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VOR Information

ü ! 1° Accuracy

ü Frequency Range

ü 108.00 - 117.95

ü ILS Freq are Odd Decimals (i.e. 109.7)

ü How it Works

ü Reference Phase

ü All Directions constantly

ü Variable Phase

ü Spins or “Lighthouse”

ü VOR Classes

ü Terminal

ü 25 nm Range

ü 1000 - 12,000 ft

ü Low

ü 40 nm range

ü 1000 - 18,000 ft

ü High

ü 40 nm Range

ü 1000 - 14,500 ft

ü 100 nm Range

ü 14,500 - 18,000 ft

ü 45,000 - 60,000 ft

ü 130 nm Range

ü 18,000 - 45,000 ft

ü Errors

ü Line of Sight

ü RPM Effect

ü up to 6° error

ü Cone of Confusion

ü Needle Deflection

ü Ambiguity Error

ü

ü To/From/Off Indicator

Oscillation

ü Scalloping

ü

Rapid

ü Bends

ü Slow

ü Reverse Sensing

ü VOR Checks

ü VOT

!

ü Ground Checkpoint

!

ü Airborne Checkpoint

!

ü Dual VOR

!

ü Bench check by A&P Mechanic

ADF / NDB Information

ü Classes

ü

Compass Locator

15 nm

ü

Medium Homing

25 nm

ü

Homing

50 nm

ü

High Homing

75 nm

ü Frequency Range

ü ADF

190-1750 Khz

ü NDB

190-535 Khz

ü MH + RB = MB to the station

ü Angle of Deflection = Angle of Intercept

ü Errors

ü Skip Zone or Night Effect

ü Ionosphere lifts

ü Dusk and Dawn

ü Coastal Effect

ü up to 30° error

ü Interference

ü Mountain Effect or Terrain Effect

ü Weather

ü Static Electricity

ü Precip

ü Thunderstorm Effect or Lightning

Other Information

ü Time Distance Checks

ü

ü

Time

ü Sec for Change / Deg of Change

Distance

ü (Min for change * TAS) / Deg of change