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VOR Information Ÿ VOR Checks

Ÿ VOT !4°
Ÿ ! 1° Accuracy Ÿ Ground Checkpoint !4°
Ÿ Airborne Checkpoint !6°
Ÿ Frequency Range Ÿ Dual VOR !4°
Ÿ 108.00 - 117.95 Ÿ Bench check by A&P Mechanic
Ÿ ILS Freq are Odd Decimals (i.e. 109.7)
ADF / NDB Information
Ÿ How it Works
Ÿ Reference Phase
Ÿ All Directions constantly Ÿ Classes
Ÿ Variable Phase Ÿ Compass Locator 15 nm
Ÿ Spins or “Lighthouse” Ÿ Medium Homing 25 nm
Ÿ Homing 50 nm
Ÿ VOR Classes Ÿ High Homing 75 nm
Ÿ Terminal
Ÿ 25 nm Range Ÿ Frequency Range
Ÿ 1000 - 12,000 ft Ÿ ADF 190-1750 Khz
Ÿ Low Ÿ NDB 190-535 Khz
Ÿ 40 nm range
Ÿ 1000 - 18,000 ft Ÿ MH + RB = MB to the station
Ÿ High Ÿ Angle of Deflection = Angle of Intercept
Ÿ 40 nm Range
Ÿ 1000 - 14,500 ft Ÿ Errors
Ÿ 100 nm Range Ÿ Skip Zone or Night Effect
Ÿ 14,500 - 18,000 ft Ÿ Ionosphere lifts
Ÿ 45,000 - 60,000 ft Ÿ Dusk and Dawn
Ÿ 130 nm Range Ÿ Coastal Effect
Ÿ 18,000 - 45,000 ft Ÿ up to 30° error
Ÿ Interference
Ÿ Errors Ÿ Mountain Effect or Terrain Effect
Ÿ Line of Sight Ÿ Weather
Ÿ RPM Effect Ÿ Static Electricity
Ÿ up to 6° error Ÿ Precip
Ÿ Cone of Confusion Ÿ Thunderstorm Effect or Lightning
Ÿ Needle Deflection
Ÿ Ambiguity Error Other Information
Ÿ To/From/Off Indicator Ÿ Time Distance Checks
Ÿ Oscillation Ÿ Time
Ÿ Scalloping Ÿ Sec for Change / Deg of Change
Ÿ Rapid Ÿ Distance
Ÿ Bends Ÿ (Min for change * TAS) / Deg of
Ÿ Slow change
Ÿ Reverse Sensing