area

represented by

on page

55.

Since the weight as calculated


is

in

tables

pounds and the


are

in

kips,

Follow down the chart until 102


kips is shown. When one does
this,

70 kips

the largest

is

Add piers
under the beam to

safe load

length

convert the

spans.

into

number

not adequate for

the span.

the

or columns
divide

required

the

short

The number of posts is


by the amount of

weight into kips. Using the tables

determined

American Standard I Beams,


column at the top of the

open span

for

is

shown. This

desired.

(The longer

find the

the span the greater the

chart that represents 48 feet span.

weight.)

Steel

is

rep-

is

60

beam

purchased by

When

the total bearing

beam

is

divided

by 4, this is found to be 25,295


pounds or 25.3 kips. At the top of
the chart locate the 12 foot span
and follow down the column until
size

reduces

to 12'. This

weight on the

25.3 kips

Maximum bending moment,

in the ac-

illustration

beam span

the plan.

--/

Safe load = that given

tables.

shown

three posts as
in

Q_

-***

justified.

resented by the shaded area on

Safe load = that given

is

in tables.

= W.

2.

size

ing described earlier but adding

Mot

the

*---b

beam

Using the same 30'x48' build-

2
Deflections

used only as crawl

is

If so, a large

/-

Safe load =

tables.

Wl

and earth

space for maintenance. Posts in


a

'L

given

'A that

not

is

is

reached. This exact

shown on

the chart, so

one must locate the next larger


weight. This

is

shown

as 27 kips.

Then, as previously stated, the


weight of the beam must be added
to the net weight or load because
the beam must support its own
weight in addition to the building
weight. From the 27 kips on the

column to the
column showing weight per foot. This column
gives a weight of 25.4 pounds per

chart, follow the


left to

the vertical

lineal foot.

When

the span of 12' a

304.8 pounds
.305

kips

to

is

multiplied by

beam weight of
shown. Add this

previous

load

of

25.3 kips. This gives a total load

5: Structural

Metals
12'0" 5PAN

p-

>

6,

r"

*"1

i-

.j

L.

.J

1
1

"

L^ -J
T

il

>

Br

-i

-i

30'0"x48'-0" foundation and floor framing plan with center beam supported by
3 equally spaced posts to reduce beam span to 12' -0" o.c. L ight shaded area is
supported by foundation walls. Dark shaded area is supported by the center beam

and supporting

of 25.6 kips. This size

is still

ade-

quate to support the described


load,

move
size.

so

not necessary to

is

it

beam

next larger

the

to

One should repeat

the

posts are not the

weight
uted,

is

beam

necessary

calculations

separate

if

the

not uniformly distribis

it

posts.

same or

make

to
for

each

beam

size is satis-

factory. (Refer to the charts

pages 56 and

The beam
and

on

Columns
To Support Beams

weighs

25.4

foot.

Since

is

\0"x4 3A"

pounds

per

mit

load

the

beam

or

imposed on the

girder

to

the

footing

spans shown are the same and


since the weight

tion has

tributed,

same

all

size.

is

all

uniformly dis-

beams

If the

building

will

be the

spans between

and the
is

beam spans of
total

12'-0",

load for each span

25,295 pounds. This was pre-

61

load

is

at
is

each end. Thus half


supported by each

The load transmitted to each


post is called the beam reaction.

and on to the ground. The building shown in the shaded illustra-

lineal

this

supported by two posts or col-

post.

columns, or piers trans-

Posts,

57.)

selected

The beam carrying

of the load
Steel Posts or

when making

strength and weight calculations.

umns, one

span.

strength calculations to be absolutely sure the

viously determined

Therefore, the

beam

reaction

12,647.5 pounds. Since two

terminate

over the

same

the

reactions

of the

total

is

beams
post,

two

beams must be considered. The


beams and the loads are the
same; therefore, the total weight
to be supported is 25,295 pounds.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

STANDARD

STEEL PIPE

Safe Loads

Nominal

External

Internal

Size,

Diam.,

Diam.,

Inches

Inches

Inches

3.500

3.068

VA

4.000

3.548

4.500

5.563

6.625

6
8

10

12

8.625.

Weight
per

Unbraced Length

18.

16.

13.

30

25

22

19

17

15

44

40

34

30

26

23

64

61

56

51

45

41

12

33.

30

26

21

9.11

42

38

35

4.026

10.79

50

47

5.047

14.62

70

68

90

22

18

10

7.58

20

16

8.071

in Feet

14

COLUMNS

Thousands of Pounds

Ft.,

lbs.

6.065
.

in

Metal

Radius of

Moment

Area,

Gyration,

of Inertia,

Inches

Inches

2.228

1.16

3.017

2.680

1.34

4.788

21

3.174

1.51

37

4.300

1.88

Inches

7.233
15.16

18.97

92

82

79

74

69

63

56

5.581

2.25

28.14

24.70

121

120.

118

115

112

109

105

100

95

7.265

2.95

63.35

115

109

8.399

2.94

137 .133

9.178

3.70

125.9
137.4

86.

8.625

7.981

28.55

140

138

136

133

129

125

121

10.750

10.192

31.20

154

153

151

149

147

144

.141

10.750

10.136

34.24

169

168

166

164

161

158

154

151

146

10.07

3.69

10.750

10.020

40.48

200

199

196

194

190

187

182

178

172

11.91

3.67

160.7

12.090

43.77

217

216

214

212

210.

207 .204. 200

196

12.88

4.39

.248.5

12.000

49.56

246

244

243

240

237

234

222

14.58

4.38

279.3

12.750.

12.750

Standard

steel pipe

Supporting column and

beam

connector.

231

227

72.49

columns.

Pipe column

and I beam supporting

wood

floor joists.

TS3

Metals

5: Structural

two beams are of different


and the loads are not the

(If the

sizes

AND DATA

WEIGHTS, DIMENSIONS

STANDARD

STEEL

same, the reactions

BEAMS

the foundation, the

~r-

If"

n
Lfi

Wj

! O O

ii

fiitl-

!!__

O O

rii"

LjjfJ

tion

at

-i1_c='/,w

'a.

mum

Inches

Wt.

of

Beam,

Per

Inches

Rivet or

Ft.,

Bolt,

18

15

120

'y.6

20'/.

'y>

l'/

105.9

7 7/e

Vb

20%

i'yi 6

100

vn

20 A

90

7V,

V.

20>A

79.9

'/2

20 3A

95

7'/.

y.6

y.

'Hi

16'/2

17

l'/,4

/4

65.4

6'A

17

P/.6

70

6'A

15'/.

54.7

'/2

15'/4

PA
1%

50

5%

/,6

2'A

1 '/.

12'A

l'/4

5'A

mon

pipe,

steel

pipe

steel pipe, steel

/l6

>y.

y.6

.'/a

/.6

7
/.

Vie 3'A

columns are frequently used

light construction, their sizes

safe loads are

y.*

3'/2

y..

'/,

3'A

.'/i6

'/>

"/,6

3'/2

y.6

'A

3'A

y>

3%

'A

V,

y.

"/.6

Vl6

5'A

/l6

9 3A

pa

Vtt

'A

yB

9 3A

IV4

Vn

35

y.

'A

2%

y.

25.4

4V.

y.

'/2

2 3A

'A

31 8

4'A

18.4

20

3 7A

15.3

3V.

17.25

3 5/a

3Vs

A
A
A

3
3

are

"B"

this

series

connectors.

Holes

the

in

/l6

2'A

y.

'y.s

2V

y.6

A
A

connectors and beams, as

'At,

2'A

y.6

y.

trated by the black circles, should

2V4

y.6

y.

be spaced on approximate

y.6

centers.

y.6

y.

'/.

5%

'A

5 3/e

'A

4Vj

4'A

3%

'/

%
%
%
%

,1%

y.6

,'A

y.6

PA

y.4

'A

9.5

2 3A

y.

2 3A

y.

7.7

2%

yu
y8

2 3A

text

in

'y.6

y. 4

2%

loads

calculated based on standard

6V4

"/.6

2>A

of safe

6'/4

."/.6

columns supporting them. Standard connectors using bolts or


rivets are recommended. Tables

'/u

3 s/

they must be fastened to each

'A

Members

are end joined

*i

Vi
.

When beams

,3'A

Joining Structural Steel

other as well as to a column or

"/.

35

in the table.

.'Mi

/l6

shown

for

and

iy,6

Since standard steel posts or

iy..

beams and

9V>

5'A

with concrete. Standard and

9Ve

5.7

posts

steel

of the more com-

ordinary

Wide Flange

"/.6

5'/.

5.7

are:

heavy duty

of

kinds

Some

are used.

columns.

/l6

'A

40.8

14.75

%
'/.

16'/!

PA
1%
\%

y.

10
4

12.5

y.

6V.

23

'A

'/b

75

50

10

l'A

/.

85

42.9
12

total

Kinds of Steel Posts Used

filled

20

the

Inch

lbs.

24

one-half

or

reac-

12,647.5

is

weight transmitted to the posts.

Several
in

beam

location

this

pounds,

-J
Maxi-

Dimensions,

Depth

not be

will

Note: Since the end of


only one beam is supported by
equal.)

'/a

y. 4

7
A
1%

/.6

l'A

,'A

Vi

y.6

l'A

y.6

'A

,'/.6

,'A

l'A

.'A

.%

%6

"A

l'/2

y.6

Weights, dimensions, and data of standard steel

/e

beams.

5W

Column Caps
Pipe columns have steel plates
welded to each end to increase
their surface area and permit
fastening of parts. The cap is
secured to concrete footings by
pre-positioning anchor bolts in
the concrete so the bolts corre-

spond with the holes

63

illus-

in the plate.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Wt.

Size

Per

in

Inches

ELEMENTS

OF

EQUAL
ANGLES
Column cap

bolted to

beam.

xl

'/.

1.23

lVzxlVfcctt*

1.80
2.34

2
2
2

zr

.0.19

3.19

0.94

0.13
0.19
0.25
0.30
0.35

0.63. 0.55
0.62 0.57

x V*

0.28
0.35
0.42
0.48

0.55
0.70
0.85
0.98

0.30
0.39
0.48
0.57

0.93

0.92

2.11

1.8

0.91

2.43

2.0

0.83
0.95

0.84
0.87
0.89

0.91

0.91

2.75

2.2

1.1

0.90

0.93

1.09
1.08

0.97
0.99

1.07

1.01

x3

x'/i 4

8.3

x3

9.4
.5.8.

1.69

.2.0

3y2x3'/2xyi

7.2

2.09

2.5

0.79
0.98

3>/ix3Vjx y.

8.5

2.48

2.9

1.2

3'/2x3y2x'/l6

9.8

2.87
3.25

3.3

3.6

1.5

pertinent information concerning

x Vi

angles.

x6

x'/, 6

6
6
6

x6
x6
x6

determining the

is

size

.3.0.

1.0

1.25

1.09

3.7

1.3

1.24

1.12

4.4

1.5

1.23

1.14

11.3

3.31

5.0

1.8

1.23

1.16

0.78

Va

12.8

3.75

5.6

2.0

1.22

1.18

15.7

4.61

6.7

2.4

1.20

1.23

18.5

5.44

7.7

2.8

1.19

1.27

0.78
0.77
0.77

12.3

3.61

.8.7

2.4

1.56

1.39

0.99

x Vi

16.2

3.2

1.54

1.43

20.0

4.75
5.86

11.3

%
%

13.6

3.9

1.52

1.48

0.98
0.97

14.9.

4.36

15.4

3.5

.1.19

17.7

4.1

1.66

1.19

19.6

5.06
5.75

1.88
1.87

1.64

17.2

19.9

4.6

1.86

1.68

.21.9.

6.43

22.1

.5.1

1.85

1.71

24.2
28.7

7.11

5.7

1.84

1.73

6.7

1.83

1.78

1.17

33.1

9.73

24.2
28.2
31.9

7.6

1.81

1.82

1.17

2.51

2.19
2.23
2.28
2.32
2.37

%
%
%

%
%
%

8.44

y.

32.7

9.61

38.9

7
/s

11.44
13.23
15.00
16.73

x8
x8
x8

0.79
0.79
0.79

/u

64

1.94

2.40
2.86

0.58
0.58

0.69
0.69
0.69
0.68
0.68

.04

1.06

8.2

1.06

9.8

x8

.07

6.6.

x8
x8

used

lintel

.3

x 5/ij

8
8

required. (See page 67.)

11.1

/i

for

'/2

span. This opening size

7.2

Vi

the true

1.47

x6
x6
x6

is

0.59
0.59
0.58

0.58
0.71

6
6

window, door, or

0.49
0.49
0.49
0.48

1.2

shows

actual

0.72
0.74
0.76

1.5

The

0.69

0.77
0.76
0.75

0.64

1.78

x5
x5
x5

other opening width

0.61

0.78

1.44

5
5
5

Spans

1.19

0.60
0.59

6.1

xYi*

Lintel

1.36

0.59

1.73

sizes.

0.90

0.40
0.40
0.39
0.39
0.39

0.61

4.9.

table

1.15

3.07
4.10

0.53

5.00
5.90

x4
x4
x4

angles with legs of different

3.92
4.70

0.51

Vi

x4

The accompanying

.44

angle iron. These may be purchased as equal angles, with both


legs of equal size, or as unequal

x3
x3
x3

4
4

Steel lintels are constructed of

2'/2x2'Axyi

Steel Lintels

>A

3'/2x3'/2X

illustrations.

x 5/i6

x4
x4
x4

accompanying

0.35
0.34
0.34

0.71

4
4
4

in the

0.48

0.48

Suitable methods of connecting

shown

0.55
0.54
0.53

0.81

together

structural metal parts are

0.10
0.14
0.19

2.44

'/

3Vix3'/2X Vi

beam fastened

0.30
0.29
0.29

2.77

Vi

2'/2x2'/2X

0.42
0.44
0.47

.1.65

2'/2x2'/2Xy,6

with metal strap.

0.46
0.46
0.45

0.11

x^is

2'/2x2'/2X

Column and

0.07
0.10
0.13

0.06
0.08

Inches

0.13
0.18
0.23

I%x1%x
x2
x2
x2
x2
x2

0.14

0.42
0.62

lVixiVu y8

0.25
0.24
0.24

2.12

1.92

0.35
0.38
0.40

0.08

l'AxI'/tx

'/b

0.38
0.38
0.37

0.36
0.53
0.69

.1.01

1.48

PixPAx

0.05
0.07
0.09

.0.04

y.

iKxlU!ixtt

Vt

0.19
0.19
0.19

0.30
0.43
0.56

lVSuClVtlX

l'/axl'/ix

0.30
0.32
0.34

0.04
0.06

1.49

>A

0.30
0.29

.0.03. 0.31

1.16

V*
.

Inches

0.03
0.04

<?,.
x

Axis Z-Z
x or y
Inches

.0.02

x]

xl

Inches

0.23
0.34
0.44

X-X and X-Y

ol

Section,

Inches

0.80

kxis

Area

Inches

1%X1 3/4X^16

lJ

Ft.,

Lbs.

Vi

xl
xl'/e

26.4.

45.0
51.0
56.9.

7.75 48.6
59.4

.8.4

69.7
79.6
89.0
98.0.

10.3

2.49

12.2

15.8

2.47
2.45
2.44

17.5.

2.42. 2.41

14.0

1.18
.

1.18

1.18

1.58

1.58
1.57
1.56
1.56

1.55

'

5: Structural

Metals
- c

is

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IO IO
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Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

i^^^^s ^^^^??;?

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Metals

5: Structural

The total length of the lintel


should be 8" greater than the
opening. The 8" allowance is

Cha nnels American Standarc


Allowable Uniform Loads

Kips

in

For Channels Laterally Supported


For channel

laterally

Nominal Depth and Width-Weight per

Span

Deflec-

18x4

Ft.,

51.9

Fwl

45.8

42.7

Inches

To determine
Deflec-

280
230

234
212

210
203

184

170

154

142

132

50

40

33.9

Inches

156
139

other structural parts, previously

.02

described

163

.03

143

123

111

.03

136

.04

119

103

93

.05

121

116

.06

102

88

79

.07

70
62

.11

115

106

102

.07

89

77

94

90

.09

79

10

92

85

81

.12

71

84

77

74

.14

65

68
62
56

.09

56

.14

51

.17

12

77

71

68

.17

59

51

13

71

65

63

.19

55

47

14

66

61

58

.23

51

44

15

61

54

.26

51

.29

39

35

17

58
54

48
45

41

16

42

40

.37

40

36
34

33

51

48
45

.33

18

31

.45

19

49

43

.42

29

.50

46
44
42
40

41

.46

31

28

.55

39

.51

38
36
34

32

20

57
53
50
47
45
43
40

46
43
40
37

29

27

.61

37

.56

32

28

25

.67

39

.20
.23

.27
.31

calculations

STEEL ANGLE IRONS


TO SUPPORT FOUR-INCH
MASONRY WALLS

SPAN
5

feet

feet

3'/2" x 3'/i" x

feet

4"

4"

x V, 4

4"

4"

feet to

34

33

.72

35

33

31

.78

25
24

27
28

34

32

30

.84

26

23

33

29

.90

29

32

30
29

30

31

28

27

1.03

26
25
24

31

27

26

1.11

23

19.9

17.9

32
33
34

30
29
28
27

27

25

1.18

22

19.3

17.4

1.41

26

25

1.25

22

18.7

16.8

1.50

25

24

1.33

21

18.1

16.4

1.60

35

26

24

23

1.41

20

17.6

15.9

1.69

.86

10 feet

21

.93

21

1.01

22

19.9

1.08

21

19.2

1.16

21

18.5

1.24

SIZE OF LINTELS
3" x 3" x </*"

to

37

to

feet

11

feet to

feet

6"

4"

15

feet to

16

feet

6"

x 4"

W"
"

W
%"
W

1.33

AND REACTION VALUES

61.0

53.6

46.2

41.7

in.

kips

140

117

105

140

101

78

R kips

69

58

52

83

60

46

kip

14.4

12.0

10.8

17.2

12.5

9.6

in.

8.4

8.4

8.4

6.8

6.8

6.8

lintel size.

to figure exact size requirements,

25
26

63.7

sup-

which takes unnecessary time


and effort. The following table
may be used:

.79

30
29
27

PROPERTIES

the

may be

not always desirable

is

it

.73

31

.66

69.1

only,

give

tables

preliminary

23
22

.61

34

.97

For

24

35

35

28

ported by each

The

chapter.

this

load that

total safe

feet to

37

27
26

in

accompanying

.35

38

and

202
154

.01

178

102

22
23
24

as for weight of walls

.02

21

size,

any, are calculated the

live load, if

same

lintel

weight of all materials and desired

tion

280
238

of bearing surface on each side


of the opening.

lbs.

15x3'/i

tion

in

so the lintel will have 4"

made

unsupported, allowable oads must be reduced.

Masonry above

a wall

opening supported
by a steel

67

lintel.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Open Web

Steel Joists

"J" SERIES

Total Safe Loads in Lbs. per Lineal

Ft.

(For nominal joist depths 8" to 14"

incl.)

JOIST DESIGNATION
Span
10J2

10J3

0J4

373
309

400

440
400

480
436

12

259

.324

221

367
338
303
264

.400

13

232
205
83
64

48

12J2

12J3

12J4

12J5

12J6

14J3

14J4

14J5

14J6

14J7

367
335
289
252

383
354
329
307

417
385
357
333

450
415
386
360

500
462
429
400

343
320

400
373

443
413

486
453

529
493

338
318
300
284

375
353
333
316

300
282

350
329
311

235

294

388
365
344
326

425
400
378
358

463
435

261

300
286
270
247

212

265
240
219
200

310
287
262
239

340
324
309
290

370
352
336
322

227

147
135

184

25

220
203

125

27

116

145

174

266
245
227
210

308
294

26

170
157

08

135

162

196

235

BJ2

in Feet

8.4 75
9.4 ??
10
11

364

14

90

15

66

276
238
207

16

46

182

369
343
320

289
256

221

281

313

196

>28

175

205

157

249
222
199

294

85

142

180

21

128

163

22

117

149

225
204
186

23

107

136

170

268
243
222
203

24

98

125

156

186.

17

161

18

144

19

129

20

28

.1

278
249

192
175

160

Total Safe Loads

ir i

Lbs.

per .ineal

Ft.

187

(For nominal joist depth s 16' to 24"

411

389

272
252

incl.)

JOIST DESIGNATION
in

6J4

16J5

16J6

16J7

16....: 75

413
367
330
298

450
400
360
327

500. .5 38

71

250
213

47

184

299
254
219

28

160

13

141

feet

SJ8

18JS

18J6

18J7

18J8

20J5

20J6

20J7

20J8

380
345

410
373

430

460
418

358

307
283

444
400
364

4 78

3 91

389
350
318

433
390
355

467
420
382

500
450
409

.3 58

281

261

342.
312

321

2 66

240
207
180

375
346

307

3 31

325
289
249
217

350
323
299

191

333
306
264
230

261

300

225
196

269
234

168

202

34

158

191

140

169

264
234

173. .206. .249

34

229
203

182

220

36
38

125

151

181

209

is

33

20

88

22

38

24

00

26
28
30
32

4 30

3 05

40
42
44
46

331

383.
354
329

307

153
136
122

163

197

146

176

288
262
234
210

110

132

159.

190
...

48
Steel Joist Institute,

391

Web
68

Standard Specifications ond Load Tables Open

Steel Joists.

22J6

22J7

22J8

24J6

24J7

24J8

392
362
336
313

.417

382

409

436

350
323

375
346

285
248

321

400
369
343
320

367
338
312
272

218

273
242
216

239. 294.
212
265

189
169

237

194

300
282
254
228

140
127

175
159
145

205
186
170

153

192
174

.225

139
126
116

158
145

186

106

.133

.156

193

172
155

115

300

212

385
357
333
313
294
278
249

204
170

5: Structural

Metals

Bar Joists

Bar

may

and
Chapter 4,

illustrated

as

joists,

discussed

briefly

in

be used as structural floor

and roof framing. Because of the


large number of sizes and weights
available,

possible

to

and tables
The two most com-

for all joists.

mon

not

is

it

descriptions

include

are the "J" or junior joists

and the "H" or long span

joists.

Limit the clear span of J-series

24 times depth.

joists to

The ends of

steel joists shall

extend a distance of not less than


4 inches over masonry or poured

The ends

concrete supports.

extend not
over

steel

less

shall

than 2V4 inches

supports except where

opposite joists butt over a narrow


steel

Rohm & Hoo Photograph

support and attachment

is

Structural steel for a

made by welding

movable dome.

or bolting.

Bridging-spacing

no case

In

shall the spacing

Completed dome showtng swimming pool through roof that can be opened.

of

bridging or sag rods be greater

than given in the following table:


Clear Span

Up
1

Number

of Lines of Bridging

One row

14 feet

to

4 to 2

near center.

Two rows placed

feet

at ap-

proximately Vi points of
span.

21 to 32 feet

Three rows placed at

approximately

Vt points

of span

32

to

40

feet

40

to

48

feet

Four rows placed at

approximately

5 points

of span
Five

rows placed

approximately

at

It points

of span.

Joist

Spacing

Joists shall

the

be so spaced that

loading on

each

does not

exceed the allowable load given


for the particular designation

span in load
it is

table.

recommended

For

that

and

floors,

maximum

spacing be not greater than 24".'


Structural Steel Data,

J.

T.

Ryerson & Son,

Inc.

& Haoi Photograph

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

1.

What

2.

Who may make official

structural metal?

is

Why?

tural calculations?

How

3.

Are

structural parts

by

always

mathematical

using

data? Explain.
local

specific area,

required

8.
9.

in

a building, do

support

What
What
What

where can one obtain

26.

If

information

in

concerning

and

sizes

of

is

a dead load?

inch,

is

make

load?

live

meant when one

is

is

quiescent"?

What is welded wire fabric?


Where is welded wire fabric

meant when one

is

stress of

37. Can

based

20,000 pounds

6,000 pounds per square

how can

reactions

What

When one

what

29.

is

38.

What

is

3.

How

its

is

Can you

welded wire

determined?

size

think of reasons

fabric

why

should not be

30.

How

39.

a compression flange?
says lateral sup-

the allowable deflec-

beam

size

shown

in

does
from

one
the

determine

load

"beam
have

reaction"?

same

the

column?

are posts or columns

beams?

How

are steel columns se-

What

How

is

are steel lintels?


their size

42.

What

43.

Is

44.

How much

is

there

a bar

determined?

joist?

more than one kind?


bearing surface

on masonry must a bar


45. Do you know

tables

the text?

40.

41

used on steel

why

joist

joists?

pansion joints?
14.

What

is

the difference
sizes

and

be-

ing rod sizes?

15. From the wire fabric illustrations,

can you describe the difference

between positive and negative steel?


16.

What is

the apparent value of

a detail sheet for welded wire fabric?


1

7.

What do we mean when we

say a reinforcing rod


18. Are

is

deformed?

reinforcing rods de-

all

formed?
1

9.

tween
Flange

What
a
I

is

the difference be-

Standard

beam?

and

Terms to Spell and

Know

reinforc-

Wide

structural

welded

spliced

distribute

connectors

flange

technical

intersections

lateral

verified

ductile

kip

calculations

install

impact

duplication

alignment

buckling

incorporated

gage

deflection

recommendation

longitudinal

allowable

assumptions

transverse

represented

superimposed

suspended

transmit

proportion

data

reaction

quiescent

equivalent

terminate

pertinent

billet

70

have?

bridging

carried through construction or ex-

tween wire gage

beam

two

cured to concrete footings or floors?

tion for plastered ceilings?

12.

is

one

on

How

joined to

meant?

is

deter-

size

Explain.

the table be used to

the required calculations?

27.

What

36.

"fiber stress"?
is

column

is

mined?

uniformly distributed?

is

28.
port,

steel

column spacing de-

is

How

35.

a kip?

is

per square inch, and the local code


specifies

How

34.

dwellings

a safe load table

on a fiber

and bottom of

columns?

recommended
in

are steel plates placed

top

the

termined?

is

25.

required

is

strengths

What
What
What

the

is

Why

33.

floors?

all

load which floors

24.

used?

used

What

says, "The load

10.

live

23.

structural parts?
7.

31. What is meant by the term


"beam span"?
32. What is a pipe column?

im-

on

says the load

no code

pertinent

22.

and

calculations?
If

When
beams

steel

codes

influence strength requirements

6.

it

should carry?

How do individual

5.

Is

Explain.

all

calculated

deflection?

is

portant, or a problem?

21.

are weights of materials

determined?
4.

What

20.

struc-

is

<a
Sill

shrinkage of lumber across the

Sills

The
rests
is

sill

is

on the

wood beam that


foundation. The sill
a

pressed carefully into the mor-

tar to insure a

and Floor Construction

good

seal.

Washers

are placed over the anchor bolts,

and nuts are tightened to hold


the sill in place. The anchor bolts
prevent the sill from slipping on
the foundation and also secure
the frame to the foundation dur-

grain. This

tion of

ing

Two methods

Framing

the

to

danger of shifting or separating.


One disadvantage is the time

is

Expansion and contracframing will cause crack-

of the exterior surface, or

necessary

"letting

for

in"

ribbon. (See page 512.)

The

minimum amount

usually

wood frame.
The major advantage of

rial.

notch for thicker materials

would weaken the

loon framing

is

its

bal-

dimensional

Studding extending to
prevents any change of
on the outside of the

sill

building.

When

used with ma-

disadvantage

made

is

studs.

that

Another

the

studs

must be raised or put in place at


the same time as the floor joists.
Working over an excavation or
basement is difficult.

FLOOR JOIST

in

of time, thus

CORNER STUDS

them a firm, clean walking and storage surface for the


remainder of construction. An-

giving

other advantage

is

that the solid

subfloor over the box

sill

helps

eliminate drafts, which can be a


fire

hazard.

The box
parts. The

sill is

the bed plate.

ber

is

composed of two

horizontal

The

member is
mem-

vertical

FOUNDATION

a header.

The chief disadvantage

rib-

of \" mate-

is

Western or plat-

complete the base or platform

or

notching the studs to receive the

bon

form framing is most widely used.


This method allows workmen to
a

allows

this

separation of masonry from the

shape

of floor framing

veneer,

materials to be attached without

be faced with masonry veneer or


stucco.

sonry

when

the exterior of the building

the
of Floor

are illustrated.

undesirable

stability.

ing high winds.

Methods

is

is

Platform framing at a building corner.

71

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Pressure Treated or Applied


Preservatives

Floor framing near moisture


or earth

susceptible to decay

is

and termites. Preservatives should


be added to the framing to prolong
is

its

life.

The

best protection

gained by applying the pre-

under pressure. Deep


is insured. Bulk preservatives may be purchased and
job-applied; however, this is
time consuming and the results
are not permanent.
servative

penetration

Balloon framing for an exterior

wa

<

"V
T---.i

r--,. -L___

US- Deportm

Map showing

(line

AA) the northern

BB, the northern

limit of

damage by subterranean termites in the United


damage by dry-wood or nonsubterranean termites.

limit of

71

States;

6:

Sill

and

Floor Construction

A
A

termite shield

and

is

placed over

piers.

It

should

extend past the edges of the foundation two inches and be bent
down to a 45 angle. The purpose

of the bend

to

is

help prevent

termites from bypassing.


a boring insect.

is

tunnels in

wood

It

material.

ter-

Grout or Mortar with Shield

The spacing of the last


would be 16" if modular con-

spacing.

about

shield.

This acts as a base for

wood

parts.

placed

is

The grout

acts as a

weather

helps level

It

joints are

ners,

this

made

Termite shield above


foundation wall

at the cor-

termite

meets

is

minimum

is

requirements of

are suitable for

Because of their abundance, workability, and strength,


light

Openings In termite shields as those for


anchor bolts must be completely sealed.

most frequently
weight of this

ter).

Spacing of 16"

frequently used.
for floor joists,

begun

handle. Southern, long leaf yellow

first

the strongest of the native

softwoods. Douglas

and spruce have

fir,

hemlock,

slightly

strength but are suitable.

us-

it

this size for

when

is

espe-

the under sides of

the joists form a base for a finish

less

When joists

o.c. is

When

most

laying out

measurements are

outside edge of the


or header joist. It is 16" from
at the

the outside of the edge joist

beam

vision

must be made

some

pro-

for

tying

They should be

minimum

of 4" and be

nailed firmly to secure, or a scab

of lumber should be nailed across


the joint as shown in the second

on page 74.
beams, and girders which
might be considered a part of
floor framing are discussed in
illustration

Posts,

Chapter

remaining joists except the

all

73

or girder,

together.

lapped a

(header) to the center of the second joist, and then 16" o.c. for
last

must be end joined

over a

them

Spacing for floor joists may be


24" o.c. (on cen-

12", 16", 20", or

group makes them easy to cut and


is

is

When

ceiling.

floor joists.

The

needed, and use

cially true

Floor Jolsl

are

is

greater

desired, the cost

the entire structure. This

Many woods

is

When

not unusual to select the largest

size

N;

used.

quently used for conventional


framing. The term nominal means

several joist sizes are required,

not stay at the proper angle.

softwoods

are shown. See page 75.


Nominal 2" lumber is most fre-

thickness

sometimes used and

some codes, but this is not recommended. The material is soft and
is likely to decay. The edges do

allow-

ually considerably greater.

paper, or aluminum. Roll

roofing

maximum

"not actual." Finished size

shields are: copper, copper coated


kraft

the

smaller than 2".


for

deter-

is

able span for dimension lumber

soldering.

Materials used

%" from

frequently placed

woods and

seam should also be


The joint is best closed by

sealed.

is

the outside edge of the foundation

comparative strength of different

shield must be end joined, or

when

sill

construction,

or header of the box

Size of floor joists

of termite

pieces

wood frame

first joist

mined by the total load to be


supported and the distance they
must span. Charts showing the

must be cut in the


anchor bolts. Tar or
some other plastic material
should be used to seal around the

When

In

discussion

begins on page 135.

wall.

seal.

can-

for

bolts.

this topic

the

builds

Holes

shield

of

over the

top of the foundation and

the

struction were used.

thin layer of grout or mortar,

not tunnel through the shield.

pine

one, which will end with uneven

joist

the foundation

mite

Termite Shield

When

1.

framing floor openings,

the joists should be doubled.

SOLID BRIDGING-

Framing

BUILT UP GIRDERFloor joists lapped over a built-up girder.

SCAB
Joists spliced

above

built-up

girder.

A ledger provides bearing surtace


joist and girder intersections.

at

TRIMMER JOISTSJoist

The

illustration

framing

for flues or fireplaces.

shows the method

of framing openings and names

of the parts involved.

When fram-

ing openings for fireplaces


-METAL
Joists

may be

CONNECTOR

secured to a girder with

metal connectors.

and

the area between the wood


and masonry should be filled with

flues,

a fireproof insulation.

74

Wood fram-

ing should be spaced a

minimum

of 2" from the masonry. Note


also that ends of joists

may

terminate in a chimney or
place and that

load

bearing

doubled.

all

not
fire-

framing beneath

walls

should

be

Floor Joists
DOUGLAS FIR COAST REGION
Association
Select

Dense

Structural

Construction

Spacing

Nominal

sizes (inches)

1950

1700f

30

2x8

2x10

2x12

?.

Denotes Grade

is

Utility

Dense

Construction Standard

Select
Structural

Construction

19501

17001

Utility

(inches
o. c.)

2x6

Lumber Grades

Construction Standard

14501

LB. LIVE

1200

(1)

LOAD

14501

40

12001

(1)

LOAD

LB. LIVE

Ft.

In.

Fl.

In.

Fl.

In.

Fl.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

12

11

11

11

11

10

10

10

10

16

10

10

10

10

24

10

12

15

14

14

14

11

9
4

15

15

15

12

14

16

14

10

13

24

12

12

12

12

11

11

12

18

18

18

18

16

17

14

14

14

13
11

In.

13

11

10
2

16

10

17

17

17

17

15

17

14

16

16

16

16

13

14

14

14

20

17

17

13

Ft.

24

15

15

15

15

6 12

12

21

21

21

21

19

16

19

19

19

19

17

18

18

18

18

24

17 10

17

10

17

10

17

10 14

16

10

16

10

16

10

16

20

20

14

10

20

17

15

10

12

not a stress grade

SOUTHERN YELLOW PINE-MEDIUM GRAIN


Association Lumber Grades
No.
Spacing

Nominal

size (inches)

(inches

K. D.

Dense

2"

Di-

mension

No. 2 Dense
K. D.

2"

Di-

No.

Dense

No. 2 Dense

2" Dimension 2" Dimension

mension

No.

K. D.

Dense

2"

Di-

mension

No. 2 Dense
K. D.

2"

Di-

No.

Dense

2" Dimension

No. 2 Dense
2" Dimension

mension

o. c.)

1700

1500

30
Ft.

2x6'

In.

Fl.

LB. LIVE
In.

Fl.

In.

11

11

10

10

10

16

10
9

16

14

24

12

15

17

24

15

14
4

2x10
16

15

1700

12001

40

2x8

Fl.
1

14

15

In.

Fl.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

10

10

10

14

14

14

14

13

13

12

12

11

18

18

17

17

16

16

14

14

15

17
6

15

11

13

13

15

In.

Ft.

18

10

14

17

1200

LOAD

12

17

1450
LB. LIVE

In.

11

17

17

16

16

14

14

11

21

21

21

20

16

19

19

19

19

18

18

18

18

24

17

10

17

10

17

10

17

10

16

10

16

10

16

10

16

10

21

Spans

may be

Table of floor

20

20

20

(b) Spans shall be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lumber
more than 2 percent but not more fhort 5 percenf scanf from American
Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content of 9 percent or less, lumber scant more than 5 percent not acceptable.

for 2"x6" lumber having actual dressed size of l s/a"x5 s/a"


increased 2 Vi percent.
Notes: (a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those shown
for rough lumber or lumber surfaced two edges (S2E).
1

12001

LOAD

11

24

2x12

14501

joist sizes

75

and

their spans.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Bridging

Bridging

used between joists

is

and spread the

to stiffen the floor

concentrated load over a greater


area. Cross bridging

the type

is

most commonly used. Bridging as


shown in the framing diagram is
usually constructed of l"x3" lumber.

The ends
Bridging

joist.

an angle

are cut at

them

to allow

to

against the

fit

may

also be

made

of metal.

The top of the bridging is nailed


before the subfloor

nailed in

is

The lower ends remain

place.

loose. After the finished floor

lower ends are pulled

in place, the

flush with the

bottom of the joists

and

If

nailed.

the

joists

are

warped, the crowns are placed


near the top. When the lower ends
are nailed,
floor.

it

tends to level the

Actual strength gained from

the addition of bridging


tionable, but
their use.

is

ques-

most codes require

Most minimum

Some

require-

ments space the bridging not less


than 8'-0" apart. This means most
typical rooms will have one row
in the center. If the span is more
than 16' 0", two rows would be
required.

subfloor can be laid across,

Three materials are commonly


wood subfloors. Plywood
now is most popular.
used for

Until recently,

common

most
was tongue and groove

lumber.

Minimum

the

thickness

at

right angles to the joist, or di-

agonal,
joists.

at

45

angle to the

diagonal subfloor allows

the finished floor to be laid in any


direction. Also

When

corners.

exposed

to

it

helps "hold" the

a subfloor

to be

is

the weather for an

Diagonal subfloor.

extended period of time, some of


the boards should be omitted to
allow for drainage of water.

End

joining of boards for the

subfloor should be done over floor


In some cases, when end
matched tongue and groove lum-

joist.

ber
Subfloor

(1)

building codes require floor bridging

is

is

used, the joints can be

made

between joists. However, the lumber should bear, or rest upon, at


least two joists and no joints in

Tongue and groove subflooring


times spliced between

succeeding boards should be made


over or between the same joists.

is

and maximum width is 8".


Excessive warpage can result
from using wider lumber.

2S

/3z"

(2)

(S4S),
size

Lumber surfaced
is

also

four sides

sometimes used. The

required

is

the

same

as for

tongue and groove lumber. The

Tongue and groove lumber provides strength

76

at joints.

is

joists.

some-

'

6:

Sill

and Floor Construction

Plywood

(3)

become

has

widely used as a material for subfloors.

BLOCKING AT EDGES OF PLYWOOD

and

The

large size of the sheets,

which they

the speed with

can be nailed, offsets the slightly


higher cost of material. Greater
care must be taken
the

joists.

Any

when spacing

discrepancy

in

spacing will prevent the ends of


panels from resting on the

joists;

excessive waste of material

and

time will result from poor spacing. When using 16" spacing for
floor joists,

quate.

plywood

The outer

is

ade-

grain of the ply-

wood should be placed across the


End joints should be stag-

joist.

gered so successive panels do not


break, or end over the

same joist.

Unless tongue and groove plyMost plywood subfloors require support

at

all

wood

edges.

to

is

used, blocking

support

edges.

is

required

low-grade

sheathing of unsanded plywood


is

usually used.

Joist

Framing for Solid Masonry

When
FIRE

JH"

solid

masonry is used
no box sill is

for exterior walls,

CUT

JOIST

required.

bedded

The

in,

of the wall.

3"

ends are im-

Two methods

ting joists are


tration.

joist

or placed on a ledge

Joist

shown

of

set-

in the illus-

ends should have

minimum

bearing on

solid

masonry.
Pockets for
f

>

'!

i
i

'.

'

>

beam ends should

be provided in foundation walls.

Foundation and wall with

fire

cut

joist.

Section through a wall showing square


cut joist seat.

Beam

77

pocket

in

poured concrete wall

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Minimum

bearing

beam ends
beams

are

is

4".

surface

"letting

clearance

ribbon?

used,

What

7.

for

When wood

should be provided at the sides


and ends of the beam. This allows

8.

meant by the term

is

when

in"

it

have over brush-applied ones?

native softwoods?

9.

10.

What
What
What

is

a floor

is

the strongest of the

is

2.

placed

Why

%"

is

joist?

material

placed

is

box

floor joists?

sill

inside the

sometimes

edge

of the

What

is

When

bridging?

Why

is

2.

What is a termite shield?


What is the purpose of bend-

3.

Why

are the joints soldered

4.

Why

is

in

the shield?

mortar placed over

ture

is

6.

wood

What

part of a

placed upon

What

are

this

wood

struc-

mortar?

two methods of

wall framing? Explain each.

Why

are

joists

laid?

What

are three materials

becoming most popular?


22.

Why

fre-

Which

are joints not broken

over the same

joists

when

laying

subfloors?

Terms to Spell and

What are some other methods

15.

quired

When added
at

floor

strength

is

re-

openings, what

is

to the joists?

6.

Why

is

framing not placed

against chimneys and fireplaces?


17.

What is the minimum

distance

between framing and a chimney?

78

is

Why?

sometimes

of end-joining joists?

done

the termite shield?


5.

3.

14.

ing the termite shield?

or otherwise closed

lapped over a beam?

is

the bottom of bridg-

foundation?
1

in

used?

quently used for subfloors?

wood

the

What

ing not nailed until after the subfloor


is

the most frequently

used spacing for


1

8.

space?

20.

applied preservatives for termite pro-

alignment can also be made.

Know/edge

this

19.

tection

Questions to Reinforce

to

What advantage do pressure-

expansion and contraction


and permits air to circulate around
the beam. Minor adjustments of
for

referring

seam

Know

spruce

soldering

nominal

aluminum

ceiling

grout

scab

shrinkage

bridging

ribbon

subfloor

softwoods

discrepancy

hemlock

V
Frame Wall Construction
Wall Section
During this discussion the
frame wall of a building is considered as a single unit, even

composed of many
Framing a wood
was originally done one
at a time, on the construc-

though

it

piece

no longer true.
Only on very small jobs would
the framing be done in this manner. Wall sections are usually
completed and then raised in
tion site. This

place.

necessarily

then erected.

the ultimate in progress of con-

In

is

individual parts.
wall

the wall section might be


assembled on the subfloor and
tion

is

On some

light

construc-

volume

parts are cut


a

shop or

production,

the

and assembled

Volume

factory.

in

pro-

duction can increase quality and

reduce the

number of man hours

of labor per unit, as well as im-

proving working conditions because


for

of

the

efficiency.

structure

assembled

in this

Parts

and
manner do not

being

cut

toward

indicate

struction methods.
total

trend

The

as

merits of

prefabrication and the use

of components
not

prefabrication

total

be

Custom

in

discussed
built,

building will
at

this

time.

or one-of-a-kind

framed very
manner. Quality
of materials and workmanship
building, can also be

efficiently in this

usually exceeds that of a building totally assembled on the

site.

Sole Plate
The

sole plate

is

a 2x4, with

wide dimension contacting the


subfloor. It is placed beneath all
its

stud walls.

When used on exterior walls it


customary to align the edge of
the bed plate flush with the edge
is

of the foundation, as shown to


left. Another arrangement is
sometimes substituted as shown

the

in the illustration at the right.

Outside face of sheathing

FOUNDATION

flush with foundation face.

_|

Outside

face

of

sheathing

protruding

past foundation face.

79

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

The

and helps hold

proper spacing.
a

subfloor.

their

also serves as

It

means of attaching

the

an anchor

sole plate acts as

for the studs

the wall to

sometimes

is

It

placed around the entire perimeter

of the wall, including door openThis helps

more

rigid while

make

ings.

After the wall


the plate

openings.

is

it is

nailed in place

is

removed from the

When

bearing walls are

parallel to floor joists,

with them, the


doubled.

tween

When

joists,

the wall

being erected.

joists

and

in line

should be

the wall

is

be-

blocking as shown

in the illustration

is

used to pre-

vent the floor from sagging be-

tween

BEARING WALL PARALLEL TO JOISTS

joists.

Joists are doubled beneath bearing walls. Double joists

may be

joined together, or

separated by spacers to accommodate wires or pipes.

Non-bearing walls

when blocking

is

may be spaced between

joists

provided. Also, note the block-

ing at edge joints of the plywood subfloor.

NON-BEARING WALL PARALLEL TO JOISTS

80

Frame Wall Construction

7:

Top Plate
Plates are placed over the top

of

studs.

all

and

They

serve as spacers

the top of the studs in

tie

place. All plates

on outside walls

should be doubled because the

joined, the splice should be

over a stud.

permissible
plates

load

for
is

to

to

It is

use

interior

sometimes
top

single

walls

be supported.

if

no

the

cut

and handle

made
must

in

stud.

the top plate

at a corner, the plate

is

joined

should be

lapped so the corner can be tied


together as in the illustration.

When

panels of modular con-

struction are used for walls, the

different length

top plates are sometimes stood

amount

on edge as shown to the right,


and serve as a header around the

studs usually offsets the

of material saved.

When

same

When

How-

ever, the extra time involved to

splices

both top plates, the


splices should not be made over

weight of ceiling joists and rafters


bears upon them.

made

be

When

top plates must be end

perimeter of outside walls.

SINGLE TOP PLATE PERMITTED FOR INTERIOR

NON-BEARING WALLS-DOUBLE TOP PLATES

RECOMMENDED

Combination top plate and header


use with modular panels.

SPLICES

ABOVE STUDS

6" WIDE NAILER

Frame

wall intersection with

one wa

ending between studding spacing of


adjoining wall.

Joining top plates at wall corners and above

TOP PLATES LAPPED

studs.

AT CORNERS

81

for

Part

One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Studding
Studs are the slender
rights that

work of

form the

the walls of a structure.

made

Studs are usually

actual size of which

One

wood up-

vertical frame-

is

of 2x4's

Vi "x3 Vz

exception

notable

".

the

to

standard thickness of frame walls


is

area which must accom-

the

modate the larger soil stack or


vent pipe for the bathroom
plumbing

This wall

fixtures.

is

usually constructed of 2x6's.

The studding should be of


uniform length, which is determined by the ceiling height
For

desired.
ceilings

conventional,

common

most

8'0"

of homes,

is

in

it

the

height.

ceiling

Note: This measurement


the stud length,

flat

is

not

only used

is

determining length. Studs are

usually

The

16"

spaced

stud

on

centers.

Studs spaced 16"

turned so the wide

is

dimension forms the thickness of


the wall. In rare cases where no
load must be supported, as in a
the

wall,

closet

turned

so

represents

stud

may

be

dimension

the

short

the

thickness

of the

done only if space


is at a premium. The 16" spacing works well in "hanging a
curtain" of most wall materials.
wall.

In
it

is

This

is

some very light construction


permissible to use 24" spac-

For example, studs for a


garage or shed might be so spaced.
The uniform spacing is usually
continued over window and door
ing.

Most frequently used built-up


corner stud arrangement.

openings.
It is

impossible to start measur-

ing stud spacing at the outside

corner of a building and keep


the studs on 16" centers on the
inside of the building at the

same
82

o.c.

from inside building.

7:

Frame Wall Construction

time.

One of

the spacings (inside

or outside) must necessarily be

ofTthe 16" module.

It is

to start the spacing

customary

from the

in-

shown in the stud layout


diagram. Then studs can be more
easily located when nailing

side as

through plaster is required.


It is desirable but impossible

to purchase lumber

that

is

per-

no warp or
wind (twist). Yet only the
straightest
lumber should be

Studding arrangement for four intersect-

fectly straight, with

selected

studs.

for

If studs

are

warped, the crowns,

noticeably

ing walls.

Intersecting

forming

to

normal stud

When

covering

sheathing or wall

applied,

is

this

helps

pull the wall into a straight posi-

an

If

tion.

occasional

stud

is

extremely warped, but must be


used,

SECOND STORY

surface,

relation

in

to

the stud

arrangement. If an inside wall


ends between studs, the first

arrangement (page 82) is used.


If it ends on wall studs, the second (page 83) would be used.

can be partially cut and

it

pulled

into

straight

position.

Stud Intersections

then

At wall intersections on the

nailed over the cut to hold the

interior of the building, the studs

scab or extra piece

is

stud firm.

are arranged as shown.

Corner Studs

Studs at Wall Openings

When two

exterior

corners

must be joined to
form a corner post. Two methods
are shown. The first illustration
shows the method most frequently
meet, studs

used.

The

short

wood

sections

between the studs are blocking


used to help form the post. Short

is

to be

supported for

times omitted.
in

Between an
Wall and an Outside Wall

Inside

be joined

ment

Fill

and outside walls may


as shown. The arrange-

to use will

be determined by

the position of the inside wall

window opening.

a second floor, the portion of stud-

ding above the header

Studs To

for a

the headers over the opening. If

no weight

nating one extra

full stud.

Framing

Double studs are placed at all


door, window, and other openings. The outside stud extends
from the bottom to the top plate.
The inside stud is cut to receive

scrap boards are used, thus elimi-

Inside

nailing.

toward the

outside and the next toward the


inside.

V between

accommodate

WHEN NO

OMITTED

ding spacing.

placing one

studs are Inset

con

wall

or high points, should be alternated,

Two

adjoining ones to

The

is

some-

studs are used

addition to the ones on the

16"

However, when
window and door place-

spacing.

possible,

ment are arranged

to

with the stud spacing.


next to the opening

normal spacing.
83

is

conform
The stud
used for

Framing
is

not

for a

as

door opening. This method

frequently

used

as the other

method shown on page

84.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Base Blocks
Short

same

scraps

of lumber

and

thickness

the

width

as

studding are placed against the


studs

opposite

opening to

the

provide for nailing the ends of

baseboard and casing.


Corner Bracing

Temporary corner braces may


be used

at

studded wall openings

and room corners

insure

to

square corner. They are applied


at a 45 angle to the studs. If
rigid

sheathing

is

not to be ap-

plied to the exterior,

it

is

l"x4"

"let-in" corner bracing.

neces-

sary to place permanent braces

The accompanying chart shows

on the outside of the studs. These


are made from l"x4" lumber
and are "let in" to the studs. As
said, if plywood or rigid insulating
sheathing is used, no additional

Firestop

bracing

both walls should have lumber


placed between the studs to

is

required.

and Nailers

Balloon framing leaves an open


space along the studs. This space
acts as a flue if fire occurs.

ern framing

is

not as open, but

serve as a firestop.

of installation are
vertical

wood

West-

Two methods
shown. When

coverings, such as ply-

or hardboard paneling, are

applied directly to the studs, these

boards also act as backing. This

makes the wall

firm

and provides

additional nailing surface. See

page

85.

the header size required for vari-

ous spans. See page 86.

Two methods
header

are

method requires
the header.

of installing the

shown.

The

older

short studs over

Newer

construction

methods use a large header to


fill
the entire space above the
opening.

The

additional material

required would not be as great


as the labor for laying out, cutting,

and

installing crippled studs.

Additional material can be saved

when

applying

inside

wall

sheathing

coverings

the parts need not be spaced

Headers
rafters,

floors above,
Frequently used method of framing a

door opening. Small blocks of 2"x4"


called

ing

base blocks afford additional

surface

baseboard.

for

securing

crippled

casing

stud

above the header.

is

nail-

and

added

as

shown

on

the 16" module.

and additional
must be supported
over doors, windows, and other
openings. Headers of lumber on
edge or plywood laminated beams,
Joists,

or

because

in the

illustrations,

Plywood box beams are very


desirable as headers

good weight-toSuch beams are


used with post and beam

exceptionally

strength ratio.
also

structural systems.

are used.

84

when long

spans are needed. They have an

Frame Wall Construction

7:

Dimension lumber nailed together to form


a header.

Solid headers completely filling the space

above an opening give added strength.


require uniform width lumber, and speed
construction.

PLYWOOD BOX BEAM


For wide openings plywood box

Two methods

installing firestop be-

of

make

beams

excellent headers.

tween studs.

Framing Diagrams
When construction was entirely
a one-part-at-a-time operation,

was necessary

to

Conventional

method

of

installing

header above an opening.

it

draw complete
to show the

framing diagrams

workmen how
structure.

to

assemble the

At the present

this

is

not always done. However, any

information not placed on the


working drawings leaves the final
decision of framing location to the
builder.

Any person planning a structure


should be able to show the loca-

members. If
assembled away
the planning must

tion of the framing

the

parts

are

from the site,


be exact, to assure a proper

when

the building

is

fit

assembled.

Wall framing diagram (size and location dimensions are necessary to complete the plan).

85

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Headers Exterior Openings


Roof construction
Roof

joist

with bearing partition,

slope 3

T
Width of

Header

size

structure

"1

(on edge)

in

2 or

Rafters with bearing partition

-^T^

Slope over 3

in

Trussed rafters

*<^?'^>-

^^-^^v/^^^

r*
1

Slope 3

to

26

feet

wide.

2-2 x4s
2-2 x 6s
2-2 x 8s
2-2 x 10s
2-2 x 12s

to

32

feet

wide.

2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2

3'0"

2'

6"

6'

6"

5'0"

4'

6"

6"

TV

'

0"

8'

6"

3'

6"

10'

6"

x 4s

2'

6"

x 6s

4'

6"

x 8s

6'0"

8'
1

Vi

x 10s

7'

9'0"

6'

0"

0"

7'

6"

5'

8'

6"

to

bear on 2-2 x

0"

9 6
<

"

'

6"

'6'

0"

6"

Note: The above spans are based on allowable fiber stresses in


follows: For 2 x 4s, 800 psi; for 2 x 6s and larger, 1,200
These a//owob/e stresses are average values taking into consideration upgrading for doubling of members. Where 2 x As having

jamb opening; headers

8'

3'

'TV
'

4'0"

5'

6"

J.

8'

6"

3'6"

5'0"

psi.

Triple studs at

story

or 2 story

6"

bending as

'

Vi

4'0"
.

5'0"

6'0"

B'0"
12' 0"

6"

6"

6"

2-2 x 4s
2-2 x6s
2-2 x 8s
2-2 x 10s
2-2 x 12s

3'

8'

6"

6'

4'

x 12s

0"

2'

'

3'0"

x 10s

6"

6'0"
0"

8'

5'

x 6s

0'

or 1 story

x 4s

>

6'0"
i

4'0"

6"

x 12s

x 8s

Habitable space

6"

26

3'

2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2

12 or less

in

story

Up

AS\K
/\

partition

in

Rafters with bearing partition

"f

Slope over 3

12

12

Braced rafters with bearing

in

^<f\>^
i

Trussed rafters slope over 3

^^~\^

less

4'

6"

5'

6"

allowable fiber stress exceeding 800 are used, the spans for 2 x 4s
may be increased by 20 percent. Where conditions vary from these
assumptions, design headers in accordance with standard engineering practice.

4s.

Federal Housing Administration

86

7:

Frame Wall Construction

sample wall framing diagram


a small structure is shown.
See drawing, bottom of page 85.

HEADER SCHEDULE

for

typical schedule of
is

shown

the illustration. This

is

very con-

venient for workmen, as

OIIAN

HEADER

HEADER

CLEAR

WIDTH

HEIGHT

SPAN

4"

4"

3'-0"

4"

6"

5'-0"

S'-3'/<"

4"

8"

7'-0"

7'-3'/4"

4"

12"

10-5"

io'-9y4"

KEY

header

sizes for a building

in

elimi-

it

nates the need to locate and figure


the length for each header.

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge


1

What

meant by the term

is

"raising the wall"?


2.

What

its

purpose of a

the

is

soleplate?

it

9.

What

4.

Why

are the plates lapped

is

How

is
is

21.

Know

prefabricated

component

modular

a framing diagram?

workmanship

sheathing

the size of headers

Why is a schedule for headers


included

on

working

perimeter

sole plate

scab

studding

blocking

studs

firestop

header

drawings?

outside walls?
5.

6.

An

What
What

a stud, or studding?

is

size material

architect and a builder discussing the framing plans during construction


of the building.

usually

is

Wood

used for studs?


7.
8.

What is their normal spacing?


When may they be placed
dimension represents

the small

the thickness of the frame wall?


9.

what

When

10.

What

Why

referring

warp? What

is

is

to

lumber,

wind?

a scab?

is

blocking sometimes

is

used when forming a corner post?


12.
joining

What

two methods of

are

an inside wall

to

an outside

wall?
1

How

3.

14.

are interior wall

How

are the studs arranged

at openings for doors

15.
1

it

6.

inter-

framed?

sections

is

Terms To Spell and

corners and where inside walls

join

so

3'-3'/"

a header? Explain

determined?

sometimes

ber?

at

What

construction.

20.

What is a top plate? Why


made from two pieces of lum-

3.
is

18.

HEADER
LENGTH

What
What

and windows?

is

a base block?

is

corner bracing?

How

applied?

17.

What

material

is

is

firestop?

What

normally used?

87

Product* Ail

Masonry Wall Construction


the interior finish

Masonry Materials
Stone,
clay

tile,

brick,

concrete

block,

terra-cotta, or specially

processed forms of each are classified as

masonry.

and the provi-

sion for attaching the finish to the

masonry.

When more

than one

of the above materials

is

not sufficient to pre-

Therefore

fastened securely together.

stones are placed crosswise of the

Solid

As

consid-

ered a masonry wall. However,

may

is

vent the wythes from separating.


individual

wythes so they

wall constructed entirely

other materials

with mortar and reinforcement.

This bond

wythe (thickness) of masonry is


used, they must be bonded or

Masonry Construction

Any

wythes. All wythes are bonded

be used as

is

Masonry
said, a solid

tie

bricks

or

the two to-

gether. Or, instead of placing in-

masonry wall

constructed without a frame-

work of studding or space between

dividual units across both


wythes, header courses, as shown
in the illustration, are used. The

8:

Masonry Wall Construction

ties may be
mortar joints for

Corrugated wall
placed

in

wall reinforcement.

masonry used

secure the

to

wythes should equal

at least

4%

of the outer wall surface, and


should extend at least 4" into
the interior wythe.

wythe
is

interior

called a backing.

is

concrete block
it

The

faced

is

When
and
even

the backing

with

brick,

seventh course of brick

is

placed

as a header course. This allows

the

each

header course to tie across


second course of block

They may be composed of separated wythes spaced


monolithic.

apart to represent a specified wall


thickness.
wall, the
is

To be classed as a cavity
minimum cavity width

2" and the

maximum

and moisture, the cavity


between wythes may be filled with
insulation. Sprayed foam insula-

cold,

tions are especially good.


inert

When

face brick

is

used as a

sometimes desires not

reinforcement.

facing pattern

Then

to disrupt

with header

the practice

is

must

be

bridged

with

Hollow Masonry

to tie

the wythes with corrugated wall

or other metal reinforcement.

Minimum
is

to rot

The space between masonry


units

ties

Welded wire reinforcement adds strength


and holds wythes in position.

They are

and are not subject

decorative exterior covering, one

courses.

4".

and mold.

backing.

the

is

Since masonry transmits heat,

spacing of such ties


16" on center vertically and

Any

wall constructed of

interior

voids the area of which

exceeds
sectional

32" horizontally.

ma-

sonry units or blocks which have

25% of

the total cross-

area is

classed

as

hollow masonry.

Masonry Cavity Walls


All

masonry

walls

are

not

Soldier course in

89

running bond brick.

RUNNING BOND

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Construction detail with masonry veneer


wall covering.

Wall section combining

masonry

veneer and wood siding.

VERTICAL SIDING

Masonry Veneer

building,

masonry veneer

is

finishing or decorative

a solid

material

a less expensive maThe backing may be of

covering
terial.

masonry, wood, or metal frame


construction. However, the term

veneer

mean

is

that

usually

masonry

intended
is

to

applied as

a covering over a material other

than masonry.

When

veneer

applied over other masonry,

it

is

not intended to

to support only

its

It

is

own

meant
weight.

When

veneer is applied over


frame construction, a 1" air space
is left between the masonry and
wall sheathing. The veneer is attached to the frame with metal
wall

Normal spacing for the


16" vertically and 32" hori-

ties.

ties is

The

space allows for

is

zontally.

is

variations in the thickness of the

usually referred to as facing.

is

and

be load supporting.

masonry, and

Veneer placed over wood frame

of heat,

not a true structural part of the

moisture.

air

resists

cold,

transmission

and penetrating

90

BRICK VENEER

8:

Masonry Wall Construction


peak or gable may be of 6" masonry. Note: This is accepted primarily in low-cost buildings. Most
codes would not permit it. Gen35'

high

may be of 8" solid masonry.

Walls

erally,

walls less than

more than 35' must be 12" solid


masonry. Most codes will permit
12" and
first story walls to be
second story walls

The
veneer
is

8".

minimum
for

thickness

two-story

of

structures

4".

Parging
is
a layer of rough
smooth finished) plaster made
from sand and portland cement.
It is used as a waterproofing on
exterior foundation walls, between
solid masonry walls and interior
coverings and between masonry
wythes. This prevents the masonry
backing from discoloring exposed

Parging

(not

Corrugated wall
for

ties are nailed

maximum

into studding

strength.

decorative masonry.

Weep

Holes for Cavity

and Veneer Walls

Temperature

differences

be-

tween interior and exterior walls


lead to moisture condensation.
This must be ventilated. Special

may be used, or vertical


mortar joints may be omitted
every 4' in the bottom course.
vents

Masonry Wall Thickness


and Height
Wall thickness and height for
masonry will
vary with local codes. These must
be checked before wall planning
can be completed. The FHA
materials used in

gives

the

following

minimum

standards: Solid or hollow cavity


walls less than 9' high at the top

wall plate line and 15' or less at

91

Part

Flashing and Termite Shields

Except for very arid regions,

one must place flashing at the base


of solid or hollow masonry, as

shown

in

the illustrations.

termite shield

is

The

similar to that

used for a frame wall, except that


it is not visible from the exterior.

Bond Beams or Top Plate


If the structure
in a

is

to be built

high wind or earthquake area,

bond beam of concrete

is

used.

One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

8:

Masonry Wall Construction

With

masonry,

solid

this

is

a re-

inforced concrete band, extending

around the perimeter of the buildFor 8" and 12" walls, two
No. 4 reinforcing rods are re-

ing.

quired.

the

If

building

is

con-

structed of hollow concrete block


units, the

with

lintel

bond beam is formed


blocks as shown and

two No. 4 reinforcement rods


added; then the units of the reinforced band are filled with
concrete.
If in neither a high wind nor
earthquake area, a single top plate
may be placed over both wythes

for masonry and firmly secured


with anchor bolts. These should
be placed as for foundations.

When

hollow units are used, the

voids in the top course are

rilled

with concrete.
PIPE

CHASE

Lintels

When

openings

masonry
windows or

in

are required, as for

masonry above the openmust be supported. When

doors,
ings

Masonry above pipe chases and recesses


most frequently supported by steel

wall recesses are required, as for


flush radiators, pipe chases,

is

and

lintels.

other equipment, these openings


must also be supported by lintels.

lintel is a

horizontal construc-

member over
Lintels may be

tion

A masonry arch gives

the opening.

constructed of

poured concrete, pre-cast concrete,


or concrete lintel blocks. These
are held to their proper position

with

wood

temporary

vertical

supports called shoring; reinforce-

ment is added and the voids filled


with concrete. Arches of masonry

may

also serve as lintels.

concealed

When

lintels are desired, struc-

tural metal

may be

the lintel extend a

used.

Ends of

minimum

of

4" into the masonry wall.

93

its

own

support, so no steel

lintel is

required.

table of steel lintel sizes

is

Chapter 5, Structural
Metal. Lintels must be clearly
indicated on the working drawing;
a schedule of lintel sizes, coded
to specific openings is most

shown

in

desirable.

Damp-proofing
action

Since capillary

damp

moisture from a

draws

exterior

surface toward the interior, some-

thing must be done to stop this


flow.

Silicone spray

on exterior ma-

sonry surfaces will help. Parging,


or rough plastering the wall on
the inside with a coating of Port-

cement mortar and then

land

Furring strips block moisture transfer and serve as nailers for wall coverings.

coating this surface with bitumi-

nous damp-proofing

will

retard

in direct contact with the exterior,

masonry

the flow of moisture.

When

a cav-

this is sufficient.

cautions must be taken. Furring

wall

ity

ing

is

used, the damp-proof-

may be

placed between the

wythes. Since a cavity wall

is

not

finishes

Interior

plied directly to the


ity

wall.

may be

ap-

masonry cav-

However, when

solid

strips,

is

used, additional pre-

least

at

in

thickness

must be placed over the dampproofing.

Brick
a baked clay product.

Bricks used as an exposed dec-

determined

orative material are called face

using this material on prominent

by the natural color of the clay,


or earth colors may be added during manufacture. Red and buff
are the most common. However,
brick is manfactured in almost

bricks. They are uniform in size


(usually within Vi 6 " limits),
have neat, square corners and

exteriors.

Brick

The

is

finished color

every

color

is

imaginable.

Bricks

close quality control during


facture.

Common

uniform

in size or color.

manu-

bricks are not

They

product

that

is

the

It is

the author's opinion

common

walls suggests

only excuse for

brick

on exterior

more of a run-down

appearance than any other single


factor of construction.

are

used primarily as backing material, or sometimes on the sides

Names and Sizes of Brick


The names of brick shapes

vary within specified limits, as


determined from manufacturers'

and back of

well standardized; however, the

samples. Variant colors and tex-

tures.

may be purchased

in quantities

of a single color, or they

may

tures are obtained by using glazed


brick,

which has a coating of

ramic on the

face.

ce-

tially

a building,

if

par-

obscured by other struc-

These are porous, and


absorb dirt readily. They eventually present

ance.

an unsightly appear-

The expense of
94

a quality

exact sizes are not.


ing
is

are

chart show-

names and approximate

sizes

given on page 96. Individual

manufacturers may vary


the sizes shown.

W from

"

FLEMISH

RUNNING

DIAGONAL

HEADER
Brick bonds.

UNIT

RANDOM

BROKEN END

3 UNIT

3 UNIT

2 UNIT

4 UNIT

RANDOM SHORT

MEDIUM RANGE

RANGE

RANDOM ASHLAR

"

95

Standard

2'/4"x3 3/4"x8"

Modular

2'/4"x3 s/8"x7 s/8"

Jumbo
Norman

2%"x3 A"x8"

Brick

2'A"x3 5/8"xll

5/8"

S.C.R.*

Roman
Baby Roman
.

/8 "x3 5/8"x11 s/8"

certain styles

/8"x3 5/e"x7 5/e"

the people

2 /2"x3 5/8 "x9"

Some

Size may vary


with manufacturer

bonds, and

Registered trademark.

This

brick

is

in-

tended as a single thickness, low cost, one-

masonry

Building Stone

ways

of

and methods with

who developed them.


the more common brick

Fire Brick

different

of solving construction problems,


have resulted in identification of

Oversize

story

and

tural beauty,

2 /e"x5 /2"xll /2 "


,

Bonds

Differing feelings for architec-

their application to

shown
on page 95.

wall areas, are


trations

Stones most

commonly used

in

building are: sandstone, limestone,

and marble. Lava, quartz


and other stone sometimes are
granite,

used in decorative
factured stone

is

details. Manumade from ag-

bonded

gregates of natural stone


in the illus-

morbonding

into a monolithic unit, with


tar or synthetics as the

wall.

agent. This stone

may have

a rough

textured or smooth polished face,

depending upon aggregates used


and effect desired. This material
should not be confused with "soft"
imitations, which try to simulate
or copy the appearance of true
materials.

Shapes of Building Stone

Rubble
ture.

struction

stone as found in na-

is

When

used in building con-

no processing

is

done

to

produce a more regular shape,


although large natural stones may
be broken to make them more
purposes.

building

for

suitable

Two

kinds of rubble are:

(1

Fieldstone, or stone as one

might find
has a

it

in

rather

field. It

usually

smooth, rounded

The
random to form

surface of irregular shape.

stones are fitted at

The backs may be cut


more uniform thickness.

a wall.
a

for

(2) Stratified stone, which is


found in thin broken layers may

be broken into pieces suitable for


building. It may be laid with the
strata in a vertical or horizontal

position.
PATTERNED

ASHLAR 4x8,
4

x 12, 4 x 16, 8 x 12,

AND 8x16
Concrete block bonds.

stones

When

laid vertically, the

present

many

faces to the viewer.

horizontally they

may be

or uncoursed (random).

96

irregular

When

laid

coursed

Scholz

Random

Stratified stone as

Homes

Inc.

stone adds to the beauty of this home.

used on the front wall of

this

home

gives a rugged effect.


Scholz

Homes

Inc

fiOfeSSSHranO

&3E&
97

Purchase
Stone

is

The quoted
on pick-up

depending upon the type saw

Trans-

shallow saw cuts are made the


length of the stone along the top
and bottom edge. The stone is

at the quarry.

this.

When

3Vi" stone

is

used, a ton

approximately 50 square

feet.

Ashlar. Imagine a piece of stone


10'xl0'x20' being taken from a

quarry.

From

this

stones are to be cut. These manufactured rectangular shapes are


called ashlar. The stone is cut into
thick,

with

}
heights of 2>/4", 5", 1 A" and

lO'/z".

about

pieces

When

mortar

V/i"

is

When

used.

a split face

then broken along


line.

this

used,

is

weakened

selecting stone, one

When

should consult the manufacturer's


or supplier's literature concerning
the product.

one large stone,

small rectangular building

many

Stone

purchased by the ton.


price is usually based

portation costs must be added to

will lay

off

added between

horizontal joints, the courses will

work well with other modular materials. For example, if 2 A" and
5" stones are placed on top of
mortar joint
each other, and a
l

Facing Stone
stated earlier, facing

As

is

usu-

applied over other masonry.


When it is placed over concrete,
ally

the wall must be parged to keep


the concrete from staining the
stone.

may be

Facing

either in

the form of large square or rectangular stones of a uniform


it may be specially
shaped with decoration cut into

thickness or

the

face.

When

planning

the

height
is used between, the total
as
is 7W. This is the same height
one 8" nominal concrete block or

building, the architect specifies in-

with mortar between.


Lengths may be specified, but ashlar stone is usually purchased in

and the stone

is

desired shape.

Each stone would

bricks

random
lar,

or

cost,

lengths.
if

Ends are

irregu-

specified at additional

they can be cut to predeter-

dividual stone shapes. Each shape


plan
is located by number on the

then cut to the

not have an individual shape, but


rather a series of shapes would

be repeated

in the allover plan.

All like stones, of course,

buying
mined lengths.
stone one must specify the quantity proportion of each height

have the same number.

desired; stated as a percentage.


The face of ashlar is either

ing to

When

sawed or
terns

split.

the

stones are delivered to the building site, they are stacked accord-

pat-

marked on by
the manufacturer. Each stone has
this identifying number to corre-

textures,

spond with the working drawings.

The sawed

may have many

would

When

number

as

98

This wall protruding above the roof


a parapet. The stone
is called

covering

is

called a coping. Also

note the built-up roof and flashing


detail plus the 45 cant strip.

Masonry Wall Construction

8:

Structural

Tile

is

and Facing

The main

similar to brick.

ence

is

tile.

These

Tile

baked clay product

differ-

the cavities built into the

Structural

lighten

weight.

its

made

tile is

as a back-

ing material or with one finished

When

face or more.

finished.

The

used

in

both faces are

unit wall,

single

exterior

may be

fin-

ished as a brick face, or a ceramic

may be

glaze

applied.

ceramic glaze
terial

is

When

added, the ma-

is

called facing

tile.

Sills

Masonry buildings usually


have a stone
ings.

sill

beneath

all

open-

Some manufacturers may

have standard

sizes

more popular

than any others; however, there

no degree of uniformity as to
and shape of sills. One
cannot give as a standard answer
that sills generally have a certain
size. They may range from Vh"
is

the size

5" in thickness.

to

Modern

build-

ings tend to use the thinner

Modern
cussed

later.

parapet

means

a low enclosing

is

extending above a

7.

kinds of mortar are used:


(2)

hydrated lime
of both, with

sand as the aggregate.


finished

is

8.

not un-

mortar be-

meant by the term

is

What
What
What

is

a wall tie?

is

a wythe?
a hollow masonry

is

unit?
9.

How

are two or more wythes

of a cavity wall joined?

10.

is

Questions to Reinforce

Knowledge

What

is

What

is

meant by the term

What
What

is

solid

How does one

masonry

ing;

3.

What

is

from the

masonry

is

14.

cavity

wall?

is

What

is

a masonry veneer

it

99

where

determine

re-

the purpose of flash-

What

is

it

is

what are

used?

a bond beam;

why

used?

15.
to a

wall?

hole;

illustrations,

two places where

What

weep

located?

12.

masonry?

is

it

quired thickness of a masonry wall?

wall?

4.

appear-

excess of

in

What

facing?

The desired

6.

tween irregular spaces.

1.

Mortar Joints

cement or

by no

it

called a coping.

or combinations

5.

may be
buildings may

but

typical,

while retaining

header course?

the only size that

1". On rubble walls


common to use 3" of

usually of stone, or terra-cotta,

(1)

have mortar joints

Exposed masonry must be


capped to prevent moisture from
entering between wythes and mortar joints. This cap or covering,

Two

is

much abuse

beauty.

ance determines the size mortar


For ashlar a
mor-

joint to use.

used. Rustic type

roof.

is

easy to maintain and withstands


its

tar joint

wall, usually

tile Is

sill.

design trends will be dis-

Parapet, Coping

Weyerhoeuter Company

Glazed facing

How

is

a top plate secured

masonry wall?

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

16.

How many

are placed

is

What

25.

18.

26.

When may

directly to

9. Think of

furring strips

two reasons

on masonry

20. Brick

it

it

how

brick

29.
split

colors?

face brick; where

is

rubble?

Is

there

more

What
What

is
is

ashlar?

a coursed pattern

What are the common heights

What

is

meant by the term

face?

30.

is

How

does

show and

one

specify special stone shapes?

What

is

common

brick;

31.

where

Name

and

What

is

the standard thick-

ness or height of stone

used?

23.

What

of ashlar? Thickness?

used?
22.

is

28.

for using

in

patterns of

masonry wall?

for a

walls.

available

is

many standard
21. What is

27.

plaster be applied

a masonry wall?

many

than one kind? Explain.

function?

its

parging, and what

is

as

face brick as you can.

are they located?


17.

Name

24.

reinforcing rods

a bond beam; where

in

32.

five different kinds of

How

is

sills?

stone purchased,

terms of weight and price?

their sizes.

Terms to Spell and

Know
shoring

veneer

matt

terra cotta

velour

rubble

attaching

architectural

coursed

wythe

sandstone

ashlar

flashing

limestone

quarry

granite

mortar

damp-proofing

marble

chat

arches

lava

hydrated

capillary

quartz

rustic

silicone

strata

coping

parging

stratified

parapet

glazed

fieldstone

textures

lintel

block

100

sawed

in

<>
Ceiling Joists

and Roof Construction


ng with

ceiling joists

Three methods of roof framing

bearing wall.

for light construction are used:

The

(1

oldest

mon method
posed

is

of ceiling

and other

and most comframe com-

joists,

rafters,

parts which are cut

assembled

at

the

building

and
site,

or, for large

may

developments, parts
be cut at a cutting shed, and

then delivered to the individual


building site for assembly.

Ceiling, |oists

and rafters combined


form roof trusses.

becoming widely used


in which the
ceiling joists and rafters are assembled to form a single unit.
(3) Post-and-beam (or girder)
has heavy planks placed across
the beams to form the roof deck.
The first two types will be dis(2) Also

are

roof trusses

cussed in this chapter. Post and


beam roof construction is discussed separately in Chapter

Post and

beam

11.

roof system

101

Ceiling joists and rafters are in

very close proximity and serve to

the

to

shown

as

sides

the

in

illustration.

counteract thrust forces of each

Many

other.

times they are con-

as a

structed

single

Determining Joist Size


Joist size

as in

unit,

determined by the

is

wood

roof trusses, or one of them may


be omitted and the remaining

strength of the

member

the net load the ceiling

as

be required

will

to serve

For these reasons the

both.

of ceiling

discussion

joists

same

The

Since

discussion

primarily

is

light wood frame construction. However, other materials


can serve equally well. For example, steel and aluminum manu-

about

facturers are supplying structural

it is

difficult to

the exact weight of

and

parts,

unit.

species to

joist span,
is

and by
to sup-

port.

and

roof construction will be given


in the

be used, by the

determine
structural

and

research

since

experience

past

all

indicate

sizes

that can be expected to support

the structure, exact engineering

data will not usually be comfor

piled
is

light

construction.

Ceiling joists

may

be lapped above

bearing wall.
It

common practice to use estabminimum sizes from exist-

lished

parts for light construction.

ing tables and charts.

The

Ceiling Joists

and
Ceiling

members
ceiling

joists

are

structural

that support the finished

and

also floors of occupied

space above.

In

act as tension

members

addition,

they

to resist

tables

rafters

minimum

for

used in

ceiling joists
this text

show

standards established

by the

FHA. As mentioned

earlier,

one

must

check

local

codes to be certain these tables


satisfy legal requirements.

the outward thrust of the rafters.

The rafters exert constant outward


pressure

The

on

the

outside

Minimum Loads

ceiling joists tie the building

joists

for Ceiling Joists

above the ceiling

If the space

walls.

not to be used for oc-

is

and prevent the tops of outside


walls from spreading apart be-

cupancy, the rafter slope is greater


than 3" in 12", and attic storage

cause of

is

this pressure.

desired,

net

pounds per square


Splices in Ceiling Joists
If

adequate. This allows 20

continuous ceiling

joists

do

load and

live

of

load

foot (psf)

10 psf.

for

they are spliced over an interior

3"

When

a wall supports the

ceiling joists in this

say the wall


joists

is

manner, we

load bearing.

are spliced they

When

must be

secured together and also secured


to the wall supporting
joists

them. The

may be lapped and


may be

together, or a scab

storage

When
a

ceiling joists are end joined above


bearing wall, scabs should be Vt"
above the lower edge of the joists.

dead

load. If the slope of the roof

wall.

is

psf. for

not extend across the building,

in

30

is

12" or less and no attic


is

may

desired, the total net

psf. The accompanying tables are based upon

load

be 15

these strengths.

When

ceiling joists

floor joists for

serve as

occupancy above,

spiked

strength requirements should be

nailed

the

same

as for floor joists.

102

Ceiling joists

may

be secured to wall

plates with metal connectors.

Ceiling Joists
DOUGLAS
Spacing

Nominal

siie

FIR,

Select

Dense

Construc-

Structural

Construc-

tion

(inches

1950

Utility

Select

Dense

Construc-

Structural

Construc-

tion

Standard

Utility

12001

(')

tion

1700

1450

NO
2x4'

2x6

2x8

2x 10

Standard

tion

O.C.)

(inches)

COAST REGION ASSOCIATION LUMBER GRADES

ATTIC

1200

11

10

11

16

10

10

10

24

12

17

16

16

24

14

14

14

14

12

21

21

21

21

16

20

20

20

24

18

18

18

16

17001

STORAGE

12

17

19501

(')

LIMITED ATTIC

STORAGE

10

10

14

14

12

10

12

17

17

13

14

11

13

11

11

11

10

20

18

18

18

18

20

17

17

18

14

15

15

16

16

14501

14

13

13

17

17

17

15

14

10

12

24

24

24

24

24

21

10

21

10

21

10

21

10

19

16

24

24

24

24

22

20

20

20

20

16

10

24

21

19

18

18

18

18

13

10

10

21

10

21

10

10

21

(b) Spans shall be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lumber more than 2 percent but not more than 5 percent scant from
American Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content of
J 9 percent or less,
lumber scant more than 5 percent will not be

Denotes grade is not a stress grade.


Denotes light framing grade. (Not industrial Light Framing)

Notes:
(a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those shown
rough lumber or lumber surfaced two edges (S2E).

for

acceptable.

SOUTHERN YELLOW PINE-(MEDIUM GR AIN)-ASSOCIATlON LUMBER GRADES


No.
Spacing

Nominal

site

(inches)

(inches

X. D.

2" Dimension

No. 2

1500

NO
2x4

2x6'

2x8

2x 10

Spans

No.

No.

No. 2

2" Dimension

2" Dimension

K. D.

2" Dimension

No. 2

No.

K. D.

No. 2

2" Dimension

2" Dimension

2" Dimension

15001

14501

12001

o.c.)

17001

K. D.

2" Dimension

for

14501

ATTIC

1200

1700

STORAGE

LIMITED ATTIC

12

11

10

11

10

11

10

11

10

16

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

24

10

12

17

17

17

14

14

14

17

16

16

24

14

14

14

14

12

21

16

16

16

STORAGE

14

12

10

11

11

10

18

18

18

13

13

21

21

21

18

16

20

20

20

20

17

24

18

18

18

18

15

15

15

12

24

21

16

24

24

21

24

24

24
10

21

2" x 6" lumber having actual dressed

1W x 5W may be increased 2Vi

24

24
10

21

24
10

21

10

11

13

17

17

17
14

10

21

10

21

10

21

10

20

20

20

20

18

18

18

18

(b) Spans shall be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lumber more than 2 percent but not more than 5 percent scant from
American Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content
of I 9 percent or less. Lumber scant more than 5 percent will not be

size of

percent.

Notes:
(a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those shown for
rough lumber or lumber surfaced two edges (S2E).

acceptable.

Ceiling joist sizes

103

and spacings.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Ceiling Joist Spacing


joists

Ceiling

normally

are

spaced on 16" or 24" centers,


with the 16" spacing usually preferred

because

this

more

gives

support to the finished ceiling.


When the 24" spacing is specified

4'x8'
as
used,
are
materials
panels, 16" spacing is normally

frequently placed in the utility


disappearing
room or a hall.

specified.

stairway
access

Framing for Attic Opening

Framing
conform

to

for

openings should

good practice as deChapter 6, page 74.

scribed in

furring strips are sometimesplaced

an inconspicuous place. Access to


an attic with no storage space is
frequently placed in a closet,

angles to the joists on


spacings that conform to the size
of the material. When large sheet
right

Attic access

is

usually provided in

while access to attic storage

convenient for gaining


frequently

to

used

attic

storage space.

and the ceiling is to be installed


using prefinished materials,
at

is

is

Rafters

Rafters are the sloping structural

members designed to support

roof loads. Rafter size

is

deter-

mined by the strength of

wood
rafter

the

by the sloping or
span, and by the net load
species,

the roof

is

to support.

From general observation you


may have noticed roofs that were
practically flat

Securing Ceiling foists to Wall

When

determining factors of roof slope.


In colder climates it is customary

and walls

ceiling joists

to build the slope quite steep to

of the rooms below the joists are


parallel to each other but the

snow and
warmer climates
shed

do not bear upon the wall,


some provision must be made for
securing the two together. Two
methods of joining walls and

joists

ceilings are

shown

ally quite low.

roofs
or Girder to Support

Above Openings

while

in

not nec-

low slope rep-

resents a considerable saving in


materials. However, low slope

in the illustra-

Joists

ice,

this is

essary, so roof slopes are gener-

tions.

Beam

and ones that were

very steep or any angle of slope


in between. Climate is one of the

Non-bearing partitions may


be blocked between ceiling
joists.

If ceiling joists are at a right

must have greater strength

to support additional live loads,

such as an unusual snowfall. Current design tends to favor low


slopes

when

at all permissible.

between
rooms, as when a living and dining
room have no wall between (open
plan), a beam or girder must
angle

to

an

opening

support the opening.


protrudes

below

ceiling, the joists

If the

beam

finished

the

may be lapped

or spliced over the beam. However, if a smooth ceiling is desired

between the two rooms, a ledger


may be added to the beam as
shown and the joists supported on
the

ledger.

The

equal h the total


x

104

ledger

beam

should

depth.

Ceiling

joists

secured

to

both edges of a wall give


nailing surface for finishing

materials.

3uilt-up girders with ledgers permit level

ceilings

between rooms.

9: Ceiling Joists

and Roof Construction


RAFTER

CRIPPLED STUD

Roof Types
Traditional design has devel-

CEILING JOIST

oped standard roof types. The


more common are shown in the
illustrations on page 106.
These are not the only solutions

DOUBLE TOP PLATE

to

placing a roof on a structure.


design and experimenta-

Modern

Gable end framing

tion

have offered

shapes.

Some

many unusual
new shapes,

of the

based on an expanding technology, will certainly

become standard forms of construction.


Others are merely an attempt to
find something new and different
and have no structural advantage
over existing types.

Some

of the

more promising new shapes

are

illustrated.

To

design a good roof requires

a basic

how

knowledge of the parts and


are assembled

these parts

into a finished structure.

complicated design

is

When

involved,

it is necessary for the designer


to
supply framing plans describing

and

the parts
relation

to

their locations in

the

other structural

members.
Gable Roof

The gable roof is the most frequently used type. When more
complicated types are used, the
gable usually forms the basic part
of the shape.
Building Span

Ceiling joists and rafters are


usually placed across the shortest
building dimension. The distance

from one outer corner of the top


plate to the opposite outer corner
is

the building span.

105

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Frequently used roof shapes.

Roof shapes frequently used on contemporary buildings.

BARREL VAULT

CYLINDRICAL PARABOLOID

106

9: Ceiling Joists

and Roof Construction


RIDGE BOARD

MEASURING

Run

Rafter

LINE

The

rafter

run

is

the horizontal

from one end of the

distance

When

rafter to the opposite end.

ridge board

upper end of the


of this board

is

placed at the

is

rafters, the center

considered as the

point where each run terminates.


BUILDING SPAN

Rafter Notch at Top Plate

bearing surface

flat

is

nec-

upon the
top plate. A notch ("bird's
mouth") is cut on the lower edge

essary where rafters bear

of the rafter so the notch


PITCH

SYMBOL

in

12

width

When

is

equal

top plate.

masonry walls are

solid

and

used

the 2x4

to

wide

top

plate

is

placed covering both wythes, the


notch is still made only 4" wide.

This

is

slightly variable.

Measuring Line of Rafter

The measuring

line

is

an imag-

inarv line running parallel to the

edge of the
through

rafter so that

the

inside

90

it

passes

corner

formed by the notch and extends


the entire length of the rafter.

STANDARD ROOF SLOPES

Notional lumber

Mfg Ajioc

Rafter Tail

The

Roof construction data.

rafter tail

is

the

amount

of rafter extending past the side


COLLAR BEAMPURLIN WITH BLOCKING

of the building to form the overhang. The tail is not considered


LET IN PURLIN

a part of the actual rafter length.


Rafter Span

The

rafter

span

is

the inclined

or actual rafter length, measured


from the 90 corner of the notch

and following the measuring


to the center

Note:

beams and braces strengthen

roof construction.

107

very easy to confuse

span with building span.


Be sure vou understand it. Also
see illustrations on page 108.
rafter

Collar

It is

line

of the ridge board.

Part One; Structure An Architectural Obligation


RIDGE BOARD

VALLEY JACK RAFTER

COMMON
HIP

JACK RAFTER

Roof framing parts

RAFTER

identification.

(1) It is stated as a fraction, as


full pitch, Vi pitch, Vi, Va, etc.

a full-pitch roof the rise

is

On

equal

the rafter run. This

to twice

is

also equal to the building span.

On

Vi

pitch roof the rise

is

equal

The pitch is
amount of rise

to the rafter run. (2)

also stated as the

proportion to each

in inches in

12 inches of run.

Examples are

4/12,5/12,6/12, 10/12, or 12/12.


This might also be stated as "6
inches to the foot," "10 inches to
the foot," etc.
Rafter

As

Angle
stated earlier the rafter

designed in a ratio of

is

rise to run.

The

rafter tables on the carpenter's


framing square are also based

on
Flat roof

this ratio.

lated

framing

The

tables are tabu-

even inches of

in

proportion to 12" or
is

Rise

Rise

Pitch
is

the

vertical

distance

Pitch

is

the

amount of slope or

from the lower edge of the ceiling joists to the rafter measuring
line, when measured at the end of

slant of the roof.

the rafter run.

run. Pitch

It

is

described

as the proportion or ratio of rise


in relation to
is

each foot of rafter


stated in two ways:

108

1'

rise

of run.

in
It

not wise to design a roof with

an uneven pitch such as 4'/2/12


because this prevents the work-

men from

using the tables on the

framing square, greatly increasing


labor costs because of the extra

time involved.

LOW

SLOPE ROOF JOISTS OR RAFTERS


(Roof slope 3

DOUGLAS
Nominal

Spacing
size

Select

Dense

Construc-

Structural

Construc-

tion

(inches

in

2 or less)

COAST REGION ASSOCIATION LUMBER GRADES

FIR,

Standard

Select

Dense

Construc-

Structural

Construc-

tion

Utility

tion

(inches)

Standard

Utility

tion

a. c.)

1700

19501

12001

14501

1950

(I)

1700

Light Roofing

NOT SUPPORTING

2x6

2x8

2 x 10

2x12

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

12

14

14

14

14

16

13

12

10

24

11

11

11

10

12

18

18

18

18

17

17

17

(1)

SUPPORTING FINISHED CEILING

FINISHED CEILING

In.

13

1200

Light Roofing

FT.

13

14501

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

13

13

13

13

10

12

12

12

11

10

10

10

10

10

10

14

17

17

17

17

13

12

16

16

16

16

11

14

14

14

13

Ft.

Ft.

In.

16

17

24

15

15

15

14

10

12

21

10

21

10

21

10

21

10

19

16

10

19

19

19

19

15

13

10

17

17

17

16

12

10

21

21

21

21

in

16

20

20

20

20

24

18

18

18

18

12

24

22

24

16

23

23

23

23

19

22

22

22

22

18

24

21

21

21

21

16

20

20

20

20

14

10

24

24

24

(Roof slope 3

12 or

in

24

24

24

21

less)

SOUTHERN YELLOW PINE (Medium Grain)-ASSOCIATION LUMBER GRADES


No. 1 K. D.
Spacing 2" Dimension

No. 2

K. D.

No.

No. 2

2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension

No. 2 K. D.
No. 1
No. 2
No. 1 K. D.
2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension

(inches)
o. c.)

17001

1500

1450

1200

17001

1500

Light Roofing

NOT SUPPORTING
2x6'

2x8

2x10

2x12

Ft.

In.

12

14

Ft.

14

Ft.

14

Light Roofing

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

14

13

13

13

13

12

10

12

12

12

11

10

10

10

10

10

16

13

24

11

11

11

10

10

12

18

18

18

18

16

17

13

13

17

12001

14501

SUPPORTING FINISHED CEILING

FINISHED CEILING

In.

17

In.

17

17

17

17

17

16

16

16

16

14

14

13

24

15

15

15

14

14

12

21

10

21

10

21

10

21

10

21

16

20

20

20

20

19

19

19

19

24

18

18

18

18

17

17

17

16

12

24

24

24

16

23

23

23

23

22

22

22

22

24

21

21

21

21

20

20

20

20

24

24

Spans for 2"x6" lumber having actual dressed size of 1 $"x5W


may be increased by 2Vi percent.
Notes: (a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those shown
for rough /umber or /umber surfaced two edges (S2E).

21

21

24

24

24

be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lumber


more than 2 percent but not more than 5 percent scant from American
Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content of 1 9 percent
or less. Lumber scant more than 5 percent will not be acceptable.

Low slope

21

(b)

rafter sizes

109

Spans

shall

and spacings.

RAFTERS
(Roof Slope over 3

in

2)

DOUGLAS FIR-COAST REGION-ASSOCIATION LUMBER GRADES


Dense

Select

Spacing

Nominal

size (inches)

Dense

Select

Structural Construction Construction

Standard

Utility

1200

(1)

Structural Construction Construction

o. c.)

1950

1700

1405

1950f

1700

2x6

2x8

2x10

1200

Utility

(1)

12

11

10

16

10

24

10

10

12

16

10

16

10

16

10

16

10

14

10

16

15

15

15

15

12

10

24

13

10

13

10

13

12

12

21

21

21

21

16

19

10

19

10

19

10

24

17

10

17

10

17

10

12

24

16

23

23

23

23

24

21

21

21

21

24

11

15

15

15

14

14

14

10

12

12

11

10

16

19

19

19

19

14

19

10

14

18

18

18

17

12

16

24

24

11

10

16

16

15

14

10

22

10

23

23

23

23

19

19

21

10

21

10

21

10

21

6
10

16

10

16

19

19

19

18

13

10

(b) Spans shall be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lumber
more than 2 percent but not more than 5 percent scant from American
Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content of 9 percent
or less. Lumber scant more than 5 percent will not be acceptable.

Denotes grade is not a stress grade.


Denotes light framing grade. (Not Industrial tight Framing)

14501

HEAVY ROOFING

LIGHT ROOFING

2x4

Standard

(inches

Notes:

(a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those shown


rough lumber or /umber surfaced two edges (S2E).

for

(Roof slope over 3

in

2)

SOUTHERN YELLOW PINE MEDIUM GRAIN ASSOCIATION LUMBER GRADES


Spacing

Nominal

size (inches)

(inches

No.

K. D.

No. 2

K. D.

No.

No. 2

No.

No. 2 K.

K. D.

D.

o.c.)

17001

15001

1450

1200

1500

17001

2x6'

2x8

2x10

may be

no

14501

1200

12

11

11

11

11

10

10

10

16

10

10

10

10

24

10

10

12

16

10

16

10

16

10

16

15

15

15

16

15

15

15

15

14

14

14

24

13

10

13

13

12

12

11

11

12

21

21

21

21

19

19

19

19

16

19

10

19

10

19

10

19

10

18

18

18

17

6
4

17

10

17

12

24

16

23

23

23

23

24

21

21

21

21

10

17

10

24

24

10

16

24

of IVs"x5W
Spans for 2"x6" lumber having actual dressed
increased 2Vi percent.
Nates: (a) Spans may be increased 5 percent from those sho
for rough lumber or lumber surfaced two edges (S2E).
1

No. 2

HEAVY ROOFING

LIGHT ROOFING

2x4

No.

2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension 2" Dimension

24
8

15

14

10

12

10

10

16

16

14

23

23

23

23

21

10

21

10

21

10

21

10

19

19

19

18

(b) Spans shall be decreased 5 percent from those shown for lumber more than 2 percent but not more than 5 percent scant from
American Lumber Standards sizes measured at a moisture content of
J 9 percenf or less. Lumber scant more than 5 percent will not be

acceptable.

Rafter sizes and spacings.

9: Ceiling Joists

and Roof Construction

10

14

12

16

20

18

RAFTER

24

22

RUN

25

26

28

30

32

34

36

IN FEET

Rafter span conversion diagram.

Knowing
parts

is

the

names of roof

very important

if

one

is

to

There are two


in

the

text:

sets

one

of rafter tables
for

low slope

parts can also be determined by

and/or roof joists and one


normal rafters with a slope
greater than 3" in 12" pitch. Each
table is divided into two sections.
The low slope tables are divided

studying the illustrations.

so the unfinished ceiling

convey

their descriptions to other

persons. Therefore study carefully


the illustrations

naming

the parts.

Proper methods of joining the

rafters

for

left

Rafter Tables Used

in

Text

and the chart

for

is

to the

finished

pounds per square


as a

foot

is

classed

heavyweight roofing.

The low

slope tables covering

support of finished ceilings are

based on a total design load for


both stress and deflection of 35
pounds per square foot. The

dead load has been calculated


at 15 psf and the live load at 20

the right. Rafters

psf.

Deflection

with a low slope are designed to

'/240

of the clear span up to 15

also serve as a base for the

accommodate lightweight roofing,

feet. If

on their lower side.


In this case the same members
serve as rafters and ceiling joists.

which weighs less than four


pounds per square foot. Any roof-

15 feet the total deflection

Rafters

may

for

finished ceiling

low

slope

ceilings

roofs

is

to

ing that weights

more than four

Ill

not

is

not to exceed

the joists are longer than

exceed %".

must

See tables on

pages 109 and 110.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

COMMON

RAFTER LENGTHS
USE DECIMAL
EQUIVALENT CHART TO CONVERT TO
IN INCHES.

FRACTIONS-READ FIGURE TO
LOWER RIGHT OF INTERSECTING

LINES.

RUN

Low

slope tables used in figur-

ing supports for finished ceilings


are based

on a

total design load

and deflection of
30 psf. The dead load has been
calculated at 10 psf and the live
load at 20 psf. The allowable deflection is the same as for low
for both stress

IN FEET

slope roofs with finished ceilings.

Rafters designed for heavyweight

Study and compare rafter

roofing are based on a total load

tables.

The dead load has been

Rafters with a slope greater


than 3" in 12" and designed for

of 30

lightweight roofing are based on

load at 15

a total design load of 22 psf.

The

dead load has been calculated at


7 psf and the live load at 15 psf.
112

psf.

calculated at 15 psf and the five

to

up
is

Deflection

psf.

exceed

Viso

to 15'.

Over

is

not

of the clear span

not to exceed

15' the deflection


1".

Combination

nailed

"W"

"W"

and

glued

truss.

truss with split ring connectors.

Roof Truss
Ceiling joists and rafters

may

be cut and assembled as a single


unit,

with structural support be-

tween the members. The triangular unit

The

tural

than conventional
still

(2)

furnish

the

interior walls

upon the outside

walls, thus per-

desired location.

mitting a clear span

the

can be placed

in any-

entire

Methods

of

Assembling Roof Truss

many

nates the need for bearing walls

conventional

and permits the building to be


framed as one large room. The

ods of assembling roof trusses.

building can be closed

connectors and the other

has

The strucmembers can be smaller


(

truss bears only

width of the building. This elimi-

is

truss

advantages over
framing methods.

no bearing walls are required,

labor costs. (3)

called a

thus formed

roof truss.

reducing construction time and

framing and

same

strength.

They may be purchased, thus

minimum

in after

of time and the area

used for working during the

re-

mainder of construction. Since


113

There are two

common

One method makes


gluing

and/or

wood

use of metal

nailing.

nailed, glued truss

meth-

is

is

When

by
a

used, ply-

gussets, are used at joints.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

th

plywood gussets.

Two shapes are used for nailed,


glued trusses. These are either a

W truss or a king-post

truss.

Two

methods of framing the nailed


truss are shown, with
and glued

the latter preferred.

Preliminary Design for Nailed Glued Trusses

All trusses should be designed

conforming
Pitch

Span

2/12 to 4/12

W
W

Chords

practical
-

Truss

20'-8" to 28'-8"

2x4

Truss

28'-9" to 40'0"

2x6

to standard engineer-

ing practice.

Note

that

purchase

to

is more
them as

it

manufactured units than to construct

them

at the building site.

Truss Spacing
24'0"

2x4

to 32'-0"

2x6

8'-0" to

Kingpost

Kingpost

25'0"

The most common spacing


wood roof trusses is 2'-0" on

for

center (o.c). However, this


the only spacing that

Table of truss cords.

114

may be

is

not

used.

and Roof Construction

9: Ceiling Joists

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

What

are

three

common

What are ceiling joists?


Where are splices in ceiling
joists made?
4. What is a load bearing wall?
5. What is meant by a scab
3.

6.

What

joist

What

is

ceiling

joists

What

it

is

What

are two methods of

25.

securing ceiling joists to walls par-

26.
27.

How

if

necessary.
.

If

is

no wall between

two adjoining rooms (open

how

are the ceiling

What
be made when

joists

plan),

supported?

special provision should

12.

there

is

an opening

through ceiling joists?


1

3.

14.

What
What

is

factors determine roof

is

name

are

low

slope

roofs

quite popular at the present time?

is

a roof truss?

are the advantages of

methods?
37.

What

are two methods of

38.

for the

What
What

40. Which

is

is
is

What

frequently used?

kind of line

is

truss?

the stronger?
construc-

light

the truss spacing most

tion,

what

a king post truss?

typical

the rafter measur-

is

a rafter

is

rafter

is

rise?

is

pitch?

are

What
What

28.

29.

30. From

why

rise

Terms to Spell and

tail?

span?

counteract

and run related

is
is

a dormer?
a crippled stud?

your

own

reasoning,

are rafters doubled at openings?

What special provision must


be made when framing a gable to
31.

32.

what

Why

lightweight roofing?

truss roof over conventional fram-

39.

accommodate masonry veneer?

a rafter?

slope?
15.

notched

to pitch?

there

is

this?

What
What
What
What

Use sketches,

What
What

41. For

ing line located?

determines spacing of

24.

another

is

Where

22.

the preferred ceiling

to the joists?

rafter

top plate?

rafter notch?

23.

is

furring strips placed at right angles

allel

meant by the term

joins the

What

What

assembling roof trusses?

Why

20.

ing

is

to the ceiling joists?

10.

36.

meant by the term

is

What

19.

also

spacing?
9.

What

8.

35.

Why?

building span?

where

serve as floor joists?


8.

34.

Heavyweight?

the most frequently

is

used roof type?

three factors determine

When do

many

describe as

rafter run?

joist?

ceiling joist size?


7.

What

17.

2.

being nailed onto a

Name and

16.

roof types as you can.

methods of roof framing?

is

What
its

is

a ridge board, and

purpose? Do

ings with a sloping roof

33.

What

is

all

build-

have one?

a low slope roof?

115

Know

prefinished

framing

furring

joists

traditional

rafters

gable

assembly

mansard

truss

gambrel

girder

butterfly

planks

parabola

roof deck

hyperparabola

tension

barrel

thrust

overhang

spiked

lightweight

nailed

heavyweight

species

slope

king post truss

truss

a
Roofings
Definition of

This type roof

Roof sheathing
base

rafters or roof
to

the

framing members

Class A, as de-

which makes them satisfactory

extensively

masonry
commercial

small

in

Two

light

advantages

buildings.

the speed of erection

steel

is

crete plank systems are used quite

Gypsum Base Sheathing


and has

which

very low in noise transmission,

Concrete or

is

rating,

of heavy
However, the con-

buildings

for

construction.

apartments and

structure

Roofs

termined by Underwriters Lab-

solid

over

support the roof covering.

If a

flat.

re-

served

the

is

placed

material

may be

of these materials are usually

Roof Sheathing

and

are

its fire

oratories.

The planks

Wood Roof Sheathing


Wood frame roofs using

roof

framing members, the roof deck

may be

of concrete or gypsum.

Sometimes

deck

this

planks

concrete

or

formed and poured.

made of

is

be

can

it

When

gyp-

sum is used as a roof deck it is


not intended to support live loads
other than water or snow.

sum

Gyp-

prepared with water

is

in a

mixer and sprayed onto the roof


through a hose. It is leveled in

much
crete.

the

same manner

When gypsum

base for roofing

it

is

as con-

used as a

coats a form of

fiberboard or corrugated metal.

form material is not


moved; it acts as a sub-base

This

the roof.

Two

sum over

re-

for

advantages of gyp-

concrete are

its

light

weight and the short setting time


for the material.

Concrete or gypsum roofs are

covered

with

built-up

roofing.

Concrete planks

116

may be

also

as a flooring system.

of masonry

or concrete

are

installed for floor or roof systems.

either

rafters or roof trusses are usually

covered with a wood sheathing.

When wood

shingles are to be

l"x3"

used as a roof covering,

placed across the

strips are often

vacant

with

rafters

spaces

be-

minimum requirements where wood shingles


tween. This meets

but makes

permitted

are

work

tional

later

if

addi-

the shingles

are replaced with other types of

roofing,

which requires that these

spaces be

filled in.

Solid Sheathing
Western

Surfaced-four-sides (S4S) lum-

ber

frequently

is

used

Wood

strips are frequently

roof

as

sheathing. However, tongue-and-

groove or shiplap lumber

is

more

satisfactory because the edges are

held securely together across the

space between

rafters.

Sheathing Lumber Sizes

When either S4S boards or


edge-and-end matched lumber is
and when minimum rafter
is 24" o.c. or less, nominal
1" (actually "/u") lumber is
used,

spacing

used.

When

desired,

is

greater rafter spacing

additional sheathing

Staggered end
with solid lum

thickness

is

also required. Tables

of lumber thickness and spans


are

shown

Beam
wood

in

Chapter

1,

Post and

Construction. Tables of ply-

and spans are

thickness

shown on page

1 1

Breaking Joints

8 of this chapter.

in

Sheathing

When S4S lumber


ceeding

boards

spliced over the


joints should

ternated. If

is

used, suc-

should

same

be

not

rafter.

The

be staggered or

al-

end-matched lumber

used, a joint may be made between rafters but the board must
rest upon at least two rafters.
is

Plywood roof sheathing must be

posi-

tioned so ad|oining panels do not end

on the same

117

Wood

Products Assoc

used to replace solid sheathing when wood shingles are


to form the finished roof.

joist.

Part One: Structure

ROOFS Minimum

An

Architectural Obligation

Thicknesses, Spans and Nailing Schedules

(Grain of Face Plys. Across Supports; Stagger

All

Panel End Joints)

FHA requirements
When the minimum property standards of the FHA are met for each use, this agency
allows the use of plywood in all parts of the home. This table sets out the basic FHA
requirements.
MAXIMUM SUPPORT

SPACING

(Center to Center)
Slate,

SPECIES

PLY-

WOOD

Asphalt or

Wood

(a)

Shingles or Shakes

Roofing

THICK-

Blkd (b)

(b)

Unblkd

16"
24"

16"

16"

16"

%"

24"

20"
24"

plywoods

%"
%"

Groups 2 and 3 of
Western softwood
plywood (d)

w
%"
3/4"

Flat roofs used for walking traffic


such as sun decks shall use same con-

(a)

32"

28"
32"

42"

48"

clips

6"

12"

6d

6"

12"
12"

24"

24"

8d

6"

12"

48"

28"

32"

8d

6"

12"

6d

6"

12"

16"

16"

8d
8d

6"

12"

6"

12"

8d

6"

12"

16"

metal

6d

6"

24"

20"

32"
42"

28"

mediate

8d

16"

42"

Inter-

Edges

16"

20"
24"

32"

Panel

Unblkd

20"

16"

/s"

Blocking of edges shall be by accurately cut wood blocking or by special

(<)

Shingles

32"
42"

24"

(c)

struction as subflooring.
(b)

Unblkd

V\t"

w
w

Nails

Cem. or
Blkd

Douglas Fir,
Western larch and
Group 1 (C-C and C-D
sheathing grades only)

Common

Asbestos-

NESS

NAIL SPACING

NAIL SIZE

Clay

Built-up

designed for

Or 5d threaded

24"
this

purpose.

nails for

plywood and 7d threaded

Vis" and
nails for

other thicknesses.

20"
28"

grades identi(d)
fied as Group 1, excepting the sheathing grades (C-C and C-D) which if identified as Group 1 may take the same
spans as Douglas fir.
This applies also to all

American Plywood Assoc

Width of Sheathing Boards


stated in Chapter

As

6,

wide

boards warp more than narrow


ones. When roof sheathing also

sometimes called decking or roof


boards warps, it presents an unsightly, irregular roof. It can also
affect the quality

may

not

because shingles

lie flat,

thus permitting

wind to lift them from the roof.


Boards no wider than 6" are
recommended.

Plywood Sheathing
Sheathing grade plywood (exunsanded) makes very fine
roof sheathing. The advantages
terior
Building paper

is

fastened between roof sheathing and the exterior roof covering.

are

118

the

same

as

for sub-floors.

"

10: Roofings
in Chapter 6. Tables
plywood roof sheathing are
shown. Even though Vi</' and
thicknesses meet minimum
requirements up to 30 pounds
total live and dead loads for 24"

discussed

used,

for

across the joists.

fully the notes at the

bottom of
plywood sheathing tables to

barrier.

the

laid

be

sure

the

face

grain

placed

is

Examine

care-

requirements

all

are

fulfilled.

sometimes visible
For this reason

is

to the observer.

the author prefers a i"

thickness, with

minimum
more

thickness

When plywood

sheathing

is

serves

as

If the

partial

roofing

immediately,

the

paper may be tacked


nails

or

is

It

vapor
to be

building

in place with

staples.

How-

ever, with only nails holding the

Building Paper

place,

is

it

edges

roof

After

sheathing

covered with

is

felt

ing paper. Manufacturers

mend

desirable if cost will permit.

also

roofing

rafter spacing, the deflection be-

tween rafters

sheathing from the weather.

15

pound paper
This

applications.

in

build-

recom-

most

for

protects

the

it

is

it

is

easily torn.

usually

tacking

wood

held
lath

in

Therefore
place

along

by
the

This protects the paper


from being torn by either the

edges.

wind or workers' movements.

Roof Coverings
vantages over other types.

Built-up Roofing

Built-up roofing
or low slope roofs.

building

slag,

color

used on

felt.
is

The

flat

consists of

It

layers of asphalt

alternate

asphalt

is

final

and

coat of

a Class

fire rating. It is

repair or replace

and

is

It

has

easy to

very wind

resistant.

The crushed stone placed

in

covered with gravel,

the outer layer serves chiefly as a

The

decorative covering but also helps

or stone chips (chat).

and texture depend upon

reflect the sun's rays.

gMfffUnnWiP.MW^

the material used. This type of

roofing

may be

applied to almost

any roof deck, since no nails or


other

mechanical

required.

It is

for concrete

fasteners

built

are

up roof

is

long lasting and ideally

suited to flat installations.

especially suitable

and gypsum but may

be used with wood, plywood, or


fiberboard if adequate strength is
provided at joints in the roof
decking.

Most

satisfactory

results

obtained when the material


plied

by

a professional.

are based

is

are

ap-

Roof costs

on the amount of time

can be expected to last. This


depends upon the number of layers of asphalt and felt that are
applied. It may be purchased with
a 10, 15, or 20 year warranty.
it

Built-up roofing has several ad-

Low slope

built-up roofs are widely used

on contemporary homes.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

2/12 the underlay paper should


be head lapped 2". For slopes
less than 2/12 the underlay
should be doubled. Asphalt shin-

Three-tab square butt shingle.

purchased by the square,


feet. The standard
weight is 215 pounds per square.
gles are

Individual shingle.

or 100 square

However, some codes require up


to a 275-pound weight.
Two-tab hex shingle.

Giant individual American shingle.

Asphalt shingles are favored


by many. They are easy to apply,
have a good appearance, are fire

and are reasonable in


They are usually applied
over wood sheathing. When apresistant,

cost.

plying nails or staples to secure


Three-tab hex shingle.

Dutch lap shingle.

the roofing, care must be taken to

avoid joints

Asphalt shingle patterns.

in

the sheathing. If

nails are not properly held they

work around

will

Asphalt Roll Roofing

Asphalt

roll

nailed to prevent water from run-

roofing is

felt

build-

It

is

purchased in

rolls

of

may be either smooth

36" width.

It

surfaced,

with

the

asphalt

ex-

it may have stone granimbedded in the outer


surface. The granules may be

posed, or
ules

distributed over the entire surface or they

may be on

lower half of the

roll

gable rake and fascia from A" to


X

Roll roofing

if

double

This

is

it

is

utility

recommended

that

cemented and

asphalt

strip

shingles,

the

forming the tabs are seen.


first

course of shingles

is

slits

If the

placed on

are illustrated. Perhaps the

the felt underlay is exposed between the slits. One must use a

butt shingle.
strip

from drawing water under them.


Metal edging or starter strip is recommended. When one observes

the roof in the regular manner,

also be

on small

the lower edge be

mon

many

prevent capillary action

to

The more com-

different patterns.

may

farm structures or storage units


where appearance is not a factor.
This prohibits its use on most
homes. Roll roofing is suitable for
roof pitches of from 1 / 1 2 to 5 / 1 2.
When it is used on low slope
roofs,

variegated colors and in

most familiar

a very inexpensive roof

covering used

Asphalt shingles are of asphalt


impregnated felt paper which is
coated on the face with fine stone
granules. They may be purchased
in a wide variety of solid and

not de-

purchased with a patterned exposed edge.

Asphalt Shingles

is

coverage (two layers)


sired.

only the

through

Shingles are lapped over the

ning under the joint.

ing paper impregnated with asphalt.

in or

the outer surface, causing leaks.

is

the 3-tab square

The dimensions of
12"x36". The

shingles are

amount of tab exposure to the


weather (amount of shingle visible) is dependent upon the roof
and grade of shingle used.
Five inches to the weather is a
pitch

Low slope roofs


wind areas may require

typical exposure.

or high

cement under each tab to seal it


to the roof, or the newer selfsealing shingles may be used.
For roof pitches of more than
120

strip

of

roll

roofing or reversed

shingles beneath this

first

course.

Asbestos Cement Shingles


Asbestos cement shingles are
manufactured of asbestos fibers

bonded

in

portland cement. They

are usually striated or textured to

resemble wood shingles. They are


very durable except they are quite
brittle

and

will shatter if struck

a sharp blow.
in a great

They

are available

range of colors. There

10: Roofings

no uniform standard sizes.


Most companies manufacture individual shingles and wider widths
resembling several shingles. These
are

recommended

are

shingles

for

roofs with a pitch of 5/12 or

may be

greater but

used on low

slope roofs if special sealing pre-

cautions are taken. Asbestos ce-

ment shingles are fairly expensive


and are therefore used primarily
on institutional buildings and
finer homes.
Corrugated asbestos cement
sheets are used primarily for util-

Random width wood shingles

ity structures.

Clay

may be

laid either

on wood strips or solid roof


paper.

felt building

Tile

manufactured of
in the form of
baked masonry. There are many
Clay

shale

tile

is

and clay

shapes of clay

be included

tile.

in

If

they are to

your plan secure

detailed information from

manu-

facturers literature.

a very

is

It

durable material and comes

in a

has several

wide range of colors.

It

disadvantages.

quite expen-

It

is

very heavy, and

sive,

must be
by an expert. It is used

installed

primarily for institutional build-

and

ings

expensive

homes.

It

(1)

sawed

of the two.

These shingles are used when


is

desired.

base.

Wood

shadow

factured of cedar,
cypress,

manu-

redwood, or

with cedar being most

frequently used.

Wood

On

less

expensive
split

is

way two shingles

are

split

on the

(called rethis

formed from

of a layer but

codes prohibit the use of

surface

It is

lier,

wood

shingles are not usually

laid

on a

solid roof deck. Strips

are nailed across the rafters to


to the

amount of headlap

desired.

It is

broken

Terne

is

a stone

121

formed natu-

if

struck a

installed in

sheet

much

as flat clay

tile.

are about the

iron

or steel

may

be applied on very low slope


It may have either standing

roofs.

or

flat

locked seams. This roof

should be painted or have a bi-

tuminous coating applied.

It

is

installed over a solid roof deck.


is

good roof; if kept propunder normal use, it

erly coated,
is

The

coated with an alloy of tin and


lead. It is purchased in rolls and

Terne

Slate
Slate

cut into rec-

high cost limits use.

same manner
Weight and cost

not a problem, they

do present a pleasing appearance.


They cost approximately three
times the amount of a good quality asphalt shingle. As stated ear-

conform

its

sharp blow.

Terne

is

is

the thickness

be smooth or rough,

also easily

same.

this

may

roof but

However,

hazard.

fire

is

depending upon the effect desired. Slate makes a permanent

shingles or shakes because

of their

by earth

layers

shingle

the

one piece of wood.

Many

The

tangles of the desired size.

shingles

can actually be divided into two


groups:

either

thin

into

rally

forces.

sawing) to form a taper. In

line at the

shingles are

split,

and then sawed

face

thick butt (bottom end) pro-

vides a wide

shakes,

shakes the shingle

when

a rustic appearance

shape and

The hand split is the more costly

tile.

Shingles

shingles which are

Wood

(2)

wood

Wood

Wood

to their

by machine or by hand.

should be laid on a solid deck


with 30 pound felt beneath the

The

or shakes

sheathing covered with

will last indefinitely.

IkV*^

Unif Structures,

Properly designed standing

It

has very good

resistance.

The

and wind

fire

cost

is

about three

times as great as asphalt shingles.

seam metal

It may be placed over a


deck or may be placed vertically over purlins or furring

roofs.

solid

without a roof deck.

Copper

primarily on

Copper is purchased in rolls


and applied in the same manner
as terne.

It is

also a very durable

material and makes a beautiful

roof after the copper oxidizes to

warm

green patina. The chief


disadvantage of copper is its high

initial cost,

which prohibits

on inexpensive

its

use

as

sometimes used as

a base for con-

crete, as previouly discussed.

it

is

Be-

cause of the rust-resistant zinc


coating, it may be left unfinished
but painting assures better ap-

and longer life. The


and 6' to 12'

sheets are 26" wide


long.

Corrugated or ribbed aluminum

Galvanized Roofing

is

This comes in steel sheets


formed with corrugations or ribs
to add rigidity. The sheet is dipped
into a hot zinc alloy to form a
is

utility structures

However,

Corrugated or Ribbed

ing

used

is

The

Corrugated and ribbed roofings also are often treated with

and bituminous coatings to


life, improve appearance, and reduce noise.
fiber

prolong their

Aluminum Shingles

Aluminum

roof-

not intended for low slope

and

similar in appearance

vice to galvanized roofing.


since

ever,
rust,

cost

it

is

ser-

How-

aluminum does not

need not be painted. The


slightly

vanized but

used for

more than

it

is

still

for gal-

primarily

utility structures.

122

is

also

formed

into

individual and strip shingles, used


for the

same applications as asThe colors tend

phalt shingles.

Corrugated roofing
utility

structures.

rust protective coating.

It

a finished roofing.

pearance

Koppers Com

roofs can contribute to overall architectural beauty.

is

widely used

structures.

on

10: Roofings
to

be bright and have a glossy ap-

pearance.

They

shingle.

However,

transmission

noise

their

They

great.

is

and easy

lightweight

They

are a very durable

to

are

apply.

are used on roofs with over

4/12

pitch.

more than

Their cost

is

slightly

for asphalt shingles.

in flat

and corrugated

are a relatively

fiber glass or translucent acrylic


plastic.

Their uses are as varied

as the imagination.

pecially

roofs

but

These panels are manufactured

They

Generally the panels are of either

suitable

on

structures,

Translucent Panels

styles.

new product.

filter

industrial

as

They

as

they

in

and utility
admit light

the sun's rays.

buildings are

are es-

inserts

Many

being built using

these panels as replacement for


windows, or they are very satis-

and patio
on slopes
over 4/12 but may be used on
factory

roofs.

low

for

carport

They work

slopes

if

best

the

joints

are

calked or sealed. Panels are easy


to cut

and

ing tools.

install

The

using woodwork-

cost

is

for metal roofing but

greater than
is still

satis-

factory for low-priced structures.

Flashing
Where

a vertical surface joins

a roof the joint

must be sealed.

When two roof surfaces

are joined

they must also be sealed. Metal.


plastic,

or bituminous materials

are placed

the joint

in

the water away.

building

the

When

to

lead

planning a

flashings

must be

described and specified. Examples

of flashing at important locations


are

shown

in

the

illustrations.

These should be studied

carefully.

Flashing seals the joint between a roof

and an adjoining

Boston ridges are used to

123

finish gable

wall.

and hip

roofs.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Chimney saddles must be flashed

to

prevent leaks.

A dormer requires flashing above the window and where

it

meets another

roof.

Chimneys extending through


should be flashed on

all

a roof ridge

sides.

Both open and closed valleys should be flashed to prevent leaks.

Questions to Reinforce Know/edge

What

What
it

is

is

roof

sheathing?

are two other names by which

called?
2.

5.

When may

concrete be used

as a roof deck?
3.

What

4.

are some of the ad-

vantages of a concrete roof deck?

When and why

is

gypsum

Are the forms removed when

a gypsum roof deck


6.

What

is

used? Explain.

are some of the ad-

vantages of a gypsum roof deck?

What

is

one disadvantage?

124

7.

What

are concrete planks,

and why are they used?

used as a roof deck?

8.

Why

matched

is

sheathing than
9.

How

lumber?

edge and end

lumber

better

for

roof

S4S lumber?

thick

is

nominal

1"

10: Roofings
1

0.

May

boards ever be spliced

between rafters? When?


1

Why

29.

are wide boards less

narrow ones for

than

satisfactory

What

used?
31.

to

likely

is

happen

if

wide boards are used?


13.

What

one

does

determine

what thickness of plywood


15.

32.

What

Why

to

use?

33.

Why

34.

What

shingle?
is

7.

Why

building paper used

is

beneath roofing?
1

8.

19.

20.

How

is

40.

42.
first

course of

Is it

Is

a good shingle?

there

Where

more than one shape

are the advantages of

37. Explain

wood

shingle

and how

terne

is

Is

good

terne

Is

terne

suitable

What

is

the

life

21.

22.
to

Is

Why

45.

What

Why

is

Name

is

the kinds

23.

What

and where
24.

is

How

is
it

asphalt

roll

What

wide

is

asphalt

25.

What

are two surface treat-

ments for asphalt


26. Can

roll

roll

split

between
shake.

47.

What

is

flashing?

Is it

important item on a building?

rustic

shingles

decorative

terne

matched

granules

bituminous

staggered

imbedded

oxidize

alternate

variegated

patina

decking

butt

ribbed

exterior

rake

zinc

staples

fascia

alloy

lath

tabs

fiber glass

asphalt

asbestos

acrylic

warranty

institution

translucent

roofing be used on

low slope roofs? Explain answer.


27.
there

What

Know

resistant

roofing?

are asphalt shingles?

Is

more than one kind? Describe.


What is meant when one

flashing

28.

says 3-tab shingle?

125

flat

and describe.

roll

roofing?

for

are translucent corru-

roofing
roofing

roofing

gated panels and where are they

Terms to Spell and

used?

it

corrugated roofing?

crushed stone applied

the surface of built-up roofing?

is

does copper turn green?

a good material for

this

roofs? Explain.

expectancy

used?

flat

on

used?

difference

and a

What

44.

46.

clay roofing tile?

What is built-up roofing?


Where is this most frequently

shingles?

lap

of terne?

of clay tile? Explain.

What

head

roofs?

43.

an asbestos cement

is

is

wood

material?

most frequently used?

36.

purchased?

it

it

35.

building paper?

the

What

sometimes

codes

purchased?
41.

shingles extend past

is

Why do

shingle?

special precaution must

Why do

the rafters?
is

why not?

39.

asphalt shingles doubled?

relationship does the

What

or

What

face grain of the plywood have to

16.

38.

prohibit the use of

edge of a roof?

the

How

the

be taken when asphalt shingles are

grade

plywood?
14.

"to

says

meant?

used on a low slope roof?

sheathing

is

is

30. Are asphalt shingles widely

roof sheathing?
12.

When one

weather," what

a very

Why?

an
and Beam Construction

Post, Plank
Wood

beam

post and

construc-

tion consists of a series of posts

with heavy beams across them.

The

posts transmit the building

load to the footing.

The wall area

between the posts does not add


the structural strength.

The

to

wall

acts as a curtain to enclose the

building.

may be

It

wall

may have

construction.

may be built in its


of post and beam or one

structure

entirety

section (such as a wall or roof)

may

be built using

this

method

and the remainder may be

built

method of

ciple

beam

is

a very old

construction.

used extensively

is

much

is

earlier times.

common

also

the

It is

same

favored

as in

heavy
homes.

in

mill construction but not in

in early

It

was

Ameri-

less,

since the

modern

in

method is applied
structures, it is

important.

Scope of Discussion
This unit
iarize

is

designed to famil-

you with the

involved.

It

basic problems

will also

be an aid in

preliminary design work. For

New

Uses

modern

to

beam

ap-

structures,

development
of glued laminated beams, plywood box beams, and other laminated structural components, freeespecially since the

and analysis should be


Post and beam is a
simple system with
ties

structural

to

studied.
relatively

many

similari-

steel

framing.

However, because of the larger


need for framing connectors, and methods of

structural sizes, the

of design has become virtuEven so, the use of

joinery, the system presents

and beam construction has

problems for one familiar with

ally unlimited.

post

final

design purposes, engineering data

Because of post and


plication

dom

another way.
Post and

It

farm and utility structures.


Even though modern building
techniques and methods of joinery have improved, the basic prinin

a series of

lightweight panels or

conventional

can building.

not spread to

all areas.

Neverthe-

new

conventional framing.

Framing Systems
There are two general methods of
is

beam placement. The

first

called the transverse system. In

this system, the

roof beams

fol-

are at right angles to the roof


slope.

When

decking

from the highest

to lowest point

decking

top of next page.

angles to the

beam, which permits roof decking


to be placed in its customary position. The second method iscalled
the longitudinal syslem.

The beams

at

beams,

on the

at right

placed

right angles to the

low the roof slope. The plank


is

is

roof.

it

slopes, which, as said, allows un-

limited design possibilities.

slopes

See two drawings,

Wood

Posts

When
quired.

Post

Posts

are

wood
for

to

be sup-

posts are re-

walls

and

to

support ceiling beams should be

Roof Slope

and beam construction

suitable for

floors

ported, 6"x6"

flat

is

as well as all roof

126

4"x4". Consult the codes,

some

require different calculations.

and Beam Construction

Post, Plank

Transverse beams extend from a building

edge to a center beam.

Beam Shape
Beams

are usually rectangular,

with the thickness greater than the


width.

The

top of a

beam may be

beveled to follow the roof slope.


If a

load bearing wall

at the ridge, the wall

is

may

placed
replace

METAt STRAP

the ridge beam. See next page.

METAL PLATE

Beam Spacing

Beam spacing and span are


determined by the size and species
of material used and by the total
load to be supported.
When 2" thick tongue-andgroove subfloor or roof deck is
used the beam spacing is not to
exceed 7'-0". If greater beam
spacing

is

desired, thicker planks

must span the beams.


Three tables of beam
given. See pages 129

sizes are

and

Methods

130.

127

of joining

beams

at the roof ridge.

purlin

may be

secured between

beams

before finishing materials are applied.


X
x
X
X
X
x
X

Beams may

be notched to

fit

over

conventional frame walls. The upper 2x4

is

a nailer fastened to the

plank roof.

Beam

connectors.

This subfloor system places

IV tongue

and groove plywood across 4'0"

o.c.

beams.

Heavy plank subfloors may also be supported by a post and beam system.

"

Maximum

spans for floor beams

using 2" plank subfloor


Spacing

Nominal

Silt

1-3x10"

2-2x10"

in feet

Spacing

Fir

Redwood

S.Y. Pine

4'0"

12'-8"

4'-6"

ll'-l

1"

Nominal

in feet

Size

4'0"

2-2x12"

0'-4"

Douglas

Fir

S.Y. Pine

16'1 1"

Redwood
13'- 10'

9'-9"

4'-6"

9'-4"

5'0"

15'-3"

5'-6"

14'-6"

l'-10'

6'-0"

13'-1"

5'0"

5'-6"

10'- 10"

6'0"

10'-5"

8'-6"

6'-0"

13'1 1"

6'-6"

lO'-O"

8'-2"

6'-6"

13'-5"

iO'-ir

7'0"

9'-8"

7'0"

12'11"

10'-7"

'-4"

8'-

11"

7"-l

4'0"

17'-

10"

4'-6"

3'-3"

1C-9"

4'-6"

16'-

10"

5'0"

2'-7"

10'-3"

5'-0"

5'-6"

2'-0"

5'-6"

15'-3"

6'0"

4'0"

6'-6"

7'0"

1-4x10"

Douglas

4'0"
4'-6"

4'0"

4'-9"

5'0"

3'-4"

5'-6"

12'-9"

6'0"

1"

6'-6"

14' 1"

8'-9"

7'-0"

4'0"

4'-8"

3'-8"

2'-6"

2'-0"

'-6"

ll'-l"

5'0"

16'- 3"

0'-4"

5'-6"

5'-6"

6'-0"

'-5"

3'-9"

10'10"

4'-6"

17'11"
7'0"
1

'-4"

13'-1"

4'-6"

1-6x10"

12' -1"

11"

3'-

10"

6'-0"

9'-5"
9'

ll'-l"
0'-8"
1

1-4x12"

'-6"

9'-

'-6"

2'-5"

4'-9"

13'-11"
3'-3"

2'-8"

6'-0"

12'-2"

9'-

14'- 10"

6'-6"

ir-9"

9'-7"

6'-6"

U'-3"

ll'-8"

7'0"

'-4"

9'-3"

7'-0"

13'-

Maximum spans

11"

beams using 2" plank

for floor

10"

2'-2"

'-3"

subfloor.

Maximum

spans for roof beams


using 2" plank decking

Spacing

Douglas Rr

in feel

S.Y. Pine

Redwood

4'0"

10' 1"

8'-3"

or

4'-6"

9'-7"

-4x6"

5'0"

9'-

Nominal

size

2-2x6"
1

5'-6"

or

1-4x8"

"
1

8'-8"

Size

i.i

feet

Douglas

Fir

S.Y. Pine

5'-2"

7'- 10"

4'-6"

4'-4"

7'-4"

5'0"

3'-8"

1 1

7'-0"

5'-6"

3'0"

8'-4"

6'-9"

2'-6"

6'-6"

8'0"

6'-6"

6'-6"

2'0"

7'0"

7'-8"

6'-3"

7'0"

1 1

4'-0"

4'-6"

3'-4"

2'-8"

5'0"

2'0"

5'-6"

6'0"
6'-6"
7'-0"

iO'-ir'
0'-4"

9'- 10"

'-6"

9'-4"

6'-9"

'-9"
'-2"

0'-2"
9'-

10"

9'-6"

4'-0"

4'-6"

15'- 10"

12'11"

1-4x10"

5'0"

15' 1"

5'-6"

4'-5"

9'0"

6'-0"

13'- 10"

8'-8"

6'-6"

8'-4"

7'-0"

12'-

beams using 2" plank

129

0'-8"

or

'0"

for roof

2'-5"

2-2x10"

0'-3"

Maximum spans

'-7"

0'-7"

Redwood

4'-0"

1-3x10"

6'0"

6'0"

2-2x8"

Spacing

Nominal

decking.

3'-4"

10"

3'-8"

2'-4"

H'-IO"
1

'-4"

IC-IO"
1

0'-6"

Beam and

Typical Glued Laminated

TOTAL LOAD

SPAN

12'

16'

20'

24'

28'

32'

40'

50'

60'

SPCG.

30

2.

40

P.S.F.

(LIVE

AND DEAD)
45

P.S.F.

55

P.S.F.

P.S.F.

3%"x

6>A"

3%"

6'A"

3%"

6'A"

3%"x

8'A"

3%"

8'A"

3%"

8'

3%"x

8'/."

3 3A' x

8'A"

3%"

8'A"

3%"

8'A"

3%"

8'A"

3%"

9%"

12'

3%"x

8'A"

3%'

8'A"

3%"

9 3A"

3%"

9%"

3%'

11%"

3%"

11%"

16'

3 3/b"x

9%"

3%'

9%"

3%"

%"

3%"

3"

3%' x 14%"

3%"

14%"

6'

3%"x

8'A"

3 3/e'

9%"

3%'

9 3A"

3%"

9 3A"

3%'

9%"

3%"

8'

3%"

9%"

3%'

9%"

3%'

9 3A"

3%"x 11%"

3%'

1 1

%"

3%'

12'

3%"

1 1

%"

3%'

11%"

3%"

x 13"

3%'

14%"

5'A' x

16'

3%"

3%'

x 13"

13"

5'A'

8'

3%"

3%'

3"
1

%"

12'

3%"x

13"

16'

3 3/s" x

18'

5'A" x

4%"
3"

1 1

3%"

3"

5'A" x

1 1

%"

5'A" x

%"

5'A' x

%"

1 1

%"

5'A' x

1 1

5'A"x 11%"

5'A' x

3%' x 14%"

5'A' x

13"

5'A"x 13"

5'A' x

13"

5'A' x 13"

5'A' x

14%"

5'A" x

4%"

5'A' x

14%"

5'A"x 16'A"

1 1

4%"

%"

8'A"

9%"
1 1

%"

%"

13"

5'A' x

11%"

5'A' x

14%"

5'A' x 16'A"

5'A' x

5'A' x 16'A"

5'A' x

17%"

6'A"

5'A' x

14%"

3%'

14%"

5'A" x

14%"

5'A' x

14%"

13"

5'A' x

14%"

5'A" x

4%"

5'A' x 16'A"

5'A' x

6'A"

5'A' x 16'A"

5'A" x

7%"

5'A' x

7%"

5'A' x

9'A"

7%"

5'A" x

9'A"

5'A' x

9'A"

5'A'

8'

3%"

4%"

3%'

12'

3%"

6'A"

5'A' x

16'

5'A"x 14%"

18'

5'A" x

6'A"

5'A' x

6'A"

5'A' x

8'

3%"x

6'/."

3 3A' x 16'A"

5'A' x

14%"

5'A"x 16'A"

5'A' x 16'A"

5'A' x 16'A"

16'A"

5'A' x

17%"

5'A"x 17%"

5'A' x

17%"

5'A' x 19'A"

5'A' x 19'A"

5'A"x 21'A"

5'A'

5'A" x

5'A' x 16'A"
1

12'

5'A"x 16'A"

16'

5'A" x

7%"

5'A' x

18'

5'/4" x

7%"

5'A' x 19'A"

5'A'

8'

5'A" x

6'A"

5'A' x 16'A"

5'A' x

17%"

5'A' x

5'A'

7%"

x21'A"

3"

9'A"

5'A' x

x21'A"

x21'A"

5'A' x

22%"

5'A' x

22%"

5'A' x

24%"

17%"

5'A' x 19'A"

5'A"x 17%"

5'A'

5'A" x

5'A' x 21 'A"

5'A' x

22%"

5'A' x

24%"

5'A' x

26"

12'

5'A"x 17%"

5'A' x 19'A"

16'

5'A" x

5'A'

18'

5'A"x 19'A"

5'A' x 21Vs"

5'A' x

22%"

5'A" x

24%"

7"

22%"

7"

24%"

8'

5'A"x 19'A"

5'A' x21'/b"

5'A' x 21Vs"

5'A" x

22%"

5'A' x

22 3A"

5'A' x

24%"

5'A' x

24%"

5'A" x

24%"

5'A'

x26"

7"

24%"

7"

24%"

7"

24%"

7"

26"

7"

27%"

27%"

7"

x 29'A"

9'A"

22%"

12'

5'A" x

16'

5'A" x 24 3/e"

18'

5'A" x

12'

7"

16'

7"

18'

x21'A"

5'A' x

22%"

9'A"

5'A" x 22 3A"

9'A"

5'A" x 22 3A"

5'A'

x26"

24%"

7"

24%"

7"

24%"

7"

26"

7"

24 3/a"

7"

26"

7"

27%"

7"

27%"

7"

29'A"

7"

30%"

27%"

7"

x 29'A"

7"

30%"

7"

30%"

7"

x 32'A"

9"

30%"

7"

x 29'A"

7"

x 29'A"

7"

30%"

7"

32'A"

9"

30%"

9"

x 32'A"

20'

7"

x 29'A"

7"

30%"

7"

x 32'A"

9"

30%"

9"

32'A"

9"

x 34'A"

12'

7"

x 29'A"

7"

30%"

9"

30%"

9"

30%"

9"

x 32'A"

9"

34'A"

16'

9"

30%"

9"

x 32'A"

9"

32'A"

9"

x 34Vb"

9"

35%"

9"

37%"

18'

9"

29%"

9"

x 32'A"

9"

x 34'A"

9"

35%"

9"

37%"

9"

39"

2C

9"

x 32'A"

9"

34 '/a"

9"

35 3A"

9"

37%"

9"

x39"

9"

40%"

The loading shown


to be dead had.

Maximum bending

is
is

based on the following


total

load of which 15

3.

criteria.
p.s.f. is

assumed

is 1/240 of span for live load only or 1/180


of span for total load, whichever governs. This meets the

Deflection limit

A.I.T.C. deflection criteria for


stress

is

2200

p.s.i.

+ 15%

increase for

"Commercial and

Institutiona I-

Withovt Plaster Ceiling" use.

short time loading.

130

50

P.S.F.

6'

'This table of typical sizes


1.

35

P.S.F.

Purlin Sizes*

Weyerhaeuser Company

Glued laminated

beam and

purlin sizes.

TONGUE AND GROOVE

DOUBLE TONGUE AND GROOVE

GROOVED

V JOINT

V JOINT

The first table, page 129, is for


floor beams using 2" plank subfloor. The second table, same
page, is for ceiling beams using
2" wood plank decking. The third
table

to

is

or ceiling

This table

laminated

beams
is

be used

if

wider floor

beam spacing
is

is

desired.

calculated for glued

When

lumber.

solid

Plank designs.

are desired their strength

Roof Decking

approximately the same. This

table

SIMPLE SPAN

suitable for coast region

is

Douglas

fir

and

medium-grain

When

southern yellow pine.

JJ

other

species are desired, consult other


tables.

Roof Decking

There are three methods of


laying roof planks:

They may

form simple spans placed from


one beam to the next beam;

may be continuous over


two beams or, (3) they may be

Douglas Fir
NOM.
GRADE AND PARA.
THICK.
3"

Select

random. When placed


at
random, succeeding planks
should not both end between the
same beams. Illustrations showing
the three methods of installation
and tables of maximum spans
are shown. Spans for roof planks
for Douglas fir are also suitable
for southern yellow pine. Note:
Yellow pine has slightly greater
at

-127b

3"

Comm Dex-127c

4"

Select

4"

Comm. Dex-127-c

(2) they

placed

Dex

LIVE

20
15'3"

Dex-127-b

3'3"

their

span

is

usually

limited to 8'-0".

Decking should be face and


edge

nailed

according

to

the

manufacturer's directions.

per Sq.

Ft.)

3'3"

50

2'0"

U'3"

15'3"

2'0"

n-3"

20'3"

17'9"

16'0"

15'0"

20'3"

7'9"

16'0"

150"

0'3"

9'6"

Western Red Cedar


3"

Select

3"

Comm. Dex 427-c

4"

Select

4"

Comm. Dex 427-c

Dex 427-b

Dex 427-b

COMB. SIMPLE

3'0"

1 1

'3"

130"

11'3"

10'3"

17'3"

15'3"

13'9"

17'3"

15'3"

3'9"

9'6"
1

2'9"

12'9"

2-SPAN CONTINUOUS

TT

Fiberboard roof decks are also


but

(Lbs.

40

strength.

used

LOAD

30

Douglas
NOM.
THICK.

LIVE

Fir

GRADE AND PARA.

3"

Select

3"

Comm. Dex 127-c

4"

Select

4"

Comm. Dex 127-c

Dex 127-b
Dex 127-b

20
7'3"

LOAD

(Lbs.

5'0"

per Sq.

40

30

3'6"

7'3"

15'0"

13'6"

22'9"

20'0"

22'9"

20'0"

8'3"
8'3"

Ft.)

50

2'6"
2'6"

6'9"

16'9"

Insulation for Plank Roof

For most regions the roof deck-

Western Red Cedar


3"

Select

3"

Comm. Dex 427-c

ing will be sufficient insulation.

131

Dex 427-b

4"

Select

4"

Comm. Dex 427-c

Dex 427-b

4'9"
3'6"
9'6"
8'0"

2'9"

1 1

2'0"

'9"

0'9"

0'9"

ICO"

5'6"

14'3"

7'0"

6'0"

14'3"

3'3"

(Table continued on next page.]

Obligation
Part One: Structure An Architectural

When

Roof Decking

RANDOM

additional insulation

is

re-

be placed above
or below the decking. The planks

quired,

LENGTH

may

it

are usually

exposed on the

left

underneath side and rigid insulation is placed above the decking.


Purlins

Douglas

LIVE

Fir

LOAD

(Lbs.

per Sq.

Ft.)

50

When beam

spacing

too

is

great for plank spans, intermediate members may be placed across

hung between-the
beams, and secured with metal
connectors. These intermediate

the top of-or

members are called purlins. When


beams are to be left exposed but
the plank decking is not (as when
acoustic

tile

is

the finished ceil-

ing), purlins are usually used.

West Coosf Lumben

GROOVE
FOR

BEAM

IN

UTILITIES

Weyerhoeuier Company

Groove
Insulation

may be

in

beam

for utilities.

placed either above or below roof


decking.

METAL CONNECTOR
This laminated

beam

is

called

a three-hinged arch.

Side view of purlin and its metal


connector.

beam

132

Provision for Utilities

One

big disadvantage of this

method

is

that there

is

no

"attic"

or space between framing for con-

cealed wiring and other


It

sometimes possible

is

utilities.

to rout

grooves in the top of beams or to


leave channels in built-up

mem-

accommodate these utilities. However, when lighting fixtures are spaced between beams
bers to

(on

the

planks)

it

is

virtually

impossible to conceal them.

They

are usually surface mounted.

Quite frequently the post and

beam

is

constructed as a single

unit, as in the

three-hinged arch

Examples of buildings
using plank and beam construction are illustrated on this page.

shown.

This

gymnasium

roof

is

supported by laminated beams and pur

133
Laminated beams are widely used

in

today's building. The arch

is

an example.
Un.l Sin

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Questions to Reinforce Know/edge


is wood post and beam
beam) construction?
new method of conit a

What

(plank and
2.

Is

Is

4.

Is

mum
1

floors,

it

used

it

the

homes today?

in

mum

most widely used

what

is

their

mini-

Posts for walls

and

to sup-

beams are what

mini-

size?
2.

the

two beam

mensions, vertical or horizontal,

pared with the past?

subfloor or roof deck, what

6.

What

are

laminated

glued

built

What

are

the

two

9.

What

0.

this

roof slope must one

type construction?

When wood

posts

support

18.

9.

20.

If

Why

insulation

is

sometimes

2"

thick plank

is

used for
is

the

What

is

name

another

What
What

are metal connectors?

utilities

Why

sometimes

with this

for-them?

are electrical work and


difficult to

place

method of construction?

maximum beam spacing?


beams

of

the

and solid
same species and

same strength?

the
1

5.

What

are three methods of

placing planks across roof


1

6.

Which

is

beams?

the stronger, south-

ern yellow pine or Douglas fir?

134

for

are purlins?

Do you know another name


21

other characteristics approximately

beam

placement systems? Discuss each.

use with

is

14. Are glued laminated

Are posts and beams ever

as one unit? Explain.


8.

di-

largest?

components?
7.

7.

declking?
1

Which of

method of construction?
5. What is the main difference
in the ways it is now used as com-

13.

placed above the decking?

size?

port ceiling

struction?
3.

finished

Terms to Spell and

Know

joinery

planks

laminated

insulation

components

purlins

transverse

acoustic

longitudinal

rout

beveled

channels

Modular Construction
As

stated in the

of Chapter

first

paragraph

building construc-

7.

tion has traditionally

been dune

framework,

skeleton

main

forming
These may
the job site to

structural panels.

be assembled

at

totally prefabricated structure

with mass-production volume did

not have a significant impact

There are
many reasons why buildings can
no longer be built entirely in this
manner. No doubt you have heard

form a building shell or they may


be purchased or constructed to
varying stages of completion. For
example, the panels might be

upon building construction until


immediately following World

the old saying.

"Time is money."
must do everything
within his power to complete a
structure in the most efficient and
economical manner possible. If
he does not have a highly organized and efficient operation, he
cannot survive in today's competi-

studding covered with sheathing,

line

or they might be completed wall

turers

one piece

at

time.

builder

tive market. Use of preassembled


components, prefabrication, and
modular coordination help him
meet today's competition. These
methods permit uniform sizes of

and

parts, close quality control,

sections ready for interior finish.

no one standard panel


organizations have
developed systems.
Large construction panels are
not confined to any one material.
Wood is most frequently used for
light construction but metal and
plastics work equally well. Plastics

There

is

system,

many

units.

aggregate

Components

are

large

window

framed panels

for floors, walls, or

The

latter

may

units,

be

or

con-

structed using a variety of materials

and

all

modular system of

different panel systems.

Large sheet materials (plywood,


drywall, fiberboard, hardboard, or
others) are glued

and nailed

to a

favor. Prejudice

attempts

demand

still

from these early


opinion of

affects

people. Yet the prefabri-

structure of today bears


resemblance to early attempts. For example, homes in

little

the $100,000.00 class are

or

tially

pre-

roof trusses,

roofs.

and
lend them-

panels,

left

became reversed and the consumer could bargain better, prefabricated structures had lost

cated

exposed

with

quently, after supply and

Curtain walls,

decorative

construction.

assembled building parts such as

the manufacpoor reputation.


Insufficient research, poor design,
and a "seller's market" made a
victim of the consumer. Conse-

building

many

selves to this

Components

II.

Early attempts at production-

are usually used as coverings or

other masonry units

rapid erection.

War

substantially

now

par-

prefabri-

cated before delivery.


Prefabrication

The

facture of
factory.

all

objection that

all

prefabri-

manu-

cated structures were similar in

building parts in a

appearance has been remedied.


Stock models are supplied in a

Prefabrication

is

the

These parts are usually

assembled into large panels beshipment to the building site.


Prefabrication is not new. Earliest
uses date to the latter part of the
nineteenth century. However, the
fore

135

wide variety of designs and variations

of architectural

details.

Many

large manufacturers maintain their

own

and permit extenfreedom to the buyer.

architects

sive design

'-%

Building

components

of this prefabricated

home

Designs are completed and the

buildings are quite popular with

building

amateur

is

fabricated

Prefabrication has

order.

to

including homes, commercial and


industrial

buildings.

struction labor, standardization of

recently of masonry.

For those who do not desire a


one
ready-cut

parts

and then have the individual parts


assembled at the building site.
The design is chosen from one of
a series of stock plans which may
be altered to meet any requirement, or some manufacturers will
cut a complete building from the
owner's plan. Each part is numits

location in the fin-

ished structure. Ready-cut buildings

may be purchased

in

any

stage of completion to suit the

wishes of the purchaser. These

is

necessary

volume and quality production


to

Manufacturers, suppliers, arand


tradesmen agree that standardizachitects, building contractors,

rock lath or plasterboard

Size of Building

sizes,

which would complicate studding


placement. There might be no
standard door thickness, which

136

if
is

be achieved.

and methods of construction


are necessary. If each manufacturer were to decide all the dimensions of his products and
manufacture them to any size he
desired, complete chaos would result. Lumber thickness from one
company would not match the
thickness from another. There
might not be a relationship between the size of concrete blocks
and brick. Plywood or fiberboard
sheathing sizes might differ from
sizes

totally prefabricated building,

would require door jambs to be


custom built. The list of possible
size variations would be infinite.
Standardization

make maximum

use of building materials and con-

more

bered as to

for Standardization

In order to

metal, or

may be of wood,

purchase

Need

Structural

parts

may

builders.

become widely

used for every type of structure,

ScM * Hom

are sized according to modular increments.

tion

is

sizes, compoand construction methods

of materials

nents,

the key to a better structure at

minimum
It is

cost.

very easy to say that stan-

dardization
difficult

is

necessary but very

to accomplish.

Each of

the groups of people mentioned

above has

little

influence on the

thinking of the others!

Modules

The novice soon becomes familiar with the 16" and 24" spacing of framing members. Which

2:

is

Modular Construction

a step

sizes.

toward use of modular

Since dimensions between

ules

been accepted as standards, rea-

they are larger.

son says they should be a part of

be compared

modular

Also, since

sizes.

most large sheet materials are


already manufactured in 4'-0"
widths, this size
starting
sizes

point

considered the

is

for

standard

all

are

cube.

these toys except

like

This

One module may


to

a 4" block or

called

is

module.

Imagine a 4'-0" cube constructed


of 4" modules; this is called a
major module. A 16" or 24" cube
a minor module. Two
minor modules are sometimes combined to form a third
minor module of 32".
is

called

16"

of material.

Imagine a group of building


blocks (toys) that can be arranged

Sizes

mod-

plicated designs. Building

framing members have already

basic

lBuilding Material

an unlimited number of com-

into

Much work
building

being done by

is

material

manfacturers

change product sizes so they


conform or will fit into the modular plan. Even though great
strides have been made, at the
present time the change-over is
to

not complete. Materials used alone

as wall paneling, acoustic tile,


and sheathing materials are the
full modular size. Other materials
such as concrete block, brick, facing

Modular Coordination
The attempt

tile,

made

they will

knowing about modular construc-

and

batt insulation are

smaller than the module so


fit

into the finished prod-

ing industry with these three basic

mum

modules, and to persuade them

naturally leads to an attempt to

Even though smaller they


adjust to the modular layout because they fit into the completed
modular product without being

find full sizes that

cut or re-formed.

people

to

in

acquaint

to

all

every phase of the build-

incorporate

them

into

their

tion!

make maxi-

His efforts to

use of building materials

plans.

fit

modular coordination.
Efforts promoting the modular

Every good builder knows that


framing members are spaced on
16" and 24" centers, in light wood

concept of building are directed

frame construction. So he chooses

toward the following:


Acquainting individuals with

materials

products, designs, or construction


is

called

the concept, terms, sizes,

and uses

Urging

building

manufacturers
sizes,

and

floors

to

use

spacing.

the

fit

using small boards for sub-

and

wall, or roof sheathing,

framing members

of modules.

When

that

may

vary from

material

standard spacing without any se-

modular

rious consequences. But

when

are

used,

to coordinate sizes with

large

sheet

materials

other manufacturers.

uneven

Urging builders of conventional frame structures to follow


modular sizes.
Development and prefabrication of modular components.
Promoting modular drafting
and design.

sheets not ending on the framing.

It is

spacing

results

in

the

readily apparent that framing

spacing

is

maximum

important

for

use of materials.

The

very

big difference between this and

uct.

Building
the 4"

materials

module

of the following
4 'x8"
8

based on
be one

will usually

'xl6"

sizes:

16 'x96"
48' 'x48"

16 'xl6"

48' 'x96"

16 'x32"

48' 'xl20

16' 'x48"

48' 'x144

The 48"x96"

size is

most

fre-

quently used.

Some modular

materials are

based on a 3" module instead of


the standard 4". Kitchen cabi-

and floor coverThese use 3"


modules because their manufacnets, appliances,

ings are examples.

construction

turers standardized product sizes

Most construction makes some


use of modular materials and

one
constantly maintains an awareness of standard sizes and pre-

methods. Frequently

plans the work to

before the 4" module was adopted.


These have not changed. Problems involved can be solved.
These are not structural items;

this

is

with-

out the builder's being aware of


it,

or possibly without his even

using

all-modular

methods

as

many

is

that, in the latter,

full-sized

make

use of

materials as

they are installed after other


ular construction

possible.

137

is

mod-

complete.

Part One: Structure

An

Architectural Obligation

24" MODULES FOR TRUSSED ROOF


48" MODULES FOR ROOF SHEATHING

STANDARD ROOF SLOPES

48" MODULES FOR TRUSS &


GABLE SPANS

16" MODULES FOR


& DOOR
LOCATION & STUDS

WINDOW

16"

MODULES FOR DOORS,

16"

WINDOWS &

STUDS
48" MODULES FOR OVE
HOUSE WIDTHS
16" MODULES FOR FLOOR JOISTS
48" MODULES FOR FLOOR SHEATHING

& DOOR
PANEL SIZES
48" MODULES FOR
OUTSIDE OVERALL
DIMENSIONS AND
FLOOR SHEATHING

MODULAR
MASONRY FOUNDATION

MODULAR COORDINATION OF HOUSE ELEMENTS


All structural

tural

elements,

in

and aesthetic elements of a house are related. Coordinated modular increments of the strucan example house on the 48-inch module, are shown in the diagrammatic drawings. Standard
fit the modular increments of the example shown.

sizes of various existing materials will easily

Modular coordination

MODULES FOR

WINDOW

of

house elements. Also see column

138

1,

page 139.

96"

96

Modular Construction

?2:

CO

'

CO

0
INCH MODULE

ON

48-INCH

MODULAR GRID

-7

-O

INCH MODULE

ON

48-INCH

MODULAR GRID
a

GO

<3
O-

till

INCH MODULE

ON

48-INCH

MODULAR GRID

1TTTII++ r~ =2

mi:

Relationship of modular panels to grid


lines.

See

48"

illustration at right.

96"

48"
'

In any modular system (conventional framing or component


parts) sizes

or

vary

conform

only

to

to the

module

accommodate

other materials. Study the series


of illustrations showing how building materials

used

in

and components are


modular construction.

Observation

of

the

sample

floor plan shows panel widths


most frequently used. Framing
members of components may be
designed to conform to 16" or
24" spacing. (The panel spacing
illustrated is placed on 16" centers.)

Component panel widths of


139

most systems are 32", 48", 64",


80", 96", and 144", with 48" being
the basic major modular width.
Half panels 24" wide may be
purchased, or "filler" panels can
be made to order, to accom-

modate non-modular designs.


Wall components are S'-V/i" tall.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Blank wall panels on the 16-inch and


24-inch modules show their relationship. The
16-inch components increase design flexibility
by one third, and perhaps more, when multilevel structures are considered. In considering
both systems, the increased use factor must

be weighed against increased component


inventory.

24" MODULES
24

16"

MODULES
16

The

interior ceiling height will be

8'-0". Floor, roof,

and

truss

com-

ponents have modular lengths,


usually even numbered, as 24'-0"
or 26'-0".

Window and door components


are designed to
ular system.
are used

fit

into the

Note:

When

and placed edge

mod-

panels

codes

double studs

at sides

that

64-inch

panel

become

to edge,

is

part

modular door and

of

the

16-inch

are

shown mullioned

64-inch window unit to

fit

to

become

a 64-inch wall

nents. The pre-assembled unit with

dow panel combine with adjacent blank

built-in

header

fits

the

64-inch

wall

wall

studs

to

provide

framing at openings.

opening.

Window

of door and
also

that the studdings are continuous

from bottom

modular

Two standard 32-inch casement window


units

opening. The structural jambs of the win-

for wall, door

specify

window openings. Notice

side-

integrally designed to

and window compo-

system

double studs result at the edges.


When such a panel is used with
others, it fulfills the requirement
of building

The
light

to top.

Square-top high-wall and low-wall offsets,


standard height, 8-foot l'/i-inch
extend the use of the modular system.
Porch offsets, for sloping ceiling houses, often

parallel to the
wall,

require high-wall units. Continuous roof slopes,


on garages, may require low-wall offset storage
areas.
National lumber Mfg. Assoc

140

panel construction deta

required

double

2:

Modular Construction

Notional Lumber

Mfg

Asioc

A series of blank wall areas and open areas form the walls of the house. The proportion of
blank walls and 'holes" is an important factor in the design of house exteriors and interiors. The
materials used on the blank areas and the window and door design in the "holes" completes the
exterior and interior wall composition. The illustration graphically shows the need for modular
coordination in these components.

fined to

struction.

is

Large components are not conany one material. Wood


most frequently used for light

concrete panels, exposed aggre-

module

construction but other materials

gate panels, and others are also

zontal

work equally well. Metal, glass,


and plastic, or curtain walls lend

used.

themselves to

this

system of con-

Masonry units such

When

as

individual materials,

as brick or stone, are laid to fol-

Laminated beams and building panels contribute

to the

low modular design, door and

window openings conform


in

to the

both vertical and hori-

directions. The masonry


bond (pattern) must also conform
to modular increments.

design of this modern

clinic.
Weyerhaeuser Company

141

Modular building materials permit new design concepts

for

home

Curtain walls of this school are designed


according to modular

buildin

Modular Construction

12:

Modular Design and Drafting

The

or designer

architect

is

responsible for achieving maxi-

mum use of modular materials


and methods of construction, regardless of whether his planning
is on conventional construction or
components. He may promote
modular coordination in the following ways:

Select building materials that

modular

are

in size.

Specify exactly what materials

are to be used.

Design

all

major parts

in

mod-

ular increments, using materials


selected.

Have complete plans.


Use modular grid lines on

all

plans.

Show complete dimensioning,

and details.
Use modular dimensioning to
show modular and non-modular
notes,

sizes.
Artcrett Products

No doubt you

are familiar with

Some drawand tracing paper (descriptions in Chapter 32) use grid


lines. Most of these have the lines
spaced at Vs" or '/io". Grid lines
for modular construction are similar except module grids are

Modular sized building materials are used

Compony.

in this office interior.

ruled graph paper.


ing

spaced at 4" intervals


ever scale

is

(at

of outside walls, partitions, windows, doors, masonry units will

conform

one grid

to

if

ma-

ter 39.

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

module and

major module grid lines, while


small scale drawings omit the

What

are some of the fac-

which have brought about the

tors

need

What

every dimension, this complicates

components manufactured?

Some edges of

on the
For example, one edge

4.

quently

grid line.

nents?

what forms are building

What

material

is

most

prefabrication? Par-

Is

this

Is

it

new development?

true that only inexpen-

buildings

sive

are

prefabricated?

Explain.
fre-

used for modular compo-

8.

Are prefabricated structures

confined to

What
143

is

Explain.
7.

3. In

parts will not always be

is

What

total?
6.

a building compo-

nent?

2.

5.
tial,

modular construction?

for

module grid lines.


Because all building materials
do not fit into modular sizes in
the job somewhat.

but the
the

what-

being used). Large

scale details include

line,

opposite edge will not,

size is non-modular. This


must be shown on the plans. See
modular dimensioning in Chap-

terial

else?

wood framing systems?

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

9.

What

0.

Why

is

standardization

of

building materials sizes necessary?


1

12.

What
What

is
is

of the building
1

3.

14.
1

5.

6.

is

What

used panel size of modular building

the main difference

22.

What are

What measures may be

by the architect

modu-

to insure

Why

is

modular corrugated

26" wide instead of being


on a module of 24"?
27. What is the difference beroofing

component widths?
How are windows and doors
used with modular components or

tween

conventional modular framing?

modular construction?

lar

23.

modular

coordination

between making the best use of modular materials in standard construction


1

and actual modular construction?


7.

What

is

Terms to Spell and

being done by build-

Know

ing materials manufacturers to fur-

component

building shell

major module

Why

are some modular ma-

prefabrication

stock plans

minor module

terials not

based upon the 4"

modular coordination

plasterboard

facing

modular construction

module

ther
1

modular construction?
8.

module?
19. Are

modular

in

all

building

materials

size? Explain.

144

taken

adequate

use of modular construction?

26.
the standard

materials are used for

modular components?
25.

the most frequently

is

What

24.

building

sheet materials?

module?

module?

What

wood

members?

ings of framing

21.

the underlying idea

of

components usually have what spac-

a module?

What is a major module?


What is a minor module?
What is the smallest standard

building

20. Framing

a ready-cut building?

is

tile

and

Doors

are used to protect an opening from the ele-

ments, to separate rooms, areas or compartments, to

prevent or admit entrance or


architectural detail.

live

admit

and

light

and

exit,

In

ventilation or

expand

add decora-

to

addition,

a door

may

vision.

Doors and Door Frames


Classification of Doors

Doors

fall

two general

into

Panel doors

Flush doors

sheet

with

design categories:

grain lumber glued into a large

may have openings

plywood, or the core

may

when desired. Moldings


and panels may be applied to the
surfaces for added decoration.
These may be factory or job

Vt,"

wood

reconstructed

Panel doors. This door consists


of a heavy framework around the

bound

See two
Solid

into

core

and

flakes

sheets.

solid

illustrations,

is

page

146.

is

panel placed within this frame-

trance doors and for institutions.

work

Frame

They

are

vary slightly with dif-

much

abuse. Cost limits their use

to enclose the space.


will

ferent
size

manufacturers.

doors

Different

in

have different

will also

width frames.

The inside edges of the frame


and the panels are usually molded

sturdy

and

will

small homes.

same

flush

doors look

as solid ones. Their only

difference

is

the interior construc-

may be of wood,
metal or other material.
Panel doors are usually of wood

but other materials are gaining

rigid.

in popularity.

placed in the void. These

tern.

Panels

glass,

Flush doors. Flush (sometimes


called slab) doors are

Wood

smooth on

tion.

Additional

stifleners

are

may

be

bands of wood, expanded


paper (thin strips, on edge, glued

cross

the material

into a

honeycomb

shape), card-

most frequently used. There are


two types of flush doors, with

board

rings, circles

of wood shav-

both faces.

many

is

construction

variations

within each type. Solid core flush

doors are solid throughout (no


inner cavities).

They

made of narrow

are usually

strips

of edge

applied.

take

They have a light wood frame


around the perimeter, but the interior is hollow. Without additional stiffening,
plywood covering does not make the door

(shaped) into a decorative pat-

or panels

used primarily for front en-

Hollow core
the

cut for glass

construction

flush

outside and has a relatively thin

size

styles

face

be of particle board, which


resins

Both solid and hollow

and covered on each

ings, or plastic foam. Two methods of constructing hollow core


doors are shown. These doors are

inexpensive,

present a

fine

pearance, and serve for most


terior uses.

145

apin-

';--'.

Door Sizes
Because of the great variety,
lists of door sizes are
not possible. Consult manufac-

complete

when making

literature

turers'

door selections.
The two most widely used door
heights are 6'-8" and 7'-0". Both
are considered standard.
Personal preference dictates the

sizes

choice.

For homes and other small


structures most codes specify the

following

minimum

sizes:

Front entrance doors

1%"x3'-0"x6'-8"
Service entrance doors
Solid core doors: (left) with

edge grain lumber


board core.

core;

(right)

with

particle

1%"x2'-8"x6'-8"
doors to rooms

Interior

/8 "x2'-6"x6'-8"

Bathroom doors
1

/s"x2'-0"x6'-8"

Preferred bathroom doors

P/8 "x2'-4"x6'-8"
Single closet doors

P/8 "x2'-0"x6'-8"
Recommended minimum door sizes.

Although

sizes

of parts on a

panel door vary with style and


manufacturer, they approximate
those

shown below:
43/""

Stiles

Top

Cross

Lock

4% "
4%"

rail
rail

rail

Bottom

9 /s"

rail

"

3/*'

Raised panels
Approximate sizes

3/"

7/ ' 6

Sticking

146

"

Bars (muntins)

Hollow core doors.

/s

45/s

Mullion

of

door parts.

3:

Doors and Door Frames

Multiple Application of
There

is

minor confusion

re-

garding designation of door types.

Tradesmen and others sometimes


refer to the following as door
types:

Same

lloor Tvp

times have the knob at 40"

(Vi

door height) so they may be reversed up and down. Commercial and institutional doors are
mounted with the knob at 42"

Hinged doors

Bypass sliding

Pocket doors

from the floor.


Determining door swing. On a
closed door, with edges of hinges

Bi-fold or folding door units

exposed,

Double action hinged


These are not truly door types.
They are simply standard doors
using hardware designed for a

specific purpose.

Hinged doors. Hinged doors


are the most common. They must
be located so the door swing does
not

interfere

with

passage

furniture arrangement.

or

The door

usually folds against an adjoining


wall.

On

small structures such as

homes doors open toward


rooms.

On

the

larger public buildings

the doors open out. This

is

done

so they cannot be forced closed


if

the building must be evacuated

is

knob

the

face of a door

flush with the

is

knob is to the
hand door.

left,

it

door.

Bypass sliding doors for interior


Bypass sliding doors are oc-

Hinged flush door.

casionally used at openings be-

tween rooms. However, they are


much used with wide closets and
storage areas.

Any door

variety of materials used, styles,

and surface treatments.

type or

Since these doors are hung so

be used. Frames, doors,

they will slide past each other, one

and hardware may be purchased

edge of one door must be ex-

separately, or

posed.

style

may

all

necessary parts

may be purchased
down package, or
completely
sult

in a

knocked-

the unit

may be

preassembled.

Con-

manufacturers' literature to

Exterior doors and


Bypass sliding doors.

quire three hinges.


is

left-

use.

set

The third hinge


mounted midway between the

is

on the opening side. Interior doors


in a home have two hinges. The
top of the upper hinge is from
5" to 7" from the top of the door.
The bottom of the lower hinge
is 9" to 11" from the bottom of
the

your

and the

the hinges are exposed

edge of the jamb

others subject to heavy use re-

to

is

a right-hand door. If

become acquainted with

rapidly.

The

if

right, this

top and bottom hinges. Height of


door knobs and other controls is
optional. Residential construction

usually places their height at 36".

However, pre-hung doors some-

147

the wide

A clearance space (approx-

imately Va") between doors


visible.

is

also

This space and door edge

should not be visible as one enters,

or stands in the center of

the room.

When

two doors are

installed

as a unit, the finished

opening

width

is

1" less than

door widths.

When

the total

there are three

doors in the unit, the finished


opening is 2" less than the total

The "O" represents a


and the "X" a sliding

fixed unit
unit.

Pocket door units are used

when space is at
when door swing

premium

is

undesirable.

or

door widths. For example, two

However, they are more difficult


to operate than hinged doors and

2'-0"

are

doors

require

finished

Three 2'-0"
doors require a finished opening
3'- 11".

opening of
of 5'-10".

Bypass sliding doors for exterior use feature large glass areas

with narrow

stiles

and

rails.

This

permits a feeling of uninterrupted


space. Both

wood and aluminum

units are popular.

These units are

usually purchased preassembled.

They may be used

in

any climate.

In cold climates insulating glass


is

with

units

may be purchased

many combinations

of fixed

when

they
fre-

suitable

exterior doors.

as

The

door and pocket assembly is usually of wood with metal stiffeners


in the jambs as shown. The units
may be job built or prefabricated.

The prefabricated type


better

service

manufacture.

"O" and

There are two general types of


double-hinged doors. Light-duty

each section.

TYPE 3C
X

TYPE 3E
X
X

TYPE 40
X

TYPE 4E (WITH MUNTIN)

trations notice the small


in the center of

the close quality control during

Double-action hinged doors.

"X"

usually

because of

the illus-

sliding sections.

TYPE 2

from living rooms, or in compartmented bathrooms. They are not

On

and

ox

They are especially useful as a means of closing off dining rooms from kitchens, studies

quently.

gives

required.

The

not convenient

must be opened and closed

sliding glass doors for

exterior use.

148

TYPE 4E (WITHOUT MUNTIN)

Combinations

Bypass

of fixed

and

sliding doors.

Plan view of pocket door assembly

doors such as for cafes, as shown


the illustration, have spring
hinges that will operate in either
in

direction.

They

are

mounted at
and

the intersection of the door

jamb. Heavy-duty doors have


and bottom of the door. They also have
a spring or hydraulic arrangement
either in the bottom of the door
side

a pivot hinge at the top

or recessed in the floor to bring


the door back to a closed position.

A
ner

door mounted

may be

in this

man-

placed in the center

of the door frame or so one face


is flush with the edge of the jamb.

Most frequent use is between


and other rooms.

the kitchen

Double-action hinged door.

149

Pivot hinged glass door.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Wood

folding door.

Plastic folding or accordion door

Cafe doors (double action).

composed of

dion doors because they fold in

(about 3") of wood,

an accordion or bellows fashion.


Small sizes are made to fit standard or special openings. Large
sizes may be custom fabricated
for individual jobs. Large installations may be equipped with
motorized controls.

Folding doors are

narrow

strips

rigid

plastic,

Each

strip

is

or other material.

hinged to adjoining

ones. Folding doors

may also have

a metal skeleton which is covered


with cloth or pliable plastic. These
units are

sometimes called accor-

150

Bi-fold doors.

parts".

Bi

means "two

typical unit consists of

four doors, two of which are

mounted on each
mounted

in a similar

manner. In

any door of any material


may be mounted as a bi-

practice,

or style

Howmay be

side jamb.

ever, additional sections

and Door Framt

13: Doors

Door Jambs

A door jamb (buck) is the part


of the frame which fits inside the
masonry opening or rough frame
opening. Jambs may be of wood
or metal. Wood has been the traditional material but steel and

aluminum have gained much


popularity, especially in heavyduty installations. They are not
uncommon in homes.

A jamb

consists of three parts.

There are two side jambs and a


head jamb across the top. There
may be an additional head jamb
if

Wood

or metal

frame with panel

but are

fold door. The frame and hardware may be purchased as a unit


and the doors purchased separately, or the entire unit

completely

transom-which

is

a glass or

opening above a door


-is required. Transoms have lost
popularity in the immediate past

of wood,

plastic, or glass.

purchased

solid panel

Dutch door

may

now

enjoying a

new

transom so

it

extends to the

framing and
finishing over the door. This is

prefabri-

for non-

especially

These doors are very popular


for wide closets and are sometimes used as doors between
rooms or as room dividers.

Metal jambs are made


wide variety of shapes and

suitable
bearing walls.

page

mounted so they "fold" to enclose


any amount of space. When
doors

in
size.

152.

are illustrated on
Note: The stop-whkh

a part of the jamb.

manner, all
the group will be the
this

When

open,

all

doors

are stacked at right angles to the


wall with their faces against each
other.
Definition of

Door Frame

door frame is the finishing


materials surrounding a door to
conceal or beautify structural

is the protrusion the face of the


door closes against is an integral
part of the frame. Exterior wood
door jambs also have the stop as

between P-0" and 2'-0".


Using special folding hardware, any standard doors may be
ally

same

in

sizes,

some of which

Individual door widths are usu-

in

ceil-

ing, thus eliminating

be

cated and ready-hung.

mounted

flair.

Recent adaptations place the

Metal clad

fire

door.

Rabbeted
door

rlor

with

building parts.

exte

jamb
Interior and

exterior casing.

151

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Thickness of exterior wood jambs


rabbet serving
is l'/s", with a

as a stop.

On

thickness

the

door jambs
approximately

interior
is

%"

(using nominal 1" material)


and the stop is applied to the
face of the jamb.
Wood jambs are manufactured
in two standard widths. Jambs for
lath

Plan view of exterior door

in

frame

wall.

and

plaster are 5V4" wide,

5
while those for drywall are 4 /8"

wide.

11-

fit

Jambs may

easily

be cut to

walls of less thickness. If walls

are slightly thicker than the jambs,


strips of wood are nailed on to

form an extension. Also, jambs


may be custom made to any desired size for a slight additional
cost.

Jambs may be purchased

knocked down (not assembled),


assembled with just exterior casing or brick mold applied, or assembled with the door pre-hung
in the opening.
Plan view of exterior door in solid

10.

Door (hollow core shown)


Threshold

Wall studs

Space

3.

Side jamb

12.

4.

Door stop

5.

Rabbeted stop

door jamb

6. Plaster or other interior wall finish

Sheathing

8. Exterior wall covering

with split jambs to


permit rapid installation and to
allow for any variation in wall
thickness.

Sill

3. Brick

Pre-hung door units are also


available

1.

2.

7.

wall

9. Interior casing

Parts identification

for leveling

masonry

mold

Metal door jamb shapes

14. Air space


15. Furring strips

A.

Jamb

'6- Master grounds

B.

Integral stop

17. Exterior trim (casing)

C.

Masonry wall

152

profile

'

and Door Frames

13: Doors

Modern use sometimes elimiwood casings around door


and window openings. Metal cornates

ners, as

shown, protect wall

finish

materials.
Exterior Trim

On

wood jambs the


mold or casing) is pura part of the jamb.

exterior

trim (brick

chased as

When
a
Interior

door jamb (1) with stop (2) and

used

wood frame

in a

may

drip cap

wall,

be placed over

the top of the trim.

Metal corners frequently replace

When ma-

wood

casing.

casings (3) installed.

sonry

-^i
\/

l ->

lintels.

be placed over the

must be supported on
Jambs in masonry do not
it

On one-story
common practice

require a drip cap.


buildings,

it

is

Door Millwork

no marequired above open-

to design a building so

II

sonry
ings.

1
Wall studs

E.

Door stop

B.

Plaster on rock lath

F.

Door jamb

C.

Casing

G.

Plaster

D.

Space

for

leveling door

grounds

Plan view of door frame detail

in plas-

tered frame wall.

is

not a part of

jamb, so it is purchased
separately. Note: All parts may
sometimes be included in the

same package, but


rather

this is an exthan standard

practice. Illustrations of a variety

of casing and other


shapes are shown.

wood

trim

may

an

extends across the botBrick

mold

quently

is

doors do not usually have a

stead of

flat

sill

sill.

helps hold the lower part

of the side jambs


location.

in their

The top of

the

water away from the door.

proper
sill

is

If the

masonry building

sill

A drip cap is placed


above casings to
shed water away
from a door in a
wood wall.

re-

sill.

has considerable thick-

ness and extends below the top

This

edge of floor joists. The joists


must be notched or special framing may be required to accommodate the sill. Examples of framing

lar

when

serve

exterior

nects the two side jambs. Interior

used.

Interior trim

sill

quires a masonry

the door

as

Sills

door unit is to be installed in a


wood frame wall, a wood sill is

Interior Trim

casing.

sloped to provide a wash to drain

jamb

board

with pan-

filled

tom of an outside door and con-

A
A.

is

A rectangular

eling or molding.

k
lL

is

This space

Door

ception

to

is

opening,
-c

the

sill is

at right

and when
are shown on page

the joists,

153

it is

154.

is

a very popu-

casing shape.

angles to
parallel,

Door stops.

used

frein-

casing.

PERCENT
AVERAGE
MOISTURE CONTENT
11

Recommended average moisture content


for interior finish

woodwork

in

U. S

various parts

Weolher

Bu,

of the United States.

Thresholds

A
row

threshold (saddle)
strip

of

wood

to cover the joint

and

is

a nar-

or metal used

between a

a finished floor.

It

as a barrier for rain

sill

also serves

and wind.

Section views of typical thresholds are shown.


Framing

for a

wood door

angles to floor

Framing

for a

wood door
floor joists.

Exterior panel door with

frame

wood

sill

in

sill

at

right

joists.

wall.

154

sill

parallel to

Wood and

metal threshold shapes.

Doors and Door Frames

3:

Carpet

pile

weather

stripping.

Weatherproof ing
Flexible metal, pile (fiber, as

on a carpet), or

may

felt

be

tened around exterior doors to

make

permanent

seal in

Two

frequently used garage door styles.

fas-

lection

taining inside temperature.

Garage doors are usually the


overhead type. They may be

Entrance Door Details

spring operated.

Entrance doors are given special architectural emphasis to en-

radio or "electric-eye" operators.

hance their beauty and serve as


a focal point. They may be job
or purchased

built

When

cated units.

as

prefabri-

space permits,

door semade.
The most common residential
garage door sizes are shown
above. These are actual sizes;
framing around them is not
shown.
turers literature before

Garage Doors

main-

The

Some doors have

units

latter

add

slightly

to

the building cost but give a feel-

Single

ing of quality construction to the

Height

wide

6-6"
7-0"
6-6"

building.

Because of the

variety of materials used, differ-

double entry doors are frequently

ing

used.

sizes available, consult

construction

and
manufac-

of doors,

is

Double garage doors

garage doors

Width
x

Width

Height

8-0"

6'-6" x

15-0"

9'-0"

7'-0" x 15'-0"
6-6" x 16'-0"

7'-0" x 9'-0"

7'-0" x 16'-0"

x 8'-0"
x

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge


Explain the construction of a

wood

What are the two


wood doors?

2.

flush

3.

Are

structed of

all

panel

wood?

4. Describe

kinds of

How

doors

con-

Explain.

the

doors fold
7.

ing

in

two types of

the

term

"folding

meant when one says


a stacking arrangement?
is

What

is

the largest size fold-

What

door heights?

determine

What

the thickness of most

is

tion,

12.

What

7.

From the panel door

explain,

illustra-

own words,

your

in

the following terms.

the thickness of most

is

doors?

What

minimum face

the

is

3.

What

door? What
14.

What

a service entrance

is

is

minimum size?
the minimum size

5.

What

are the two standard

16.

What

stile

top

cross

lock

mullion

muntin or bar

bottom

sticking

raised panel

rail
rail
rail

its

is

interior residential
1

doors?

is

of

doors?

the

minimum

size of

bathroom doors?

door?
8.

0.

size of front entrance


is

What

interior

door" sometimes misused?


6.

How does one

exterior doors?

folding doors.
5.

9.

which height to use?

panel door.

is

bathroom doors?

155

better

size

for

8.

19.

What

When

required?

is

rail

a hinged door?
are

two

hinges

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

20.

When

are

hinges

three

21.

more

Why

doors

are

What

36.

37.

the relationship of

is

the face of a door

and the edge of

38.

the knob on a residential door?

What

them?
40.

What

meant by the "hand"

is

how

of a door? Explain

is

it

closet doors?

are
Is

bypass

this actually

a kind

a transom?

How may

units for these

be

might you

building

of

kinds of doors

may be

is

it

is

is

jamb, and

split

used?

What

48.

what

a brick mold?

is

is

a door stop?

generally

What

is

tion of

50.

the thick-

wood jamb?

generally

is

interior trim

normally pur-

chased as a part of the door jamb?

What

the thick-

wood jamb?

construction might call for this?

51.
is

it

What

a door

is

sill

and why

used?

52.

and plaster?

What

threshold?

an

entrance

is

What generally is the width


wood jamb to be used with

53.

Why

is

given special design emphasis?

drywall?

29. Explain the finished opening

which
front

does

door

to

one

determine

toward

place

the

of the unit? (Closest to the

observer.)

Terms to Spell and

31.

How are bypass

sliding

doors

used at exterior openings?


32.

on a

What does

sliding

33.

"X" and "O"

door elevation represent?

What

Describe

the

the

a pocket door unit?

is

construction

of

the

cross

panel door

bar

transom

sticking

drywall

door

hinge

molding

bypass

slab

pocket door

solid core

particle

bi-fold

board

When

is

lath
sliding

door

jamb

side

stacking

head jamb

156

door

double action hinge

hollow core

a pocket door unit

buck

rail

folding door

pocket.

34.

Know

door frame

flush

De-

scribe four kinds.

44.

widths required for these units.

How

and

a drip cap.
Is

used for bypass sliding doors?

30.

What

the difference between this

an exterior casing?

find

What generally is the width


a wood jamb to be used with

of a

What

In

43.

lath

purchased?
28.

42.

sliding

of door? Explain.

27.

a door jamb?

ness of an exterior

What

why

is

What

47.

action

is

ness of an interior

de-

termined.

26.

What
What

What
41. What

buildings?

25.

double

is

purchased

is

"knocked down"?

a bi-fold door unit?

is

49. Describe the shape and func-

the normal height of

is

alter-

meant when one

is

says a door jamb

What
What

of

types

knob or panic bar on public

24.
the

39.

the normal height of

is

What

46.

their biggest disad-

is

hinge? Describe two kinds.

a jamb?

What

What

vantage?

ward the outside?

23.

45. Explain two methods of

hinged

ing these widths.

35.

public

in

buildings hinged so they swing to-

22.

than

satisfactory

door?

required?

plaster

knocked-down
brick

mold

sill

threshold

door

M
Windows and Glass
Each window manufacturing
and aluminum) and each individual
manufacturer make claims that
their material is best for windows.
Each material has advantages
and disadvantages. A material
may be more suitable for one installation, but under different con-

association (wood, steel,

ditions another material

more

practical.

be

made

its

of each

No

may

attempt

be

will

here to evaluate the mer-

window

windows, but they are not used


extensively
struction.

in

residential

con-

windows

lend

Steel

themselves to solid masonry construction. Since there are

in

side

masonry wall.
and head trim

No
is

interior

normally

used. Plaster or other interior

fin-

around
a corner bead (metal corner) and
ishes are usually returned

window

lightweight metal frame

are usually

extends around the entire win-

manufactured of white pine. This

dow, replacing the sill at the bottom. The bottom frame is usually
placed on a masonry sill and the
joint between the window and sill

wood

is

favored because of

its

abundance and the fact that it is


soft but still machines and sands
to a fine finish.
is

The

grain structure

which permits a wide vaof possible finishes. Hard-

in popularity.

is

filled

with caulking.

Plastics are

wood windows

are available, but

their high cost limits their use.


Steel

Windows

Steel

windows may be pur-

chased with a prime coat of paint


or they
pletely
tive

may be purchased comfinished in many decora-

colors.

Industrial,

commer-

and institutional construction


make widespread use of steel
cial,

construction commerical, industrial,

institutional,

and

residential.

Until recently residential use has

been limited primarily to warm


They do have some disadvantages for cold climates, because they conduct cold, but
climates.

157

in

win-

Sheet films and

spray-on coatings form protective

and decorative coverings on


wood, steel, and aluminum windows.

Some

use

is

being

molded or extruded

Much

greater use

is

made of

plastic parts.

expected in

the immediate future.

Window Types
To

acquaint yourself with the

various

Aluminum Windows
All types of windows are manufactured of aluminum. This
modern material lends itself to
many applications in all modern

being used

dow manufacture.

close,

riety

the

is

are usually set into a chase

walls.

Wood windows

ideas

Plastic

They

with the same material as inside

Wood Windows

tradi-

main reason
their use is limited. Each year
aluminum windows are gaining
tional

jambs, they take a shallow space.

finished to the face of the

material.

no wide

buyer resistance based on

window

types, study illus-

trations of each.

Only common,

frequently used types are shown.

The

illustrations are self-explana-

tory of the general shapes of each


type. Most types may be purchased of wood, steel, or
aluminum.
No two windows of the same
type, purchased from different

manufacturers, will be exactly the

same. The

size

and shape of

in-

dividual parts will vary slightly.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Hopper.

Clearstory

159

That

why

is

the illustrations rep-

resent general shapes

and do not
One must

refer to specific detail.

data to

refer to manufacturers'

obtain

exact

and shapes.

sizes

This information is then included


in the working drawings. It will

be shown as details and notes.

Window

and

Parts, Sizes,

Elevations

Window

size

usually (but

is

always) designated by the


glass size of the individual sash

not

of parts and typical


given in the illustrations.
Glass size is based on 4" increments in width and 2" in height.
12"
Typical glass sizes range from
12" to
to 48" in width and from

units.

Names

sizes are

The

large

window on this home


a bow window.

is

called

36"
is

Sash

in height.

the

glass,

wood frame
are based

accommodate
sizes.

Window

sizes,

which

enclosing the

on modules to
standard glass

stiles

are approxi-

mately 2" wide. This makes the


4"
horizontal window opening

BJ?
1

Air space

2.

Apron

Bottom

5. Brick

6. Interior casing
7.

Ground

8.

Header

9.

Head jamb

strip

10. Rigid insulating

3. Brick in section

Section

is

wood show-

sometimes

in-

19. Plaster

beted to accommodate the


Overall

strip

window

When

based on the 4" increment.

Rock

double hung windows are used


and each size is based on 2" increments, the combined units form

lath

sill

Stile or side rail

25. Stool
26. Stone

a modular
sill

2 8. Top

rail

view of double hung window


with parts identification.

Most manufacmore than the glass


window description,

size.

turers include

27. Stop

160

glass.

heights are also

compound
22. Side jamb

14. Double studs

Cutaway view of double hung window


and related parts.

size

20. Putty or glazing

Ground

24.

in

in

The

18. Parting strip

2 3. Wood

elevation

ing.

section

17.

Angle

iron lintel

gives a total of 6" of

creased so 7" of wood is showing.


This is not the size of the actual
parts; they are larger and are rab-

sheathing

12. Brick

16. Mortar joint

rail

mold

(casing)

in

elevation

3. Blind stop

4.

15. Mortar joint

wider than the glass size. Top


3",
rails are 2" wide, bottom rails
and meeting or lock rails 1". This

size in their

giving the glass


sash

size,

size,

opening or

masonry or rough open-

'

Fixed picture

window

with casement side lights

Double, double hung

Fixed picture

window

with double

hung

side lights

Double hung

structural unit

II

Double owning
1

Rail

and muntin

sizes.

/\

V
Triple

ing size, and the unit or overall


size.

This

latter size

is

Double, double hung structural unit

combination

shown from

outside edge to outside edge of


the casing. When two or more

windows
unit, the

are assembled

the overall length.

proximate
are

one

as

mullions are included in

shown

sizes

Names and

ap-

of window parts

in the illustrations

and on the following page.

Double

here
Double casement

161

Window

elevations.

sliding

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Mullions

mullion

is

any post or

divi-

window
units. Size is variable. Side jambs
are %" thick; when two windows
sion between individual

are placed side by side the small-

\W

mullion is
wide.
Manufacturers combine individ-

est possible

ual

windows

groups, with

into

mullions between the windows.

Note; Most manufacturers

will

not permit these to be returned if

wrong

the

Window

size designations.

size

The

ordered.

is

manufacturer does not normally


arrange more than three windows
a group.

in

If

more

wood

side by side, a

are placed
stiffener ex-

tending from the bottom to the


top plate should be used between

each window. This

calls

larger mullion than

if

dows

are

other.

If

are

placed
together,

the

Window muntin

unit.

subsill

eners
a

Bars or muntins (different


for the

same

thing) some-

times divide the glass into smaller


panes.

When

the

window

entire
subsill

is

sub-

divided, the individual panes are

of

must be

Steel post encased by jombs

show

this.

Note that modern practice

not

manufacturer's

However,

as discussed here,

wide

large

mullions

extend

of a

construction

unit.

size

If individual units

standard

working drawings include

size,

window

trim

are to be job assembled, or are

tends to keep mullions narrow.


the

and

Mullion details.

stiff-

Draw

between windows.

separate detail to

is

sill,

length

notched to pass the vertical

designs.

Bars or Muntins

names

the

The

Double studs between windows

three units

added beneath the regular


extending

each

against

more than

used

for

the win-

scale

details
showing
and methods of

assembly.

not modular sizes since the


glass must be trimmed because
of the addition of the muntins.

Windows
windows used alone

The muntins may form vertical


or horizontal window panes, or

Picture

both vertical and horizontal bars

in

may

dows should be designed

divide a

number of

into a larger

panes. Early Ameri-

can designs

Modern

window

use many

panes.

design favors only hori-

zontal divisions.

Picture

or

combination with other winto use

Many

may be purchased in standard


width of stiles and rails. Sash with
wide stiles and rails may be made
for standard

glass

sizes.

This

if

makes the sash opening size nonmodular to accommodate custombuilt and oversize units. These

standard sizes are not used. Sash

parts are not constructed at the

standard glass
picture

sizes.

windows have

glass, so the cost

is

162

large

insulating

prohibitive

Windows and

14:

Glass

site, so it is important
complete details to be shown;
then they can be custom built.

building

so water will not drip on the ex-

for

terior covering.

Window

Exterior

Trim

Because exterior window trim


(finishing boards)

is

applied

when

windows are assembled, they are


a part of the window. Trim with
decorative molding on its face is
mold.

Flat

called casing. Brick

mold

called

brick

widely
that

name

Its

is

more

implies

used only with brick but


not a proper assumption.

it is

this is
It is

used.

trim
is

masonry

also used with other

and wood frame construction.


Size

is

slightly variable;

proximately

wide. Exterior casing

is

is

ap-

and 2V2"

thick

l'/g"

it

l'/s"

thick

and the width is variable. Casing


3" wide is most common. Note:
When drawing elevations, the cas-

drawn outside
window size.
ing

Drip

is

the actual

in the

modate
molding

sills

bottom

to

wood molding.

is

used beneath a

drip cap as illustrated in the


is

placed over

the top of the casing to prevent


water from standing on the flat

and

to prevent capillary

window.

a part of the

is

bent so

it

covers the

top of the drip cap.

When
combined

several
into

one

windows are
unit, the drip

cap should be continuous.


Sills

sill

is

a sloping surface at

the bottom of a

window

to drain

water away from the parts. Most


sills

are of wood.

It

is

de-

signed and purchased separately.

When
combined

windows are
one unit, the wood

several
into

should be continuous.

sill

They extend
window

past the front edge of the

Descriptions

Descriptions of

window

to the

windows

Windows may be purchased

(no

glass).

the glass

may

When
is

be unglazed

they are glazed,

purchased as a part

of the window.

refer

double hung,

type:

casement, awning, picture (fixed


sash), or other kinds.
to

number of windows
one window

may

in the

When

stalled alone

it

is

refer

group.

be

in-

is

not

in-

When

cluded).

two windows are


one unit it is called

included in

mullion

abbreviated

unit,

When

mull

to

called a single

is

word window

(the

It

combinations of window types.


Reference is also made to the

three

windows

to

are

in one unit, it is called


and when four windows
are combined it is called a quad-

included
a triple,

ruple, abbreviated to a quad.

Installation of Glass

When

they are

unglazed, of course, the glass

Window
window

There is
composing window descriptions. However, one
must be sure all necessary information is included. This informaa

no

set

tion

windows

types and number of


combined when stating

units are

is

purchased separately. Small units

hind the exterior covering. Metal

It

window

windows. Even though, in addition, most windows in masonry


walls have a stone sill, this is not

house)

siding.

Window

sill, it

As previously noted, wood


windows have sills but most metal
windows do not. However, wood
sills and casings or brick mold are
sometimes attached to aluminum

(as all but picture

from under the

installation.

flashing.

action from drawing moisture be-

flashing extends

If

placed on setting blocks, or


employ some other method of
kets,

helps block entrance of water and


serves as a cover over

stalled) or they

previous chapter

have a
accom-

glazed (with glass factory-in-

Cap

surface

groove

Some

description.

form

may

or

in

may

not be used dur-

ing construction, but

for a

it is

vital for

and purchase of maSample descriptions of

.stimating

are

usually

purchased
terials.

glazed. Larger ones are usually

The plans or specifications must state method of purchase and also state the method
unglazed.

of securing the glass

in the

sash

and the method and glazing material. This description must include whether the glass is to be
set in putty, whether it is to be
back puttied (putty placed between the face of the glass and

windows

follow:

A picture window with two double


hung

side lights, one on each


Each double hung sash is
have two bars or muntins:
Picture/w/DH. 2-bar Sd. Lts.

side.

to

triple

Mull, awning

corner

awning

unit:

picture

window with

face of rabbet on the sash), im-

casements on each side:


Corner picture/w/2 three-bar

bedded

casements

in

neoprene rubber gas-

163

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Note:

It

and locking devices. Screen


and storm window combinations

on the window

are sometimes built as a part of

This

size description.

placed

usually

is

necessary to include

is

complete
schedule.

ing

window

the

unit. It is not possi-

ble to discuss all available hard-

Window Hardware
There

is

ware available

window more

to

One should

ware.

wide variety of hard-

make

the hardware includes sash bal-

manu-

Required window hardware


be listed on a schedule of the

modern

Some of

useful.

consult

facturers' literature for details.

may

plans or in the specifications.

ances and tension tracks to per-

For most building materials

mit sash removal. Hinged sup-

small measurements are given be-

port bars are designed to hold

fore large ones. This

is

awning and hopper windows

when specifying

The width

Hand crank and automatic


move and hold awning

open.

operators

and casement sash in selected poThere are also many lift-

sitions.

Window

dow

glass

glass.

means

the glass has

had no additional
cesses. It

Drawing

is

it

is

on

special

order only

vary

thick-

Approximate Oz. per


(Thickness

sq.ft.

Maximum

Photo

.58 to .68

remarkably

Single strength

free of dis-

tortion.

size

Glass edge for small units

no imper-

fections that cause noticeable distortion.

B Quality Has some


is

36x50"

16

36x50"

together to form a rolled edge.

19

40x50"

Insulating glass can be used on


all

distor-

suitable for usual small

window

Double strength

V>"

26

60x80"

Heavy sheet

40

120x84"

must be made

Heavy sheet

Vu"
Vn"

45

120x84"

additional glass thickness. Stan-

Heavy sheet

Vt"

52

120x84"

dard sizes are shown in the accompanying tables.


Be exact in ordering. Do not
specify the wrong trade name.

Insulating glass has two sheets

installations.

Sash

to provide for the

of glass separated by space. De-

hydrated

A Quality Has

Vu"-Vn"

12-14

Insulating Glass

Premium Best commercial

panes.

may

manfactur-

The more common

Picture

AA

tion but

glass. Sizes

Classification

and priced accordingly.

window

slightly with different

drawn.

window glass:
Quality This is the best
window glass obtainable, manu-

of

is

qualities of

less visual dis-

finishing pro-

used as

There are four widely used

quality,

they cause

it;

tortion if horizontal.

nesses are:

sheets.

factured

in

ers.

one of the methods of


manufacturing glass into large

always given before the height.


Ordinary glass has slight waves

There are several thicknesses

windows is
The term win-

window

not true

is

Glass

All glass used in

not

glass.

sure

is

air at

atmospheric pres-

sealed into the space. There

two methods of sealing the


edges. Large windows have a
steel frame with gaskets to form
a seal. Smaller panes have a glass
edge. The two sheets are melted
are

164

Grey Glass

When

one wishes

to

reduce

transmission of light or heat one

may
sion

use special greyed glass. Viis

only

obscured

slightly.

reminds one
of looking through sun glasses.

Looking through

it

'

Insulating

Glass standard

sizes

METAL EDGE

2 Pieces

UNIT SIZE
33"

UNIT SIZE
46%" x 56%"
47%" x 50%"
47%" x 66%"

76%"

35%" x 36"
35%" x 48%"
35'/j" x 60%"
36" x 44%"
36"
36"
36"
36"
42"
42"
42"
42"

55V4"

68%"

x
x
x

x
x

48%"
56%"
66"
72"

x 48'/s"

45"

60%"
76%"

45%"

52"

48"
48"
48"

75"
93"

44%"
44%"

46"
46"
46"

x 48'/2"

46%"

x 52'/2"

UNIT
56%" x
56%" x
56%" x

48"
60"
72"

x
x
x

48%" x
48%" x
48%" x
48%" x
48%" x
48%" x

55%"
68%"

50"
50"
50"
50"
50"

56%"
64%"
72%"
80%"
96%"
60%"
58%"

57"
58"
58"
58"
58"
58"
60"

75"
93"
50"
58"

x
x

x
x

50%" x
52%" x
52%" x 70V."
55%" x 60%"

x 64'/2"

GLASS EDGE

Polished Plate Glass '/>" Air Space

72%"

x
x
x

x
x

(DS premium)

2 Pieces

SIZE
66"

DOUBLE HUNG

70%"
76%"
64%"
72%"
80%"
96%"
6%"
66%"
68%"

66"
66"
66"
72"
72"

72%"

84"
96"
84"
96"

Width

Height

49% "

35 %"

'At"

49% 6"

48%" x
48%" x
48%" x
55%" x
55%" x
55%" x
56%" x
56%" x
56%" x
56%" x

36"

35'/2" x 48'/."

35%"
42"
42"

44%"
44%"
44%"
45%"
48"
48"

x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x

60%"
66"
72"
36"

48%"
60%"

x
x

52"
48"
60"

'"

2 Pieces

Wood

For

Width

55% 6"

60 7/is"
36 K"

48%"

36 Vie"

Spoce

'/."

or

"

Vi

Air

'%2"

-Vt"

'At",

V!)2"

Minimum

+ =/l6",

70

28

15"

53"

16"
20"
24"
32"
36"
48"
60"

x
x

x
x
x
x

*PP rox

28"
28"
28"
32"
32"
32"

24%"

Wx 36

/i

16"

20"
x 24"
x 32"
x 36"
x 48"
x 60"
x

24%"
27%"
27%"
27%"
27%"

21 Vie" x 30' % t"


"
,3
21

36V

Height
x

"

36 5/ "
36 5/. "

"

39% "
39% "
39% "
39% "

36V

16"
20"

x24"
x 14%"
x

x
x

18%"
22%"
30%"
14%"
18%"
22%"
30%"

15%"
14%"
8%"
22%"
30%"

40"
40"
40"
44"

16"

24"

44% "
44% "
44% "
44% "
45% "

16"
20"

14%"
18%"
22%"
30%"
25%"

x
x
x
x
x

x 16"
x

20"
24"

42% "

16"

x20"
x

24"

22%"

x
x
x

Net Weights

Space

Per Sq.

Ft.

'%."
lbs.

Glass

Air

Thick-

Space

ness

V4j"

"At"
'A

2"

s
<

At"

5%

lbs.

50

sq.

Dimensional

Unit

Area

Tolerances

Thick-

Average

ness

Net Weights

Ft.

6%

lbs.

Y\t"

24

Vi"

%2"

Vi"

10

<At"

Via"

'y."

"/,"

J4s"

%2"

-'/l t"

to practical

Approximate

Max.
Sq.

%"

ff.

fGlass thickness and

manufacturing tolerances.

'At"

Ft.

3%

lbs.

2%

lbs.

%i"

%"
'/3 2"

ocfua/ united inches. So/ex", SoJargray*

maximum

space are subject

9%"

20"
20"
20"
20"
20"
20"
20"

Over 48"

$ize,

So/orbronze

19"

"

36"
36"
36"

Per Sq.

To 48"
+ %",-'/. 6"

17

Vi"

or %"

,J/I4 "

"x 36 ,J/i"
x49"

21 'At" x

3%

%"

24"
24"
24"
24"
24"
24"
24"

24%"

Air Space
Width

To 48"

12

%"

%"
%"

Height

21'/i6"x6iyu"
22"
x 18"
22"
x 55'/. 6"

16'/i" x 61*1 4

25%"
22%"

Unit Thickness

'A" Mi

Tolerances

+ %",-'/."
or

21 Vie" x 49"

16'/.6"

Height
x

16/ie" x

Window Glass %" Air Space


For Window Walls

Over 48"
y.6"

24"
32"
36"
48"
60"

48%"

Space

%"

16"
16"
6"

Doors

Sq.ft.*

Window Glass Vi."


Width

Max.

Class

16"
6"
1

)4*"

Height

45%"
42%"

48%"

GLASS EDGE (SSA)

16'/."x 30

21%"x62%"

68' He" x

16'/. 4

25%" x 62%"

nessf

48%"

Width

.6"

55%"
68 'At"

48"
46"
50"
36"

Height

X 60'/l"

'/

36 % "

72%"
72%"
75"
75"

35

48%"

72"

58%"

48%"

48V."

36 Me"

42"
50"

35'/ is"

447i"
44'/u"

60%"
46%"

35 7/i 4 "

44'/ i"

46"
50"
58"
36"

Height

Widtt

49%"
49%"
49%"

50"
46"
50"

64%" x
64%" x
64%" x
68%" x
68%" x
x

x
x

75"
93"
66"

Air Space

42"
46"
50"
36"

Height

36%"
39%"
44%"

58"

CASEMENT

WINDOWS

57V. 6" x 46"

57% 4 "
65% t"
65% "

2 Pieces

Window Glass %"

Width

46"

49'At" x 50"

Width

2 Pieces

AWNING
WINDOWS

WINDOWS

60%" x
60%" x
60%" x
60%" x
64%" x

Air Space

Picture

72"

Window Glass l
window sizes

'/"

58%"

at

Pittsburgh Plate Glass

165

Co

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

This glass

is

recommended

not

much

stalled in

same manner

the

Space must be

between the

left

Large sheets may


require special metal anchors to

top of the blocks and lintels or

help secure them to the building.

Clearance should also be given

where high light transmittance is


desired for example, in merchandise display windows.

as ceramic

Polished Plate Glass

Patterned Glass

tile.

headers to allow for deflection.


of openings to allow
expansion and building settlement. This space should be
packed with oakum, which is a

at the sides

After glass

is

manufactured,

As

it

may

be ground and polished to

true

flat

the

name

for

implies, decora-

are three qualities of plate glass:

manufactured
on the face of glass. This decoration may be on one or both faces.
When one considers the number
of glass manufacturers and all

covered with caulking to give a

Silvering QuALiTY-This

is

the decorative glass patterns of

finished appearance.

is

each, the variety

surfaces of great bril-

and high reflectivity. Usual


thickness is from Va" to 1 Vi". There
liance

the best quality available;

seldom used
square

in

sizes

over 20

fects

limited.

For

concerning

feet.

Mirror Glazing Quality

There are some small

it

patterns

tive

but the quality

Glazing

is

are

is

QuALiTY-This

used when ordinary glazing

specific information

individual

patterns,

consult manufacturers' literature.

quired but not for mirrors.

re-

It is

sheets with tough, transpar-

bonded between them.


development has seen

ent plastic

Recent

very good quality.

foreign objects, such as leaves,

Tempered Glass

Most sheet

ber glass, butterflies, paper, cloth,

glass

is

quite brittle

or metal

but can be

The

sistant

be as

made more shock reby heat tempering. Tem-

pered glass
times

as

will

far

bend about four

as

ordinary glass

without breaking.

break

When

does

it

does not shatter;

it

dis-

it

integrates into small, blunt-edged

The

pieces.

practically

cost

is

many

fi-

uses of this glass are

unlimited.

more than

extra

Its

offset

by

its

imbedded

plastic

is

much

in the plastic.

so clear that

it

may

as V" thick for the

Very interesting patterns


may be achieved by "sandwiching" decorative inserts between
several sheets of glass. Standard
patterns may be purchased or
panels may be custom fabricated
inserts.

to

specifications.

Any

material

selected for use must be inert to

the plastic so as not to affect

advantages.

it

exterior of buildings

may be

with opaque colored glass.

and

faced

serves

are 6"x6", 8"x8",

Any

less for

then

is

units.

nominal 4" or

is

Nominal

3 5/s" actual.

face sizes

12"xl2", and

actual face size

is

both dimensions.

The units are laid in much


same manner as other ma-

the

sonry and should have reinforce-

ment between alternate courses.


They must be secured to other
masonry or frame with wall ties
or set in metal channels which
are secured to the structure.

Glass

blocks

are

frequently

combination with other


windows. Modular windows are
used

in

sometimes

set in the

center of the

glass block area.

Decorative
with

slightly

vary

patterns
individual

manu-

facturers. The faces may be


smooth, have a swirled effect, or
have wide or narrow flutes run-

Newer

Structural Glass

parts of the interior

joint

ning in one or both directions.

chemically.

Many

rope that

oil. It

Glass blocks are modular

%"

Safety glass consists of two or

more

The

Block thickness

4"xl2".
Safety Glass

is

is

as a cushion.

virtually un-

visible de-

exceptional.

fiber material similar to

has been soaked in

Glass Block

patterns

may have

a peb-

bled or textured surface, or sculp-

Structural glass blocks are not

tured designs

may be

portions

created by

and leaving

designed to be load supporting.

texturing

usually in square or rectangular

When masonry

other glass plain. Surfaces

shapes of varying size and thick-

them,

also be finished with colored ce-

ness.

The

face

may

It

is

be polished

or embossed. This material

is

in-

is placed above
must carry the load.
Wood framing above must be
supported by headers.

lintels

166

ramic enamel. They


rectional screens

may

may have

imbedded

di-

in the

14:

Windows and

Glass

center cavity to control light and

ter

heat transmission.

can use the exterior walls.

of the building so other rooms

Glass blocks are normally a

If

some compa-

light

very pale green but


nies

make them

in

variety of

colors.

windows

are to be used for

or ventilation, they should

be placed following the old

still

established rules.

Other Uses

There are many other kinds


and applications of glass that cannot be fully covered in a book of
this nature. Some of the more
common are mentioned to acquaint you with the need for

Questions to Reinforce

Knowledge

Glass block window

is

2. What species is usually used


wood windows? Why?
3. Do steel windows normally

for

have a

sill

and wide jambs?

Wired

Glass brick

quently used

Sculptured glass

struction?

Glass mirrors

5.

One way

6.

Bullet resisting

Bent glass

Sand blasted
Rolled edge fire polished

material

best?

further study.
Corrugated glass

What window

glass

4. Steel

glass

7.

What
What
What

windows are most


in

fre-

what kind of con-

is

a plaster return?

is

a corner bead?

window

types

are

manufactured from aluminum?

Heat grid

Glass lighting panels

8. What is the extent of aluminum window usage?


9. What role is plastics playing
in window manufacture?

glass

structural details.

Name and

0.

window

describe

common

types.

Are windows of the same


always exactly the same?

11.

Window Requirements
In the past, windows were
and provide ventilation. Every room was
required to have at least one window and preferably more. When
more than one window was used,
they were placed to provide adequate cross-ventilation. Mechanical light and ventilation have
changed this somewhat. Many
needed

codes

to

still

admit

state

light

minimum

glass

and ventilating areas for each


room; however, with electric
lighting and mechanical ventilation, windows may never be re-

quired

to

serve

original

their

purpose.

Explain.

Windows

still

remove the

feel-

ing of living in a cubicle by ex-

panding the

of vision, ap-

line

pearing to bring the outside to


the inside. This

is

usually their

most important function


present time. If a

used for

type

it

is

not

stile

some-

when

bathrooms and kitchens were always placed on outside walls, this


was done so the room could have
windows. Modern applications
may move these rooms to the cen-

What module

dow

is

used

for

and sash size?

3.

What
Is

is

a sash?

a 30"-wide glass size one

of the standard sizes?


1

is

2.

14.

the

times omitted. For example,

167

at

window

this reason,

glass

5.

What

is

Why?

the relationship of

width to glass width?


6. Describe the

following win-

sizes:

7.

8.

rough or masonry opening

opening

unit

What
What

opening

is

a muntin?

is

a bar?

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation


9.

What

is

a lock or meeting

20.

21.
22.
23.
with a

24.
25.

What
What
What

How

39.

is

is

a top

is

a bottom

stile?

does

its

called

rail?

size

40.

rail?

compare

or top rail?

stile

What
What

and what
this

38.

What

window hardware?

is

47.

is

and a

a brick mold?

is

an exterior casing,

is

the difference between

brick

Is

glass

all

for

windows

48.

window glass?

What

are

the

49.
50.

of

qualities

window glass?
41.

What

42.

Why

51.

is

placed

insulating glass?

is

52.

important to select

it

43.

What

is

53.

between the panes

44. What are two methods of


What is a mullion? Are mulalways the same size? Explain? sealing the edges?
45. What is grey glass?
27. When is a vertical stiffener

54.

26.

28.

What

29.

Is

is

to

a part of a

sill

exterior

casing

How
in

tempered glass?

is
is

structural glass?

is

patterned glass?

are decorative objects

glass?

Do

glass

What

blocks

support

are the standard sizes

Is

it

necessary for

all

rooms

have windows? Explain.


55.

What

What is polished plate glass?


Does it come in more than one thick-

a window?

ness? Explain.

serve

46.

subsill?

a stone

What
What
What

of glass blocks?

lions

placed inside the mullion?

more than one qual-

there

weight of the structure?

standard sizes?

of insulating glass?

mold?

Is

ity? Explain.

Explain.

rail?

are three functions of

56. Does each window always


all

three functions?

window?
30.

Is

or

brick

Terms to Spell and

mold a part of the window?


31.

What

a drip cap and why

is

used?

is

it

window

32.

What

meant when one says

is

to

is

be purchased

unglazed?
33.

When

ordering

glass

are the dimensions listed?

how

Why?

How does one describe sevwindows made into one large

34.
eral

unit?

35.
36.

Does

it

What
What
have

unit

trim

muntin

mull.

caulking

mullion

quad.

opening

window
subsill

Sd.

double hung

top

window operator

meeting
flute

window

hopper

ceramic

insulating glass

sticking

stile

casing

rough

brick

3-bar case-

Lt.

awning

bay window

reasoning, describe

D.H.

casement

vertical stiffeners?

own

stiffener

rail

lock

window?
window?

Neoprene

plastic

bottom

cap

drip

extruded

bow window

a mull

Corner picture/w/

ment Sd.

chase

fixed sash

is

37. After studying the chapter,

from your

window opening

triple

is

Know

prime coat

opening

168

distortion

glass

grey glass

rail
rail

mold

pebbled

Lt.

rail

polished plate glass

tempered glass
patterned glass

sandwich glass

oakum

Stairs

and

Stair

Framing

no distinction
stairs and
an ordinary set of steps. The term
stairs will include any set of steps

mon. Heavy construction makes


steel and
concrete. Since this book deals

attached to a building.

greater emphasis will

be given

wood

However,

In this discussion

will

be

made between

Wood
in

light

steel

is most frequently used


frame construction, but

and concrete are not uncom-

Stringers

almost exclusive use of

primarily with light construction,

any

stair construction.

stair part

may

be constructed

of other materials.

Stringers
parts

are

(similar

notched floor

the

structural

and

inclined

to

joists) that

support

the stairs. Although minimum requirements permit only two stringers, one at each side of the stairs,
a

third

stringer

makes the

the

in

more

steps

middle

rigid

and

should be included except on very


inexpensive construction. There
are two general

many

methods of con-

wood

structing

stringers

(with

variations of each).

A plain

stringer

is

a 2"xl0" or

larger, with notches at

This

is

used

for

each step.
basements or

other very inexpensive construction.

The

nailed

and

treads

directly

These are sturdy

risers

are

the stringers.

to

stairs

but do not

give a finished appearance. Noise

(squeaking)

is

likely

when weight

on the treads.
Treads for basement stairs are
frequently made from 2" thick
dimension lumber, and risers are
sometimes omitted.
is

shifting

housed stringer

finished lumber; Vi"


first

Stairways

may be

Federal Sovir

the focal point of beauty for a room.

169

are routed into

and

it

made from
deep grooves
is

so the treads

risers slip into the stringers.

Stair Parts
Total Stair Rise

This

the distance from the

is

floor

of one finished

top

to

another.
Total Stair Run

This

the

is

total

horizontal

stair length.

Unit Structures,

Stairways

The grooves

are

may be

slightly

Stair parts.
F

behind the risers and below the


treads. This closes all joints so
they are tight from the finished

Riser

tread above.
Rise

shown. The method shown in the


third illustration is preferred by

The

the floor

is

This header

may

while they are on the

into place.

the

first

greater strength

method shown

is

desired.

in the

(top of

riser to

The

horizontal distance from

the face of one riser to the face

if

The

second

member

from the face of


the face of an ad-

Run

also be

used with the third method

is

one

and raised
shown in

may

horizontal

joining one, plus nosing.

ledger as

illustration

lustration

step) extending

be assembled

floor in a flat position,

from the

Tread

framed.

with the

vertical distance

top of one tread to the next.

author because the header


joists are doubled, which permits
the outside header to be left unthe

stairs

(back of

openings are

floor

when

member

from the bottom


of one tread to the bottom of the

Three methods of framing

attached

vertical

step) extending

side of the stairs.

at

Inc

larger

than tread and riser thickness, to


accommodate glued wood wedges
which are placed in the grooves

stringers

Koppers Company,

the focal point of beauty for a room.

of an adjoining one.

il-

Nosing

least satisfactory be-

cause the stringer has very little


surface bearing upon the header.

The
Joining
floor

portion of tread that over-

laps the riser below.

Stair

fair Rail

The

side

hand

rail

following

Straight stairs lead from one

he rake angle of the steps.

level to the next

These are the

without turns.

least

by a wall on both

stairs)

needed on both

stair

rail

sides, they are

L Stairs

An L

stairs

(sometimes called

a dogleg or platform stairs) has

are against a wall on one side,

one landing somewhere

but open on the other, they are


called open string stairs. When

flight

stairs

open

this

If

string stairs are used, a stair

required on the open side.

both sides are open (as for

of steps.

in

person using the


must make a 90 turn at

When

point.

the landing

flight,

it

is

called long

large post at the foot (bot-

3m) or head (top) of a stairs


'hich supports the ends of the
[air rail.

Typical baluster shapes.

II
ll

T~
r

PLAN
1

Small, evenly spaced posts to

upport the

stair rail.

PLAN
Straight stairs.

171

is

near the top or bottom of the

heights (banister).

Busters

the

lewel Post

The

is

sides.

called closed siring stairs. If they

rail is

rail

basement

expensive to

build. If the stairs are enclosed

Stair

Types

Straight Stairs

Long

L stairs

(bottom

L).

stairs.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

'

Long L

When
ter

stairs (top.L).

the landing

of the

flight,

is

it

near the cencalled wide

is

stairs.

Double

L Stairs

L stairs have two turns,


one near the bottom and one near
Double

Wide

L stairs.

Double L

the top.

172

stairs.

5: Stairs

and

Stair

Framing

PLAN

Double

L stairs.

PLAN

"

Stairs

Narrow
flights

tween.

stairs

have two

of steps with a landing be-

The upper

flight reverses

and runs parallel to the


first flight. One must make a 180
turn on the landing. There is very
little space between the two
directions

flights.

Narrow U

173

stairs.

Obligation
Part One: Structure An Architectural

Winders

When
it

is

space

sometimes

room

at a

is

for landings.

winder steps

premium

difficult to

may

serve to turn a

'

corner.

difficult

and

ex-

pensive to build, and dangerous

These are

allow

Wedge shaped

PLAN

to use.

The narrow wedge

side

does not provide adequate footing surface.

Wide U

Wide

the narrow
are

moved

stairs

stairs

are similar to

except the flights


apart to form a well-

hole between. This wellhole must


be enclosed by a stair rail. A third
short flight

is

sometimes added,

as shown, at the landing.

When

forms two smaller


landings instead of one large one.

this is

done

it

Winding

174

stairs (winders).

5: Stairs

and

Framing

Stair

and Locations

Stair Uses

holes and have doors at the bot-

tom or

multi-story

Main stairs: well-constructed


and finished for constant use.
Service or basement stairs: de-

building, doors are

required at

signed for

cated near the kitchen or other

each

attached

stairs:

Main

stairs leading

main or

one should enter the


from a hall (preferably the

entry hall).
tice to

and go

to a basement without
walking through another room.

When

entrance.

possible,
stairs

should be able to enter a building

upper

be located near the

front

not good prac-

is

It

For most convenient use. service stairs


are in line with an entry door. Doors

should not interfere, but neither should


they open directly over a stairway.

stairs

are sometimes placed

side a

room

in-

an archi-

tectural effect. Additional service

are usually provided else-

stairs

open

Both

where.

and
door

string

closed string stairs without a

the stair well to upper levels, but


this

does not necessarily cause

discomfort to occupants. One


should carefully consider whether
the beauty of an open stairs warrants

and extra

discomfort

the

heating expense that will probably

Structural Details
Stair width for

stated by the

minimum,
stair rail.

main

FHA.

stairs,

2'-8"

is

this

is

hardly

Maximum
basement

minimum width, with


much better.
Minimum stair width for ser-

steps or stairs

vice

and basement

as stated by the
3'-0" is better.

Outside

stairs

is

2'-6",

FHA. However,

must be at least
as wide as the walk leading to
them and no less than 3'-0". Outside steps to a basement must be
stairs

at least 2'-6" wide.

stairs

for service or

rise

stairs

Maximum

3'-2" to 3'-6"

8V4".

is

rise
is

9" plus

stairs

nosing.

run for service or

basement stairs is the same as


above when closed risers are used.
With open risers, run is 9" plus
Vi" nosing.

Minimum
is

run for outside steps


10" plus 1" nosing. If

175

When
is

to a

inside ac-

not near

additional out-

used (as for concrete


vertical

is

in a flight

must be the same that

have the same

winder

rise

and

of
is.

run. This

exactly the same!


size.

the

is

When

The

same

any other step


not

the

risers)

1".

Note: Every step

means

IV2".

run for main

\W

Minimum

or stairs

is

with

steps

stairs

for exterior

They may

ground

side access should be provided.

Winder

Minimum

levels.

a service entry,

Run
is

upper

ing, or to

also lead from the

minimum

adequate. The author considers


3'-0"

main

is 8'/<".

plus the width of the

However,

rise for

items

lead from the ground to the build-

no nosing

Maximum

carrying

through other parts of a building.


Outside steps or stairs may

basement

Rise
as

eliminates

also

cess to a

required to be enclosed in well-

ascends through

carrying bulky objects to

hazard. Stairs

Warm

fire

is

the basement. This direct access

floor.

public buildings are frequently

It

necessary to turn a corner

not

basement

are a definite
in

in the illustra-

affords easiest access.

tion

drafts

Furthermore,

result.

at the bottom or top waste heat


and allow cold drafts to descend.

air also

The method used

when

be required to walk through

room to reach a stairs. Can you


see why? However, open string
a

to achieve

Basement stairs are


same general location. One

in the

to

usually lo-

service area.

stairs outside the building.

levels should

level.

Service stairs are

utility uses.

Outside steps or

In

top.

rise

of a

as the rise of

in the flight.

possible, winders should

come

to a point at the nar-

row end. An old rule says that


the narrow end of the tread
should be no less than % the
width of an ordinary tread, but
this rule

is

seldom observed.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

width (from door to stairs) is 2'-6",


but when the door width is greater
than 2'-6", a landing at least as

recommended.
measured from

wide as the door

Headroom

is

is

the front corner of a tread (edge


of nosing) to the closest obstruction above. This obstruction

be a door opening, a
in this reference

ing over the

soffit

a sloped

is

may

(which
ceil-

or a framed

stairs),

opening in a floor or ceiling


above. FHA minimum headroom for a main stairs is 6'-8",
When

door opens toward the stairway

a landing should be provided.

but 7'-4" to 7'-7"

mum

headroom

service stairs

FHA

prescribes that tread


18" from
the converging end, should be

width,

the

when measured

same

as full treads.

A
is

landing at the top of stairs


desirable. A door should not

open over the

stairs.

swings toward the


ing

is

required.

If a door

stairs, a

Minimum

land-

landing

is

is

better.

for

Mini-

basement or

6'-4".

A stair rail should

be provided

on at least one side of a stairway.


Standard height of the stair rail
is 30" on the rake (angle following the steps) and 34" on the
landing. Three steps or fewer do
not require a stair

rail.

Wellholes

more than 30" deep require a

Number and Size

Calculating

fo owing proce dure

Jhe

Procedure for designing


WQuld be the same

tration

yQur

stairs

Yqu must knQW the distance


between finished floors. Detail
and overa dimensions for this
drawing are bot h given. Add all
dimens ons together to
detail
th(j ovrall dimensio n.
vefif
i

When nQ

ovefall floor t0 floor

dimension

given be sure you

is

include all sizes of all building


materials when com puting this
ht

For example on

A stairway must have a


proper slope if it is to be easy
to use. Steep stairs cause un-

to 11". Ideal rise

ease of use. Attic and basement

sometimes approach the


absolute maximum rise and

stairs

minimum

run, without regard

plan

lower floor to

F inished

finished ce

'

lin

Ceiling material th.ckness

0/2

between

Furring strips

and

joists

9'n

|oists

is

is

WA"

7" to 7V*".

(W

....

Thickness of subfloor

are designed for

this

sizes are inc luded:

thg foUowi

ceiling

(not including nosing)

stairs

treads and rJsers and thejr sizes


.
for {he staifs shown in the iUus

stair rail.

Special Note:

Main

was

determine the number

tQ

Height of floor

necessary difficulty for users.

of

Treads and Risers

Thickness of finished floor

0%"
.

9'-0'A"

Total rise

The proportion of tread

Since the size of each step is


in inches, the over-

width to rise (and riser height)


determines stair slope. Two
methods of establishing this
proportion are stated below.

computed

then

is

you add the proposed


rise to the proposed tread
width and the sum is between

ideal

step height, the total rise

the stair slope will

s j nce

If

and

dimension should also be


to inches. The total rise

all

changed

js

108%". Since 7"

divided by

[54/, r i se rs

an

This indicates

7.

are

is

required.

Then

each step must be

for easy use. Stairs that are too

17

low-angled are avoided be-

be satisfactory.

exactly the same, either 15 or 16

you multiply the proposed rise by the proposed


tread width and the product is

risers

cause they require too

much

space.

Page 175

maximum
and minimum

states

rise for a step

These do not represent


ideal sizes. Ideal tread width

run.

18,

2. If

70 to 75, the

stair slope will

Tise for

l08'/4"

height

will
is
is

be

7.22".

When

required.

divided

So

by
far,

15,

riser

this fig-

be satisfactory. The closer to

ure appears to be very satisfacso additional calculations


t ory,

75, the better the slope.

w jh

176

be based upon

it.

IS: Stairs

and

Framing

Siair

o
O

I
z
= o
O

flQ

6.47"
1

7.22"
i

O
I

Z
>

10'A"

00

IV.

STRINGER

1/1

OPTIONAL

<

~-^^/\

'

147"

OR

12 -3"

RUN

Stair calculations

The number of treads is always


less than the number of risers,

one

so 14 treads are required. This

ideal tread width,

number,

it

will

and

is

Using method

number

is

factory.

is

an
a whole
is

be used for pre-

liminary tread calculations. Using

slope

stair slope,

method number 1 of checking


add the rise (7.22) to

is

proposed tread width (11).


The sum of these two numbers

treads

To

the

is

18.22. This

number

18,

is

larger than the

which indicates the

2,

the size

Another

is

trial

stairs

give

number of

This gives a total stair

run of 147" or
-

12'-3".

Since these

adequate headroom,

they are satisfactory.

177

2.

What

3.

are

stair stringers?

Describe plain stringers, their

limitations

their

find the total stair run, 10'/2

14).

Know/edge

must be

satisfactory.

multiplied by the
(

Questions to Reinforce

also unsatis-

made, using another tread width.


For the second trial lOW is used.
If 10V4" is added to 7.22, the sum
is 17.72, which indicates that the

because the floor or landing serves


as the top tread. Since 11"

stairs are too flat.

and

uses.

housed

Describe

stringers,

advantages and uses.


4.

Draw

ods of joining

sketches showing methstairs to floor framing.

5. Describe total stair rise.


6. Describe total stair run.
7.
8.

What
What

is

is

rise of

riser?

a step?

Port

What

9.

include

a tread? Does

is

this

of the material forming

all

0.
1

12.
3.

14.

What
What
What
What
What

6.

7.

18.

is

a nosing?

is

why must

is

a newel post?

is

a baluster?

stair rail?

flight

between a long

9.

20.
21.
22.
23.
for

mum

double

narrow U
wide U

steps

in

Do maximum

rise

What

stairs?
stairs?

is

What

Why

37.

FHA minimum

are the

FHA minimum

standard

the

is

the stair

rail

height

is

the correct stair slope

so very important?

38. Describe ideal tread width.


size requirements for

winder treads?
39. Describe ideal

Is

it

permissible to have a

door open out over a


33.

When

stairs?

Why?

a door must open

How

40.

to-

stairs

riser height.

can one determine

winder?

Terms to Spell and

Know
dogleg

are

plain stringers

stair rail

ser-

housed stringers

newel post

total stair rise

baluster

wellhole

total stair run

straight stairs

winder

riser

have a door at the top or bottom of

rise (of step)

closed string stairs

service stairs

a stairs?

tread

open

headroom

run (of step)

landing

soffit

nosing

flight (of stairs)

rake

24.

When
in this

vice

stairs

main

the

location,

usually

stairs

why are

provided

else-

where?
25.

26.

Why

Why

basement

is

is

it

it

a good idea to

good

stairs directly

to

have a

across from

a service entry door?

178

Describe two methods of checking.

stairs?

the best location

if

has a proper rise-to-run ratio?

a main stairs?

placed

stair

on a landing?

resent ideal step sizes? Explain.

31.

the

height above the steps?

36.

mini-

and

is

What

35.
rail

and

provi-

stairs?

straight

run, as stated in the text, rep-

32.

What are
What are
What are
What is a
Where is

all

What

34.

special

be made?

requirement for headroom over a

be the same size?

30.

a wide L?
1

recommended as a

minimum main stair width?


29. From your own reasoning,

what

stairs,

sions should

run of a step?

What are open string stairs?


What are closed string stairs?
What are L stairs? What is

the difference

is

ward a

outside

be provided?

is

15. Describe a straight stairs.


1

an

should

stairs

What

28.

the horizontal part of a step?


1

When

27.

basement

One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

stairs

string stairs

stairs

main

stairs

1M>
Insulation

As used
to

here, to insulate

means

hinder or stop the transfer of

heat,

from one

or sound

cold,

area to another. All building ma-

For convenience, the three


methods of heat transfer are reviewed, even though you have
studied them in other courses, be-

ducted

through

such as

floors, walls,

and the rays of the sun may

insulating

cause they are closely connected

The problem

with understanding the handling

transfer.

some
is

of insulation. While studying the


chapter remember that insulation
is

Methods
Heat

is

of

by convection.
Conduction

sage of energy,

the direct pas-

is

light,

or heat from

one object to another, through


contact. For example, you place
your hand on a cold windowpane,
the cold

is

conducted

hand, and heat to the

to

your

glass,

by

Radiation, in a simplified sense,

is

the passage of heat rays through


air.

An

object

the rays strike

For example,

and cooling
Chapter 19.

held near a lighted electric bulb


they are

warmed by

radiation.

Convection is the mass movement of heated air or other par

ticles either resistant to

or caused

by gravity or mechanical forces.


For example, in a two-story home,
heavier cool air descends along
the steps of a stairway while light

warm

air

moves toward the top of

the stair well. These are convec-

if

is

warmed

its

surface.

your hands are

Means

of Retarding Heat Transfer

Heat or cold may be convected


into a building through openings
such as windows, doors, or loose
construction.

It

may

179

also be con-

strike

Good

is

to

control

the

construction methods

and weather stripping at all doors


and windows help a great deal.
Usually more heat and cold are
transferred through windows than
any other building parts. Glass is
a very poor insulator. When
standing near a window one may
experience heat or cold transfer

through the glass and mistake

it

for outside air entering the build-

even

ing,

though

is

it

tightly

closed.

The addition of storm windows


or double glazing helps stop this
transfer. Air space

panes of glass

is

between the
the

actual

retardant.

As
ings

tion currents.

direct contact.

space or

in

Heat Transfer

transferred in one of

three ways. These are: (1) by conduction, (2) by radiation, and (3)

when

to work with heating

systems discussed

stated.

parts

or ceilings,

surfaces inside through windows.

never without insulation. However, the term


here refers to materials used exclusively for the purposes just

have

terials

value, so a structure

building

said, walls, floors,

act

as

and

conductors.

ceil-

The

amount of conduction depends


upon the materials used. When
the construction materials themselves

do not have

sufficient in-

sulation value, additional materials

must be used.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Classifications of

Insulation
There are many materials used
insulation. They may be
grouped into four general cateas

gories: (1) vegetable. (2) mineral.

and

(3) metal,

may

Each

(4) plastic.

many

be processed into

dif-

ferent forms for special uses.

Loose

Insulation

Fill

This insulation

not pressed

is

into a sheet or other solid unit

and must be placed loose between


framing members. It may be
poured or blown into position.
Loose fill insulation is usually of

Loose

fill

insulation may be poured or


blown between studs.

Rigid insulation placed toward the out-

side of a

frame

wall

may

also serve as

sheathing.

mineral composition, but occasionally vegetable material such


as granulated cork

is

be either fibrous

(like

used.

may

It

threads),

or granular (small particles). Ex-

amples of fibrous insulation are


rock wool, glass wool (spun glass
fibers),

table)
eral)

and slag wool. Cork (vegeand expanded mica (min-

may

It is

dle loose
it

be granular.

sometimes

must be

installed

construction

Packaged

is

it

is

most

Insulation

Fill

is

similar to

fi-

insulation except

fill

adhered

after

completed.

This material

brous loose

han-

difficult to

insulation because

fill

to,

Half thick batt insulation should be fas-

tened on the

warm

side of a wall to

Fiberboard

minimize condensation.

or contained be-

insulation

may

serve as a

plaster base.

tween, sheets of kraft paper for

more convenient

use.

The pack-

as

shown. Observe that some of

aging permits installation while

the insulations have paper on only

Pack-

one face while others are completely encased in it. Note also
that some have nailing flanges
while others do not. Those with-

construction

age width

tween

is

is

in progress.

designed to

fit

be-

normal stud spacings.

Thicknesses most frequently used.


are

1", 2", 4",

This

and

insulation

6".

may be

in-

stalled as batts. blankets, or rolls

Rigid Insulations

These may be of mineral, vegefoamed plastic, and are

table, or

available in
sheets,

purposes.

many

different sized

many

specific

One should

consult

used

for

out provisions for fastening are

manufacturers' literature to be-

held in place by forcing them be-

come acquainted with the many


forms and uses. Typical rigid

tween the framing members.

180

16: Insulation

insulations are manufactured of


grass-type vegetable fiber that has

been broken down from its living


and reprocessed by pressure,
heat, and the addition of resins.
state

Some
rials

are fibrous mineral matesuch as spun glass or rock

Foamed

wool.

contains

plastic

cells that insulate.

These are frequently dual purpose products that serve as insulation but also as wall sheathing,
soffit coverings, plaster base,
roof
sheathing, acoustic wall or ceiling
materials such as panels or tile,

and similar

items. See three illus-

trations, top left,

on page

Insulation (pressed) board wall


is widely used. Its standard thickness is -A:" but Vi"
meets most code requirements.
Standard widths are 24" and 48".

Standard lengths are 8'-0" and


9'-0".

Board surfaces may be untreated and have the fibers exin

may

waterproof

solid

furring
Foil

reflector

insulation

is

masonry

walls,

may

strips

spaces between
be filled with

insulation.

nailed or

stapled to studs.

182.

sheathing

posed, or they

On

flat or have folded or stamped


designs to add to rigidity and in-

crease

reflective

backing
the

is

foil to

turn,

Paper
sometimes added to

increase

aluminum

added

to

quality.

its

strength. In

foil is

frequently

one face of packaged

sulation

for

in-

increased effective-

ness.

As

a backing of drywall or

rock lath,

it

also serves as a fire

retardant.

Reflective insulation

may have

a sandwich construction, consisting of two layers of foil with space

and

stiffeners

between them as

shown.

be encased

bituminous

coating.

Slab insulation

backed plaster board

Foil

similar in ap-

is

serves as a fire retardant.

pearance to insulation board with


a coated surface, except the sheets
are not pressed into a rigid form.

Even though the


the

interior

quite soft.

exterior

material

They are

mineral or foamed

is

rigid

usually

is

usually of

plastic.

Loose

fill

leveled

is
poured and
between joists.

Reflective Insulation

Thin sheets of high gloss metal,


aluminum, may be used

usually

to reflect heat or cold.

may

The

sheets

be used alone or combined

with other materials. When used


alone they are usually secured to

framing members. They

Batts

or

blankets

may be

stapled from above.

may be
181

Port One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

and
Sound Control
Ordinary sand plaster has very

Plaster as Insulation

Batts or blankets

may

also

be fastened from below.

little

When

insulating value.

sulating

are

qualities

lightweight

plasters

in-

desired,

made from

minerals such as expanded mica,


vermiculite, or perlite are effective.

Rigid

fiberboard

may be

placed

Insulating

plaster

fre-

is

insulation

quently used for sound control.

between a

Greater insulating value as well

subfloor and finished floor to

as

reduce sound transmission.

sound control can be obtained

with a sprayed plaster, texture


finished.

Sprayed plaster

cur-

is

rently very popular because large

areas can be applied quite rap-

Fiberboard

insulation

may

serve as a celling base.

idly. It is most widely used on


commercial structures. Sprayed
plaster gives a beautiful and in-

teresting appearance. Its greatest

disadvantage
causes

it

to

is its

softness

which

become damaged

easily.

Sound Conditioning
Special effort to sound condition

homes and apartments


recent

relatively

is

development.

waves as much as is possible, to


prevent them from passing to
other areas. Hard, smooth surfaces reflect more sound than

porous textured ones. This


a

or
is

room with an
tile

ceiling

is

why

acoustic plaster

and carpeted

floor

quieter than one with a smooth

Livability can

hanced

if

be greatly ensound conditioning is

carefully planned.

Some

surfaces

absorb, while

others reflect sound waves.

conditioning

means

Sound

absorbing

Stud arrangement for sound control


wall.

A metal channel system

182

is

used to support suspended acoustic

ceilings.

16: Insulation

much sound

to pass

other living areas.

through

When

to

As

between them, as shown, helps

floor should not be nailed

reduce

through

An

acoustic ceiling on the ad-

level will also improve


sound conditioning. A drop ceiling, as shown on the bottom of
page 182, not directly attached to

jacent

provides even

the joists,

better

sound control.

and

hard surface

provide

not

floor.

Wood

and

joists

permit

floors

control,

sufficient

be used.

rooms allow
two independent
walls with space and insulation
sound

transfer,

this.

Special metal and rubber clips


also be used to hold wallboard and other sheet materials
away from framing members to
reduce sound transmission.

Wood

other construction methods, such

paneling similar to the

one shown may be fastened

to a

wall, acting as a trap to prevent

sound

methods discussed do

If the

floors,

walls between

may

cause nails transfer sound.

plaster ceiling

may

sound deadening
insulation, as shown, can be cemented between the subfloor and
finished floor. Note: The finished
the insulation to the subfloor be-

wood panel wa

poured concrete or concrete

plank

objectionable,

Acoustic

as

is

this

reflection.

Although the
absorb

paneling

does

sound,

turns waves into each

it

not

the

other.

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge


As used here, what

is

meant

by the term insulation?

What

What is conduction? From


your own reasoning give an example

12.
13.

What
What

other than the one

14.

In

2.

3.

What

in

the book.

radiation? Give an

is

example other than the one

in

the

book.

What

is

convection? Give an

example other than the one

in

the

book.

5.

What

6.

is

it

weather

is

stripping

used?

How do

7.

double glazing help stop heat trans-

batt insulation?

is

blanket insulation?

What
What

in
is

in

questions

What

in-

7.
is

From what four basic mateinsulation

usually manufac-

8.

9.

What
What

is

is

loose

fill

insulation?

meant by the term

fibrous insulation?

10.

What

is

meant by the term

granular insulation?

plaster.

from

regular

24.

Why

is

What
it

is

sound conditioning?

important?

25. Describe some of the meth-

ods used to improve sound condi-

rigid insulation?

tioning.

are three types of rigid

Terms to Spell and


insulation

is

Know

board wall
heat transfer

What

is

its

standard

thick-

ness?

conduction
radiation

19.

Name two

surface treat-

sheathing.

20.

How

tured?

insulating

differ

it

place?

ments for insulating board wall

fer?

does

plaster?

sheathing?
18.

storm windows or

is

mentioned

23. Describe

How

insulation?

what two ways are the

3 held

6.

fill

insulation?
1

and why

rials

sulations

and

15.

4.

are two disadvantages

of using loose

is

21.

is

reflective insulation?

used?

Why
How

fill

insulation

batt insulation

blanket insulation

sometimes paper

is

it

is

reflective

backed?
22.

weather stripping
loose

What
it

convection

rigid insulation

slab insulation
insulation

sometimes used with other


ing materials?

183

insulat-

reflective insulation

sound conditioning

w
Requirements

Electrical
Each year many new

electrical

through wires to a building. This

devices are placed on the market

source usually (but not always)

make

and more enand other


buildings are equipped with as

ing

many

usually provided by the owner.

to

joyable.

life

easier

New homes

of these

devices

as

the

provides the lines only to a building.

The entrance

service

throughout a

and wir-

building

are

conductors up to the service entrance panel are No. 6 or heavier.

Most codes require

even greater amperage.

ning

items.

were formerly very luxurious or


even non-existent. The number of

building or from the power plant


is by overhead service, which

ments

electrical items
is

increasing,

to

do so.
If one

The conventional way of runentrance

conductors

to

included in homes

means wires on

and

continue

source to the building. Another

of today's

method is underground wiring.


The first method is most often

tries to

will

use

all

conveniences with wiring designed


for the past, the results

can be

used because

However,

it

least expensive.

it is

has serious draw-

disastrous. Inadequate wiring

backs. Wires strung from pole to

cause

pole are unsightly.

can
which
may result in fires. Overloads
cause fuses to burn out, which is
very inconvenient. Wires that are

which can cause interruptions in


service. The underground method

too small create excessive resis-

is

tance which in turn increases the

but

lines

electricity

to

overheat,

used. This causes an

increase in the electric

necessary

to

plan

bill.

electrical features so they

the anticipated
tric

It is

building's

demand

exceed

are also

damaged during

storms,

much more expensive


is

more

to install

desirable because

is

supplied by

removes these objections. Many


newly planned communities have
complete underground service.
Kind of Service

owned

organi-

zations that deliver current

small

buildings

usually

electric

service.

184

is

covered here.

Units of Measure
Ampere. Amperage is the
strength of an electric current.
is

It

the quantity that can be trans-

mitted through a wire at a given

The larger the wire the more


amperage it can transmit.
Ohm. The unit of electrical retime.

sistance in a circuit.
Volt.

Voltage

that

forces

wire.

It

is

the pressure

is

current

through

the force that causes

require

one ampere to flow through a


wire whose resistance is one ohm.
Watt. A watt is one ampere
under one volt of pressure.
Watt hour. A watt hour is one
watt used for a period of one
hour.
Kilowatt.

Entrance

kilowatt

is

1,000

watts.

three-wire, single-phase, 120-240


volt

all electrical

A sketch of general require-

it

For the architectural draftsman, a course in electrical circuitry is valuable. Homes and other

Electric Service

private or publicly

They

for elec-

current.

Electric service

easily

meet the demand of

from a

poles

Of course

the system must be designed to

will permit. Even modest


homes include many devices that

budget

amp.
some require

that 100

service be used, but

Kilowatt hour.
is

kilowatt hour

1.000 watts used for one hour.

17: Electrical Requirements

Abbreviations for Units

An example

Measure

of

of the electric requirements for a small

ampere

Amp., amp.,

General illumination

4.0

KW =

volt

V, v

Dishwasher

1.0

KW

watt

W, w

Electric

9.8

KW

watt hour

watt-hr., wh., whr.

Automatic clothes washer

0.6

kilowatt

KW,

Automotic clothes dryer.

kilowatt hour

kw.

K.W.H., kwh.,

Heating system
Central air conditioning.

W
V=
A

W = Ax V

If
trical

amounts of current

different

is

the\

re-

only a partial

list.

items or ones with

power

ratings are to be

used, their requirements must be

secured from manufacturer's data.

Electrical

Equipment Demand
Diversified

demand
(KW)

General illumination

4.0

Automatic clothes washer

.6

Dishwasher

.9

Electric

range

Electric

oven,

Electric

cooking top,

8.0
3.6

built-in

4.5

built-in (4 units)

Electric clothes dryer:

.5.0

KW

8.0

KW

35.2

KW

to use all the elec-

the entrance service


to carry

9,800

600
6,300

500
5,000

8,000

W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W

@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

120 V

240 V

240 V
120 V

240 V
120 V

240 V
120 V

33.30 omps.
4.15 amps.

40.83 amps.
5.00 amps.

26.25 amps.
4.17 omps.

20.83 amps.

66.66 omps.

201.19 amps.
in

a home; the

specific

125 amp.
one may be used.
Entrance service panels may be
equipped with fuses, as described
is

listed

as providing

service, so this

containing a limited conmelts

when

excess

water heater:

current
1

is

passed

3.4
.6

Food waste disposer

.4

Water pump

.4

Attic fan

.4

bathroom heater (each)

Central heating system'

.3

.5

air conditioner (each)

Central air conditioner

.5

1.0
2

panels

Only the larger of the heating or cooling load


need be considered.
Rated wattage.
H. A.

185

may

equipped with
can be reset
overload is removed.
be

circuit breakers that

after

an

202 amperes.

panel designed for this


amperage. However, one

service

ductor that

High recovery

F.

KW

However, one may safely assume


no more than Vs of the items
will be in use at the same time.
To arrive at a realistic amperage
then, one would provide approximately Vs the computed amount,
or 121 amps. A search of manufacturer's data reveals no entrance

6.3

Room

0.5
.

1,000

Distribution

From

that

High speed

Food freezer

same time
would need

earlier,

Electric

KW
KW

items listed above at the

3.4

Normal recovery

one were

Normal
Electric

.6.3

4,000

The above list does not include all items normally found
ones given are for illustrative purposes only.

table shows

If different

Future appliances

A= W
V

items of electrical equipment and


the

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Demand

The following

quire. This

stove

kw-h, kw-hr

Formulas for Units of Measure

Calculating

home might

be as follows:

through,

'

or

the electrical center,

and

passing through individual fuses


or circuit

breakers,

branch

cir-

run to equipment and


lighting. Branch circuits are usual-

cuits are

ly

designed to carry

15

or 20

amps., depending upon the con-

For many years


was considered adequate but, with toductor wire

No.

size.

14 conductor wire

day's increased
is

demand. No.

12

desirable. If circuits are to carry

heavy loads as

for electric stoves,

air conditioners,

motors, they

may

or heavy duty
require No. 10

or larger conductor wires.

Part One: Structure

may be

direction they

placed in

unnecessary
to have separate conduits for each
a single conduit;

it is

Conduit
categorized into two

may

of wires.

set

illustration,

duit

classifica-

On

rigid or flexible.

tions:

is

how

observe

be
the

the con-

bent so wires can turn

corners.

run without conduit


considered

fire safe.

wires to be

they are

if

Two

or

be encased

in flexible cable

conduit, or two or

more wires may

built-in protection, such as

strands of wire inside a waterRigid conduit

and receptacle boxes back


to back.

There are several methods of


code requirements and per-

local

sonal preference.

mon
tic

proof covering, or wires


encased in plastic. The
frequently

protecting circuits, determined by

The most com-

uses wires in metal or plas-

pipe sizes permit any

used

underground

for

may

be

outside

circuits. It

or

must be

which can cause short circuits,


and does not deteriorate from

Any

of the protective methods

same

tems, which are discussed later.

mentioned above can be used

identification.

Number

uninsulated.
wires

Each of the black

supplies

120 volts, while

the white one serves as a neutral

be strung. In addition to these


wires a green one is sometimes
included to serve as a secondary
ground. This wire

is

not connected

to the electrical system.


is

One end

fastened to a water pipe or

metal stake outside the building

or ground wire. If branch circuits

and the other end

require only 120 volts, just one

the case of the appliance or

black wire and one white wire

ture.

are needed. If a circuit requires

electricity into the

240

event of a short circuit, and to

volts,

all

three wires

must

of Circuits Required

As discussed
cuit

This wire

is

186

is

fastened to

cir-

15 or

20 amps; so individual

cir-

must be calculated and

cuit loads

distributed throughout the system

accomplish

to

bution

is

this.

Proper

distri-

very important for

effi-

cient operation.

Stoves, air conditioners, water


heaters, furnaces, freezers, large

motors, or any other device that


requires large

amperage should

be placed alone on a
ceptacle outlets in
utility

circuit.

the

Re-

kitchen,

room should be
more

distributed between two or

and should not be on ones

used for illumination. All receptacle outlets in a

room should not

be placed on the same

may

circuit.

overlap into two or

more rooms.
In rooms other than the

ser-

vice

and

area,

lighting

receptacle outlets

fixtures

may

be placed

on the same circuit. However,


no room should have all equipment on the same circuit. The
load can be too heavy and if service is disrupted the entire room
is

without

electricity.

fix-

used to siphon

ground

each

earlier,

should carry no more than

in

Wires and Circuits Required


brought from the source to the
entrance panel. Two of them are
black and one is either white or

new con-

manner.
Wires running from an appliance or fixture to a switch are

Circuits

Three wires are normally

building codes

struction to be installed in this

circuits

conjunction with low voltage sys-

wires are to be run in the

wiring in

all

laundry, or

exposure.

number of
many

wires to be placed inside. If

Many

require

latter is

of a grade that seals out water,

pipe, called conduit. Different

to the user.

depending upon the num-

similar in appearance to flexible

have

conduct static charges, thereby


reducing danger and annoyance

more

ber needed for the circuit run,

may

Architectural Obligation

frequently colored red for easy

Some codes permit

wires,

An

Outlet Boxes

Except for low voltage systems,

in the
all

wire connections, fixtures, re-

17: Electrical Requirements

some models have


removable sides so several can be
joined together to form gang boxes
individuals, or

to

accommodate

several switches

may

or receptacle outlets. Boxes

be fastened directly

to structural

members, or they may be secured


by a variety of fastening devices.
When installed, the open side
of a box is placed flush with the
finished wall.

Every room except the bath


at least three duplex

(double) receptacle outlets. They


are installed a

maximum

of 12

more deEvery wall large enough


but 8 feet

is

for placing furniture should

have

electrical

system

in

outlet

and
octagonal boxes are shown. The
first two are used primarily for
switches and receptacle outlets.
boxes. Rectangular, square,

Octagonal boxes are used for


stalling light fixtures

in-

and making

wire connections. Octagonal boxes


are

used

alone,

rectangular ones

but

square or

may be used

as

must have
controlled,

For best

ture.

The dining room

one switchpermanent light fixat

least

results this fixture

table.

The kitchen should


have a permanent light fixture
mounted in or near the center of
the ceiling. This light should be
controlled by switches near the
doors. A permanent fixture should
also be installed

The

above the

switch for this light

sink.

may be

rooms should
nent,

tures controlled by switches. Fix-

coincide with furniture placement.

tures

is,

if

device

lamp or other
is

likely to

elec-

be used
should
it.

Special outlet requirements.

the

are provided.

Dining room.

windows, or by fireplaces. Outlet


location should be planned to

be a receptacle outlet near

other devices should be joined to

lets

wall spaces between doors, below

at a certain location, there

and

if

switch-controlled receptacle out-

on the wall adjacent to the sink.


Utility or laundry rooms. These

trical

switches,

permanent

usually required

a receptacle outlet; this includes

That

outlets,

is

Kitchen.

should have

ceptacle

No

room.

Living

light fixture

room

Required Lighting
and Switches

sirable.

proof.

should be near or over the dining

Outlets

feet apart,

weather, they should be water-

also have

must also be provided near

laundry tubs or sink and


other work areas.
Bedrooms. Bedrooms do not

always have permanent ceilingmounted fixtures. These may be


omitted

tion to regular kitchen or utility

the client so desires.

each

outlets,

permanent

appliance should have a separate

There should be two or


above each counter
top. (3) An outlet must be provided above or close to the lavaoutlet.

more

outlets

tory mirror. (4)

When

outlets are

placed in basements, garages, outdoors, or any other place

where

dampness is likely to occur, they


must be of the grounding type.
(5)

If outlets are

187

exposed to the

fix-

the

Every hall should have at least


one receptacle outlet. (2) In addi-

room

perma-

ceiling-mounted light

if

switch-controlled

re-

ceptacle outlets are provided and

Activity

room (with any name).

This room should be equipped


with permanent switch-controlled

They may be simple ceilmounts or very elaborate in-

fixtures.

ing

stallations featuring light troughs,

indirect

lighting,

dimming

accent

lights,

or

other

devices,

specialties.

Halls.
all halls

The

entry or foyer and

should have permanent

switch-controlled fixtures.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

closets,

convenience.

light

fixture.

These are usually

at least one permanent fixmounted above the lavatory

descent or fluorescent bulbs. All

mirror.

Its

switch should be near

However,

if this

the only fixture in the

room

the point of use.

the switch should be near the door.


If the

-S-

should have a permanent

units,

very simple with exposed incan-

ture

is

8'-0",

room

is

larger than 5'-0"x

an additional

ceiling fixture

closet lights
controlled.

The

must be switchswitch may have a

simple pull chain attached to the


fixture, or it may be mechanical,
to turn the light

as the

door

is

on automatically
opened. When

closets are filled with shelves, as

should be provided. Note: One


should be unable to reach any

a linen cupboard,

switch or receptacle outlet from

fixture so

the bathtub because of the elec-

area.

trical

danger to the

Light outlet with pull switch

B.

One

lighting outlet controlled by a

it is

it

will

Two

lighting outlets controlled by

a single pole switch


D.

One

Stairways. Permanent fixtures

should be provided to illuminate


all stairways. They may be at a
point along the stair well or near

E.

Two

lighting outlets controlled by

three-way switches

Switching diagram.
ceilings with

nating basement

When

luminous panels are decorative as

well as functional.
Artcresr Products Co., Inc

stairs, if

illumi-

the light

is

placed at the foot of the

it

may

lighting outlet controlled by

three-way switches

good idea

illuminate the

the top or bottom.


C.

to place a simple ceiling-mounted

user.

A.

single pole switch

Suspended

All

except very small shelving

Bathroom. The bathroom must

have

S-

cupboards.

or

Closets

Three-way switches are recomfor a long hall. These


are operated at two points, for

mended

basement.
cess

stairs

also illuminate part of the

to

If there

no other ac-

is

the basement this light

may have

a single-pole switch. If

the basement has another door

providing access, a three-way


switch should be provided so the
light can be controlled from both

and foot of the stairs.


Even though a single-pole switch

the head

minimum

fulfills

the

ments,

three-way

strongly

require-

switches

recommended

for

are
all

stairs.

Basement

lights.

There are no

special lighting requirements for

However, proper
must be provided

the basement.

illumination
for safety

and the

formed. Lights

tasks to be per-

may

be controlled

by switches or pull chains as


desired.

188

""

AJS

-iiUlL

Scholz Hornet

Exterior lighting

Lighting for this family

makes

this

home an

after-dark showplace.

room and kitchen adds

to both function

and beauty.
Scho'z

Homes

Inc.

189

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

>

>

Lighting fixture types.

190

7: Electrical

Requirements

Garage. Permanent switchcontrolled fixtures are to be in-

cluded
be

in the garage.

able

to

control

One

should

them from

either the house or garage.

Outside

illumination.

Special Lighting Requirements


In addition to the general

lumination just discussed,


sirable to

have additional

cooking, or other uses.

writing,

One may

to illuminate the entrance outside

beauty or psychological

each door. These are controlled

by switches inside the building


but next to the door opening. Adexterior lighting

sirable but
fulfill

is

de-

must be designed

specific

de-

light in

most rooms for reading, sewing,

Perma-

nent fixtures must be provided

ditional

it is

il-

to

needs or desires.

also desire light for

There are so many


available that

fixtures

possible to discuss or

them.

Only general

its

electrical
it

is

not

all

types

can be divided into two parts.


The main system supplies 120
volts to fixtures

of

are

and

is

very simi-

conventional wiring. Conventional switch wires leading


lar to

from

effect.

show

The accompanying diagram


shows how the electrical system

have been elimi-

fixtures

They

nated.

are replaced by elec-

tromagnet switches actuated by


the low-voltage circuit.

At the

of the diagram ob-

left

Switch

represented to convey an idea of

serve

the possibilities.

wires leading from the transformer

the

transformer.

supply 12 or 24 volts (depending

upon

the system). Observe also

that after the switch wires leave

the transformer the two sets of

wiring

are

where

in

they

not
the

connected any-

building;

operate

that

is,

independently

of

each other. Since they supply


voltage they

duty

may be of very

bell wire.

There

is

little

light-

no danger

of a hazardous short circuit in the


switching system; wires need not

be run

in

conduit nor installed in

metal switch boxes.


Low voltage wiring diagram.
Electrical Plans

Electrical plans for light con-

struction are

drawn

to

show the

approximate location of the entrance service panel,

all

switches,

and fixtures.
Exact locations are seldom di-

receptacle

outlets,

mensioned, thus permitting

slight

variations to expedite installation.

Except for very large buildings


Switch locations for interior and exterior fixtures.

with complicated electrical systems, conductor wires are not in-

Low Voltage Systems

When
electrical

must control
devices from a great

switches

number of
tion

locations, the installa-

becomes very complex and

the cost

may be

prohibitive.

Low

voltage wiring and switching de-

dicated on electrical plans.

When

cause they are designed for these

one observes electrical floor plans


and sees lines connecting switches
and fixtures, these may be mis-

installations.

interpreted

vices are a practical solution be-

191

as

wire

locations.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

These

only

lines

the

indicate

Symbols

proper switch to control a specific


they do not indicate the

fixture;

exact location of conductor wires.

space permits, electrical

If

formation

may be

in-

included on a

floor plan. If the plan

too com-

is

may be

one

plex,

separate

drawn

to

show wiring and fixtures.

Electrical information

may also

run to a building? Explain the use

drawn

Electrical items are

as

frequently used are included in

Chapter

38, rather

Of

electrical information.

course,

symbols replace specific items. If


such items must be identified,
code numbers or manufacturers'

model numbers may be added

the plan at a location near the

ample, typical and special switch

symbol.

outlet heights

need

27.

What

28.

Why

to

When drawing symbols


on your plan be sure to check the
examples mentioned earlier.

is

a secondary ground?

are switch wires some-

times colored red?

than with other

be required on elevation, detail,


and section drawings. For ex-

and receptacle
to be shown.

of each.

symbols on building plans. For


convenient reference those most

29. From

own

your

reasoning,

from the preceding question, why


are several colors used on the

in-

sulation of electric wires?

What

30.

amperage

recommended

the

is

for

typical

electrical

circuit?

31.

Is

permissible to place an

it

and an

electric stove

air condition-

on the same

circuit?

why or why not.


32. What is a receptacle

outlet?

ing compressor

Explain

33. Should

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge


in

Why

does

found

electrical items

number of

the
in

homes today

exceed the number used

in

What

How

does

this affect

wiring

is

4.

supplies
5.

likely to

is

happen

if

electric service?

is

Who

What

8.

culations,

panel?

building? Explain the advantages and

22.

disadvantages of each.

23.

7.

8.
9.

10.
1

2.

3.

14.

is

What
What

determine this?

a kilowatt?

is

a kilowatt hour?

most

for

heavier wire

or

What is conduit? Describe two

not.

How do

26.

building

or

why

41.

42.

codes help

wires are usually

192

any room on the same

What

kinds of items require

Why?
in

ques-

circuit? Explain

why

not.

What are outlet boxes? What

What
What

are gang boxes?


is

a duplex receptacle

outlet?

lets

How many

Why?

why

40.

why

advise

receptacles and

all

shapes?

25. Are conductor wires always


conduit? Explain

re-

are the three most frequently used

kinds.

in

in

permis-

and

37, must each room be placed

39.

circuits?

recommended?

it

circuit?

How would you

on a separate
is

is

38. Excluding the items

an entrance service

What is a branch circuit?


What conductor wire size

recommended

run

same

individual circuits?

tion

is

not?

other rooms

on having

37.

be used at the

will

Explain.

When

is

client

fixtures

home? Amperage?
What is an ohm?
What is an ampere?
What is a volt?
What is a watt?
What is a watt hour?

24.

36.

determine

to

circuit?

How much voltage is normally

supplied to a

why
In

sible to place light fixtures

electrical cal-

What

21.

to

how

be on

fixtures

as receptacle out-

ceptacles on the

equipment

are two methods of

conductors

the formula for find-

light

circuit

a kitchen or laundry room?

or

does one presume that

same time?
entrance

is

When making

20.

pays the cost for en-

all

running

Why

9. Explain

Explain.

What

in

the formula for find-

35.

trance conductors up to a building?

6.

lets
is

the electric requirements of a home.

it?

Who

same

amperes?

ing

inadequate?

What

the

room be on

utility

circuit?

34. Should
the formula for find-

ing volts?

building wiring?

What

What

7.

same

is

ing watts?

the anticipated trend

is

for the future?

3.

What

6.

a kitchen or

the

9 through 14.

the im-

mediate past?
2.

15. Give abbreviations for items

receptacle outlets

all

the

How

should receptacle out-

be spaced

in

a room?

minimum number

for

What

is

each room?

17: Electrical Requirements

43.

What

walls

have

should

receptacle outlets?

44.

If

a room does not require a

permanent

light fixture,

provision must be

what special

made?
utility

re-

room,

why low-voltage

wire size can be less than

with conventional wiring.

On

46. Describe the possible lighting


requirements of bathrooms.

electric plans,

a floor plan, what do the

does one

56.

Is

electrical

information

this

information? Explain.

57. Explain

how code numbers

or letter symbols can be used with

Why

electrical symbols.

or

why not?

ns to Spell and
all

closet

be

lights

switches? Explain.

49. Describe locations of fixtures


to illuminate a stairway.

What kind of switch


ommended for stairways?

is

rec-

51. Describe lighting require-

in-

cluded on the regular floor plan or


is a separate one drawn to include

kinds of closets require

operated from wall mounted

50.

On

connecting switches and fixtures

receptacle outlets or light fixtures?

light fixtures?

48. Must

lines

show?

53. Explain

54.

55.

wir-

normally dimension the location of

or laundry room.

What

does a low-voltage

one?

tional

switch

45. Describe possible lighting


quirements of a kitchen,

47.

How

52.

ing system differ from the conven-

Know

electric service

watt

entrance service

watt hour

secondary ground

entrance conductors

kilowatt

receptacle outlet

overhead service

kilowatt hour

switch

underground service

entrance service panel

low-voltage plan

ohm

fuse

fixture

ampere

circuit

breaker

volt

branch

circuit

ments at exterior doors. Where are

flexible conduit

rigid conduit

switches for these lights located?

193

single-pole switch

three-way switch

m
Plumbing
Elsewhere

book

this

in

it

is

pointed out that one cannot be-

new

lieve that everything

is

nec-

good and that everything


old is no longer applicable. If this
were true plumbing would have
been discarded a long time ago.
essarily

So-called

modern

history indi-

many

of our immediate
forebears had no plumbing con-

cates that

veniences.
that

if

It is

Study of the

leads from the city main, well, or

other source to a location just in-

by stone, brick,
or concrete. Per capita water consumption was greater than that
of

many

cities

today.
re-

vealed interior plumbing fixtures

and supply systems

rise,

decline,

that are

still

Great aqueducts transported

which permitted

size

of

this

is

code

requirements.

FHA

minimum requirements specify at


least a %" supply line. However,
a larger size
is

more

is

desirable.

usually of galvanized

iron or copper, but brass alloy or

Today's Water Supply

cast iron pipe are also frequently

Availability of a suitable

abundant water supply


often taken for granted.

that

water from distant mountains for


use in the cities. Some of these
were open channels built with a

The

determined by the amount


of water to be supplied and by
pipe

This line

virtually intact.

important part

in their daily lives.

side the building.

local

Excavations of ruins also

that water

slope

its

com-

pletely enclosed

and fall of the Roman Empire


shows that plumbing played an

gradual

were

Others

destination.

easy to rationalize

they had none, plumbing

had not been invented prior to


this time. This is a false assumption.

gravity to carry the water to

is

is

used, with infrequent or experi-

too

mental use of other materials.


This main line may be located
in the same trench with the waste

We know

taken from lakes,

reservoirs, rivers,

some

is

and

deep

wells,

and

being converted from

from the building to


Note: Back fill covering water lines must not contain
line leading

the sewer.

make it suitable for


human consumption. Because of

cinders or other debris that could

waste, neglect, and increased us-

have a corrosive action on the

sea water to

an adequate water supply


becoming difficult to maintain.

age,
is

pipe.

The water supply

line usually

connects to a meter and/or shutoff valve. In

Water Distribution System


People are familiar with
plumbing fixtures because they
see and use them. Almost every
home has at least one kitchen
sink,

water

tub,

and

closet, lavatory, bath-

either a laundry tub or

connections

for

an

automatic

washer. Also, each house usually

has either a gas or electric water

Each of these fixtures


must be connected to a water supply source and drain. (Except that
some water heaters do not connect to the house drainage system.) Plumbing fixtures and their
arrangement into rooms are discussed in Chapter 27.
heater.

One

large water supply line

194

meter

may be

warm

climates the

installed either in-

side or outside the building, but


in cold climates

installed inside.

it

is

most often

A water

line

may

pass through a foundation wall


or beneath a footing.

When

the

pipe passes through a foundation


wall

it

should be encased in a

short length of larger diameter

pipe to permit building settlement

?8:

Plumbing
Pipes must either be placed below

and pipe movement. The void


between pipes should be filled

the joists

with a pliable waterproofing.

down

If city

mains supply more than

joists

in the

main before

house

lines. If

it

too

connects to

little

edge and the


no more than A
width to avoid weakening.
also a good idea to place

cut should be

COMPRESSION
CHAMBER

joist

pressure

It

is

one may install a


booster pump and storage tank

joist

to increase pressure.

end.

is

be notched to receive

close to their top

re-

ducing valve should be installed

may

the pipe. Joists should be notched

80 pounds of water pressure per


square inch, then a pressure

and the ceiling furred


accommodate them, or

to

the notch in the

supplied,

first

from

length

of the

supported

no city
mains are present, the owner
must connect a pump and storage

The tap fixture location is


shown on floor plans and no fur-

tank to a well or other supply

quired to show where pipes extend

In

where

localities

ther dimensioning
Pipe noises are reduced by using com-

source.

pression chambers.

Inside the building the water

branch

lines.

two pipes called

One

pipe supplies

cold water and the other

is

con-

nected to a hot water heater. Both

through a floor or into a wall.

Naturally there are ex-

use. The compression chambers


shown in the illustration are con-

ceptions

structed of short pipe risers with

pipe locations are necessary be-

closed ends.
All water lines should be in-

cause of other construction fea-

an orderly manner but

required. In addition to the water

on toward each
tap. These pipes are called
primary branch lines, which frequently have %" inside diameter.
A smaller diameter (usually W)
secondary branch line is used to

stalled in

connect each tap with both hot

6" apart. Closer spacing permits

and cold primary branch lines.


Each branch line should have

transfer of heat

one pipe to the other.

a shut-off valve before

spacing

lines then contine

should use a

minimum amount

of

pipe. Pipes are usually installed


parallel

building edges with

to

hot and cold lines running parallel to

each other approximately

and cold from


If closer

tractor.

to

have

(also called
bib),

may

can be isolated from the system


without shutting off all water to

fer.

Water pipes
cally

to

that extend verti-

each fixture are called

Many
sion

codes require compres-

chambers

to

lines with faucets.

join

branch

These serve as

cushioning devices to help reduce pipe noises during faucet


air

sill

cock or hose
also
cli-

anticipated freestanding

lawn. These

be

installed

may

in

the

protrude above

lated hot water pipes conserve hot


water and reduce water heating

the lawn level or be recessed so

costs.

lawn sprinkling systems with pipes


and sprinklers throughout the
lawn may be installed if desired

When
between

risers.

mates these should be of the


frost-free type. When lawn sprinis

the building.

should

frequently installed. In cold

types

finances permit, insu-

home

one outside faucet

and additional ones are

kling

When

dimensions are

Every

at least

be insulated to prevent heat trans-

is

specific

lines for fixtures, others are also

desirable.

to a faucet so individual fixtures

connects

when

this;

tures, then exact

required, pipes must

it

usually re-

Their exact positions are usually


determined by the plumbing con-

Branch Water Lines

line divides into

is

pipes must be installed

and a ceiling they


between joists,
when both pipes and joist run the
a floor

may

be

same

direction.

placed

they are not visible. Permanent

right angles to the joists their in-

and finances permit. It is also a


good idea to have a faucet in or
near the garage. Note: Some
heating and air conditioning

more complicated.

units also require a water supply.

stallation

is

When

195

pipes are at

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Waste Removal
Used water and wastes must
be drained from the building
through sewage disposal pipes.

Those inside the

building

are

frequently called drains. Sewage


pipes or drains are

many

W=

composed of

individual parts.

Traps. Connecting directly to

each

fixture

called a trap.

the trap

is

is

sharp bend in

it.

with

This bend

is

pipe

For most

All

plumbing fixtures require traps before emptying into house drams.

fixtures

of a small diameter,

except for the water closet, which


requires a 4" one. Other drain trap

determined by the fixopening to which they are


connected. Traps are very necessary to a plumbing system.
They remain full of water at all
times to prevent sewer gas from

sizes are

ture

backing up into the building. In


addition to
this

gas

is

fined in

its

objectionable odor,

poisonous and,
a

if

con-

closed space,

is

explosive.

Traps empty into the main


house drainage system. Horizontal drains then slope gently toward
the city sewer or other drainage
system. Drains should slope ap-

proximately lA" per

foot.

A steeper

slope causes water to drain from


the building sewer too rapidly,

thus leaving waste materials in


the pipe. If drains in the house or
those connecting to a city sewer

must change

levels rapidly,

it

is

best to continue the gentle slope

as described

and then drop them

vertically to their

new

level.

When

drains change direction of flow, as

when

they turn a corner, a clean-

out opening must be provided.

Have you ever poured


from a container with one

Vents.
liquid

196

A properly designed water supply and


waste removal system.
American Brass Compa.

Plumbing

18:

small opening in the top? If not,

obtain

container with

metal

such an opening.

Fill

it

with water

and then pour the contents out.


liquid will not pour smoothly
from the container because there
is no air inlet. Now, puncture a
small hole in the top on an edge

The

The

opposite the original opening.

small air hole permits the liquid


to flow freely.

This same principle

applied

is

ing these large vents are usually

framed with 2"x6" studs instead


of 2x4's.
Like water supply
are

many

lines, there

different kinds of pipe

used for removing wastes. Cast


iron pipe is widely used. This is

good material because it


its
permanently sealed bell joints seldom if
ever need repairs. Copper and
a very
is

long lasting and

brass

alloy

pipes

are

also

quently used. These are not only

always contain water; therefore

but do not

long lasting and easy to


rust.

Wood

Products Assooot.on

leaks.

by additional support. Fiber,


bituminous coated, and plastic
level

fre-

house drainage system. It


was mentioned earlier that traps
a

to

Western

Vent stacks require flashing to prevent

pipe

install

Four-inch diame-

are

also

used,

most

fre-

quently outside a building.

most frequently used

Before selecting a kind of pipe

from the traps. Drains


must have ventilation to empty

for

main lines. Vitreous clay bell


is sometimes used to connect

for drains or specific sizes to drain

Observe the cutaway


photograph showing a house
plumbing system. Note the large
pipe extending vertically through

from a building to the city sewer


or other drainage system. With
this material a 6" diameter pipe

codes because some codes specify

it is

not possible for air to enter the

drains

properly.

the roof. This


stack.

carries

From

from

stack.

second

the

point below the

floor; this part


soil

and vent

a soil

the bathroom, pipe

waste

floor to a

is

of the pipe

The

first

is

the

vertical riser ex-

ter pipes are

tile

one

fixtures

the exact kind


for

is recommended. Note: Bell tile


should not be used in areas
where tree roots are present because they penetrate cemented
joints between tiles and clog the
system. Neither should it be used
on unstable soils unless it is held

must

and

is

the vent stack.

home

comes from
large

vent

first

Of

course, in a

the

vent stack

floor level.

usually

the water closet

After

merge

all

to

On

from the

city

main. This trap

should be placed at a point just


before the sewer leaves the house.

HOUSE DRAIN

This
the

widely

separated, as those for bathrooms

and the kitchen, additional soil


and vent stacks are required.
When only one fixture is to be
vented (excluding water closets)
some codes permit 2" vent stacks.
Otherwise, they are 4" inside di-

ameter and

will

not

fit

inside

regular stud walls. Walls contain-

SUMP

Sump pumps

197

lift

a final

vent gas and wastes backing up

other fixtures are vented into this


If fixtures are

line,

trap should be installed to pre-

cutaway photograph observe how

main one.

required

interior drainage lines

form one

connects to

drain.

size

local

each application.

tending up from the second floor


one-story

check

PIT

& PUMP

water to overhead sewers.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

vent should be installed on the

FROM

house side of the trap to permit

BUILDING

gas not exhausted by other vents

TO INLET
COMPARTMENT

FROM OUTLET
COMPARTMENT
TO ABSORPTION

to escape.

FIELD

Main sewers
as

deep

frequently are not

House

basements.

as

drains leading from living levels

then cannot be concealed beneath

basement floors. Attach them to


basement walls or suspend them
from joists in order to maintain
a suitable sewer depth and slope

Septic tanks are used in localities not served by city sewers.

in

basement

sewer

is

floors but

when

the

higher than floor level

a gravity type drain cannot be

used.
is

used

concrete pit with a cover

located

in

is favored because
house wastes rather
than contaminating the immediit

water

fills

House sewers empty

turns

pump

on automatically and

lifts

the water to the drain.

Recommended Minimum Standards


(To be supplemented by local

Table

into the

upper part of an air-tight underground container called a septic


tank. The tank has two compartments. The compartment closest

the pit to

a predetermined level, the

purifies

ate vicinity.

has a pipe connected to the house

When

a septic system. This re-

moval method

an inconspicuous

and the floor sloped


slightly toward it. The pit is
equipped with a sump pump that
location

drain.

is

the

to

As stated earlier, when there


is no sewage system, it is necessary to provide other means of
waste removal. The most widely

customary to locate drains

It is

Systems

Septic

for joining outside sewers.

building

and permits

collects

Bacterial action then

tle.

wastes

solid materials to set-

decom-

poses the solid wastes. Near the

top of the tank an opening

is

second compartment. Clear water drains from

joined

to

the

Another
compartment
permits water to overflow and
drain into a septic field. The field
is a series of open jointed pipes
the

first

into the second.

outlet in the second

laid in gravel or
it

crushed stone;

allows drainage water to seep

into surrounding earth.

System

for Individual Sewage-Disposal

code requirements)

Table 2

REQUIRED CAPACITIES AND SUGGESTED DIMENSIONS

FOR SEPTIC TANKS


(Minimum

size

Locations of Systems

tank 750-gallons liquid capacity)

Minimum

Suggested Dimensions for

Max. No

Normal

Na. al

of

Liquid Cap.

Bedrooms

Persons

in

Dwelling

2 or

less

Served

10
12

Tank

Inside

Inside

Liquid

Total

Gallons

Width

length

Depth

Depth

of
in

Safe Distances in Feet

Rectangular Tanks

From

7'-6"

4'-0"

4'-9"

3'-6"

8'-6"

4'-0"

4'- 10'

Foundation Wall

4'-0"

8'-6"

4'-6"

5'-5"

4'-0"

9'-6"

4'-6"

5'-5"

Water Lines
Seepage Pit

O'-O"

4'-6"

5 '-6"

Drywell

4'-6"

198

tion Field

Pit

50

100

100
10
20

100

10

3'-6"

Absorp-

Absorp-

Tank

Property Line

750
900
1,000
1,250
1,500

Seepage

Septic

Well

tion

Bed

10
5

10

10
6

10

10

20

20

20

6
6

Plumbing

8:

Absorption Trench

6.

tank.

In

live in
is

the effluent

it

soil.

area needed

is

See "Percolation

determined by percolation

Record

level.

Allow the water

7.

to

away

seep

completely.

Again record the exact time and compute the

tests.

dis-

tance the water has dropped.

Test Instructions," below.

Convert the time interval to minutes and divide

8.

by the number of inches of water which


has seeped away to obtain the average time for
one inch of water to seep away.

this figure

After a tentative

site

for the absorption

trench

has been selected, at least two percolation tests


should be made. The percolation test determines
the absorption rate of the soil. Knowing the absorption rate of the soil, the absorption

area needed per

bedroom can be taken from Table

3.

9.

Determine from Table 3 the square feet

of

trench bottom area needed for each bedroom. See

Table 4 for width and spacing of absorption trenches.


10. Multiply the square feet of trench

ber of bedrooms
Percolation Test Instructions

in

bottom ab-

bedroom by

sorption area needed for each

the num-

the house to get the total trench

bottom area needed.

The procedure for conducting the percolation

test

as follows:

Dig or bore holes with horizontal dimensions

1.

of from 4 to

and

2 inches

Table 3

vertical sides to the esti-

mated depth

of the bottom of the

tion trench.

On

DATA FOR DETERMINING SQUARE

proposed absorplevel ground this depth is usually

a knife blade or sharp pointed instrument

remove any smeared

a natural

soil

all

loose

soil

filling

if

at least

most

fill

ample time

order

the year. Thus the test

perco-

in

to swell

will

and approach

sq.

per bedroom

ft.

sq.

ft.

per

5 sq.

ft.

per

sq.

ft.

per

sq.

ft.

per

ft.

per

5 minutes per inch

sq.
sq.

ft.

sq.

ft.

per

sq.

ft.

per

25
65
190

250
300
330

per

bedroom
bedroom
bedroom
bedroom
bedroom
bedroom
bedroom
bedroom

Unsuitable for absorption

field

give
the

will

Table 4
SIZE

give comparable results

Effective

Width of Trench
at Bottom
in

Remove that portion of the sand or


become coated with soil particles.
Pour about 12" of water into the hole and
about 6" of

this

AND SPACING REQUIREMENTS FOR

ABSORPTION TRENCHES

12-hour saturation period allow the

Inches

12-18
18-24
24-30
30-36

water remains.

199

Depth of
Trench
in

in

trench

the hole for

gravel which has

until

85
00

3 minutes per inch

4 minutes per inch

hole to empty.

wait

in

bottom per bedroom

30 minutes per inch


45 minutes per inch
60 minutes per inch
Over 60 minutes

whether made during a wet or dry season.

5.

square feet needed

for

10 minutes per inch


15 minutes per inch

conditions that prevail during the wettest season of

4. After the

minutes
one inch

the hole with clear water. By re-

2 hours. This saturation procedure

soils

in

fall

2 minutes or less per inch

fine gravel in the

necessary keep some water


1

water to

from the hole. Place

about 2 inches of coarse sand or


bottom of the hole.
3. Carefully

may

area

Effective absorption

Average time

surface and to provide

interface into which water

Remove

late.

soil

in

FEET OF

ABSORPTION AREA NEEDED PER BEDROOM

about 30 inches. In order to save time, labor and


volume of water required per test, the holes can be
bored with a 4-inch auger.
2. Scratch the bottom and sides of the hole with
to

the

in

the measurement and the exact time.

Percolation Test

is

the hole,

in

point obtain

this

a measurement to the top of the water

Final disposal

accomplished by ground absorption. The absorp-

tion

From

side near the top of the hole.

treated by bacteria that

is

the upper reaches of the

With about 6" of water remaining

establish a reference point such as a nail stuck

The absorption trench gives needed


additional treatment to the sewage from the septic
Function:

Inches

tion

Absorp-

Area

in

Minimum

Spacing

Square Feet per

of Lines C to C

linear Foot

in Feet

8 to

30

1.5

6.0

8 to 30

2.0

6.5

36
36

2.5

7.0

3.0

7.5

18

to

24

to

c
Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Material

Absorption
inch field

tile

lines

may be

constructed with four-

or properly perforated

sewer

tile.

of building paper or similar material


over the open joints of the field tile. Surround the
pipe completely with coarse gravel or stone.

Place

strips

Septic

Distribution

Absorption

Tank

Box
*

Field

r^

t.:-----d
Details of Absorption Trench

and

Line, for
1

Non-Perforated Sewer Pipe

ABSORPTION TRENCHES

On

rolling

IN HILLY

LAND

or

land each
line
absorption
should follow approximately the
hilly

land surface contour.

Absorption Trench

for

Absorption Field Patterns for Reasonably Level Land

Rolling or Hilly Land.

Slope
Slope the absorption

TOO

feet. Progressive

lines

may develop

if

lines two to four inches per


clogging of the absorption

the slope of the lines

is

flatter

or steeper.

Plumbing-Healing-Cooling Information Bureau

200

Plumbing

?8:

Other Plumbing Lines

of and installed

Foundation drain tiles were


discussed in Chapter 3, Footings
and Foundations, but are again
mentioned here as a reminder
that they are a part of the plumb-

as other plumbing.

ing system.

Gas

may

lines

also be a part

Garage

at the

same time

drains are fre-

floor

why

From your own reasoning,

when

are cleanouts necessary

sewer drains change directions?

quently included as a part of the

why

22. Describe

plumbing system.

necessary

Drainage for gutters and


downspouts should be installed
along with the plumbing system.

system.

part

What

23.

tween a

When may

and a vent stack?

same pipe be used?

the

24. Describe which plumbing

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge


use

the

Is

plumbing

of

modern development?

Explain.

Name four sources frequently

2.

used as a water supply.

from

the

rec-

con-

main to a

city

home?
4.

most

What

two

materials

used

frequently

for

are

water

Why

kept

must cinders and debris

back

from

covering

fill

water lines?
water meter loca-

tions in relationship to

a home?

Why

sometimes

located

one

are

they

place and sometimes another?


7.

Why

pipes

Why do

when they pass through a

col-

foun-

2"x6"

usually

the

special

when

between

and

floors

Why

sewer pipe

name

another

is

for

to

vented?

water

and

by what names?

it

in

it

side

of this

trap

8.

What

What

a sump pump?

is

Why

used?

Why

What

is

it

is

septic

system?

used?

32. Describe the operation of a

Why

are

33.

What

size

pipe

usually

is

used for septic absorption fields?

traps used?

What

recommended

the

is

amount of slope

for

a sewer?

Why?

34.

How does

this size

compare

with foundation perimeter drain tile?

9.

pipe

a branch water line?

is

are required?

What

is

Why?

the smallest diameter

recommended

for

branch water

lines?
0.

tween

What
a

is

the difference be-

primary

and

secondary

branch line?
1

cal

is

given to

verti-

water and drain pipes?


12.

What

Terms to Spell and

is

the purpose of com-

Know

aqueduct

compression chamber

soil

plumbing

pipe riser

vent stack

water main

sill

water meter

hose bib

sump pump

pressure reducing

trap

septic system

valve

What name

booster

is

Why?

dation wall?

How many

the

leaves a

septic tank.

a trap?

is

is

31.
drain

before

building?

30.

wastes from a building are called

What

dif-

determine

a trap placed

is

just

29. Which

18. Pipes

20.

How does one

28.

provi-

pipes must be

Describe two types and rea-

7.

have

studs?

27.

outside water faucets?


1

containing

always

which one to use?

ceilings.

What

fix-

why.

ferent pipes available for waste lines.

to

parallel

installed

15. Describe

concealed

walls

almost

stacks

tell

26. Describe the variety of

are water and sewer

building walls?

19.

should water pipes or

sewers be placed inside a pipe


lar

Why

sons for their use.

6. Describe

vent

cold water pipes?

16.

5.

the

is

sions necessary

lines?

be

3.

14.

3. What is the minimum


ommended size for water lines

necting

What

recommended
spacing between parallel hot and
1

and

tures require vents

25.
1.

plumbing

the difference be-

is

stack

soil

are

vents

of

pump

branch water

line

cock

pression chambers at faucets?

201

bell tile

sewer

percolation test

sewage

absorption trench

drain

cleanout

shutoff

stack

or field
distribution

box

m>
Climate Control
Man's

physical

environment

plays an important part in

how

he feels and reacts to situations.


This chapter discusses ways of
altering building temperature, air
circulation,

and

humidity

for

lation

is

gredients
control.

one of the necessary infor adequate climate


The three methods of

efficient.

fire to

are

well

designed,

Heat Distribution Methods

Heating progress evolved from

an open

They

the fireplace, then

There are three widely used


methods of heat distribution:

warm

not be pleasant or work at maxi-

to

Ducts for

mum

is

heating stove the next great step

2.

Pipes for carrying steam or hot

directly related

forward was the invention of a


furnace capable of heating an
entire building. Early models were

3.

when

efficiency

he

uncomfortable.

Chapter 16

is

to this discussion

because insu-

202

humidifying buildings automati-

equipment transfers heat, cold,


and humidity from one location

to another.

can-

capable of heating, cooling, and

require less space, and are very

just to survive, but at the present

One

but recent

sophisticated,

cussed earlier are ways mechanical

not enough.

highly

are

cally.

Man's primary concern in the


past was to change temperature
is

inefficient,

ones

heat transfer (1) conduction, (2)


radiation, and (3) convection dis-

healthful, comfortable living.

time this

crude and

the heating stove. After the

light-colored roof reflects the sun's rays and

makes

home

air.

water.

Surfaces for distributing radiant heat.

easier to cool.

Climafe Control

9:

Gravity Warm Air


Warm air gravity heating systems were formerly widely used.
Early warm air furnaces were
merely large round stoves with
an outer jacket

to lead

air into

round ducts radiating in all


directions from the furnace top.
These ducts supplied warm air to
heat outlets in each room. There
were no mechanical devices to
move air through the ducts, hence
large

the

name

gravity flow.

Warm

air

ducts in both early and current

furnaces usually terminate at inlets

with

level,

ducts

below

floors,

require the latter type.

Appearance and operation of


newer forced warm air furnaces
are much improved over earlier
models. Whereas early models
were large, round, and had
sprawling round ducts occupying
much space, newer models are
compactly designed, rectangular
units

with

shallow,

ducts

that

occupy

When

ducts run the

tion

as joists

rectangular
little

same

may

they

space.
direc-

be

re-

cessed between them.

near outside walls. Inlets are

windows
more heat is radiated
through them than at any other
point. Cold air outlets near inusually located beneath

because

side

walls

with

connect

ducts
The plenum chamber

that return cold air to the furnace

warming and

for

ducts

recirculation.

is

for

connecting heat

placed below this counterflow,

forced warm-air furnace.

Forced

Warm

Air
Fuel

gravity system loses consid-

Early

erable heat during transfer


through ducts because air movement is slow. A more rapid movement could minimize heat loss.

When

is

installed

a forced

warm

The plenum

is

matically

then called

the air

It

is

warm

air for distribution.

warm

some

reversed flow

the

plenum

Homes

furnaces

How-

have

(counterflow)
is

first

ob-

methods

Advantages and Disadvantages

Forced

and

warm

air furnaces

have

both advantages and disadvan-

on the bottom.

with basements use the

type, but no-basement homes


having the furnace on the main
first

removed the

air rises

naturally to this location.


ever,

of

were sought. Oil and gas replaced


coal as the most widely used
fuels. Furnaces using oil or gas
are fed automatically. These fuels
also burn with a cleaner flame.

chamber

usually on the top of the

furnace because

Introduction

jection but even better

or bonnet of the furnace used to


collect

flame.

stokers to feed the furnace auto-

air furnace.
is

clean

the

in

furnace plenum chamber to speed


air transfer, the unit

used

air furnaces

shoveling and was both dirty to


handle and did not burn with
a

a fan

warm

coal as their fuel. This required

be installed with 0" clearance at sides

when compared with other


They are inexpensive to
purchase and easy to install. They

and back.

provide an adequate heat supply.

tages

Mueller Climotrot

This upflow, forced warm-air furnace

203

may

types.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Honeywell

A thermostat
device

to

is

be

Inc.

an automatic sensing

preset

desired

at

temperature.

Mueller Climafrol

may be equipped

This low forced-air furnace


at

with air conditioning evaporator coils

any time, thus simplifying any future

air

conditioning installation.
Hone/well

Controlled

Heat ducts

may
air

air

for

warm

air furnaces

also be utilized for central

making

thus

conditioning,

conditioning installation less

expensive

than

when

installed

Heat

is

may

supplied

almost in-

when automatic

denote a need.

When

devices

the temper-

ature reaches the prescribed level

Conswitching from heat to no

furnace air

filters

thermostats

Inc.

automaticlly

change desired temperature

at

pre-

scribed time.

help remedy

this.

Four common ducting methods


shown in the illustrations.
You should use the one that fits
best with your construction.

Heat ducts are not always below

floors.

attic

tinual

joists.

between

in

ceiling

Registers then are either

upper walls. Some

authorities feel this location gives

movement through

more uniform heat distribution.


However, ceilings and walls tend
to become soiled around registers,

ducts. Since the air

moves

transmitted from

room. Rapid

or

are related

Most disadvantages
to the rapid air

They may be placed

space

in the ceiling or

heat can be objectionable.

is

in the air

be moved with the flow but

the furnace ceases operation.

noise

Note: Dust

are

separately.

stantly

registers.

air

rapidly,

room

to

flow can also

create drafts in the vicinity of heat

thus

nance

requiring

greater

effort.

204

mainte-

i.

Honeywell

Inc.

Deluxe thermostat for automatic temperature change of both heat and air
conditioning.

19: Climate Control

Honeywell

Inc

Deluxe multistage thermostat for automatic changeover of heating and airconditioning systems. This thermostat
raises

and

lowers

temperature auto-

Perimeter loop duct system.

matically as desired.

Extended plenum duct system.

205

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Cutaway view

of hot water boiler.

Mueller Climatrot

Hot water

boiler.

Hot Water
and Steam Heat
Furnaces supplying hot water

and steam heat are very

When

hot water

circulates in pipes

but

similar.

used, the water

is

when steam

and

radiators;

only

used,

is

steam passes through pipes and


radiators. Since the operation

similar

and steam heat

is

most

is

frequently used for large buildings but

seldom

method

will

for

not

homes,

this

be

discussed

air

furnaces,

further.

As with warm

models were large and unsightly. Coal was the most widely
used fuel and gravity carried
water through pipes and radiators. Well designed, compact, current models are most often fired
by oil or gas. Pumps circulate
water through pipes and radiators.
early

The
water

process of circulating hot

from

furnace

boiler

through pipes and radiators


called hydremic heating.

is

In

following

the

paragraphs

you learned

that the large pipe

two-pipe and one-pipe distribution

supplying water to a building

systems for supplying radiators

called a main. Likewise, the large

hot water and returning


cooled water to the furnace

supply pipe distributing hot water

This does

main. This pipe leads past each

with

boiler

are

discussed.

from the furnace

is

is

also called a

not imply that only one or two

radiator so

pipes are actually required. Each

The two-pipe system requires a


second main to return cooled

system

is

composed of many

in-

water to the furnace boiler for

dividual pipes.

Two-pipe
pipe system

system.
is

The two-

the oldest but least

frequently used. In Chapter

206

can be supplied.

all

18

reheating.
lines

Two

connect

smaller

each

branch

radiator

supply and return mains.

to

?9: Climafe Control

Automatic

each.

may

controls

supply different zones with vary-|

RADIATOR

-j

RADIATOR

A bedroom

amounts of heat

ing
'

BOILER

as desired.

may

zone

require

heat than a living area.

less

Radiators are usually located

RETURN

on outside

Reverse return two pipe hot water system.

tion

is

walls.

The

best loca-

beneath windows.

Room

and the amount of heat

size

loss

through building parts determines


the
-

RADIATOR

radiation

surface

Radiation surface

RADIATOR

|--

'

a radiator,

is

such as

required.

that part of

or tubes,

fins

that actually emits heat.

RETURN

For maximum comfort heat


must be distributed uniformly
throughout a room. Long, low

Direct return two-pipe hot water system.

radiators spread heat

L RADIATOR^

L RADIATOR^
j

Radiators

RADIATOR

may be open

They may protrude


be

recessed

their face

is

into

view

into

rooms or

walls

so only

exposed. Baseboard

radiators are favored for

CIRCUIT

to

or encased by decorative covers.

One-pipe hot water system.

f=^\

uni-

narrow ones.

tall

WATER MAIN

L RADIATOR^

more

formly over a wider area than

homes

because of their long, low radiation

surface and

their

pleasing

appearance.
WATER MAIN

>

Advantages and Disadvantages

Hot water

t^ t^

For

more uniform heat

distribution, a

home may

be zoned into separate heating

is

widely used.

leads past

all

radiators

One main
and then

returns cooled water to the fur-

Circuits
If

It

gives

amounts of heat to different


rooms or zones. There is no rapid
air

system

one of the best

uniform spread without sudden


temperature changes. It is easily
controlled
to
supply varying

circuits.

One-pipe system. The one-pipe

is

heat distribution methods.

one main serves an entire

building,

distant

radiators

may

not receive sufficient hot water.

movement near

radiators.

However, hot water heating


equipment is more expensive to
purchase and installation costs
are greater than forced

warm

air.

nace boiler for reheating.

Two

building

branch

lines

each

zones (areas) with piping layout

should be designed and installed

radiator

and the main.

subdivided into circuits to supply

by experienced personnel.

connect

to

may

be

207

divided

into

For best

results hot

water systems

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Hot water furnaces


to changing needs.

react slowly

continues mounting for awhile.

When radiators

Note: Adjustment of the thermo-

and heat

are cold

demanded,

is

water must be heated


nace boiler and
radiator

the

warmed.

in the fur-

pumped through

until

also

it

is

stat

allows for

this,

but in ex-

tremely cold weather only efficient


insulation

can

hold

an

even

temperature.
Central air conditioning units

no longer required, the


water and the radiator still must

cannot be built into hot water

room temperature

quired for heating but ducts are

heat

is

is

cool, so that

heating

greater than

ing

is

Pipes

systems.

are

re-

when

air condition-

installed to use forced

warm

air ducts.
It

hot and

If a radiator

needed for air conditioning. This


makes combined installation costs

is

possible to air condition

with cold water

if

radiators are

equipped with fans, but


tem is not economically

this sys-

installed

or maintained.

Radiant Heating
Another
excellent
heating
method is called radiant heating,
which gives a more uniform distribution than any other. With
radiant heat an entire surface
such as a

floor, wall, ceiling,

large panel

warmed

is

radiate heat to

all

so

or
(

it

will

parts of a room.

There are several radiant systems, but two have proved most
effective and widely used.

)
L

(
RETURN

Radiant hot-water heat. This

system requires a conventional

BOILER

Radiant hot water coils are most often imbedded

in

concrete floors.

Hot water
distributes heat to rooms. There
are no radiators, which are replaced by pipe coils imbedded in
and

furnace

boiler.

the floor, to spread heat through-

out

its

The

area.

floor thus acts as

a large radiator to heat the room.

This system

is

used almost ex-

clusively in buildings with con-

because

crete

floors

easily

imbedded

Concrete

is

pipes

are

in the material.

a poor insulator so

heat spreads uniformly over the


surface.

When

on-grade

slabs

are used, insulation beneath the


floor

minimizes heat

ground.

Any suitable

loss to the

material can

then be laid over the concrete to

form a finished

floor;

however,

Heat distribution

is

most uniform when

208

a radiant system

is

divided into circuits.

19: Climate Control

wood

or other insulative materials

partially restrict heat transfer.

radiant hot water coil

may

be installed so an entire building


is

on

a single circuit.

That

one

is,

^^^/T

an entire building. Using a single coil may permit the


water to cool before the entire

coil serves

building

is

warmed.

It

is

*,

^J
*v

vs,

best to

have a home zoned into separate


circuits so water does not travel

r -*-

long distances. Separate circuits


also permit individual tempera-

TT"Tl~'7~7

ture controls for different zones.

may

Radiant heat

be supple-

mented by

auxiliary units such

as radiators

when

radiation. Auxiliary units are not

part of the radiant system.

As

said, radiant hot

water heat

ri

Commonwealth Edison Co.

Plastic spacer strips fastened to this concrete ceiling with a strong adhesive assure

very good; but it has two disadvantages over other methods:


(1) It is expensive to install beis

cause

much

pipe

(2) pipes are

is

required and

imbedded

proper cable spacing.

Application of plaster completes this radiant electric cable installation.

in floors,

wealth Edison

so are difficult to service or modify.


Electric

Radiant Heat

Heating by electricity has traditionally been more expensive


than using other

fuels.

Many

util-

companies now give special


rates for total electric homes. In
ity

some

is more
becoming

localities this fuel

costly than others but

is

competitive.
Electric radiant heat
installed

ceilings

in

use

coils

is

but

usually
it

may

Most

in-

similar

to

also be located in walls.


stallations

those for hot water radiant heat-

of wire and
imbedded in the ceiling. Each
room has an independent heating
ing, except coils are

are

element with

its

windows

large

or other areas require additional

own temperature

controls.

209

Co

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

There are several prefabricated


elements designed for rapid, eco-

nomical
single

during use but never hot,

this

very

is

heating

safe

method. Wires extend room


and successive

length

coils

are

approximately Yh" apart. Exact


spacing

determined

is

amount of

by

the

by

to

specialists.

Many

utility

com-

it.

and

thickness

signed to heat individual rooms.

nailed to ceiling

is

resistance wire

The outer

fastened

the

to

first

stapled

is

to avoid

damage

Other Heating Equipment

to wires.

Radiant electric heat is very


clean because no combustible
materials are used. Heating elements have no moving parts, so
maintenance costs are virtually
eliminated. Radiation from the
ceiling distributes heat uniformly.
Electric heat

warm

is

widely used

regions but

efficient in

is

almost any climate

in

proper

if

in-

Minimum

panies calculate heating require-

sulation

ments and design installations

recommendations specify 6" in


ceilings, 4" in walls, and 2" be-

free of charge.

radiant heat can be

Electric

neath

used with both plaster and drywall, but

it

does not work well

with insulating ceiling


ceilings should

because

Plaster

have a sand base

this plaster

to spread

tile.

permits heat

uniformly and makes a

is

provided.

floors.

just

heating equipment

described.

principles from

Some combine
two systems. For

example, conventional or baseboard hot water radiators may be


heated by self-contained electric
units. Specialized

equipment may

be designed to heat an entire


building or it may be capable of
heating only small areas. Because

of the scope of the subject

it

is

not possible for a book of this

nature

to

present

an

in-depth

radiant heat has weakThere are no ducts or

of furnaces and heating systems

electric

nesses.

fans for air exchange, so exhaust

fans

are

necessary.

humidity control

for

Equipment

may

be

re-

quired. Air conditioning installation costs are greater than with

surface.

all

study. For a better understanding

Newer

radiation

Almost

operates by one of the methods

As with other heating methods,

lightweight plasters should not be

good

with

with adhesive rather than nails

radiation needed. In-

stallations should be designed

thickness

first

because

heat

layer should be

is

two thicknesses are required. The


joists

air

There are other ways of heating


electricity. Forced warm air
furnaces may be equipped with
electric heating elements. Radiant
baseboard heat may use electricity. Small electric units are de-

conventional drywall

backing, or panels that

form a continuous resistance element and operate in the same


manner. One small wire is coiled
back and forth across the ceiling
and is stapled to cover the surface. The resistance wire becomes
so

When

used with electric radiant heat,

together. After installation all

warm

ducts must serve only a single use.

wire grids fastened to a

flexible
fit

forced

not give proper radiation.

They may be

installation.

warm

used because they insulate and do

you may study detailed


tions of

many

specifica-

manufacturers, or

books devoted exclusively to this


subject. Many large heating
equipment manufacturers publish
engineering manuals.

Determining Heating Requirements


To

calculate a building's exact

the calculations to be included as

working drawings

heating (or cooling) requirements

a part of the

and then

or specifications.

to design a

system to

the need is very technical


and should be done by an engifulfill

neer

specializing

in

this

work.

However, preliminary design data


must be calculated by the architect.

Many

building codes require

The

subject can-

not be discussed fully in a book

of

this nature;

ing

heating engineer-

manuals may be consulted

additional information

is

if

needed.

Necessary information includes


an understanding

210

of:

British thermal units.

Heat

loss

and heat gain.


or thermal

Conductance
resistance.

"U"

factors.

Building surfaces transmitting


heat

loss.

Infiltration.

Design temperature.

Climate Control

19.

Formulas

for calculating heat

Compilation of heat

Equipment selection based upon compiled data.

British

loss data.

some construction maheat more readily

have been completed by others


and the information recorded for
use. There are slight variations in
the ways that heat transfer takes

British

to

thermal unit (abbre-

BTU)

is

balance

help

heat

and

loss

heat gain.

place, so information recorded

Conductance

the quantity of

heat needed to increase the tem-

pound of water 1.
room temperature is approxi-

perature of

than others, insulators are used

charts or tables

Thermal Unit

viated to

If

cold. Since

terials transfer

loss.

conductance,

Most individuals cannot

each building ma-

entifically test
terial

mine

or

sci-

component

or
sis,

part to deter-

conductance.

Such

tests

resistivity.

each has

may be

thermal

on

called

resistance,

For, in depth analyits

own code

desig-

nations. In this discussion all are


identified by the

code

letter

"C."

Heat Loss Data

mately 70, one cubic foot of air


can be warmed 1 by .018 BTU.
Heating and cooling needs are
computed by the number of BTU

Approximole resistances of one

sq.

ft.

sf

building material of stated thickness

"C"

"C"

Resistivity

Resistivity

required to maintain a selected

temperature within a building.


Furnaces are rated by their BTU
input and output. Furnace BTU
output per hour (BTU/H) is used

when

4'

concrete or stone

.32

Vi" fiberboard sheathing

1.45

6'

concrete or stone

.48

%"

fiberboard sheathing

2.18

8'

concrete or stone

.64

plywood

.65

2'

concrete or stone

.96

Vt" plywood

.80

Vt" plywood

BTU heat

sizing a furnace to

loss calculations.

Air conditioners

concrete block

.70

are rated by the

number of BTU

8'

concrete block

1.10

12'

concrete block

1.25

roll

roofing

.15

.16

they remove per hour. Air con-

.95

Va" softwood sheathing or

sidi ig

.85

ditioners were formerly rated in

measurement

tons but this

is

not

as exact.

Heat Loss and Heat Gain


Every object conducts heat or
some permit more transfer than others. As you know,

cold, but

materials that allow

much

are called conductors,


that

permit

little

4'

It.

wt. concrete block

1.40

asphalt shingles

8'

It.

wt. concrete block

1.70

wood

12'

It.

wt. concrete block

1.88

metal roofing

4'

common

4'

face brick

4'

structural clay

tile

8'

structural clay

tile

1.90

2" mineral batt insulation

12'

structural clay

tile

3.00

4" mineral

transfer

and those

transfer

are

shingles

brick

.82

tile

.45

composition floor covering

1.10

or slate

1" mineral batt insulation

batt insulation

.86

.00
.08

.08

3.50
7.00
14.00

called insulators. Presence of heat

does not insure warmth or comfort. To be comfortable a person

plastic

must gain the exact amount of

When
warm

heat he loses.

doors

but

transfers

through

outside.

Your body

it is

cold out-

inside,

walls

to

heat
the

radiates heat

toward the cold wall. If the body


loses more heat than it gains, regardless of temperature, you feel

stucco

w
w
w

vapor barrier

.20

2" gloss

fiber insulation

7.00

.00

4" glass

fiber insulation

14.00

building paper

.06

1" loose

rock lath or plasterboard

.33

1"

sand plaster

.15

2" wall

air

space

.50

insulating plaster

.75

4" wall

air

space

1.00

wall air space

1.50

fiberboard ceiling

tile

1.20

6"

air

Heat loss data.

211

fill

insulation

space for brick veneer

3.00
.00

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Charts and tables giving


thermal

by number
which materials have the most
materials

designate

resistance.

The

or adjoining spaces with different

building

of

resistance

number

larger the

temperatures, transmit heat loss

Reciprocals

or heat gain. Inside walls, floors,


"C"

U"

Resistivity

Factors

.,

..

Resistivity

"U"
Factors

resis-

ceilings

spaces do

between

heated

transfer

heat to

not

the outdoors, so they are not used

the greater the thermal resistance.

For example, the thermal

and

100.00

.01

2.44

.41

Note:
and

for heat loss calculations.

50.00

.02

2.38

.42

is

33.33

.03

2.33

.43

but 4" of glass fiber insulation

25.00

.04

2.77

.44

floors

has a thermal resistance of 14.00.

20.00

.05

2.22

.45

often considered as outside sur-

16.67

.06

2.17

.46

14.29

.07

2.13

.47

12.50

.08

2.08

.48

tures than outdoors but to con-

11.11

.09

2.04

.49

sider

10.00

.10

2.00

.50

requires additional test data. At-

9.09

.11

1.96

.51

8.35

.12

1.92

.52

7.69

.13

1.89

.53

because doors are frequently

7.15

.14

1.85

.54

open.

6.67

.15

1.82

.55

common

tance of a 4"
.82,

Thermal

brick

"C" cannot

resistance

be used directly for heat loss calculations, but must be converted


to a

"U" factor which

is

used for

calculations.

"U"

A "U" factor, ab"U" in actual comthe number of BTU

putations,

is

transmitted in

hour through

square foot of a building material


(or

faces.

combined materials)

each

for

have

above crawl spaces, are

them

considered

.16

1.79

.17

1.76

.57

.18

1.72

.58

As with "C," "U"

factors

5.26

.19

1.69

.59

building heat

have been
predetermined and recorded on

5.00

.20

1.66

.60

calculate

4.76

.21

1.64

.61

4.55

.22

1.61

.62

4.35

.23

1.59

.63

4.17

.24

.56

.64

4.00

.25

1.53

.65

and

tables for convenient

reference.

"C" to "U." As
"C" cannot be used in

Converting
stated,

final heat loss calculations, but

.56

entire buildings.

Room

plained

loss.

heat
step

be

to

ex-

by step following

and de-

sign temperatures.
Infiltration

In addition to heat loss through


1.50

.66

3.70

.27

1.49

.67

factor, deter-

3.57

.28

1.47

.68

mine the reciprocal of "C." That


is, divide
by "C." To calculate

3.45

.29

1.45

.69

ing through spaces

3.34

.30

1.43

.70

dows and

a building's heat loss

3.23

.31

1.40

.71

factors for all

3.13

.32

1.39

com-

3.03

.33

1.37

.73

2.94

.34

1.35

.74

2.86

.35

1.33

.75

"U"

How

will

discussions of infiltration

.26

conversion to a

losses are

Note:

loss

3.85

to

in-

for

then combined to determine total

"U." For

must be converted

left

loss

5.55

charts

spaces

is computed for
rooms rather than

Heat
dividual

5.88

for building materials

unheated

as

6.25

doors.

tempera-

partially heated spaces

differ-

temperature

air

and crawl spaces

Attics

slightly different

ence between indoors and out-

degree of

attics,

tached garages are also usually

factor.

breviated to

adjoining

Ceilings

construction materials, wind pressure causes air to enter a build-

around win-

doors. Such air entry

sary to obtain

construction

"U"

is

neces-

it is

materials (or

bined materials) that

will transfer

called infiltration.

.72

heat to the outdoors.

"U" Factors

for

Windows and Doors


1.13

Single thickness glass

Glassweld insulating glass

2.78

.36

1.32

.76

Single glass with storm

Building Surfaces Transmitting

2.70

.37

1.30

.77

Metal edge insulating glass

Heat Loss

2.63

.38

1.28

.78

2.56

.39

1.27

.79

2.50

.40

1.25

.80

All

building

surfaces

(entire

walls, floors, ceilings, doors,

windows) exposed

to

and

Nominal 4"
1

/s

V*

212

60
.54

.47

thick glass block

54

with storm door

.34

wood door

Above but
Reciprocals.

window

wood door

Above but
1

outdoors.

.60

with storm door

50
.

. .

.32

19: Climate Control

An
the

the

exact way of determining


amount of infiltration is called

crack method.

method

it

is

To

use

this

know

necessary to

quirements one must know the


room temperature level to be
maintained. A 70 room tempera-

may

ture for your locality consult the


weather bureau or other reliable

can be maintained. Desired

source and ask for the coldest

level

To

use this method, consult

prepared tables or charts. (Such


tables

room temperature

It

permits estimation

infiltration.

To prepare

heat loss data for a home, infiltra-

may be assumed to equal


one air exchange per hour. For
example, if a room is 10'-0"xl2'-0"
and has an 8'-0" ceiling, its volume is 960 cu. ft. Therefore air
infiltration per hour can be assumed to equal 960 cu. ft. Note:
Infiltration rate must be comtion

a"

total loss.

calculating heating re-

Heat

loss calculations are

It

One must

relating to the

in

the

know facts
specific room for
also

following

the

because extreme weather condi-

seldom occur.

tions

It

would be

peratures for November,

for use at

ture

likely to

is

30

every

20

if this

tempera-

occur only once

years.

Averages

are

sought rather than coldest

your

temperature for
(To simplify later

design

outside

locality.

calculations round off your aver-

age to the nearest

Heat

5.)

loss calculations use the

design temperature difference be-

tween indoors and outdoors. For


if the inside design tem-

example,
perature

is

75

and the outside

design temperature

temperatures.

Decem-

January, February, and


March. The median of these is the

ber,

almost useless to size a furnace

is

10, then

the design temperature difference

The average outdoor minimum


is

during

the

winter

called an outside design

is

The design temperature

85.

for a given locality

One must

stant.

remains con-

secure this infor-

temperature which has been pre-

mation only once for permanent

determined for many

use on

The heat

based

which losses are to be computed.


Data assembly and heat loss computations for one room are presented

know

unnecessary to

is

temperature ever recorded during


October; also secure coldest tem-

cities

and

is

all

jobs.

al*ulalin Ituilding IInii Losn

upon the terms, definitions, and


data discussed on preceding
pages.

know

temperatures

coldest temperature ever recorded

months

When

minimum

temperature

Design Temperatures

called

during the heating season. Note:

bined with other room heat losses


to arrive at

is

necessary to

also

is

outdoor

FHA

The
of air

level

inside design temperature.

and charts arc not included

in this text.)

data cannot be ob-

in calculations so a higher heat

of air that will enter a given size


crack.

If

can compile your own. To establish an outside design tempera-

be considered suitable

most activities in the home.


However, 75 is frequently used

all

manuals.

tained for your community, you

for

ture

windows
and doors. A locality's wind pressure helps determine the volume
the size crack around

available in heating engineering

loss calculations

explanations

shown

in

are

for

the

and

room

the floor plan illustra-

tion.

Additional construction data

will

be

found on wall section

"A," wall section "B," and the


section through the ceiling. See
drawings on the next page.

long. Multiply height

by length

determine gross (total) wall


area; so 8'-0"X 12'-0" = 96 sq. ft.

to

of area.

The window

is

3'-0"x5'-0"

and

has an area of 15 sq. ft.

From the 96 sq. ft. of gross


wall area subtract the 15 sq.

ft.

of window area to determine the

logical

order.

Wall "A"

(net) wall area; so the net wall

For an understanding of heat


loss calculations be sure each
point is understood as it is

Wall "A" is an outside wall


and must be used for heat loss

calculations.

building

presented.

This wall

is

8'-0" tall

213

by 12'-0"

area

is

81 sq.

ft.

Wall section "A" names each


material

frame wall.

used

in

this

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation


20'-0"

INSIDE

WAIL "D"

Vi" LT. WT.


PLASTER .75
LATH .33
4" BATT
INSULATION 14.00

1.
1

%" ROCK

_/

INSIDE DESIGN

13?z

TEMPERATURE 75

Section through ceiling.

1
V 9

BTU/H. Change

the decimal to

the closest whole

number which

12'

INSIDE

5' x 8'

is

To determine BTU/H of window "A", multiply the window


area of '15 sq. ft. by the glass "U"

WITH METAL EDGE


INSULATING GLASS

/////////l

\l>

// A

/ f / /!/ / /

BTU/H.

592

factor of 1.13

OUTSIDE DESIGN

perature

TEMPERATURE -10

by the design temof 85

difference

as

15X1.13X85=1,440.75, which
rounded off to 1,441 BTU/H.

Example room

is

floor plan.

Wall "B"

WOOD
%/.,,

SIDING .85

on page 212 and placed adjoining


each identifying name.

loss calculations.

7.00

long;

LATH

.33

LT.

together equal

1.61

total wall resistivity.

WT.

PLASTER .75

Individual material resistances

when added

to

must be converted
a "U" factor by dividing
by
Resistivity

11.61 to find the reciprocal.

Wall Section "A.

FACE BRICK .45

FIBERBOARD

SHEATHING .218

BAH INSULATION

2" AIR SPACE .50


/a"

ROCK LATH

.33

so

ft.

of gross wall area.

The window

From

window

and give

is

1.13.

shows an inside
design temperature of 75 and an
outside

design

temperature

10, so the design


is

of

temperature

To determine BTU loss per


hour of net wall "A", multiply the
net wall area of 8 sq. ft. by the
wall "U" factor of .086 by the
design temperature difference of
as
81 X. 086x85 = 592. 11
85;

Wall Section "B.'

214

120 sq.

ft.

ft.

of gross

ft.

area,

ft.

which leaves

of net wall area.

Note on wall section "B"

also

building material used

resistivities

of each.

Individual material resistances,

when added

together, equal

1.21

total wall resistivity.

Convert

"U"

85.

sq.

the 160 sq.

page 212)

floor plan

and

5'-0"x8'-0"

wall area subtract the 40 sq.

name each

The

is

has an area of 40

(from the table on the bottom of

WT.
PLASTER .75

LT.

is 8'-0" high by 20'-0"


8'-0"x20'-0"=160 sq.

This wall

of

difference

The

"U" factor of 11.61 is .086.


The window in wall "A" has
no storm sash, so its "U" factor

1" AIR SPACE .00

2"

an outside

also

is

BAH INSULATION

%" ROCK

Wall "B"

wall and must be used for heat

2" AIR SPACE .50

Vi"

material were taken from the table

FIBERBOARD

SHEATHING 2.18
2"

of each building

Resistivities

resistivity

11.21

to a

by finding its reciprocal, which is .089 "U."


The window in wall "B" is
double insulation glass with a
factor

metal edge.

From

the table

page 212 the "U" factor for


glass

is

.54.

on
this

Climate Control

9:

The design temperature difference of 85 is the same for wall

"B"

as

it

was

for wall

To determine
BTU/H, multiply

area of 120 sq.

"U"

net
the

"A."

"B"

net

wall

.066 by the design temperature

heat

calculations

loss

This ceiling

healed

attic,

heat loss to

its

outside must be calculated.

The

ceiling

to 908 BTU/H.
To determine window "B"
BTU/H, multiply the window

and has an area of 240

area of 40 sq.

terial

sq.

ft.

The drawing of the ceiling


section names each building ma-

by the glass
by the design

used and gives

resistivities

Individual ceiling material re-

sistances

equal

Walls "C" and "D"

when added

together

5.08 total ceiling resistivity.

The

reciprocal of 15.08

is

.066

exposed to outdoors; therefore neither is used

"U."

for heat loss calculations.

The design temperature difference of 85 is also used for ceil-

Floor

ing computations.

This floor is above a heated


basement and does not transmit

is

change per hour;


1,920 cu.

Since

air

is

cu.

ft.

"U" value of
Design

temperature

infiltration calculation

ume

losses,

of 1,920 cu.

BTU/H

ceiling

Difference

8'0"xl2'-0"
3'0"x5'-0"

Net wall area "A"


8'-0"x2Cy-0"

96

sq.

ft.

15

sq.

ft.

81 sq.

ft.

40
20

sq.

ft.

.54

sq.

ft.

.089

FORCED

is

no

B.T.U./H.

input

output

75,000
00,000
1 20,000

60,000
80,000
00,000

50,000

20,000

75,000

35,000

1,836

908

loss.

240

sq.

ft.

.066

1,346

cu.

ft.

.018

2,938

loss in

BTU per hour

9,061

B.T.U./H. Furnace Capacities

WARM AIR

B.T.U./H.

592

1,920

12'-0"x20'-0"

Approximate

to

1,441

ft.

Heated basement below so there

room heat

off

.086

sq.

Total

by the "U"

1.13

160

5'0"x8'-0"

Net wall area "B"

2'-0"20'-O"x8'-0"

ft.

Loss Schedule
Design Temp.

this

85.

infiltration

X 85 = 2,937.6, rounded
BTU/H.

"U"

Infiltration

for

2,938

factor

Ceiling

upon

multiply the vol-

volunw

Floor

is

To determine room

BTU/H

to

1, infiltra-

.018.

Area or

Gross wall "B"


Window "6"

BTU/H

of air

or number

Window "A"

be warmed

to

tion calculations are based


a

ex-

equals

ft.

room

Room name

Gross wall "A"

12'-0"

factor .018 by 85; as l,920x.018

multiply the ceiling area of 240

Room Heat

off

ft.

equals

this also

requires .018

it

warm

To determine

1,920 cu.

If air infiltration

rounded

is

The room dimensions of

x20'-0"x8'-0"=

and

of each.

temperature difference of 85; as


40 X. 54x85 =1,836 BTU/H.

which

BTU/H.

Infiltration

12'-0"x20'-0"

is

rounded off

Neither wall

1,346.4,

below an un-

is

so

factor of .54

to 1,346

temperature difference of 85, as


120 X. 089X85 =907.80, which is

"U"

ft.

difference of 85, as 240 X.066

85

factor of .089 by the design

ft.

are

Ceiling

by the wall

ft.

sq.

no

required.

wall

by ceiling "U" factor of

heat loss to outdoors; therefore

and Sizes

HOT WATER BOILER


Approx. size
20"x28"x58"
24"x28"x58"
28"x28"x58"
32"x28"x58"
36"x28"x58"

For detailed specifications consult manufacturer's literature.

B.T.U./H.
input

B.T.U./H.

100,000

60,000

30,000
160,000

80,000
1

00,000

200,000

20,000

240,000

35,000

Approx.

size

output

6"x22"x32"
6"x25"x32"
1 6"x28"x32"
1 8"x28"x32"
20"x28"x32"
1

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

term window

air

plies that this

is

where such

conditioner im-

the only location

units

Many window

may be

air

used.

conditioners

are mounted permanently through

outside walls so they do not oc-

cupy window space.


Central air conditioning cools
entire buildings.

As stated

earlier,

there are two distribution meth-

ods. (1)

central air conditioner has a condenser


outdoors and an evaporator indoors.

Cold water

may

be

cir-

culated through pipes to fan-

Mueller Oimalrol

equipped radiators that spread


cooled air throughout each room.
This is not found generally in
homes. (2) Refrigeration units
equipped with blowers to force
cooled air through ducts are most
widely used. Central air conditioners

may be compact

units

serving only a single function, or

they

may be combined

air furnaces

so that

warm

with

one

circuit

air

condi-

both heats and cools.

As

stated

tioners are

the
Air Conditioning

As with
air

heating,

some form of

conditioning has been in exis-

tence for a long time.

Roman

ing the
built

Homes

dur-

period were often

around a courtyard having

large

fountain

in

center.

its

are computed in much the same


manner as heat loss calculations.

helped make

quirements are based upon heat

is

most

all

it

widely

medium

used. Al-

priced and

some

tioned,

and use continues

which helped cool the home.


Mechanical air conditioning is
a relatively recent development.
Early models relied on air movement through water for cooling.
Later equipment employs refrigeration
units
to
manufacture

expand.

cooled

small

air.

In the immediate past only ex-

pensive

homes were

air

condi-

they extract

it was truly a luxury. This


no longer so. Improved equipment design, mass production,
and resultant lower costs have

costs

caused

currents

BTU

per hour. Air conditioning needs

inexpensive homes are air condi-

convection

number of

tioned. Because of early high

Falling water from the fountain


air

earlier,

most often rated by

to

Instead of doing computations for

heat

loss,

air

conditioning

re-

of using the coldest


days in each month to determine
design temperature difference, the
mean of warmest recorded days

gain. Instead

There are two main ways


homes are air conditioned. For

of the six

small spaces such as individual

summer cooling is normally 75.


The direction a wall faces, amount

rooms, or homes formerly without


air conditioning,

window

refrigeration

equipped
rectly

to

into

used.

con-

of roof overhang, sunlight exposure, shade trees or other ob-

units

are

blow cooled air dirooms. Note: The

216

is

These

air

ditioners are widely used.

summer months

Inside design temperature for

structions in the

immediate area,

number of occupants, and other


considerations are necessary be-

19: Climate Control

one can complete heat gain

fore

calculations. Because of the sub-

complexity, this chapter


does not attempt to present an
in-depth study. For additional in-

ject's

formation,

consult

engineering

manuals or other books devoted


to air conditioning.

Humidity Control
In addition to temperature, the

amount of moisture
fects physical
is

in the air af-

comfort. Indeed,

it

a serious part of air condition-

ing.

The amount of moisture

the air

is

in

called relative humidity.

Under normal circumstances


FHA recommends a relative
door humidity

of 50%.

the
in-

When

Mueller Cl.molrol

Electronic dust filters

make

home

practically dust free.

moisture
it

is

moisture
air,

added

is

to inside air,

called humidification.
is

When

extracted from inside

the process

is

called dehu-

Equipment may be
purchased to do either or both
midification.

operations. Units

or

permanently

some

may be portable
installed,

with

that are automatically con-

by sensing devices that


humidity level and are
switched on or off as a need
trolled

register

arises.

Ventilation

Ventilation for rooms,

attics,

crawl spaces, basements, garages,

and spaces between walls

is

es-

sential to a building to insure oc-

cupants' comfort and safety.


These areas are mentioned in this
chapter only as a reminder that
each must be considered during
Mueller Cl.mofrol

An

air

conditioner

may be designed

furnace so one unit takes care of both


heating and cooling needs.

building planning. Specific refer-

into. a

217

ences for each are found in appropriate chapters.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge


1

control
2.

What does the


mean to you?
From

name and

this

describe the three heat-

What

widely used methods of distributing

4.

5.

its

operation.

7.

What

8.

Name

What name

is

reversed flow

When

is

it

used?

two combustible

What

heating.

Why

What

is

is

29.

disadvantages

11. From the illustrations,

name

and describe four ducting methods


2.
3.

What
What

What

is

30. Describe

31.

than

is

"U" factor?
how "C" is

is

duct

each.

gravity

two systems, which

the

most widely used?


1

5.

When

6.

What

Why?

referring to a hydronic

heating system, what


1

is

is

circuit?

meant by the term

7.

What

radiator shape

Why?
Name three

is

most

effective?
1

8.

advantages of

using hot-water heating.


1

9.

Name

three

disadvantages

to using hot-water heating.

20.

What

building

applications

forced

warm air
warm air

is

a radiant heating

mounting

install.

"window"

What

40.

is

air

condi-

central air condition-

two

Describe

ing?

methods. Which

How

is

distribution

preferred?

are

Why?

conditioning

air

units sized?

42. Explain what

con-

is

meant by the

term humidity control.

43. Under normal circumstances

what indoor relative humidity


recommended?

Know

one-pipe hot water

pipe

inside design

baseboard radiator

outlet

electric radiant

plenum

resistance element

reversed flow

British

temperature

heat outside design

temperature

Thermal Unit design temperature

(BTU)

BTU/H

factor

infiltration

circuit

zoned heating

hot water heat

"U"

reciprocal

inlet

difference

gross wall area

steam heat

conductance

net wall area

hydronic heating

heat loss

window

radiator

heat gain

central air conditioner

boiler

thermal resistance

refrigeration unit

two-pipe hot water

resistivity

relative indoor humidity

"C" number

humidity control

system

system?

218

of

as the best

air conditioners

system

stoker

zone control?
1

how

39. Explain another method of

Terms to Spell and

the difference be-

hot-water heating system? Describe

is

detail

in

hydronic heating?

is

in

determined.

Name two

41.

infiltration?

hot-water radiant heat

Of

use

Explain.

system to

"C" number?

tween a two-pipe and a one-pipe

14.

building

"U" factor.
What building materials ad-

What

its

is

tioner.

jacent to outdoors transmit heat loss?

32.

for forced warm-air furnaces.

closely

verted to a

of using warm-air furnaces.

heat?

number "C" have more

resistivity

less

What

the idea of air condition-

Is

38.

28. Does a building material hav-

material with a low

three

names

are two other

three advantages of

Name

little

is

new?

window

thermal resistance?

is

are these

using warm-air furnaces.


10.

much heat?

given to build-

fuels

or

Name

given to building

favored?
9.

heat loss

associated with this?

ing a high

a design tempera-

ft.

a furnace rated?

What name

have practically replaced coal

home

for

25.

is

ing materials that transfer

warm-air furnace?

that

How

27.

is

36. Explain

24.

26.

a plenum chamber?

is

What

heat loss calculations?

cu.

an outside design

ture difference?

37.

Describe a forced warm-air

What

temperature of

ing materials that transfer

heating system.
6.

are required

is

temperature?

of air 1F.?

Describe a gravity warm-

furnace and

What

34.

Thermal

35.

to raise the

heat to rooms?

air

British

How many BTU

23.

are the three most

is

Unit?

transfer principles.
3.

What

22.

design

inside

temperature?

ods of distributing radiant heat.

and other chapters

What

33.

21. Describe two different meth-

term climate

air conditioner

is

Chimneys and Fireplaces


Chimneys
The main purpose of
ney

is

chim-

to provide a draft so fuel

mum space between them, usually


with insulation added. Some

good product many codes do not

codes require

In most instances the chimney


round and does not present a
finished appearance from the exterior. This is because we do not
identify the round shape as proper
for a chimney. Therefore many
companies supply covers that
resemble a conventional chimney.

in a furnace or fireplace will burn.

Of course, fumes and smoke

also

Combustion
cannot be sustained without an
oxygen supply. There are three
common methods of constructing
conducted

are

off.

chimneys, with

and

many

variations

(1) Solid
is

masonry.

inclusion.

Masonry with clay flue


Mortar joints deteriorate

(2)
lining.

from heat; clay

flue liners

vide

fire

protection.

they are used,

some codes

additional

When

pro-

permit only one masonry wythe


instead of two. Except for the in-

permit their use.

is

clusion of the liner, construction

sizes for each.

masonry

its

When

solid

is

same

the

as for solid masonry.

Flue Liners

chimneys

The three most common shapes

be of masonry similar to

for flue liners are (1) round, (2)

(3) Prefabricated

used there should be

two wythes of masonry


surrounding the flue to minimize
fire danger. If one wythe fails

may

the other will contain the

are double walled with insulation

should

the cavity. These chimneys


have advantages over convention-

when

at least

heat.

solid

fire

or

masonry chimney

for either a furnace or fireplace


It should extend at least 12" past the sides in

requires a footing.

all

directions

least

and should be

12" thick.

liners

metal.

or

they

may

Most prefabricated

be pf
units

in

al

ones.

They do not require a

footing because

they are light-

at

weight and are designed so they

Large footings,

can be suspended from framing


members. They are safe because

as for fireplaces, should include

reinforcing rod or wire

mesh

for

additional strength.

be

flue

Chimney masonry should not


in contact with any wood fram-

ing material. Leave a 2" mini-

they are fully insulated.

They

are

easy to install and do not require


as

much

space as conventional

square, and (3) rectangular. There


are

An

many

different sizes, so

consult

technical

selecting the

you
data

to use.

size

adequate for most


furnaces, and 8"xl2" or 12"xl2"
is suitable for most fireplaces.
These are nominal modular
8"x8"

is

sizes.

Actual sizes are

they

can

be

fitted

masonry modular

When
first

less

with

so

other

sizes.

flue liners are used, the

section of liner at the

bottom

of the flue should be supported by

chimneys.

Note: Even though they are a

219

other masonry.

SchoJz

Prefabricated chimneys blend well with this traditional style home.

Fire-clay flue

2" Min. clearance

for

Homes

Inc

wood

trimmer at chimney breast.

Wood

trimmer

bm

V2"

Chimney 4"
(min)

if

solid

flue liner

Support

is

masonry
used.

flue-liner.

Parge smoke chamber with


fire-c'ay mortar {refractory
mortar).

Parging
if

may be

wall thickness

solid

omitted
is

8"

masonry.

Adjustable damper.

Lining of fire-brick

may be
shall

laid

extend

2" way)
full

width

of throat.

8" Min.

total thickness.

8" Min. foundation

Provide not less than


indicated between

breast

inches

of

masonry as
of chimney

solid

smoke chamber and face

when wood trimmer

is

used.

Masonry

220

fireplace design data.

wall

20: Chimneys and Fireplaces

Chimney Cover
Rain or snow can enter the
in the chimney top and

opening

cause dampness inside the build-

may

ing.

Covers

the

chimney

be placed above

prevent

to

this.

Chimney Height

The
Clay flue liners

may be

FHA

codes.

local

highest

the

duces efficiency of

chimney must

requirements

specify that the top of a chimney


must be at least 2'-0" higher than

lO'-O" MIN.

Improper chimney height

height

extend above a roof varies with

round, square, or rectangular.

roof

within

point

lO'-O".

re-

a fireplace

Flashing

or flue.

Where

chimney passes

through a roof the joint must be


sealed with flashing and counter

when

flashing as shown, except

built-up roofing

lapped

The liner usually extends about


4" above the top of a masonry

chimney.
chimney

When

height,

determining

continuously

onto

solid

down

cover the edge of the

to

must be bent

flashing

roofing. See roof construction

Chapter

lustrations in

il-

9.

Saddle
If a

away.

masonry cap should be


above brick or stone

chimneys to prevent deterioration


of the mortar joints. This cap
should have a wash, or angle, so
water cannot stand on it and

chimney can be located on

When

the

through

surface,

water

is

shed

chimney passes

inclined roof
can accumulate
and back up beneath the roofing,
causing leaks. This is especially
true if the roof slope is low or
single

material.

chimney is wide. If the chimis more


than 30" wide, a
small protector with the same
pitch as the main roof should be

thickness for

built

speed deterioration. Stone or concrete

the most frequently used

is

There is no standard
chimney caps, but
they should not be less than 2"
thick.
.

the

to replace the flashing.

use the top of

Chimney Cap

can be

It

a roof ridge, rain water

installed

A chimney cover is frequently used in


areas with abundant snow or rainfall.

used.

chimney
Counter

the liner as the terminus.

A properly designed chimney cap can be


both decorative and functional.

is

The proper

dictated
,

by

local
,.

personal preference

221

thickness

custom

is

and

the

ney

is
is

behind the chimney. This

called a saddle. If the saddle

quite small,

it

may be

with sheet metal. If

it

covered
is

large,

regular roofing should be used.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Fireplaces
Fireplaces were formerly used
exclusively for heating but they

are now used primarily for appearance and enjoyment.


Many fireplaces are con-

of solid

structed

other

materials

masonry, but
are

also

Double-walled sheet metal


that

warm and

room

used.
liners

circulate air into

are widely used. These

units require less

One

face open

masonry than
Two

conventional fireplaces, are easy


to install,

insure

and

faces adjacent.

their design helps

proper functioning. Pre-

fabricated freestanding fireplaces

and unusual shaped custom

built

units are also quite popular.

The

desired finished appearance and

whether or not it is to be used


for heating purposes helps determine which kind to use.

Metal

is

a widely used fireplace material.


Kopperi Company,

Inc.

Two

faces opposite

Three faces open.

Hearth

An open
unless

it

is

fire is

quite dangerous

properly shielded.

hearth

may be

floor or

can be raised as desired.

When

is

available befloor,

an ash

side of the opening. Stone, brick,

and

with a metal clean-out door.

tile

are most frequently used,

dump

but other suitable materials are


available. The hearth is extended

rectangular ash

beneath the fireplace to form an


inner hearth. This may be the

is

same material

as the outer hearth,

small rectangular recess can be

recommended
anticipated. The

built into the inner hearth floor

if

fire

bricks are

frequent use

is

222
-

space

neath the finished

chamber is recommended. Any


such chamber must be equipped

but

the

Ash Chamber

non-combustible

hearth should
extend at least 16" in front of a
fireplace and at least 8" past each

with

flush

in the inner

is

located

hearth so ash removal

simplified.

When no

space

is

available for an ash chamber, a

to contain the ashes.

20: Chimneys and Fireplaces

Opening and Liner Dimensions

Fireplace
1

OPEN

FACf

2 FACES ADJACENT

FlUI

so-

SO-

30"

12". 16"

20"

20"

SO"

34"

16". 16

20"

so-

20"

36"

42"

16"20"

24"

42"

3 FACES OPEN

F1U!

16"16"

28"

30"

34"

16".20'

34"

12".16"

28"

36"

38"

42"

16"20"

30"

38"

42"

30"

20"

2 FACES OPPOSITE

FlUI

FlUI

24"

24"

34"

16".I6"

16"I6"

28"

30"

38"

I6"x20"

16"20"

28"

36"

38"

20"24"

Fireplace opening and liner dimensions.

Damper

Position of Fireplace Face

Every fireplace should have a


damper to regulate the flow of air

and

when

to
it

block
is

the

ofl"

chimney

not in use.

flush with a wall, or


ject into a

has

Masonry

above a fireplaceopening must be supported. A


3"x3"x'/4" lintel extending 4" on
side

of

the

opening

is

recommended.

it

room. Since a fireplace

considerable

the space
a

Fireplace Finish

may be
may pro-

face of a fireplace

consideration

Lintel

each

The

it

depth,

occupies.

It

to

could give

appearance

beautiful

special

must be given
in

the

designs

Fireplace

are

only by the imagination.

limited

The

surrounding the opening to entire


walls of stone or brick.

Some
the

period

addition

of

settings

wood

require

mantels,

room it occupies but protrude


into and spoil the use of another

nate them. Simplicity rather than

room.

ornateness

FIRE

but current design tends to elimi-

BRICK

OR

is

usually

preferred.

LINER

FRONT ELEVATION
Fireplace

Stone fireplace

in

ex-

posed masonry can vary from 8"

in

interior

exterior frame wall.

frame wa

3rick fireplace in brick

t-FIRE BRICK OR LINER

-FIRE BRICK

veneer wall.

OR LINER

8"MIN.

223

Scholl Horn**

Stone

A double-faced

wide mortar |oints plus a stone mantel gives


this fireplace a rugged appearance.

laid with

This prefabricated barbecuing fireplace helps give the

fireplace serves as a

home

a feeling of country charm.


Morgan Company

Offset fireplace flues


,

permit one fireplace


to

be installed be
neath another.

224

DAMPER
ASH
CHUTE

room

divider.

Inc.

20: Chimneys

and

Fireplaces

Large areas of stone or brick are

When

very popular.

mits, fuel storage

compartments

may

be built into the

wall.

Book

What

3.

Why

cap?

space per-

14.

is

is

a wash on a chimney

it

What

used?

minimum

the

is

thick-

ness of a chimney cap?

fireplace-

shelves, storage spaces.

15.

What keeps

or

rain

snow

or built-in entertainment equip-

from entering the top of a chimney?

ment are frequently incorporated

Explain.

16.

into the fireplace wall.

What

the

is

recommended

chimney height?

Two

More

or

Fireplaces
1

two or more fireplaces are

If

to be included, considerable sav-

ings result
into

one masonry
fireplaces

tional

18.

they can be designed

if

unit. The addima) be on the

When

they are on different


sometimes possible to

Is

flashing always used be-

What

Why

a saddle?

is

is

it

used?
1

Brickwork

may be

9. Explain

the variety of

fire-

corbeled to change

chimney

same or different living levels.


Each one should have a separateflue.

7.

tween the chimney and roof? Explain.

place shapes?

size.

20. Give three reasons

why

fire-

place liners are frequently used.

Corbel

What

is

a prefabricated

fire-

place? Describe the variety available.

offset the flues, as

chimney area is small


and you desire it to appear larger

serve space.

from outside the building, or

if

every fireplace have one?

you wish

levels

it

is

shown, to conObserve the angle


of the inclined flue on the illus-

the

II

TOO sharp an angle is


hazardous and also prevents

chimney

proper functioning.

shown.

tration.

it

be located

to

different position

on the

may be

in

roof, the

corbeled,

22.

is it

very important that

24.

2.

Why

should a solid masonry

chimney have at
3.

What

least

two wythes?

9.

What chimneys do

masonry?

What

is

re-

Why?
meant when one

says that most prefabricated chim-

Why

are

are imitation brick shells

three

the best material for


if

the fireplace

25.

What

26.

Why

is

an ash chamber?

must a fireplace have a

damper?
27. Describe a corbeled chimney.

is

it

Know

hearth

flue

fireplace

inner hearth

flue liner

ash chamber

About how much does a

When

determining total chimIs

the measure-

ment taken?
1

Terms to Spell and


chimney

be supported?

protrude above other chimney

0.

2.

What

is

a chimney cap?

used?

225

is

be used frequently?

shapes of

should the bottom sec-

ney height, where

neys are double walled?


7.

Why

liner

not

is

flue liners?

What chimneys require a


How large should they be?

quire a footing?
6.

What

tion of flue liner

footing?
5.

8.

are two advantages of

using clay flue liners?


4.

to cover the chim-

ney on the building exterior?

a chimney have proper draft?

What

an inner hearth

sometimes used

hearth? Should

23. Describe the minimum dimen-

as

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

Why

is

sions of a hearth.

to

What

Why

chimney cap

ash

chimney cover

cleanout door

flashing

damper

saddle

corbel

dump

Roof Overhang and Exterior Trim


Cornice.

The word cornice, from


means a horizon-

ancient Greek,

molding along the top of a


molding when viewed

tal

to

mount conventional

gutters

on

surface unless the surface

is

perpendicular to the ground.

Open

wall. This
in profile

is

cornice.

An open

cornice

is

the simplest kind.

exterior finishing material.

is

A sim-

usually, but not al-

The term
book

this style

The back

of roof sheathing serves as the

Notional Lumber Monuracfui

ways, curved or sculptured.


this

On

rafter tails are exposed.

cornice as used in

more

inclusive than

the above definition.

includes

It

building materials necessary

all

to join a wall

and

roof.

pose of a cornice

is

to

The purmake a

beautiful finished intersection to


join the two parts,

and

to protect

other building materials from the

weather.

Rafter tails and fascia are usually per-

pendicular to the ground

There are many different


methods of enclosing a cornice,
so they must be designed to suit

when attached

gutters are to be installed.

Short overhangs and vertical fascia are


often used with traditional designs.

regional or personal preferences.


Rafter

As

tails.

stated earlier

the part of a rafter extending past

an outside wall
tail.

Its

is

called a rafter

outside end

may be

per-

pendicular to the ground or at

The
normally used

right angles to rafter edges.


first

method

is

when metal gutters are desired.


The second method permits a
wider variety of

styles

and

is

nor-

mally used when built-in gutters


are desired.

Note:

Flat

no gutters are required, or if they are


to be the built-in type, rafter ends and
fascia may be square with joist edges.
If

roof overhangs

parallel to the

is

difficult

226

soffits

may be

tapered toward rafter ends. The fascia

may be

at

right angles

edges or
It

may have

ground, or they

at

to

joist-rafter

any desired angle.

pie

molding covers the joint where

the wall and sheathing meet. Rafter

may

ends

be

left

exposed or

a board called a fascia


tially

cia

may

or fully cover them.

may be

parfas-

or of elaborate,

flat

molded shapes. However, simple


shapes are more practical

when

gutters are to be installed.

Economy construction using


conventional framing, with rafters

spaced 16" or 24" o.c, some-

times employs this open cornice

method. Post and beam construction with structural parts exposed


is

also a popular

Western

and widely used

application of an open cornice.

Wood

Products Assoc

This open cornice has false rafter tails with finished lumber exposed to view on
the under side.

This open cornice has brick veneer extending up to the roof

When planks form the finished overhang the


may conform to spacing requirements for plank
and beam systems shown in Chapter 11.

sheathing.

rafter tails

Rafter

tails

shown on

roof planks

this wall section are

above the exposed

notched to receive
rafters.

227

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Closed Cornice
Rafters are encased not

visi-

blein a closed or box cornice.


Variations

used

are

much

for

light construction.

A closed cornice may

have

fin-

ishing materials attached to rafters so the

overhang follows the

may

roof slope; or an overhang

be finished so

its

lower surface

is

Soffit

a covering for the

soffit is

rafters. It

may

be

of wood, metal, fiberboard, dryplastic,

or others.

The proper material


pends upon personal

or regional

wall,

plaster,

to use de-

preference.
Nailers for Soffit Materials

Most

soffit

and

shown

soffit,

The

illustrations.

first

the

fascia.

This

method because

poorest

the

is
it

leaves an un-

finished exposed edge.

only unsightly but

It

may

is

not

permit

soffit edge is undersirable


because water may enter between it and

An exposed

soffit maand cause deterioration.


The second illustration shows
the fascia extending below the
rafter ends the same amount as
the soffit thickness. The edge of

the fascia.

moisture to enter the

the fascia

is

rabbeted to permit

and to form a tight joint


between the two materials.
The third illustration shows the
fascia protruding below the soffit
any desired amount within limits.
The back of the fascia is grooved

nailing

soffit joined to a

quires

perfect

rabbeted fascia

alignment to

close fitting joint.

BUItDING PAPER

should be

Materials

installed according to the

manu-

facturer's directions.

The lower edges of

rafters are

below the top edge of


wall sheathing and there are no
exposed structural parts that permit nailing the back edge of a
usually

soffit.

nailer strip

must be

fas-

tened to the sheathing, flush with


the lower edge of rafters, so the

can be nailed securely.

soffit

Fascia

A
one

closed cornice has at least

board

finishing

nailed

to

cover rafter ends. This board


called a fascia.

fascia

is

is

also

used as a nailer for the front edge


of the

soffit.

Study the four com-

mon methods

insure

materials are only

and must be nailed or


fastened to each rafter and along
edges.

the

shows a butt joint with the soffit


fastened to the bottom edge of

semi-rigid

all

in

illustration

terial

parallel to the ground.

lower edge of

fascia

of joining a

wood

FIBERBOARD SHEATHING

A grooved

228

AIR

SPACE

fascia helps conceal alignment irregularities.

re-

Roof Overhang and Exterior Trim

J:

A double

fascia increases nailing surface


at the soffit edge.

to receive the soffit. This


is

method

very desirable because

per-

it

To

mits slight discrepancies but the

The

overhang

increase

rafters

joint appears closed.

may be

height,

secured to a top

plate above celling joists.

fourth illustration shows a

double

Naturally only the

fascia.

exposed one on the outside needs


be of fine quality materials.
Although the double fascia re-

to

more material than

quires
first

three,

cause

is

it

the

frequently used be-

is

it

easy to construct and

The small mold-

looks very good.

ing covering the joint can be any

shape.

desired

without

them,

If

materials

fit

open spaces between


this
molding may be

omitted.
Relationship of Ceiling

and Fascia

Joists

One cannot assume


fascias are

on the same

ceiling joists.

When

that

all

level as

rafter

ends

protrude beyond a wall as continuations of the rafters, the fascia


is

lower than the ceiling

joists.
Also,

Roof slope and amount of overhang determine how much the


fascia
line.

the

is

below the

Of course,

same

ceiling joist

level as joists, but special

then required. The

is

illustrations

show two ways

increase

ceiling

joists

as shown.

a fascia can be at

construction

to

overhang

may be
extended past building edges
and rafters notched to a plate
height,

the

problem may be solved.

229

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Molding

for Soffit

A small molding of your choice


used to conceal the joint between a soffit and exterior wall

is

covering. Study the illustrations

and observe

that the soffit

in-

is

stalled before exterior wall


coverings.

frieze board

used to join

sometimes
and a

is

wood

siding

This is flat with the lower


edge rabbeted to receive the sid-

soffit.

The wood molding described

ing.

earlier

joint

and

is

then placed to cover the

between the

frieze

board

A rabbeted

frieze

board

is

sometimes used

to

cover the joint between a wall and the under

soffit.

side of a roof.

Lookout

When

a soffit

additional
lookout,

is

is

to

framing

level

an

member,

be

required. Fastened be-

may be

attached to the end

fly rafter.

The home on page

turn

tween the rafter ends and wall

or

sheathing as shown in the

2 has cornice returns.

trations, the

nailer for the

illus-

the rake, gives outside finish at a

lookout serves as a

A
Cornice Return

so

sometimes returned around the end of a building. This is done for improved
visual effect. When a box cornice
is used, the entire box may be
returned. When an open cornice
is

cornice

gable end. This rafter

Gable End Overhang

soffit.

is

used, a simple single-piece re-

it

it

gable end

has

little

may be

finished

or no overhang, or

may extend any desired amount.

When

designing an overhang it
must be appropriate to the rest

of the building

Molding

style.

for Fly Rafter

fly rafter,

sometimes called

is

fastened

lower face of roof sheath-

to the

and sheathing ends are exposed unless covered with a molding,

The molding can be

a l"x2"
board or a more
elaborate molding of your choosing. The same molding shape as
used between the wall and soffit
ing.

rectangular

is

frequently chosen.

Attic Ventilation
Insulation applied between
tempera-

beneath the roof overhang,

in the

ceiling joists causes a

gable ends, in the roof ridge, or

between the attic


and rooms below. This results

on the roof

ture difference

in

condensation;

therefore

the

must be ventilated so air


can circulate and remove moisattic

ture. Ventilators

may be provided

surface.

They may

For

specific ventilation

ments,

and

consult

their

the

require-

illustrations

accompanying data.

be pre-manufactured or custom
built units. All ventilators

must

be equipped with screens. Screens


with 8 squares per running inch
are

recommended by
230

the

FHA.

Louvers

A
fins

louver

is

a ventilator with

or slats to allow air to pass

through. Fins

may

be fixed

(sta-

21: Roof

Overhang and

Exterior Trim

NET VENT AREA


CEILING AREA

900

^r

I*

T-

Fs

f\

'X

250

National Lumber Manufacturers Assoc.

Methods

of ventilating roof spaces

and amount

of ventilation required.

tionary) or adjustable so they can

be opened or closed. Expansible


metal ventilators are available so
they can be adjusted to

fit

varying

roof slopes.

The amount of
lating area

is

net free venti-

usually stamped or

printed on a purchased ventilator.

One must
calculated

secure sizes to meet


ventilating

require-

ments, as discussed earlier. For


Gable end louvers

job or custom

built units one


must measure and calculate the

net ventilating area.

To determine

actual ventilating area one must

deduct the amount of space occupied by wires in the screen.

231

may be

of

wood

or metal.

Part One: Structure An Architectural Obligation

Gutters

Gutters are troughs attached to


the edge of a roof to carry water
away. They may be of metal,

wood
a

in

sizes.

or plastic, and are available


wide variety of styles and
Metal is most frequently

commonly galvanized iron


because it is less expensive.
Molded wood gutters are not as
popular as formerly. Most wood

used,

gutters are of the

built-in

type

and may be custom designed for


each specific application. These
are lined with sheet metal or

make them

other material to
waterproof.

Some

more common

of the

shapes

gutter

are

shown. The

proper one to use depends upon


building style and amount of
4"
water to be drained away. A
or 5" gutter is usually adequate
small

for

structures

such

homes. For most beautiful

as

results

simple styles are recommended.


The FHA permits gutters to

be installed perfectly level if the


material is rigid and pockets or

low spots do not develop. However, for best results they should
slope slightly toward downspouts.

Leaders or Downspouts

Leaders
pipes that

or

downspouts are
water from a

carry

gutter to the ground.

They should

be of the same material and


as

the gutter.

fabricated to

your specifications.

gutter

ter

4"

hangers should be installed


roofing to prevent nail

holes from causing leaks.

232

size

its

before

y^-

is

downspout should be 4"


across. Hangers must be used to
secure both the gutter and downspout to the building. Note: Gut-

wide
Built-in gutters are often

If a

21: Roof

Overhang and

Exterior Trim

Coarse screens over all gutters,


and basket strainers at downspout
heads where they join the gutter,
catch and help prevent clogging

splash block and then onto the


yard.
In localities with

and only

rainfall

little

traces of snow, as Ari-

by leaves or other foreign matter

zona or northern desert regions,

is washed down.
Water must be drained away
from the bottom of downspouts.
They may empty into a sanitary

water

sewer when building codes per-

New

that

mit, but preferably a storm sewer,


a drain

dry well, or for

tile field,

an economical installation onto a

25.

Why

attic ventilation nec-

is

essary?

may be trapped for special


Drainage is generally not a

uses.

problem.

Heavy

precipitation

areas such as the Northwest Coast.

England, the Great Lakes

and

region,

Gulf

of the

parts

Coast maj have


age codes.

rigid

water drain-

26.

How does one

number,

determine the

and location of

size,

attic

ventilators?

27.

Why

must

be

ventilators

equipped with screens?


28. Describe a louver.

29.

Why do

have movable
30.

What

louvers

sometimes

fins?

is

a gutter? From what

materials are they frequently


3

What

is

How

does

made?

a leader or down-

spout?
32.

downspout

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge


As used

in

book, what

this

does the word cornice mean?


does

this

compare with

the

How
older

What

the purpose of a

is

How

Why

3.

What

14.

does one determine ex-

act cornice style


4.

What

5.

Why

and construction?

are fascias?

a rafter

is

are

some

tail?

rafter

tails

perpendicular to the ground while

Why

6.

four

and

are

7.

Describe

applications of

What

an open cornice?

is

two

open

is

widely

used

cornices.

a closed cornice?

box cornice?
10.

What
What

23.
24.

Why

20.

a soffit?

is

a nailer strip?

11. Describe

22.

materials

suitable

How

does one

for soffit construction.

determine the proper one to use?

are

soffit joins

What
What
What
What
What

21.
is

Why

where a
19.

of

moldings

used

it

level as ceiling joists.

18.

34. Describe a built-in gutter.


35. Describe

water

think

a wall?

Terms to Spell and

rafter tail

louver
gutter

closed or box leader

fascia

is

a cornice return?

frieze

is

lookout

fly

cornice

rafter?

a gable rake?

downspout
gutter hangers

board

basket strainer

downspout head

cornice return storm sewer

a molding frequently

applied along the top edge of a

Know

rake

open cornice

a lookout?

233

for different regions?

cornice

is

rafter?

Why do

codes must be designed

and enforced

a frieze board?

is

ways of draining

downspouts.

from

is

is

and

usually

on the

same

What

of

is

edges?
6.

gutters

joist line?

methods

constructing a cornice so

9.

are

methods

others are at right angles to rafter

8.

Why

fascias

two

Describe

7.

should

fascia.

placed below the ceiling


1

Why

downspout heads be equipped with

you

15. Describe
joining a soffit

determine

screens?
frequently

are nailers

they necessary?

cornice?
3.

slope?

soffits to roof
1

33.

Describe two relationships of

2.

installed before soffits are applied?

definition?
2.

one

size?

fly

fly rafter

drain

dry well

tile

Exterior Wall Coverings


Exterior coverings are used to

buildings from the ele-

protect

are available, no lengthy discus-

When

sion of any will be given.

made, one

ability

and beauty. This

make

will

overall cost greater than an-

its

which

ments, afford a degree of perma-

selections are being

nence, and to add architectural

must refer

lit-

greater initial cost but requires

beauty. Use should conform to

erature, specifications, or samples

no maintenance. For example, a

elements of good design,

for best results.

painted

form,

texture,

color,

Chapter

"line,

etc.,"

materials

suitable

for

Cost of materials often has


an influence on those selected.
But you must consider more than

Permanence

exterior wall coverings are dis-

the

cussed in other chapters because

should be given careful consid-

cost.

initial

they are also structural materials.

eration.

These

signed to require a

be mentioned briefly

will

here so as to give a complete pic-

because

ture.

Actually,

large

number of

of the

materials that

other

material

wood

repainting

see

25.

Some

to manufacturers'

good building

maintenance.
material

may

maintenance

may

wall

every

has

three

require
to

five

years, while a brick wall will re-

quire virtually no maintenance.

Ease and speed of installation


also affects the choice,
is

factor.

when

cost

Materials requiring

inexpensive

maintenance often keep a


good appearance longer. Many
factors must be considered when

require continual

selecting exterior building mate-

An

de-

is

minimum

to retain

its

of

service-

little

rials.

Wall Sheathing
Wall sheathing

is

placed be-

tween a building frame and exterior covering. It adds rigidity,


serves as a backing for exterior
coverings,

and may

also serve as

insulation.

Lumber

is

the

traditional

sheathing material. Traditionally,


this

may be one of

three selec-

tions S4S, tongue and groove, or


ship lap.

There are two methods

of installation.

may be

at a

45 angle to the studs.

latter is preferred

because

more

rigidity

When

diagonal sheathing

to

the

it

The
gives

building.
is

used,

codes permit

corners as discussed in Chapter

this

note on the plans or specifica-

tions
to

7.

must

state the size

of lumber

be used and the method of

fiberboard are also suitable for

may

be applied diagonally

walls.

plywood

is

Large plywood panels per-

234

When

adequate.

16"

used,

is

Some

less thickness,

but

should be avoided on quality

construction.

Fiberboard wall sheathing

may

be purchased with the faces untreated, or the sheets

installation.

horizontally across the studding,


it

strength.

or 24" studding spacing

most codes permit elimination of

Sheathing grade plywood and

or

with the face grain vertical

maximum

for

the "let-in" diagonal bracing at

placed

It

mit rapid erection. Panels are applied

a bituminous coating.

when

the latter

is

may have
Of course,

used

it

is

not

necessary to cover the sheathing

with building paper because the


surface is already protected.

Treated

fiberboard

resistant

but does not act as a

vapor

barrier.

allow the

will

It

moisture

is

wall to "breath" (permit transfer

of vapor). Therefore sheathing


should not be covered on the outside with a vapor barrier because
this will trap

condensation within

the wall.

Most common fiberboard sheet


are 24"x96" and 48"x96".
However, a wide variety of sizes
is available. The 24"x96" sheet is
installed with the long dimension

sizes

across the studding.

Sheets are

staggered so adjoining ones do


not end on the same stud. The
48"x96" sheets are installed with
the long dimension vertical.
The two most frequently used
thicknesses are
and Vr.". The
thickness meets most minimum code requirements but 25/m"

W
is

preferred because of

strength

and

added

its

Weitern

greater
solid

insulation

lumber

Omission of Wall Sheathing

warm

frame buildings are

is

most

climates, or

when

Horizontal Siding
in
is made of
narrow, uniform-width strips

Horizontal siding

they are

of material.

omitted.

sheathing
If

wall

It is

usually installed

sheathing

is

not required, build-

produces

interesting

ing paper

is

applied to the walls

shadows

at

and the exterior covering

is

Wall sheathing and exterior


covering are frequently incorporated into a single prefabri-

may be

tural or non-structural.

struc-

is

the

horizontal

intersections.

the traditional material

When

solid

wood

is

used,

boards taper in a wedge,


angled down from top to bottom.
the

It is

some

cated product.

Wall coverings

Wood
used.

applied.

when

specifying thickness.

will

other

utility structures,

used

with the strips overlapping. This

thin,

sometimes

is

Nominal thicknesses are Vi", W,


and %". Nominal widths are 4",
6", 8", 10", and 12". Bevel siding

used for unheated garages and


is

Products Associorion, Arl Commercial Srudios

satisfactory.

value.

When

Wood

used as wall sheathing a diagonal installation

is

called "bevel siding," or in

cover

much

less surface

areas of the country "lap

siding will cover

or "weather boarding."

than the nominal

siding"

The first is more descriptive.


The thick bottom edge "butt"
235

than

one might anticipate from the


nominal size. Regular bevel siding
will cover Vh" less height than
its
nominal size. For example,
the exposed face of 10" bevel
siding is 8V2". Rabbeted bevel
1"

less

width

size; therefore

the exposed face of 10" rabbeted

bevel siding

is

9".

|p!;;|^i$^;

Bevel siding can be incorporated into beautiful designs.

Bevel siding.

Tongue and groove.

Shiplap.

(A) Rabbeted

(B) Plain

Vertical

Methods

board and batten siding.

of |oinery.

[1

Vertical

236

board on board siding.

22: Exterior Wall Coverings

"^

r\

r^S

LrU

Lru

jv

Lrv

r\

z~^s

p.

|
4j

~v

Lumber

Redwood

should

is

be

used.

considered

best.

common

There are two

wood

~L

patterns

bevel siding plain and

rabbeted. Cross-sections of each


are shown.

The

s_

^~gr-

may

be

sulation.

Pre-finished

siding

is

teners to avoid face nailing.


patterns.

siding

Two

methods of edge joining lumber


siding are shown shiplap and
tongue and groove. Cove and

smooth or saw textured.

drop siding are designed to be


used horizontally. The other patterns

are

Other Horizontal Siding

cally.

Examples of exterior siding

finished surface

may

Horizontal siding

also be

usually

applied verti-

patterns include only those most

of plywood, hardboard, or recon-

frequently selected.

wood. The latter is made


of small sections which have been
jointed and glued to form large

may

joints

boards.

with narrow strips of

structed

The above

may

Boards and battens. S4S boards


be applied vertically and the

between

boards

covered

wood

called

be

battens. In the illustrations, notice

purchased with unfinished sur-

the spaces between each board.


These spaces permit expansion
and contraction. Notice also that
wide boards are nailed in the

faces,

or

finishes

materials

variety

applied.

of surface

They may be

overlaid with resinous paper, prefinished

with

paint,

or covered

manu-

minimizes warping. Narrow


boards may be nailed along one

pre-finished

steel,

edge, with the other edge "float-

Horizontal siding
factured

of

is

aluminum, and plastic. These may


have rigid backing panels or the
backs

center, but not at the edges. This

also

with colored plastic film.

may be

covered with

in-

7"

Plank patterns.

usually applied with special fas-

Wood

^r-^r^r-v-^-nr^r-^r-^

siding patterns; shiplap siding patterns.

with good weathering

characteristics

of

17

~L>

Tongue and groove

C3f

ing" free.

Board-on-board. Board-onboard installations are very simi-

237

to boards and battens. The


main differences are 'that the first
boards applied have much more
space between them, and the
board replacing the batten is
lar

much
Edges

wider.

of this

tongue and groove siding

are beveled to form a "V" which conceals |oints and produces


for vertical

shadow

emphasis.

lines

Plywood

Large sheets

siding.

may be
used as a finished covering, or

of exterior grade plywood


vertical

wood

strips

to simulate battens.

may be added
Plywood may

be purchased with saw-textured


or other decoration cut into the

Some

outer surface.

common
When

of the more

are shown.
large sheets are used the

face grain

is

vertical.

Shingles or shakes.

Wood

gles or shakes, described in


ter

10,

may

shin-

Chap-

also be used as ex-

terior wall covering.

Because wood

shingles are quite narrow, they


are sometimes manufactured in

assembled widths on a solid backing board. Coverings simulating

wood

shingles are also manufac-

of

tured
United Slates Plywood Corp.

Early

American

style

bituminous

asbestos,

composition, hardboard, or alu-

minum. Their surface is machined


sawed or hand split

cedar plywood siding.

to resemble
shingles.
'Planktex" siding.
United States P/ywood Corp.

great

many

sizes,

shapes, and colors are manufactured, so

it

is

necessary to con-

manufacturers' literature
when making selections.
sult

Stucco

Stucco

is

a thin plaster used

primarily on the outside.

be waterproof. Stucco

It

must

may

be

similar to interior plaster in that


it

takes a three-coat application-

brown scratch coat, one


brown coat, and one lime finish
coat. Or it may be made entirely
of cement plaster. However, this
one

is

quite brittle;

it

may

crack be-

cause of expansion and contraction

of base

materials,

control joints are used.

co

is less brittle,

face

238

is

although

not as hard.

unless

Lime
its

stuc-

sur-

22: Exterior Wall Coverings

pane,s between vertical


Curtain wa,,s with sandw,c h

members have

no maintenance.

239

,on g ,astin g beauty

and require

11

.1

13^3

^;.

^-n*^.. z

mm

HI
H"
1

':_

zr**

Si JPT-1
ns-

3J
HBHHrrij

as&v ji 21
III VUS^
til

'

nwwak

mi'

The modern design of this brick apartment complex

this

JCT

III

The beauty of

apartment structure

is

is

aesthetically pleasing.

enhanced by

its

stucco

finish.

<AV

4&f

f7

Wi ''!'J&

22: Exterior Wall Coverings

may have

Stucco

textured surface.
brilliant

white and

may

be

left this

Pigments or decorative ag-

color.

may be added

gregates

to the fin-

coat for a built-in permanent

ish

finish.
is

a smooth or
Most stucco is a

Stucco also paints well and

Stucco

masonry surfaces.
However, wire reinforcing (frequently with paper backing) is
secured to the building

usually

and then the stucco

first

is

plas-

Minimum recommended

tered.

thickness

easy to maintain.

sometimes plastered

is

on

directly

3A".

is

Questions fo Reinforce Knowledge

What

do

functions

How does

2.

maintenance affect

15.

Why

might one choose to

covering are frequently incorporated


into a single

sheets instead of boards?

5.

What
What

wall sheathing?

is

materials are used for

in

What

which

are the two directions

wood

solid

sheathing

may

7.

8.

tion of

9.

the

two methods

31.

does

its

tion of

is

48"x96"

What
24"x96"
What

of

ing

is

an advantage of

bituminous-coated

12.

film

is

likely

to

happen

if

and

the

exterior

wall

13.

What

What

is

Is

applied

27.

thicknesses?

fre-

it

the normal color of

What may be done

to

change

What

are the two

common

types of stucco?

34.

may be

What

is

35. Which

is

a control joint?

more

brittle,

lime or

cement stucco?

shiplop siding?
vertically

or

What
What

is

drop siding?

board and batten

is

Terms To Spell And

Know

are wide boards only

the center on this siding?

in

What
What

of using

fiberboard sheathing

29.
ing

wall sheathing

tongue and groove


shiplap

Why

is

board-on-board

siding?

28.

are the two most

siding?

other materials

23.

nailed

covering?

quently used

wood

siding?

placed between the

is

What

stucco?

is

the color?

33.

are three methods of

22.

26.

What

sheathing

25.

sheathing?

plastic

24.

us-

fiberboard

What

is

stucco?

32.

are the nominal widths

What
What

horizontally?

fiberboard sheathing?
is

its

used as horizontal siding?

fiberboard

the sheet direction

from

other joints?

in

What

pre-finishing

sheathing?
10.

differ

for

of bevel siding?

the correct applica-

is

meaning

meaning

plywood sheathing?

What

name

material for commercial installations.

30.

20.
the face-grain direc-

is

bevel siding?
the

Why?

What

is

edge of bevel siding? How

18.

19.

Which of

better?

horizontal siding?

the

Rohm and Hoot Co

panels are a popular covering

Plastic

is

thick

be applied?

is

7.

product"?

What
What
What

16.

wall sheathing?
6.

state-

ment, "Wall sheathing and exterior

cover a building with large plywood

4.

be omit-

wood frame walls?


What is meant by the

ted from

selection?
3.

When may sheathing

14.

exterior

coverings perform?

are some advantages

plywood

What

is

for exterior walls?

the purpose of back-

boards?

241

taper
bevel siding

rabbeted bevel siding

boards and battens


board-onboard siding
stucco
lime

Part

FUNCTION
AND BEAUTYESSENTIALS OF
PLANNING

23.

The Architect

24.

The

25.

Design

26.

Determining Needs and Wishes

27.

Room

Drafter
for

Today's Living

of the Client

by

Room

Planning

28. Furniture List


29.

Community Factors

30. Site

to

be Considered

Planning

243

Two

The Architect
An

architect

builder

of

is

a designer or

anything,

including

golf courses, but the term

is

most

ings such as garages or other util-

structures unless they are

ity

part of a large project. For per-

frequently used to describe a per-

sonal

who designs, draws plans for,


and supervises building construc-

complex

son

tion.

The term comes from

ancient

Greek, meaning "master builder."

As

is

specialized.

buildings

satisfaction

homes

as

or

as

larger

should be designed by an archi-

This

tect.

not to imply that

is

one should not

avail

oneself of

In addi-

It

is

sometimes

for

difficult

people to realize that they need


the services of an architect.

They

know

may

think that they

actly

what they want and how the

and naval
Architects engaged

architecture,

designing buildings frequently

for this specialization

the building industry

one cannot hope


at

to

designing

is

is

must meet

may

This

usually

it

be constructed.

may

or

not.

is

not be true;

They may not

To

register as

an architect

general

education,

with

limited

may

allow completion

years.

However most

One may

ing an architect

relates to design, or a

building

vices

the

Architects usually do not design very small or simple build-

much. However,
fee

is

often less

than the amount saved by the


architect's efficient use of building

space

an Architect

cost too

architect's

that their ser-

is

and

good

utilization

of

building materials and construction methods.

An

individual

not keep abreast of

244

may

new products

in

three

accredited

colleges will require at least four

and many

Two

most frequently

to-

lege degree. Accelerated courses,

used excuses for not commission-

the

local

day, one almost must have a col-

so large

of

this

build-

Architect's Training

offered (not

encountered.

and

state

may be
One

Thus the architect concentrates on one kind of design to


become more expert.
for

Of course any

because

become proall

building should

ex-

areas,

residential

true.

uation.

types.

Need

in

even be aware of many design


and construction problems which

designing one kind

homes, churches, schools, hospitals, or others. The main reason

ficient

Even
can be

utility structures.

usually designed by professionals.

tectural professions include such

in

except for

Individual architects

field.

an archi-

that practically require


tect,

code requirements.

specialties as city planning, land-

in

and communities

ing

tion to designing buildings, archi-

specialize

states

a plan service or prefabricated

becoming

small areas of the

architecture.

Many

have building standards and laws

structures, because these are

is

usually confine their activities to

scape

and building trends but the competent architect must always do so.

very

true in other professions,

architecture

years

five

types of curricula
all

grad-

for

may be

schools offer both).

study architecture as

nical course

is

more

it

tech-

offered in archi-

tectural engineering.

Most

colleges require a

broad

liberal education, as well as pro-

fessional

study.

The reason

for

must be

flu-

this is that architects

ently

aware of the cultural aspects

of society.

23: The Architect

Graduation from a four or

five

year course earns the student a


bachelor's

degree.

desired, he

is

may do advanced

or she

In

addition

must

wishes of the

prospective designer

also serve under the guid-

manner

much

same

the

as a doctor serves an in-

The

ternship.

must serve

length of time one

same

not exactly the

is

everywhere but

it

usually about

is

After the training period one


take examinations to qualify

and become a registered architect


in the state of residence. It

possible

secure

to

is

then

license

in

is

still

stances

to

possible in

become

without

architect

some

in-

registered

attending col-

However, because one must


have so much more knowledge
than was formerly necessary, it is
becoming increasingly more diffilege.

cult.

After serving under an archi-

tect for

is

within rea-

Draw

one

suitable

Draw

achieved.

is

working plans for the


no matter how compli-

cated.

materials to be

all

contract documents

and

architect,

client

and con-

client

and also between


tractors.

Write

specifications

a period, one must take

and pass the same qualifying

tests

the

for

estimates

cost

so

the

An
and

Know

responsibility

of

ability

and finan-

building industry.

individual

con-

in

much

discuss

all

result

repetition of information

presented elsewhere in the book;

dur-

than

less

may be
many persons in

paid

glamorous

An

a percentage of the total building

This fee

The

receipts

architect

and

state-

must be cerand

plans

variable but

is

5%

frequently between

is

8%

and

of the building cost. This seems


large

like

upkeep,

office

ment of

not

is

and

plus

pay-

and supervisory

consume

all

architect's

clear

all

relations

taxes,

drafters

of

through

but one must

fee,
it

maintenance

a large per-

fee.

Expensive

must

continue

the

seasons.

Much

success

depends

of the

on

good business management.

are

to contractors.

followed

rately. In cases of errors or

on

works on

architect usually

and analyze

sions

less

lines.

centage

Make payments

would

first

fact,

Audit the contractors' accounts

Supervise construction and see

To

year of employment. In

personnel,

that

person.

any other work, one

tractors.

of the specific duties

professional
in

Business

total

other

Again, as

profit.

duties

thorough familiarity with the

or

Supervise the letting of bids.

labor are paid.

many

is about the same


good doctor, lawyer,

that

which require

architect has

responsibilities

Average income

realize

tain that all bills for material

The Architect's Duties

well

reason.

ments.

as those with college training.

become very expert or


known and earn large sums
money while others do not.

architects

cost.

Make

cial

It

a commission basis, the fee being

owner will know approximate cost


and whether or not bids are within

is

any other profession. Some

like

ing early years one

Draw up

between the

it

does not become rich the

Determine

well

are

how much one may

say

as that of a

all

building,

architects

be expected to earn per year.


is

of

preliminary plans until a

building.

other states.
It

of

used.

three years.

may

amount

sonable bounds.

Successful

paid for their services, but


difficult to

the client desires to spend

so the building plan

ance and supervision of a competent architect in

client.

Determine the financial status

money

The Architect's Fee

the

all

of the client and the

formal educa-

to

study for

a master's or doctor's degree.

tion, the

work or not:
Determine the needs and

or she docs

additional

If

formal education

ble for the following, whether he

accu-

omis-

the plans, or misinterpre-

tation by contractors, the architect corrects or explains

and

them.

If

an architect has a flourishing

business

possible

work

at

sites.

several commissame time, it is not


do all supervisory

with

sions at the
to

each of the construction

Most

large

construction

projects require that the architect

quality

upon
and

the

are listed to suggest the extent of

of

at

the work.

labor performed, and secure

all

the architect's representative has

therefore

The

only

architect

broad categories

must be responsi-

Inspect
of

all

pass

material

guarantees.

have
the

full-time
site.

When

representative
this

is

true,

direct authority over construction.

245

Port Two: Function

and Beauty Essentials of Planning

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge


1.

Who may

be called an

2.

Name

four different kinds of

Why

specialize

do
in

architects frequently

designing predomi-

nately one kind of building?


4.

Why

vices of
5.

ser-

Are

buildings

always

what way

is

de-

is

it

necessary

an

archi-

are the normal educa-

tional requirements for

What

2. After
is

3.

completed,

Is it

and

informal

how may one

always necessary

familiar with

an

must an architect be
phases of the build-

all

ing industry?

tect

What

4 major items

does the archi-

perform for the client? There

to

more. They need not be

10 or

list

in

any given

order.

How

does the architect's

come compare with earnings


well known professions?

On what

basis

tectural firm paid for


1

8.

What

is

services?

required of the suc-

to attract clients? Discuss.


9.

What

are

responsibilities

the

of an

duties

9.

Why

representative?

an architect?

are the two different

have a

0.

offered

architect's

What advanced degrees


in

Know

liberal

education?
1

Terms to Spell and

do colleges also require

are

commission

registered architect

the field of architecture?

246

and

architect's

curricula offered?

the architect to

in-

other

the archi-

is

its

in

cessful architect besides the ability

services

listed in the text.

You should be able

17.
for

architect to attend college? Explain.

Why

are

16.

formal

secure an architect's license?

15.

tect? Explain.

What

petent architect?

14.

one required

to obtain the services of

8.

why

a prospective architect to serve

for

signed by architects? Explain.

7.

From your reading and your

reasoning,

training

does one need the

an architect?

6. In

a period of time working for a com-

architects.
3.

own

architect?

architectural engineering
architect's representative

The Draftsman
Very

briefly, this

of the

chapter mere-

work
drafter. As

the particular

identifies

ly

architectural

methods of joining them. After


becoming a master drafter, he or
she can become responsible for

work of other

impossible to say exactly

is

It

how much

a drafter can be ex-

pected to earn per year.

Wages

you know, a drafter is a person


who draws pictorial and working

the

plans for any structure buildings,

and talented, the drafting position

drafters

may

wage. Beginning salaries are not

equipment

for

other items.

He

and

buildings,

or she works for

and under the supervision and

di-

one

If

is

drafters as well.

extremely ambitious

be used as a stepping stone to

other positions.

One may through

work and study become

further

rection of an architect. Duties and

an estimator, specifications writer,

responsibilities vary with experi-

architect's

ence and

architect.

ability.

Beginning duties frequently

There

in-

representative,

no prescribed amount

clude distribution of supplies to

of

drafters,

have to become a

prints

from

routine

tracings,

assignments.

of

The

pletion of high school, but

of copying or tracing small

details

from other drawings.

working drawings from information supplied

him or

firms require at least

Many young

upon completion

Later, the drafter will develop

handle

of structural

in a position the

than

office

the

average

of

other

workers. After several years

of experience, a

reasonably

much

as

good drafter can

expect

an

office

to

earn

as

manager or

service department head in other

types of business.

architects,

flair

sales

One may have

for advertising layout or

work

that will lead to

work

product promotion not con-

drafters.

nected with architecture.

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

much

parts

and

community for the drafter

be-

in

your

tween an architect and an architec-

in

architecture,

tural drafter.

city

size

one remains

as

salary increases are usually bet-

two years

of their formal

to

her. After

of the detailed planning, such as


the

many

They may be compared

in

methods used by the employ-

er, the drafter will

high.

other types of office work, but

education, begin their careers as

more experience, when he or she


knows the materials and construction

upon com-

secure a position

of college.

One

drafter.

may

first

must

one

education

and other

actual drawing will probably consist

formal

Even in the same city, all


do not earn the same

try.

ter
is

other

reproduction

or an

are variable throughout the coun-

2.

Explain

the

Investigate

difference

the

247

opportunities

manufacturing firms,

planning departments, and legal

work such as producing

site

drawings.

Design for Today's Living


Architecture, in

may

its

truest sense,

from the elements.

shelter

is

It

many purposes. It may


home or permanent shelter.
may be a place to work, play,
serve

be a
It

or worship. All great architecture


is

impression that every-

the

gets

thing

old

new

good and everything


poor. Nothing could be

is

farther

is

from the

continued

use,

must

fulfill

function

Progress cannot be constant.

(2)

structure

progress

(3)

beauty

than at others.

The three are interdependent.


The function is the reason for
a building's existence. The strucand methods of
construction must enhance the
materials

tural

When

function.

structural systems
the

selection

is,

can the building best be


its

the

how

built to

function? For example,

at the present

dome

crete

of

must be made,

main consideration

fulfill

latest

set-

More
some times

(1)

time thin-shell con-

structures

represent

building fashion. Yet

As

is

made

is

we regard

as great

built using the best materials

unless this represents

the

best solution to the problem.

ing

technology,

one

sometimes

materials are readily available,

tion costs

add

must

be given consideration.

still

to the building cost

book

this

is

primarily

concerned with drafting, rather


than a course in architecture, no
lengthy

discussion of individual

sented. It

this great architecture

Roman

drals, classic

is

Greek

that architecture of today should

not be copies of building styles

homes, and the fore-

from the

past.

runners of modern skyscrapers.

straightforward

Each

advantage

of these represents an ex-

pression of their times and the

way

of

life

of the people.

of

They should have


designs
today's

and construction methods.

Beauty pleases or

During each period of


has evolved

when

construction
in their

own

own

history,

individual

needs, using

materials
locality.

248

taking

materials

Beauty

Style

style

be pre-

the author's opinion

works, Gothic cathe-

are the Egyptian pyramids,

and

at

although the fact that transporta-

examples of

ture to suit their

In this period of rapidly chang-

all

styles or their merits will

groups developed basic architecArchitectural Merit

materials

and methods of the time. Some

one does not build a concrete

dome

took

hand and used them to solve


building problems. However, with
today's
modern transportation,

Since

true today, buildings of

the past which

were

at

use of stone, and available

Architecture

been

have

there

exten-

clay resulted in brick structures.

backs and periods of regression.

three obligations:

made

regions

acceptance

recorded history to the present;

however,

in volcanic

and

can determine true worth.


evolution from the beginning of

available. Architecture

regions

forest

in

sive

ma-

and construction methods

living

mostly of timber, while those

Only time,

Building has seen a continual

lem, using the best building

built

truth.

a solution to a building prob-

terials

people

available

For example,

may

satisfies.

It

give the beholder a feeling of

awe and

inspiration. It

is

impor-

tant for one's inner enrichment.

This

may

be stated as an esthetic

quality or feeling.

Beauty

is

not

a simple thing. Total architectural

25: Design for Today's Living

beauty
lines,

upon building

rely

will

form, proportion, harmony.

Beauty

If

tecture

work

rials.

building of unusual form (but of

the

related

may

sidered

same

unknown.

or

It is

easier to rely

upon

the security of the past (the

and true) than to explore the

drab.

The

building

beauty.

The designer must

rely

on

functional design and an honest

tried

disgust

unknown.

desired artistic effect.

Pseudo Beauty
When one observes the shiny

should not rely upon gimmicks or

embellishments of an

industrial

the

structure.

This false idea

one sometimes confuses

the

basis for

much

No

in

two people have the

feeling of beauty for a given

may

like a great,

is

com-

composition;

musical
this

An untrained

doubtful because

not within his or her realm of

experience. This person will probably gain greater

pleasure

from

the music of the street because

The same

familiar.

it

true of

is

society,

gaudiness with design and beauty,


especially
I

his

is

tion

is

ration

judging

in

buildings.

not to say that no decorato be used,

because deco-

plays a very strong role.

use of materials to support the

unusual uses

is

all

poor,

it

or she

to bring attention to

of the

architecture one sees.


ply that

He

Not

is

poor

to im-

of today's architecture
is

not;

much

very

is

good. In most of today's good dethe

sign

architect

employs

an

Applied or "stuck on" decoration

honest use of materials and sim-

without a purpose

plicity as

is

to be avoided.

EI k iiM k nls of ltaiily himI

primary guides.

Design

Form

Line

The

Building lines (do not confuse


with earlier definition of building

meaning

the building
resent the

the location

is

to

where

be placed) rep-

border, boundary, or

outline of the building or

They may he described

its

parts.

as a con-

nected series following each other


in

and

some may

however,

line,

nous

should express one's feeling for

of

plicated

is

iar

disliked only

represents the unfamil-

it

The designer does not want

building to appear monoto-

by

individual

is

because

logi-

feelings

object or experience.

it

should be, a

good design) may be

and

go with the building mate-

beautiful

provoke
others.

think

beautiful! Archi-

The deco-

also dates a building.

gard for other merits. Likewise, a

familiar,

Yet a building con-

of art.

It

ration should naturally

to

at least

or

is,

is

the

one has seen

only ugly things, one


the least ugly

like a building

represents

it

cally

directly

is

because

having complete disre-

balance, color, and texture.

past experience.

One may

buildings.
style

time or space. For example,

building with horizontal lines

one that
profile

is

closely

follows

shadow

lines

ing. Vertical lines

of bevel sid-

may

the points of emphasis.

also

lines,

when

building form.

Form may be

de-

scribed as the solid mass of the


building.

by

Form was

best analyzed

America's great architect.


Lloyd Wright, when he

tangle

is

approximately

ratio

of 5 to

8.

This rectangle

portion

obtainable.

stated the principle that form fol-

sizes

It

is

and building shapes.

Proportion

make

the relationship

of one part, item, or area to another.

All

structural

visual spaces,
a

feeling

unitv.

units,

must contribute

of total

or
to

architectural

The Greek Golden Rec249

used

when designing room

lows function.

is

is

considered the most pleasing proextensively

Proportion

units

wide and S units long, or has a


width to length proportion or

Frank

the

ground plane. Or the building


lines may be emphasized by horizontal

all

or enclosed, creates the

is

usually low and has a

that

of

total

combined

Greek golden rectangle.

'

mm\
SS\

,JL.

Hff'

Scho/z

Homes

Inc.

Horizontal line emphasis.

Vertical line

emphasis.
National Homes

I
laiillillibl
TTT

l:k

ti:lA|

JJ~: 11 vif

1*

^^ ^

^RHb

11

MHT#

Massive structure contributes to the beauty of

Windows

of the

second story balance with those on the lower

and Colonial

styles.

this luxury

level.

home.

"Borrows" from both Georgian


Na)lona/ Homes

251

Part Two: Function

Balance

Balance

mass or area
another

act

of balance
first

the ability of

is

one

to equal or counter-

visually.

large

is

and second

An example

windows on

story placed di-

each other, or
a 2-story unit balanced with a
long, low extension, such as a
rectly in line with

to unite

visually.

esthetic appeal.

Color or patterns of color


and texture, which is the degree
or pattern of roughness of a material,

Rhythm

the visual artistic

is

can be used to emphasize

all

plane) surface

(also

can be made interesting by their


use. Since color is part of the

and texture

surface finish

surface of the material, these are

the total building pattern.

It

enhanced by a visual flow or

movement of

regularly recurring

elements or features such as placing tops of


at the

all

same

windows and doors

height, or repetition

broad

For those with spe-

topic.

study

further

interest,

cial

is

recommended.
Choosing the Form

plain

ing parts and their arrangement

is

discussion of the

elements of beauty and design only


serves as an introduction to a

of the elements of design and

relationship of individual build-

in

into a structure of

The previous

Color and Texture

Rhythm

them

of parts to unite the structure

beauty.

garage.

and Beauty Essentials of Planning

is

in the

form

not applied decoration.

Good

architecture incorporates

these elements of design into an

An

whole.

integrated

As mentioned, the building


form should follow the function.
Quite frequently a building could
take any one of a number of
forms and still adequately per-

adequate

designer has a knowledge of

all

how

design principles and knows

its

When

function.

this

is

must choose
the most satisfactory form to ful-

and

of function

obligations

the

fill

designer

the

true

structure,

and

still

create a

pleasing and beautiful building.

Application of Design
After the needs and wishes of

areas.

From

the

wishes of the

Golden Rectangle previously de-

the client have been determined

client,

and using

details learned

scribed.

and recorded see Chapter 26


actual design is begun. The discussion of planning problems and

concerning

solutions will be confined to house

entire

construction because this

client

cal

is

of all light construction.

typi-

When

planning

individual

rooms, tentative room and area


sizes

may

be determined for the

plan.

For example,

may have

the

previously de-

cided that lO'-O" x 12'-0"

the

is

other structures are to be designed

minimum

the principles are the same.

rooms and the master bedroom


must be at least 14'-0" x 20'-0".
The plan must contain and conform to these requirements.

Since a building
the function

suggests the

it

is

is

planned for

to perform, this

interior

should be

planned first. Still, the exterior


must contribute to a harmonious
and unified structure. A home
may follow any of a variety of
forms. Therefore the designer
must choose one that is suitable.

Chapter 27 discusses elements


of planning individual rooms and

size

of children's bed-

Cutouts

and

its

may

use light-

W=

'-0"

then cut rectangles repre-

senting tentative
sizes.

The

The room

should be labeled on

size

each cutout. The cutouts may be


arranged and rearranged until the

most suitable room arrangement


is

achieved.
It

all

will not

be possible to make

the cardboard

gether perfectly.
lap

slightly,

rooms

to-

fit

Some may

over-

plan

may
much

or

the

insufficient

or

too

area allowed for halls and closets.

beginner

weight cardboard and a


scale,

or three alternate

gested for each room.

have

Room

Two

shapes and sizes should be sug-

room and area

cutouts might well fol-

low the 5 to 8 proportion of the

252

Minor adjustments
have

to

be made.

tentative

will naturally

When

good

room arrangement

is

achieved, a quick sketch of the


floor plan

should be

made

drawn with instruments).

(not

25: Design for Today's Living

STEPS IN THE

DEVELOPMENT
OF A FLOOR
PLAN

DINING

DINING

ROOM

ROOM

ROOM

UTILITY

BED-

ROOM

LIVING

LIVING

ROOM

BED-

ROOM

MASTER

BEDROOM

BED-

BED-

ROOM

ROOM

KITCHEN
1

MASTER

*.

BEDROOM

v.

Room

templates arranged into a tentative floor plan.

-I

LIVING

UTILITY

ROOM

KITCHEN

+-t*i

MASTER

BEDROOM

Single line floor plan adapted from template arrangement.

253

Part Two: Function

and Beauty Essentials of Planning

Presentation floor plan.

Before an originally styled


building takes

its final

tentative plans are

many

made and

the

taken from the

final selection is

best one.

form,

The cardboard

cutouts

should be saved for future use.

Requirements of a Good

A
way

of

of

its

occupants.

provide for

still

activities.

orderly manner.

many

of rooms and location of walls,

A de-

sign for an active family will be

This has led to the in-

many names) and

the

living

room was

point of activity, but

good music. This


problem for the

development home because

it

is

not designed for specific individuals.

An

attempt

is

made

to de-

the
is

focal

gaining

all

building

best use of

all

be economical to build. One


house (or any building) which is
almost identical to another may

will

hundreds of dollars more

cost

mum

to the turn-of-

make

building materials so the house

pany room similar

and

it

parts should

because

Well-planned Details

creates

has con-

doors, windows, and

popularity as a retreat or com-

the-century parlor.

listening to

rooms

tributed a tendency to the isola-

from one for a family


which spends much time reading
different

fact

physical

clusion of multi-purpose

(with

The arrangement

atmosphere but

tion of living rooms. In the past

Home

good home expresses the


life

sign for a relaxed

it

use

does not

make maxi-

of building material

One method of framing may


more than another, when the

sizes.

cost

expensive one might actually


perform the job better.
less

The home and each room


it

in

should be well planned includ-

ing

all

necessary features in each

room, arranged

in a logical

254

and

Flexibility

The house should be

flexible.

25: Design for Today's Living

The

windows

use of certain rooms might


change in the future and this
must not restrict the use of other
rooms. If the house is expansible,
provide for additions which do
not interfere with present rooms
or look as though they were stuck
on when viewed from the inside
or outside. A well planned addi-

sion of

tion blends so well with the rest

gaining privacy.

all

across

the

Omission of windows on
any wall where complete privacy
is desired is becoming accepted
front.

The

rebirth of the atrium,


an enclosed garden, or
inner court, and the division of
practice.

which

is

tion has

an addi-

tell

been made.

Privacy

good house should afford

privacy for the occupants. This

means privacy for the individual


family members or visitors, and
must have

also those within

vacy from those outside.


things are

One of the
to

place

done

pri-

Many

to afford privacy.

recent trends has been


the

kitchen

near

the

and place the living room


the rear. This arrangement also

front
in

gives the living

room

access to

which contribrelaxed outdoor living.

to

Even more recent

is

the use of

high privacy walls across the front


enclosing open courts, or omis-

or belongs

Another of the
truths expressed by Frank Lloyd
Wright is that architecture should
be organic.
beautiful

He

believed nature

is

and one should use as

many native materials as possible.


One should make maximum use

popular means of

of the natural terrain and the

tural units are

home should approximately


low

fol-

Naturally this

contour.

its

Limiting Influences

does not imply that floors slope

As population increases, as
cities grow in size, as land becomes scarce, as labor costs rise
and the value of money goes
down, average size homes have
become smaller. It is necessary

to follow the ground. Floor levels

for planning to be

than

was

it

in

much

better

the past. This

smaller size has also contributed


to

the

popularity

rooms. (For

of multi-use

minimum

housing,

still small. Middle and


upper income housing is begin-

sizes are

ning to feature

more and

larger

may be

and Type Home To Be

Considered

A home
with

its

must be compatible

surroundings.

Solid walls facing a street, separated living areas,

It

should

in

Area

Besides blending harmoniously

with

its

surroundings, the

home

must look well with other homes


in the area. If all the

other

homes

are large one should not build

a small home, or

if all

homes

area contains

large

one.

older

homes of questionable

ue,

are

one should not build a

small

it

is

If the

in

val-

usually poor economics

construct

home
Size

stepped so they conform.

Other Homes

to

rooms.)

patios in the rear,


utes

fits

it

location.

its

living areas into separate struc-

of the building that an observer

should not be able to

look as though
in

large

their midst.

expensive

person

must carefully study an area's


property values to see whether
they are increasing or decreasing
before deciding to build.

and an atrium give privacy

to this

home's occupants.
P.M Boffon Assoc.

255
-**'

Part Two: Function

and Beauty Essentials of Planning

Practical Considerations
Client's Financial Ability

been

The home designer must know


the financial status of the client.

Many

have

people

wants

that

most

are completely out of proportion

properly

house

decide what

luxury

is

recent

in

homes

have become known as ranchhouse style. This label is not

to their ability to finance them.

One must

popular

years. All low, sprawling

The true ranch


an outgrowth of the

used.

is

warm

climate southwest.

pre-

It

Rule-of-thumb estimates say


a home should not cost more

wide overhangs to keep out the sun, and


large sliding glass areas which
open so the evening breeze will
enter. Extensive use is made of
outdoor living areas and patios.
Post and beam construction lends

than

itself to this design.

and what

of the prospective

home owner's

may determine whether

credit

not

Sound use

necessity.

is

the

proposed

building

or
is

constructed.

2'/2

to 3 times the individual's

annual salary. Such a rough

mate

is

stances.

not

reliable

One must

individual's

in

in-

for

the

The

esti-

all

consider the

prospects

sents

low

profile,

single story

expensive to

More

foot.

home

footing

most

is

per square

build,

and foundaand

tion length, outside wall area,

future.

The amount of current


outstanding debt and how obli-

roof materials are required than

gations are fulfilled must be con-

area.

sidered.

luxury,

The amount spent on


travel,

social

for other classifications

One and One-half

of equal

Stories

activities,

and family education

also affect

one's ability to pay.

Of

One and

one-half story houses

it

not as widely used as the

is

one story designs.


Split

Level

split level home has been


much abused and misused. The

The

purpose of a

split level is to per-

mit the floors to follow the natural


split

ground contour. Thus the


level can be placed on ir-

regular lots totally unsuitable for

homes with one or two

stories.

Portions of the garage, basement,


or recreation

room may be placed

below the ground. When the


ground slopes from the front of
the lot toward the back, it is com-

mon practice for the house to


appear as a single story dwelling
from the front and a full two
stories from the rear.
Rows of suburban split levels
placed on level ground are an
unrealistic use.
Other designs
would afford more house for less

course,

usually have a steep roof slope

money and would be more

only the family head can decide,

so the attic space can be utilized.

monious with

but

the

designer

ways of

adjusting.

Number

may

suggest

Whether a home
one, two, or possibly

is

to

more

have

stories

changes with current fashion and


from locality to locality.
classifications

mers admit light and air. Shed


dormers are frequently placed on
the back of the house to give
additional
style

is

flat

ceiling area.

prevalent in

Cape Cod

and other early American

Two

The

designs.

Story

are:

Single story

One and

Two

Split level

Two

one-half story

story

story

homes make maxi-

Single Story
single

home

has

floor area

tangular building

also

square or recis

less

expen-

one of an irregular
shape. However, if finances will
permit, homes have two or more
sive

than

rectangles

adjoining each other

to relieve

monotony of appear-

ance. These rectangles

may form

use of limited ground area.

L,

They

are less expensive to build

finances permit, and one desires

than single story homes of an

still more irreguand unusual designs may be


adopted. Unusual designs take
care and expert knowledge.

is

story

Shape of the
affects the cost.

mum

equal area. The two story

The

Floor Plan Shapes

slope over part of a room. Dor-

of Stories

Four general

Ceilings usually follow the roof

har-

their surroundings.

enjoying a

many

new

home

popularity in

parts of the country, but

256

U, or

shapes. Again,

nonconformity,

lar

when

25: Design for Today's Living

Home

Areas of a

A home

divided into three

is

areas (groups of rooms).


visions are based
tions

The

di-

the func-

These

performed.

be

to

upon

areas are:

Living

Public:

rooms, dining

rooms, front entry, or any other


place entertaining

is

be done.

to

Bedrooms, den or
any room used as a retreat.

Private:

study,

ROOM

LIVING

Work: Kitchens, utility rooms,


laundries or any room where the
business of running the house-

hold

is

performed.

Baths or powder rooms

be

placed

any

in

area.

may
Some

rooms are designed with overlapping functions. For example,


a master

bedroom may

also be

used as the owner's sitting room


or retreat (same area).

The three areas

of a

home

(1) Public. (2) Private,

and

(3)

Work.

kitchen

may

also be used as the only


planned dining area in the home,
or a family room may be used for

informal

entertaining

Family room of a prefabricated home, adjoining a kitchen and patio, contributes

(different

to gracious informal living.

areas).

Schofz

Traffic Pattern

As

stated

earlier,

privacy

is

important to the individual. Each

room

or area should allow pri-

vacy when

One

is

it

desired.

should be able to walk

from one room or area

to another,

without passing through a third


one.

and dining rooms

Living

are considered the same,


fulfilling

permissible

dining

room

room

when

requirement.

this

to
to

It

is

walk through a
go from a living

to a kitchen.

One may

also

pass through a kitchen to reach


a utility

room

or laundry.

One

should not pass through a bed-

room

to reach

any other room.

257

Homes

Inc

ond Beauty Essentials of Planning

Port Two: Function

Halls

front entry space.

Front entry and bedroom halls

One must

similar to the ones in the floor

from the outside into the


living room, bringing the rain,
snow, dust, and wind with them.
The living room must also serve

plan

as a corridor to reach other rooms.

are necessary to

requirements.
layouts

the

fulfill

central

illustrated

permits greatest design

Many

above
entry,

earlier,

flexibility.

inexpensive or poorly

should have at least two entries.

step

Besides

directly

If

space and finances permit,

is

to

arranged homes do not have a

homes

and

front

most

entry,

ser-

vice entry. In addition to provid-

ing for service deliveries, the additional

entry

apartments

an alternate

gives

means of leaving
convenience and

this

be avoided.

All

the

codes require a side or rear

the building for


in

case of

fire

or other disasters.

Planning the Exterior


"Organic" architecture has led

materials are used they must have

oddly constructed and thinks

to a reduction in building height.

a look of belonging together. For

is

Heat and cold may be controlled

example,

better than in the days of high

tice to

ceilings

and big

attics.

Not

all

buildings emphasize low horizontal lines,

Building cost

is

cause a thing

is

does not make

it

then insert a few stones at ran-

dom, or

build of brick and

to

so.

then place a triangular section of

another factor

stone at each of the lower out-

but they tend to do

One does

side corners.

material

on ornamentation such as

required

height

if

is

reduced.

just to

make

ent or eye

Combination of Wall Materials

As

stated

earlier,

simplicity

catching.

parts of the

When

to

believe.

Economically used brick and vertical siding

One

is

very

sees

skillfully

same

on

different

building.

Roof Slope

good deit. For

Roof

sign to bring attention to

the beginner this

not use different

styles

One must

building's

should be the designer's guide.

combinations of building

One should
architectural

this

the building differ-

upon the

rely

Mixing Architectural Styles

not put

leading to height reduction. Less


is

done by some
good or acceptable. It is not being done by leading architects and designers.

generally poor prac-

build a brick structure and

it is

should

difficult

buildings

combined

to

all

slopes

pitch does not

complement the

on

building

be the same. Changing

add

to the design

total design.
Schoiz

Homes

^J^^PW n

^^ mMm

Hv. 'Tili
\m\\
-'3m

*0i>
i/*trr.'

258

^^^^^SBBI^^^^^ ~ ^_

it

acceptable and good. Just be-

_3i^5"^!liBPi^Si^^

fflHi fli

'

..

^""N,

1r 1

^ "^^^^1
_.

Inc

25: Design for Today's Living

and

also require additional

will

Shed dormers were mentioned earlier as a means of gaining added flat ceiling area; these
roofs do have a roof slope that
is different from the rest of the
labor.

When

building.

these

used

are

brick covers

of the exterior

all

or only the lower part, rowlock

9.

brick sills*may be used. If materials

other than masonry are used

on the lower
be wood.

part, the

10.

in

may

Coverings

made

materials are usu-

in

with the lower


edge of windows, or at least are
kept at a uniform height. When
changes in height are desired,

Wall

in Exterior

Coverings To Reduce Height


Visually

in line

common

change

this

usually

is

made

at

covering materials, divided hori-

door or window openings.


Stone and brick can be combined if it is done with care, adds

zontally to visually reduce build-

to

ing height by adding horizontal

signer can justify

ally

emphasized,

tice

calls

for

prac-

two exterior wall

When

lines.

portion

is

this

is

done, the lower

of one material,

built

and another material is added


above. If masonry is to be used,
it is placed on the lower portion
because it must be supported by
the foundation and footing. If
other masonry, or a dissimilar
material

is

used, a stone

sill

serves

cap (water table) and a divibetween materials. The sill


be of stone similar to ones

as a

sion

may

practice.

15.

it

more desirable to use dissimilar materials when more than one

6.

Aluminum

siding goes very

well with light-colored limestone,


especially

Red

remodeling jobs.

on

brick does not go well with

yellow brick. Upper wall covering


is

building, or cut stone of a con-

one, to keep the building from

may

be used.

If

a "gimmick"; what

is

when used on a

it

If

something

modern, does

is

bare of

is

it

all

decora-

of

design,

tion? Explain.
7.

When

speaking

what are the


18.
in

lines of

What

a building?

are emphasized

lines

ranch-house design?
1

9.

what

When

20.

21.

referring to a building,

form?

is

What
What

proportion?

is

22.
23.
24.

What
What
What

its

proportions?

balance?

is

25. Which

Greek Golden

the

is

Rectangle; what are

generally lighter than the lower


26.

color

applied decoration?

is

is

rhythm?

is

texture?

planned

is

first,

building interior or exterior?

used on the lower part of the


trasting

meant when one

is

What
What

meon

that

exterior covering

tion.

What

wrong with

is

is planned. For
example, brick and redwood can
be a very harmonious combina-

meant by the term

is

building?

The combination must improve


the design. Generally speaking

4.

this

beauty important?

is

What

rials?

and the de-

the appearance,

Why

speaks of an honest use of mate-

is

Since horizontal lines are usu-

3.

Changes
ally

Changes

beauty? What de-

is

it?

pseudo-beauty?

they must not have a stuck-on

appearance.

be the basis

should

What

termines

12.

Changes

Location of

sill

What

for planning today's buildings?

How may

cardboard cutouts

be used as an aid

looking top-heavy.
27.

planning?

in

What problems

of

design

does the development house present


that a custom house

Questions to Reinforce Knowledge

28.

What

is

does not?

multi-purpose

room?
1

2.

What
What

is

architecture?

are the three obliga-

tions of architecture?
3.

What

is

the primary purpose

tural

What

determines the struc-

system one should use?


5.

If

it

is

mean

that

good?
it

is

If

it

is

old,

does

no longer usable?

Explain.
6.

What makes

great architec-

an idea

is

new, does that

7.

what

is

8.

In some homes, why has the


room been placed away from
other rooms and out of the traffic

29.

living

pattern?

30.

ture great?

of a building?
4.

mean

From your own reasoning,


a period of architecture?

How does

style

259

evolve?

mum

Why

must one make maxi-

use of building material sizes?

31.

What

is

meant when one

speaks of a flexible house?

Part Two: Function

What

32.

How

house?

an expansible

is

does one provide for

this?

What does

33.

mean

it

to

say

that additions should not look stuck

A home

34.

Why

become
37.

How do

is

Do

38.

in

ability?

organic architecture?

homes

other
is

to

be

always

people

keeping with

What

in

an

must be taken

to

into

buy a house worth

40.

What

41.

When considering the amount

is

ranch-house design?

a single story home eco-

nomical to build?

42.

What

43.

How do

is

'A story

if

a build-

a building? Explain.

interest to

54.

How may

changes

in

exterior

wall coverings visually reduce building height?

55.

Where are

these changes

made?

usually

their financial

three times one's annual income?

is

50.

Why is traffic flow important?


How do halls aid this?

reasoning,

built?

absolutely safe to say

one can afford

of area,

49.

own

happen

desire

consideration?
it

add

to build?

your

likely to

is

53. Does a variety of roof slopes

floor plan shapes are

Terms To Spell and

are some of the finan-

cial factors that

Is

What

What are the three areas of


a home?
48. What area is a bathroom in?

area affect one that

39.

ing has several architectural styles?

52. From

what

47.

are they?

are two reasons why


homes has decreased?

What

levels?

What

smaller?

What

51.

height of

most economical

have average homes

36.

a two

must provide two

kinds of privacy.

35.

is

home economical to build?


45. What is a split level home?
What should determine the floor
story

46.

on?

homes

44. For area received,

and Beauty Essentials of Planning

home?

Know

timber

interior

overhang

form (building)

sketch

patio

proportion

multi-purpose

dormer

rhythm

retreat

attic

harmony

parlor

areas of the

balance

flexibility

public

applied decoration

atrium

private

building lines

organic

"form follows function"

profile

corridor

Greek Golden Rectangle

rowlock

ornamentation

shed dormers make

such a house more usable?

260

home

work

Determining Needs and Wishes


of the Client
There are
of

ideas

Any one

building.

Therefore

not

if

can

cause

misunderstandings.

or

errors

item,

resolved,

it

necessary to keep

is

a written record of

all

Necessities vs. Luxuries

be given

to

when planning

consideration

properly

thousands

literally

items and

planning.

Most

idea of the
the

combined
items

beautiful

no

real

cost of

they

all

desire

incorporate into their home.

to

They

usually

visualize

rosy

keep the budget

these are included.

all

Many
here

items mentioned briefly

discussed

are

length

in

greater

This

chapters.

other

chapter only

at

indicates

the important items that

begun,

is

so

in

mind during
The client,

architect's

help,

discussion

is

limited.

the

must know the financial


status and ability of the client.
He or she must know exactly how
much can be spent on the total
building project. People have a

Adapting

Client's

Ideas

costly,

it

may work

is

home (or other structure) has


many ideas he or she wishes to ina

should be. However,

if

is

as

the ideas

are so inflexible that the architect


is

allowed no design freedom, a


designed

poorly

probably

desires; for instance,

two

He

is

it

client

to

be a

story, split level,

or she should also

building

will

a large area.

The

client's prefer-

ence as to construction methods

should also be sought. For ex-

does

ample,

wood

sonry veneer,

The

the

client

prefer

frame, solid masonry,

architect

client's

steel,

ma-

or some other?

must also know the

preference

of

exterior

result.

covering materials. The roof

General Appearance of

shape and degree of slope should


also be discussed.

One

too

hardships on

mine the type home the

compact homes or ones that use

Every person desiring to build

tendency to overstate their finanbuilding

must also deter-

inquire whether the client prefers

architect

cial ability. If the

to be used.

presentation

done.

is

architect

or tri-level?

it

begins,

ideas

must reach an agree-

planning

The

and what ones are luxuries.

corporate into the plan. This

planning

tailed

single story,

Financial Ability of Client

Before

must

some of
must be

However people's

vary, so they

decide what items are necessities

given consideration before the design

the

impressed with previous

drawings are submitted before de-

planning stages.

with

is

structures.

furniture,

and lovely accessories. One must

compiled on charts. Samples of

client

is

commissioned because the

fine

venient

gadgets,

usually

certain

or she

ment as to the style


Note: This is why

nized notes, check

or data

He

with con-

This can be in the form of orgalists,

have

to

identifying features.

filled

picture of a spacious, near-perfect

home completely

tend

architect

individuals have

tect

of the

should

first

things an archi-

know about

the client

the family for a long period of

is

time, perhaps over several years.

Buildings designed by the same

the architectural style preferred.

261

The Lot

The

architect should

the lot before planning

examine
is

begun.

Part Two: Function

map

If a large scale
is

of the plot

not available a survey

made

The

at this time.

may

shape,

size,

Orientation

be

and Beauty Essentials of Planning


harmonious

it is

Preliminary examination of the


help determine prob-

lot will also

to the

permanent

features of the terrain.

The

relationship of the front

and terrain must be known. Con-

lems and solutions of orientation.

elevation

sultation with the client will de-

Major problems

How

Orienting the structure to take

termine

what

existing

such as

trees,

shrubs, boulders,

features

be given con-

to

sideration at this time are:

Location of other structures

earth, or others are to be retained

the immediate vicinity.

or removed.

How

in

Specific Information the Architect

Number
Is

ily:

for a

of people

young family

to increase or

is

the

permanent? Will
to

in the

fam-

home being designed

the

is

likely

number rather

it

accommodate

that

be necessary

the client's par-

What

the age of each

is

phy, sewing, reading, woodwork,


music, or others,

mem-

when

these rep-

Storage

the

List

facilities:

all

What

family

the

is

the family's living pat-

home

have a

ber of the family: Are children

tern?

each to have separate bedrooms

mal or informal atmosphere?

more boys or girls


room? If rooms are to

to share a

rooms

be shared, are separate storage


facilities to

be provided for each

Number

number

to accomplish

Approximate

size

How much

can these

What are
maximums

the

desired-

Functions each room must per-

formhow

of rooms

required.

Special

and

for

of rooms:
sizes

vary?

minimums and
each room?

interests:

facilities

them?

or

to be

to

closed

open

to

for-

Are

plan:

each other?

are

to

all

be

separate rooms?

Number and

client's
floor,

finishes:

What

preferences

and

are the

as

wall,

to

Is

the

home

to

activi-

be provided by

room, laundry, or other?

262

a garage or carport

Is

if so, for how


cars? Is the garage or car-

be included;

for storage?

be used

to

Equipment

desired:

mechanical items
there

Is

brand or

to

List

What

have

utility

all

be included.

preference

for

any

models?

specific

Color:

are

the client's

and

dislikes in colors?

What kind

ing

is

of heating and cool-

desired?

Special

features

for

interior:

What

special features are desired

such

as

bookcases,

fireplaces,

planters, dividers, or others?

Special features for exterior:

What

special features are desired

such

as

pools,

outdoor

ceiling finishes?

Basement:

vices

each.

Room

Garage:

many

location of bath-

rooms, half baths, or powder


rooms. Equipment desired in

to

(entire family's) preferences

a basement, or shall utility ser-

Are space

provided for

the

Which ones? Or

person?

Is

Open

or are two or

of

needs to
Categorize according to use.

items

advantage of the sun.

port

resent the client's interests?

Orienting the structure to take

best

Must Know

such as painting, photogra-

store.

ents at a later date?

ties

entries to the street.

advantage of prevailing winds.

to design the structure so

and

to secure the best view.

terraces,

fireplaces,

patios,

fences,

gar-

dens, or others?

Can

tures

all

be

of the proposed feaincorporated

client's actual

budget?

into

the

Room-by-Room Planning
Entries

and Halls

Additional

Most buildings should have at


least one entry hall. However,
they are sometimes omitted because of space and cost limitaEntry size should

tions.

be

in

protection

from the

elements can be gained by recessing the doors into an alcove as

shown.

The
given

front entry hall

special

The

is

tion
ing,

mood

or feeling of the entire building.


It

being designed, a spa-

cious entry should be included.

building serves only

If the

basic-

entry sets the

extends an invitation to enter.


Halls should be located so they

give access to

all

rooms.

should have hard-surfaced floors


that are easy to clean. Composi-

em-

building

is

To give maximum service with


minimum of care, entry halls

usually

architectural

proportion to the scale of other


rooms. For example, if a spacious

phasis.

and

plastic tile or roll floor-

ceramic

tile,

or

flagstone

lend themselves to contemporary

Carpet and exposed


be avoided
entries because they are more

installations.

hardwood
in

difficult to

floors are to

maintain.

needs, then the entry would be

minimum

mum

The

size.

width of

FHA

all halls in

mini-

homes

Inclusion of furniture

makes

this spacious, luxurious tiled entry

even more

inviting.

The Mosaic

3'-0".

measured from the


face of walls and not from framing members. Note: This width
is too narrow for convenient use
and beauty, and should be used
is

It

minimum installations.
much more de-

only for

Wider

halls are

sirable, if

Entry
central

by a

is

space and cost permit.

doors
hall

porch

IL

A recessed

leading

should
or

to

the

be covered

roof overhang.

Jl

entry gives the door protection

from the weather.

263

Tile

Co.

Contemporary design makes


frequent use of large glass areas
in a spacious entry.

uninterrupted space

may be

feeling of
fur-

enhanced by adding small

ther

gardens, rocks, plants, small trees,

Any

pools, or fountains.

of the

above may be further emphasized by mood lighting. A variety


of wall treatments, if combined
with good taste, can also create
interest. Another trend is to make
the entry spacious vertically

by having
story

it

height.

extend

(tall)

to

a two-

However,

ceiling

height in entries or other halls

may be

lower than in other rooms

so one has a feeling of greater

space

when he

from the

steps

Hall use can be improved


is

large

enough

to

hall.
if

it

accommodate

The Mosoic

some furniture.
Doors leading from an entry
hall (foyer) to other rooms tend
to conserve heat, but are

some-

times eliminated in the interest

of beauty. Recent trends sometimes omit a solid wall between

an entry and an adjoining room

and replace

it

with dividers,

planters, screens, or free-standing

divider

closets.

serve as

room

not

When

closets

dividers they are

always built with conven-

tional framing. Closets with thin

walls are frequently constructed

of hardwood plywood or of less

expensive plywood and covered


with decorative materials such as

hardwood paneling,

plastic lami-

nate, fiber glass, vinyl, or resinous

coated fabric.

FHA

regulations state that a

home must have

a closet to serve

the front entry. Minimum inside


size is 2'-0" x 3'-0". If possible

264

Large glass areas appear to increase entry

loggia

is

an outside entry used primarily

in

Tile

Co.

size.

warm

climates.
P.M. Bolfon Assoc.

closet near the


closet

rear entry. This

frequently designed with

is

special storage places for outdoor


wearing apparel and equipment.

Rooms

Living

living

room

usually has di-

When

rect access to the entry hall.

the living

room

is

used as a focal

point of family activity

it should
be quite large. The author's mini-

mum

recommended size
room

x20'-0", but if the

12'-0"

is

to be
used only as a retreat it is frequently no larger than 12'-0"x
is

14'-0".

Each

living

room should have

a special center of interest such


as a fireplace, lighted mural, or

entertainment center around

Two-story height adds to the impressiveness of a foyer.

Schofx

Homes

Inc.

which furniture may be grouped.


There is no required equipment
for this room; however, fireplaces,
bookcases, planters, built-in stor-

this closet

should open into the

hall.

possible.

As mentioned
vice entry hall

is

near the kitchen;


is

earlier,

a ser-

usually placed
if

basement

required, frequently the hall

is

used for entering the basement.

included,

service entry hall

is

not always

finances

but

should

be

when

Available space and


do not usually permit

a spacious service entry.

signed to be utilitarian.

de-

It is

The

ser-

sometimes enlarged
and called a mud room.
It is very desirable to have a
vice entry

is

age areas, special window emphasis or high ribbon windows,

and

built-in

beauty and

grilles

may

serve as open dividers between an entry and living room.


Scho/z

Homes

Living

add to
rooms

may be given an added feeling


of spaciousness by designing them
sunken two or three steps, or by
having the ceiling a different
height from that of other rooms.
Interior

Metal

furniture
use.

quite

masonry walls are

popular.

Floor

also

surfacing

Inc

materials are influenced by regional

preference.

posed hardwood,
razzo are

all

illustrations

Dining

If a

Carpet,

ex-

and

ter-

tile,

very popular. See

on the next page.

Rooms
dining

room

is

the only

eating area in a home, the

room

and surface treatments are


different from those of homes
size

with other eating areas provided.

265

Part Two: Function

Scholz

Homes

Scnolz Horn

Inc.

A dining room may be open

Large glass areas and a massive fireplace wall add to the


interest of a living

A sunken

living

and Beauty Essentials of Planning

to the kitchen.

room.

room and an open stairway

in

the entry

One end

give a feeling of luxury.


Scholz

Homes

Inc.

266

of a living

room may be

set aside for formal dining.


Scholz

Homes

Inc.

Room-by-Room Planning

27:

For example,

if

room

the

is

used

you
might want to carpet and equip
only

room with

the

used

occasions

special

for

by

daily

fine furniture.

the

If

the

family,

room might have hard surfaced


floors and durable, plasticsurfaced furniture. China,

and

linen storage

tirely different to

silver,

would be enmeet the needs

Room

of the two uses mentioned.

would probably be about


the same for either use. Size is

size

determined

number
no

by

anticipated

the

to use the

room. There

minimum

established

is

size,

but ll'-0"xl3'-0"or 12'-0"xl4'-0"


is

If

possible, avoid living

Den

dwellings.

room

dining

separated

not always

is

and closed

other rooms.

It

from

off

may be

partially

open to a living room, family


room, or kitchen. When the dining room is open to another room,
both rooms will appear larger.
Walls between the dining room
and one of the other rooms are
frequently

omitted,

or

may

replaced with partial walls,

or Study

Such
small.

It

a
is

room

is

used as a specialized

for

an auxiliary guest room.

equipped with

course,
is

the

A living room

a hall.

very

when you need

the extra space rather than uniting

everyone. Also

it

divides the

home

into cells, losing a sense of


spaciousness.

dining

in the

bedroom

area.

may

When

in

the latter, they are usually close

such rooms
bedrooms they

to the entry hall. Since

serve

as

guest

should have a closet.

Knope & Vogf Mfg. Co

This tends to separate people

into small groups

be

This study provides an individualized learning center that can be easily changed by
readjusting movable shelves.

poor practice to have the two


rooms separated by a foyer or
hall.

may

adjoin a living room, or they

be

and dining room


is

be

bed or

have a desk or bookcases. These


rooms may be located so they

fire-

view into other

It

may

couch. Both dens and studies

limited by these devices.

should be adjoining.

It

a fold-out

or cabinets to define the areas.

rooms

usually quite

work or relaxation.
Small homes frequently use it as
retreat

places, planters, screens, counters,

Of

and dining rooms separated by

satisfactory for modest

room and

kitchen should be adjoining for

convenience of use

267

Part Two: Function

They may convey


for
is

a masculine

by using deep wood tones

feeling

room

finishes.

Wood

and Beauty Essentials o( Planning

i^-'W^

paneling

frequently used for walls. Ceil-

ings

&?

frequently of acoustic

are

Any
may be

material for sound control.


floor surfacing material

used,

with

personal

B.

RM.

preference

CD

dictating choice.

o[

Bedrooms

The number of bedrooms


quired

is

re-

determined by the needs

homes
three.

include

usually
It is

customary

least

at

have all
a separate wing or
to

'i

in!

bedrooms in
on a separate living level to insure privacy. They should be near
the front entry and connected by

iplliPf^
r\

a hall so occupants are not re-

quired

to

rooms

walk

to reach

may be

through

/- r

other

them. Bedrooms

separated and placed in

other locations

reason for

it.

if there is a good
For example, the

may be separated
from children's bedrooms so all
will have maximum privacy.
master bedroom

FHA minimum
sq.

ft.

but 120 sq.

sirable.

M.B. RM.

of the occupants. Moderate sized

The

ft.

area

100

more de-

is

author's

is

-2/

minimum

recommendation for children's


and guest bedrooms is 10'-0"x
12'-0". The master bedroom is
usually larger; if space and finances permit, 12'-0"xl6'-0"

is

'->%.

'^%

desirable size.

Every bedroom must have

at

one closet, and master bedrooms frequently have two. Size


is determined by the items to be

Closet and storage space locations.

least

stored but a

minimum

of 8

sq.

recommended. Minimum depth is 2'-0". Combination


chest, drawer, and wardrobe units
ft.

of area

is

bedroom.

Size and location of doors and


windows determine where furni-

private baths the closets should

ture

are a

welcome addition to any


When bedrooms have

be close
dressing

to the bath. If a separate

area

is

provided,

closets are in this area.

268

the

may be placed in a room.


Remember that bedrooms are

designed for convenient use. See


the drawing above.

27:

Room-by-Room Planning

Bathrooms
number, and location of
bathrooms. The minimum 5'x8'
Size,

bathroom is rapidly disappearing.


In both moderate priced and luxury homes, bathrooms are be-

coming quite

uncommon
or larger.

large.

It

is

not

them to be 10'xlO'
Both custom and manufor

ms must
factured
i

homes

are including

spacious baths and feature


A

half-bath frequently occupies a small

space

and

does

have

not

all

major

fixtures.

built-ins.

many

Buyers are no longer

content with the


in a simple,

r\

be beautiful as well as

minimum

fixtures

rectangular room.

The number of bathrooms per


home is also increasing. Every
home is required to have at least
one, but most have a minimum
of one and one-half or two.
not

.0^

uncommon

for

It

home

It

is

utilitarian.

very appropriate to have

bathroom near the main entry


and living room for convenience
a

of guests. If a bath

in this loca-

tion

must also serve bedrooms,

is

placed so that occupants of

it

bedrooms can reach

it

without

being visible from other areas.

is

to

have three or more. Each does


not have to include all major
fixtures but

may

serve only spe-

The term half-bath


denotes rooms that do not include
cialized needs.

Typical

fixture

placement

bathroom with

for

smal

a bathtub.

all

three major fixtures.

home has only one bath,


must be entered from a hall. It
is not permissible or convenient
to walk through a bedroom to
If a

it

reach this bath. Full baths are


frequently located between bed-

rooms and doors lead to the bath


from each room. This is permissible if the

Typical

fixture

placement

bathroom with

for

a shower.

small

home

has other bath-

rooms for general use. Additional


bedrooms cannot use this bath.
They must have their own or use
a bath in an adjoining hall.

269

Bathroom

fixtures placed back to back


conserve space and money.

Part Two: Function


It

have
and rear
homes also have

also very desirable to

is

a bath near the kitchen

Many

entry.

and Beauty Essentials of Planning


be placed inside a closely adjoining wall

half-baths in finished basements.

Bathroom

CCI

doors

are

may

built-in units.

or they

powder

room.

facilities.

cated so they are not directly in

occupy an entire

wall.

with the door. They are usu-

by other

fix-

Water

cines

orate

They may be

door.

the

placed

alcoves, or separated

in

from the

of the room by di-

rest

Original water closet styles had

Many

are

still

and water tank.


manufactured as

Newer designs
The tank on two-

two-piece models.
are one-piece.

piece models

is

quite

tall.

piece units have low tanks.

OneCon-

storage,

It

and toilet supplies, and elabmake-up areas.


not

is

uncommon

cabinets

lavatory bowls.

Double

be one single

arate fixtures

lavatories

fixture, or sep-

may be mounted

the counter top.

frequently

for long

have two

to

The

lavatory

located close

to

in
is

the

bathroom door for convenient


use, on the wall opposite the direction of door swing.

Lavatory units can

be pur-

standard manufactured

chased

mounted. Some

sizes or, at slight additional cost,

hung

later designs are

for ease of cleaning.

Minimum wall

area for a water


must be 15" from

they
for

in

may

any

be custom fabricated

style or

requirement.

When

ply pipes frequently go straight

custom made, recommended door


width should not exceed 18".
Drawers on rollers are included
on quality installations.
Lavatory cabinets are manu-

from the tank, through the

factured in

closet

is

30".

It

an adjoining wall or object to the


center of the fixture. However,

36"

L_L

clothing

ventional water closets are floor


wall

from

soiled

lavatory

may

a separate base

visible

include

Many

They may

space for linens, space for medi-

closets are usually placed farthest

from

for

elaborate stor-

age and dressing

vider screens.

Water closets should not be


other rooms.

may have

closets are usually lo-

tures or partial walls.

also serves as a guest

is

These may be sim-

containing only the lavatory,

ple,

fixtures or their use.

ally partly shielded

This bathroom arrangement for a master

preference

general

mits,

doors should not interfere with

line

many

are

However, when space per-

ries.

be installed. Swing of hinged

There

Lavatories.

beautiful wall-mounted lavato-

when space is at a
premium pocket or sliding doors
hinged, but

Water

bedroom

usually

permissible to place

is

it

the fixture on an outside wall.

is

more

desirable.

Water supfloor.

many depths (distance

Quality installations should have

from wall

to cabinet front).

a shut-off valve on this supply

frequent

is

usually project 1"

line.

Most

Counter tops

22".

more than

the

Early rules implied that a water

be against an

closet should not


15

Space must be provided

at

a water closet.

both sides of

cabinet.

mum

and

is

need

for space in-

side the wall for a vent or soil


stack.

However,

if

270

the vent can

standard

counter top depth of 23". Mini-

outside wall because of freezing,


also the

This gives

depth for special lavatories


Custom-built counter tops

16".

may vary between

these two sizes.

Lavatory height

is

also vari-

'

Room-by-Room Planning

27:

able, but 32"

is

most frequently

used.

Lavatory cabinets

may be

cov-

ered with fine hardwoods, plastic


laminates, ceramic

^ix
T

metal, or

tile,

translucent plastic panels. Design


is

limited only by the imagina-

tion,

VARIES

but you must remember the

function

the

is

most important

consideration.

Common

Bathtubs.

shapes and

installations of bathtubs

typical

are shown.

They may be of enam-

eled cast iron or pressed steel, or

They may

plastic.

of

built

also be

marble

tile,

custom

or

23"

other

or terrazzo. Cast iron

stone,

o
CO

Blocking beneath a bathtub helps mini-

is

most frequently used.


Standard length of rectangular

still

-*
.

mize cracking.

-A!

Showers

in

large

bathrooms

tubs
ly

5'-0". but 5'-6"

is

is

used. Lengths of 4'-6"

frequent-

5;

are usually given separate enclo-

and 6'-0"

Bathtubs or showers are

sures.

can be obtained on special order.

frequently built into alcoves.

Tub

ceiling

and design
are not standardized. Specific
sizes and styles must be determined from manufacturers' literature. Later design makes extensive use of sunken tubs. Most
width,

height,

manufacturers offer tubs for

soffit

CN

"11

building

total

contribute

definite

They

luxury.

are

cost,

19"

feeling

used

in

joint

22"
cabinet

of

both

sliding type.

of,

Note:

makes

rooms seem even

the

smaller.

can be

Shower curtains, which


open when not in use,

do not give

additional support.

of expansion and contraction


not the same. This
cult to

makes

avoid cracking

it

is

diffi-

at this line.

Pliable caulking which adheres to

both materials reduces the prob-

small bathrooms

left

for

of dissimilar materials their rate

bathtub-

in

Blocking, as shown, should be


provided under the back edge of

Because the bathtub and walls are

the folding or

shower door

sizes.

the tub

curtains or doors. Glass or plastic

may be

must be given the


between the tub and wall

material.
I

lavatory

modest and luxury homes.


Tub and shower. Combination
tub and shower installations are
common. These require shower
doors

step

cial attention

Recommended

when you

Walls extending up from a


bathtub must be waterproof. Spe-

re-

they

used so the enclosure ap-

inside.

custom-built tubs add only slightto

The

be lowered and a

pears as a unit

cessed installations. Although


ly

may

lem.
is

STD. SIZES

Rectangular bathtub sizes.

this feeling.

The only permanent

the enclosure itself built

as

an

integral part. This eliminates the


joint or line.

271

solution

the fiber glass tub which has

D
?

I
,

A long

lavatory

cabinet

is

frequently

placed on a wall opposite other fixtures.

D]

P.M. Bolfon Assoc

To create

a feeling of

spaciousness bathrooms

Bathtubs are frequently placed

13

on walls opposite the

Plumbing materials cost is reduced


fixtures are located on a common

if

all

wall.

The
place

least
all

lavatory,

expensive installations
three

fixtures

(water

and the head of


the bathtub) and their plumbing
along the same wall. This may
cause the tub to be under the

closet, lavatory,

lI

Luminous

u
A compartmented bathroom places each
main fixture in a separate room.

272

ceilings

and

soffits

may have an

window.

When

It is

be

should

enclosed garden.

a poor location and

avoided

possible.

if

must be under a
aluminum framed or

the tub

window,

glass block units are


recommended,
Prefabricated

may

showers

metal

are sometimes used for

minimum

replace bathroom windows.


Artcres! Products Co., Inc.

27:

Room-by-Room Planning
Luxurious showers

installations.

are usually built on the job. Mini-

mum

size

30"x36"

is

30"x30"; however,

is

better.

Luxury

may be 36"x48"

tions

drafts.

Modern design sometimes

laundry facilities in a
bathroom. Washers and dryers

includes

installa-

may

or even

hind

be placed in alcoves or bedoors. Occasionally these

larger.

appliances are installed free-

more desirable to have the


shower and tub separated than to
have them together because foot-

standing.

It is

ing

better in a regular shower.

is

When

the tub

home has two bathrooms,


and shower are frequently

placed in different rooms.


fixture in a sepa-

room are very popular.


Bathroom floors may be of any

rate

durable material; most frequently


used

is

is

com-

ceramic

tile,

terrazzo,

or

roll

goods. Carpet

position

tile,

sometimes used. Exposed wood

recommended

floors are not

be-

cause of moisture.

Suspended and luminous ceilings are very attractive in


bathrooms.

Combination bathrooms and


dressing rooms, with built-in
tures,

used.

fix-

vanity units, closets, and

storage drawers,

When

are

frequently

placed so they are

entered from a master bedroom,

sometimes is
not closed off from the bedroom.
As mentioned earlier, some
provision should be made for
soiled clothing and clothes bins
may be incorporated into lavatory
the

dressing

area

or other cabinets.

partment

may

several small

One

large

improve both appearance


and function of any bathroom.
Medicine cabinets above a lavatory were once standard.

com-

be included, or

compartments may

provide for clothing sorts as

it

is

still

may

Many

available, but current design

replace

them with

large mir-

sometimes covering
entire walls. Medicines formerly
stored in a cabinet above a lavatory may be stored in a locked
drawer. All medicine should be
locked away from children. Cosror

areas,

metics

formerly

stored

in

the

medicine cabinet are easier to use


if space is designed for them in

make-up unit.
The following common accessories, and others, may be in-

This

common

ment adjoins

bathtub alcove arrangea closet of

another room.

cluded

in

bathrooms.

cluded, they should be


the plans,

When

in-

shown on

Combination bath-dressing rooms are


very popular.
Scholz

Homes

Inc.

and additional descrip-

tions given in the specifications.

Towel bars
Soap and grab
Soap dishes
Toilet tissue holders

Toothbrush and glass holders


Clothes hooks
Facial tissue holders

Magazine racks or book shelves


Retractable clotheslines

Telephones
Divider screens

used. Inclosed clothes chutes for

Intercommunication systems

storage on other levels are con-

Auxiliary heaters

Doors to clothes chutes


should be self closing to prevent

Exhaust fans

venient.

A bathroom serving two areas may be


partially compartmented.

medicine cabinets are

beautiful

Compartmented bathrooms
which have each

Imaginative use of accessories

can

Built-in scales

273

r
;

Part Two: Function

and Beauty Essentials of Planning

Kitchens
Since the kitchen

is

the most

used room in a home, not only by


the housewife but others as well,

demand inmany labor-saving deThese may be arranged in

prospective owners

L _

clusion of
vices.

"U" shaped kitchen

layout.

convenient and pleasing patterns.


Items that were luxuries a very
short time ago are

now demanded

even in very inexpensive homes.

More

r-\

must be given to
planning the kitchen than any
other room.
There are five basic kitchen
attention

layouts:

x>

"U" shaped

"L" shaped

Corridor

Straight line

Island

An example
layouts
to use

of each of these

shown. The proper one


determined by the room

is

is

and arrangement of doors


and windows, and by personal
preference. A "U" layout is best
size

because

it

permits efficient use of

equipment with a minimum of


steps or movements. An "L" layall

out

is

the second choice.

Food enters home

2.

Storage for future use

3. Preparation

corri-

4.

dor layout can be very satisfactory

begun

Washing and adding water

5. Additional preparation

6.

Cooking

7.

Removal

for serving

8. Serving

*
[X

><

7---

(8

>o

"L" shaped kitchen layout!

Corridor kitchen layout.

MBQk-^
IZZCJ

274

27:

Room-by-Room Planning

E3Q

X4

iX

Straight line kitchen layout.

if

adequate room

people

minimum

is

provided for

Recommended

pass.

to

corridor width

4'-0".

is

EE

For most convenient use a corridor should not exceed 5'-0" in

width.
least

straight line kitchen

~1

is

much

because

convenient

_L

walking must be done during use.


An island layout is an adaptation
of any of the above, with some

IS

of the equipment placed

in

the

center of the room.

J-

After the basic layout

termined,

cabinets,

is

~A

Si

deIsland kitchen layout.

appliances,

and the sink are arranged

for

convenient use. Adequate planning includes counter space near

each

item

The

of equipment.

basic items are arranged accord-

ing to their order of use during

This built-in kitchen features concealed laundry equipment behind large folding doors.
General

food preparation. For example,


the refrigerator

is

usually placed

near the service entry so food can


be stored without walking across
the room. (Note: All equipment
is

not always furnished as a part

of the building; stoves and


frigerators

When

may be added

re-

later.

they are not included, space

must be provided
lation.)

for their instal-

Kitchens in the accom-

panying drawings are arranged


for efficient use.

The plan

for the

numbered, indicating logical order of use. The


numbered circles on the drawing,
page 274, show the orderly use of

"L" layout

is

space allowed by this arrangement.

275

Efeclrtc

Co.

*.">

This kitchen features an island for equipment storage and food preparation.

276
Note the corner sink

in

this L-shaped kitchen.

built-in

planning area

is

welcome addition

to

any kitchen.

1*0
Jffl

Generol

This kitchen design

When basic items are drawn


on a plan, their size and shape
must conform to the general
shape of the item. Most are drawn
as symbols but, when no standardized symbol is available, they
are drawn to conform to the shape
of the object. When you draw
your plan you should (1) consult
the sample floor plans, (2) study
sizes and shapes from manufacturers' literature or actual objects,

and

(3)

sample working
in the text and

study

drawings
elsewhere.

After

preliminary

design

is

complete, specific conveniences or

found

is

an adaptation

Electric

Co

of a corridor layout.

near the stove and also near the

pearance because of smooth tranbetween objects.


Traditional kitchen appliance

eating area.

color

are placed near the sink or dish-

washer;

seasonings

are

placed

All appliances and equipment

should be selected before the


kitchen layout

is

final

determined.

sitions

was formerly white. Today,


may be almost any

appliances

may be of brushed
chrome, copper, or stainless steel.
color, or they

Because of the extreme variety

sizes

styles and
some
change slightly each year.
(This may be planned obsoles-

of appliances available, only the

cence.) Nevertheless, specific se-

when

Appliance

lections

must be made so they

more common are shown.

Later,

large scale plans are drawn,

you must include exact

sizes,

so

with the cabinet arrange-

consult manufacturers' specifica-

ment.

For example, you must

tions.

know

the exact size of a built-in

will

fit

Modern

kitchen cabinets look

They appear
an open plan.

fine furniture.

oven before an oven cabinet can

like

be selected.

best as part of

Many

every

Built-in appliances are favored

kitchen storage cabinets, racks,

over free-standing models. Cur-

materials are available as cabinet

appliances

not

in

choices

of decorative

drawers,

rent designs feature square cor-

facings. Inexpensive cabinets

etc. are located for best use. For

ners which eliminate spaces be-

built

example, refrigerator containers

fir

close to the re-

tween appliances and other items


such as cabinets. Square designs

dishwashing supplies

also help avoid a cluttered ap-

cabinets.

holders,

trays,

special

would be located
frigerator;

277

on the job are sometimes of


plywood. Birch plywood is
most frequently used for standard

This material has a close


grain structure, beautiful pattern,

and lends
methods;

itself to
it

Oak

priced.

is

many

also

is

finishing

reasonably

also quite popular

but slightly higher priced. Other

hardwoods are sometimes used


for custom installations, as are
laminates, but they cost

plastic

mounted doors without exposed

Flush

more than wood. Thin

slightly

face frames.

Rabbeted doors

laminate for vertical surfaces only


makes the price about the same

wood. Plastic laminate may be


used as an exterior covering only
or, on luxury installations, cabias

nets

may

be surfaced throughout.

board is being used


extensively for cabinet parts.
Particle

When

used,

ered) with

it may be faced (covwood veneer, plastic

laminate, or plastic film.

On

in-

Flush

interiors are

mounted doors with exposed face

Surface mounted doors.

expensive cabinets, particle board

frames.

sometimes painted.

Metal cabinets are used ex-

Designing the Kitchen

tensively in commercial, institutional,


ects,

and

but

large apartment proj-

less in

homes

Most cabinets

today.

are prefinished

with lacquer, plastic, or baked-on


finishes.

However, some are

fin-

ished after cabinets have been in-

To
know

design kitchens you must

Observe the assortment of

and equipment
The accompanying small

strips for joining cabinets at cor-

drawings of kitchen cabinets


show standard sizes of individual

cabinets and end walls. Kitchens

sizes.

cabinet

scale

ners

and

to

fill

filler

space between

should be designed with a minimum of filler strips because the

finishes can

These represent selections


from only one manufacturer, but
others are similar. Study these

strips may appear to be added on.


They may be eliminated by de-

is

sizes

carefully. Also, study the


code system for designating cabi-

to

on the job. Brush-applied


be satisfactory but it
difficult and costly to duplicate

stalled

the quality of factory applications.

units.

signing the kitchen so

modular cabinet

When

it

conforms

sizes.

There are three general ways of


mounting cabinet doors, (with
many variations of each). They
are: (1) rabbeted (sometimes

wall cabinet (upper); the 39

called inset or offset doors), (2)

cabinet length; the 30 indicates

individual units which must be

surface mounted,

flush

height. Notice also that there are

combined

mounted. Study the illustrations


to determine the relationship of
each door type to cabinet face
frames and other necessary struc-

two additional codes on the cabi-

while others manufacture large

net; this indicates that the cabinet

sizes. Identification

containing more sections.


The large scale cabinet detail
on page 282 shows additional

tural parts.

is

and

(3)

net selections. See page 279.


find

the

cabinet

W-3930. The

is

available

that

W indicates

in

two

Now

coded

is

this
is

is

the

additional

of other codes

given in accompanying notes.

278

made

for

several cabinets are


combining, unlimited

may be ordered.
Some manufacturers offer only
arrangements

at the construction site,

units

structural parts

and

typical sizes.

27:

Room-by-Room Planning

WALL UNITS

LED
13"

END

END

END

30"

W3615

W-3915 & W-4215

4-

33"
W-3321

W-3021

W-2721

W-2421

W-3315

27"

24"

(1)

36"

__J

W-3612

C-l

13"

= 12"

SCALE 'A"

36"

39", 42"

W-3621

& 48"

W-3921 & W-4221

cs

48'
J3'J_||1)

"&24'

|15"&I8J

|J_2^J

|21

W1230 W-1530

END

& 48"

24"

33

|(2)(3)

(2)(3)
-

W-3930 W-4230

W-2530-CR
Also W-2530-CL

o
en

24"

W-3630-CR
Also W-3630CL

-----

27" & 30'


;

33" & 36"

W-3330
W-3630

W3030

30" & 36"


W-3030-GG
W-3630-GG

I
|

W-2730

W-1830

39", 42"

;|

W-2 30
W-2430

|(4)

30" & 36"


t

|(5)

WP3030-GG
WP-3630-GG

o
m

24"

(1)

WCR-2430
REVOLVING SHELVES

COOKING TOP OR SINK UNITS


...

...

30"
R-30

(4)

24"

30"33"36"

30"

SF-24

SF-30 SF-33
SF-36

R-30-400
R-40-400

Standard cabinet

279

8.

40"
(3)

sizes.

24"
R-24-C

"

'

jjs

zo

24"
(7)

END

'.

-J

27"
(8)

RM-27

and Beauty Essentials of Planning

Part Two: Function

BASE UNITS

r
24"

15"&18"

21"&24"

27" & 30"

36" & 42"

B-15

B-21

B-l 8

B-24

B-27
B-30

B-36
B-42

5 "8.18"

18"&24'_'

_30"

BD-418
BD-424

BD-315
BD-318

36'^

*~

S.

BC-30
BC-36

I~ZH
OD

r-T

18"

15"

42"

24"

is'^

18"
|

B-46-50-CR
Also B-46-50-CL

END

3D-31.

(2)

FRONT

(3)

"1

y\
_i

l_

42"

REAR

BP-18-L
Also BP-18-R

42"

24"

30"

30"
BA-3

w/

BA-3

30"
BA-30

w/

(4

BP-46-50-CR
Also BP-46-50-CL

|i

tTTTI

,~r

24"

36"
BAPL-36

(5)

END

"-i

12

_18"_

18"

BA-18
BA-18
BA-18
BV-12 BV-12 BV-12
w/3-V-12 w/T-12CA-18-30 w/NT-18 w/BEV-18
(6)

B-18

\1^\

END

1=3

12"

18"

18"

W/2-ST-18 w/BTA-18

Standard cabinet

280

sizes.

w/T-18

27:

Room-by-Room Planning

BASE UNITS (continued)

12",

BOES-12

MAX.

r>

<

22%"
MAX

29"

33"
n

UTILITY

AND PANTRY UNITS

CO

cz:

__ cz:

-^. .^_

cz:

cz

i
r

;::-

:3

oo
1

24"

21"

END

U-2 1-D

21"

U-2

42"

36"

24'

ID

PFS-42

Standard cabinet

281

sizes.

END

(l)
The Kitchen

Maid Corp.

Part Two: Function

Kitchen

cabinet

elevation

detail

with

and Beauty Essentials of Planning

W18/30 W36/15

W18/30

W36/30

code designations.

/.;.,.

/?///
rr

55

t~
BA 18

8-36

SF-42

B-18

II

'

I
|

III!

FHA Minimum

Kitchen Standards

The following minimum standards, as established by the

FHA,

sidered as twice

should be included

in

any

kitchen planning.

Minimum

shall

Shelf

less

than 20 square feet

in either

Minimum

square

counter top area

Drawer area may be substimore than 25% of

tuted for not

required base shelf area.

area

minimum

counter top

area.
Storage space in ranges,

provided

in the

when

form of drawers

may be included
minimum shelf area.

or shelving
the

Wall shelving above 74" can-

not be included in required area.

Maximum

top

is

height of counter

38". (Standard 36")

Counter top space below 30"


above floor shall not be included

feet.

Area occupied by sink basin


and by cooking units shall not be
included in

Height of Shelving and


Counter Top

feet.

Minimum drawer

square

Approximate kitchen cabinet dimensions.

at least 8V4".

wall or base cabinets.

be con-

Total shelving in wall and base

cabinets, 50 square feet, with not

may

actual area in

If a range is not provided, provide at least a 40" space for range.

and
Counter Top Area

its

determining required shelf area


provided clear width of opening is

have accessible storage space for food and


utensils, and space for such activities and equipment as needed to
perform the intended functions.

Each kitchen

Shelf area of revolving base

shelves (lazy susan)

282

in

in

required area.

Height between counter top


and wall cabinets shall be at least

the following:

Over range and sink

cabinets,

24".

Over other base

cabinets, 15".

27:

Room-by-Room Planning

Depth of Shelving and


Counter Top

That portion of shelving and

counter top space

less

than or ex-

ceeding the following dimensions


shall not

be included

in

the re-

quired area:

Min. Max.
4" 18"
12" 24"
15" 30"

Wall shelving
Base shelving
Counter top
Spacing of Shelving

Clearance between shelving


comply with the following

shall

to be included in required area.

Minimum
Depth of Shelf

Spacing

6"

5"

to 10"

6"

10" to 15"
15" to 24"

10"

4"
6"

to

This kitchen-family

room features

barbecuing

Cores for counter tops are usu-

Mechanical Ventilation
Air shall be exhausted from

made

of plywood or particle

board.

They may be covered with

plastic

laminate, vinyl (or other

ceramic tile, or stainless


Stone or manufactured stone

kitchens in a range hood, or by

plastic),

a wall or ceiling fan through a

steel.

sometimes

grilled

opening located

(a) in the

is

ceiling

above the range,

(b) in the

grain maple or birch

also

for

the range, or (c) in the wall im-

boards.

mediately above the range.

When

located in the wall immediately

above the range, the wall fan shall


be located approximately at the
of the

range

and

used.
is

Edge-

suitable

chopping tops and cutting

wall close to the ceiling above

Methods of construction and

with exhaust hood for

flush with the face

molding can be applied over the


joint between cabinets and the
extend

in front

recessed lighting.

Upper cabinets are not usually


placed closer than 6" to a win-

wood

is

subfloors. a

valance usually extends beIt is placed


flush with the face of the cabinets,

tween the cabinets.


with

able for easy cleaning.

it

hood rim shall be not more than


30" above the range top.

kitchen cabinets to enclose the

at least as

may

of the cabinets to accommodate

long as range, shall be at least


17" wide, and the bottom of the

be

or they

soffit;

plywood, particle board, or hardboard underlay is required.


Wall surfacing should be wash-

air.

extend slightly so a wood

nets;

the cabinet structure.

Wood

specified over

shall

finished

of upper cabi-

recommended. When ceramic or

surfaced for easy cleaning.

above the

charge to outdoor

They may be

ceiling.

surface floors for kitchens are not

Floor coverings should be hard

plastic tile or roll flooring

fan. All fans shall dis-

space between the top and the

dow. When they are required on


both sides of a window, the soffit
is usually continued across, above
the window. This visually unites

standard sizes are shown.

metal hood of the size and height


shown below shall be installed

Range hood

grill

7"

ally

centerline

a built-in

all-weather use.

Soffits are usually

283

placed above

its

is

upper edge against the

When

soffit.

a valance

as the

design.

is

required

same material
cabinets and in the same

built of the

Part Two: Function

and Beauty Essentials of Planning


placed near the kitchen, some-

'Multi-purpose

times with no wall between. In-

Rooms"

dividual needs of the client deter-

Family rooms, recreation


rooms, activity rooms, rumpus

have a retreat while others are entertaining or perhaps watching a

rooms, play rooms, learning cen-

different

and others with similar names,


have much in common. They

ing room.

give the family a place for infor-

may

ters

mal

is

living without disrupting

TV

program

The

extra

not be closed

Activity

are designed to serve the specific

size

needs of occupants. Such rooms

is

There are two approaches


locating activity rooms.

to

They may

be (1) close to or opening from


the living room, to give addiarea for entertaining; or

tional

may be
their own

they

area of
this

way

ties

is

improvements have been made


on equipment, the areas are frequently given a glamour treatment and finished in the same

no minimum

but for modest homes 12'x20'

popular.

They

are

designed

for

style as kitchens.

easy

To

you must analyze


to be performed
and the order in which they are
the

or suspended ceilings,
and specialized built-in storage.
Equipment sometimes includes

done.

acoustic

design,

functions

surfaced floors, washable walls,

hi-fi,

facili-

did not have unified design or

pleasing appearance. Since design

off.

maintenance, usually with hard-

or in a basement.

(2)

water heater, and laundry

usually

rooms are usually

quite large. There

or upper levels,

sightly catch-alls because furnace,

in the liv-

room

placed close to the kitchen and

other parts of the home. These

may be on main

mine equipment to be included.


Utility rooms were formerly un-

All

equipment,

cabinets,