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LCD Controller Driver Data Book

Application Note

9/1/98

Notice
When using this document, keep the following in mind:
1 This document may, wholly or partially, be subject to change without notice.
2 All rights are reserved: No one is permitted to reproduce or duplicate, in any form, the whole or part of
this document without Hitachis permission.
3 Hitachi will not be held responsible for any damage to the user that may result from accidents or any
other reasons during operation of the users unit according to this document.
4 Circuitry and other examples described herein are meant merely to indicate the characteristics and
performance of Hitachis semiconductor products. Hitachi assumes no responsibility for any intellectual
property claims or other problems that may result from applications based on the examples described
herein.
5 No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patents or other rights of any third party or
Hitachi, Ltd.
6 MEDICAL APPLICATIONS: Hitachis products are not authorized for use in MEDICAL
APPLICATIONS without the written consent of the appropriate officer of Hitachis sales company.
Such use includes, but is not limited to, use in life support systems. Buyers of Hitachis products are
requested to notify the relevant Hitachi sales offices when planning to use the products in MEDICAL
APPLICATIONS.

Contents
GENERAL INFORMATION
Quick Reference Guide.............................................................................................................................
3
Type Number Order..................................................................................................................................
9
Selection Guide......................................................................................................................................... 11
Differences Between Products.................................................................................................................. 13
Package Information................................................................................................................................. 17
Notes on Mounting ................................................................................................................................... 27
The Information of TCP ........................................................................................................................... 35
Chip Shipment Products ........................................................................................................................... 75
Reliability and Quality Assurance ............................................................................................................ 81
Reliability Test Data of LCD Drivers....................................................................................................... 93
Flat Plastic Package (QFP) Mounting Methods........................................................................................ 99
Liquid Crystal Driving Methods............................................................................................................... 103

ii

General
Information

Quick Reference Guide


Type

Extension Driver

Type Number

HD66100F

HD66002

HD66206

Power supply for


internal circuits (V)

4.5 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

Power supply for


LCD driver circuits (V)

3 to 6

6 to 17

6 to 28

Current consumption (mA)

Operating
temperature (C)

20 to +75*

20 to 75*

20 to 75*

Memory

ROM (bit)

RAM (bit)

Common

(80)

Column

80

80

80

LCD driver

Instruction set

Operation
frequency (MHz)

Latch: 2.5
Shift: 0.4

8 at 5V
6.5 at 3V

Recommend duty

Static to 1/16

1/16 to 1/128

1/64 to 1/240

Package

FP-100
FP-100B
Die

FP-100A
TFP-100B
Die

TFP-100B
Die

Quick Reference Guide


Type

Column Driver

Type Number

HD66110ST

HD66112T

HD66120T

HD66130T

HD66132T

HD66134T

Power supply for


internal circuits (V)

2.7 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

2.5 to 5.5

3.5 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

Power supply for


LCD driver circuits (V)

14 to 40

14 to 40

14 to 40

2.6 to 5.5

5.5

3.5 to 5.5

Current consumption
(mA)

TBD

Operating
temperature (C)

30 to +75*

30 to +75

30 to +75

20 to +75

20 to +75

20 to +75

Memory

ROM (bit)

RAM (bit)

LCD driver

Common

Column

160

160

240

320

240

240

Instruction set

Operation
frequency (MHz)

12 at 4.5 to
5.5V
10 at 2.7 to
5.5V

28 at 5V
13 at 3V

20 at 5V
10 at 3V

8 at 5V
6.5 at 3V

40 at 5V
25 at 3V

40 at 5V
25 at 3V

Recommend duty

1/100 to 1/480 1/100 to 1/480 1/100 to 1/480 1/240

1/100 to 1/300 1/100 to 1/300


H1-FAS

Package

SLIM-TCP
Bump Die

SLIM-TCP

SLIM-TCP
Bump Die

SLIM-TCP

TCP

SLIM-TCP

Note: 40 to +80C (special request). Please contact Hitachi agents.


Type

Column Driver (within RAM)

Type Number

HD61202U

HD66108

HD66410

HD66420

HD66520T

HD66522

Power supply for


internal circuits (V)

2.7 to 5.5

2.7 to 6.0

2.2 to 5.5

2.2 to 5.5

3.0 to 5.5

2.4 to 3.6

Power supply for


LCD driver circuits (V)

8 to 16

6 to 15

6 to 15

13

8 to 28

4 to 6

Current consumption
(mA)

0.1

0.26

0.2

0.8

0.1

0.1

Operating
temperature (C)

30 to +75*

20 to +75*

30 to 75

40 to +85*

20 to +75

40 to +85*

Memory

ROM (bit)

RAM (bit)

64 64

165 65

128 33 + 72 160 80 2

160 240 2 160 240 2

Common

065

33

Column

64

100165

128

160

160

160

LCD driver
Instruction set

12

Operation
frequency (MHz)

0.4

0.02

Recommend duty

1/32 to 1/64

1/32, 1/34,
1/36, 1/48,
1/50, 1/64,
1/66

1/17 or 1/33

1/8, 1/32,
1/64, 1/80

1/64 to 1/240

1/64 to 1/240

Package

FP-100A
TFP-100B
Die

TCP
Bump Die

TCP
Bump Die

TCP

TCP

TCP

Quick Reference Guide


Type

TFT Column Driver

Type Number

HD66321

HD66322T

HD66324T

HD66326T

HD66330T

Power supply for


internal circuits (V)

3.0 to 3.6

3.0 to 3.6

3.0 to 3.6

3.0 to 3.6

4.5 to 5.5

Power supply for


LCD driver circuits (V)

15 to 25

9.5 to 11

6 to 11

6 to 10

4.5 to 5.5

Current consumption
(mA)

15

1.5

Operating
temperature (C)

30 to +75

20 to 75

20 to +75

30 to +75

20 to +75

Memory

ROM (bit)

RAM (bit)

LCD driver

Common

Column

258

384

384

384

192

Instruction set

Operation
frequency (MHz)

0.2

40 at 3 V

45 at 3 V

45 at 3 V

35

Recommend duty

Package

TCP

TCP

TCP

TCP

SLIM-TCP

Note: 40 to +80C (special request). Please contact Hitachi agents.

Type

Common Driver

Type Number

HD66523R HD61203U HD66503

HD66113T

HD66115T

HD66131ST HD66133T

HD66135T

Power supply for


internal circuits (V)

2.4 to 3.6

2.7 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

2.5 to 5.5

2.5 to 5.5

2.8 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

Power supply for


LCD driver circuits (V)

21.5

8 to 16

8 to 28

14 to 40

14 to 40

43

75

75

0.5

0.08

Current consumption (mA) 0.8

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Operating
temperature (C)

30 to +75* 30 to +75* 30 to 75

30 to +75

30 to +75

20 to +75

30 to +75

20 to +75

Memory

ROM (bit)

RAM (bit)

Common

240

64

240

120

160

240

120

120

Column

Instruction set

Operation
frequency (MHz)

2.5

Master : 0.2 2.5


Slave : 0.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

Recommend duty

1/100 to
1/240

1/48, 1/64, 1/120 or


1/96, 1/128 1/240

1/100 to
1/480

1/100 to
1/480

1/100 to
1/240

1/100 to
1/300

1/100 to
1/300

Package

TCP

FP-100A
TFP-100B
Chip

SLIM-TCP

SLIM-TCP

TCP

TCP
Bump Die

SLIM-TCP

LCD driver

TCP

Quick Reference Guide


Type

Character Display Controller


HD44780U
(LCD-II)

HD66701

HD66702R

HD66705U

HD66710

Type Number
Power supply for
internal circuits (V)

2.7 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

2.4 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

Power supply for


LCD driver circuits (V)

3 to 11

3 to 8.3

3 to 8.3

3 to 9

3 to 13

Current consumption
(mA)

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.05

0.3

Operating
temperature (C)

30 to +75*

30 to +75*

30 to +75*

40 to +85

30 to +75

ROM (bit)

9920

7200

7200

9600

9600

RAM (bit)

80 8, 64 8

80 8, 64 8

80 8, 64 8

60 8, 5 8 4,
58

80 8, 64 8, 8
8

Common

16

16

16

18

33

Column

40

80

100

60

40

Instruction set

11

11

11

11

11

Operation
frequency (MHz)

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.35

0.3

Recommend duty

1/8, 1/11, 1/16

1/8, 1/11, 1/16

1/8, 1/11, 1/16

1/10, 1/18

1/17, 1/33

Package

FP-80B
TFP-80F
Chip

Chip

FP-144A
Chip

TCP
Bump Die

FP-100A
TFP-100B
Chip

Memory

LCD driver

Note: 40 to +80C (special request). Please contact Hitachi agents.


Type

Character Display Controller

Type Number

HD60712U

HD66717

HD66720

HD66724/HD66725

HD66726

Power supply for


internal circuits (V)

2.7 to 5.5

2.4 to 5.5

2.7 to 5.5

2.2 to 5.5

2.2 to 5.5

Power supply for


LCD driver circuits (V)

2.7 to 11

3 to 13

3 to 11

2.2 to 6.0

3 to 11

Current consumption (mA) 0.3

0.06

0.17

TBD

TBD

Operating
temperature (C)

30 to +75

30 to +75*

30 to +75

40 to +85*

40 to 85*

Memory

ROM (bit)

9600

9600

9600

20,736

20,736

RAM (bit)

80 8,
64 8,
16 8

60 8,
5 8 4,
58

40 8,
64 8,
16 8

80 8,
384 8,
96 2

80 8,
480 8,
96 8

Common

34

34

17

26

42

LCD driver

60

60

40

72

96

Instruction set

Column

11

11

11

11

11

Operation
frequency (MHz)

0.3

0.35

0.35

0.032

0.05

Recommend duty

1/17, 1/33

1/10, 1/18
1/26, 1/34

1/9, 1/17

1/2, 1/10,
1/18, 1/26

1/2, 1/10,1/18,
1/26, 1/34, 1/42

Package

TCP
FP-128
Chip

TCP
Die
Bump Die

FP-100A
TFP-100B
Chip

TCP
Die
Bump Die

TCP
Bump Die

Quick Reference Guide


Type

Character Display Controller

Type Number

HD60727

HD66728

HD66730

HD66731

HD66732

Power supply for


internal circuits (V)

2.4 to 5.5

1.8 to 5.5

2.4 to 5.5

2.4 to 5.5

2.2 to 5.5

Power supply for


LCD driver circuits (V)

3 to 13

4.5 to 15

3 to 13

3 to 13

3 to 13

Current consumption (mA) 0.06

TBD

0.3

0.3

TBD

Operating
temperature (C)

30 to +75

40 to +85*

30 to +75*

40 to +85*

40 to +85*

Memory

ROM (bit)

9600

20,736

510 k

510 k

RAM (bit)

60 8,
5 8 4,
58

1,120 x 8,
160 x 8

40 2 8,
8 26 8,
16 8

40 2 8,
8 26 8,
16 8

LCD driver

80 x 8,
780 x 8,
60 x 8

Common

34

112

24

53

54

Column

60

80

71

119

120

Instruction set

11

13

13

13

13

Operation
frequency (MHz)

0.4

TBD

0.7

0.55

TBD

Recommend duty

1/10, 1/18
1/26, 1/34

1/32, 1/40, 1/48, 1/14, 1/27,


1/56, 1/64, 1/72, 1/40, 1/53
1/80

1/14, 1/27
1/40, 1/53

1/2, 1/15, 1/28,


1/41, 1/54

Package

TCP
Die
Bump Die

TCP
Bump Die

TCP
Die

TCP
Slim Chip

Note:

FP-128
Chip

40 to +80C (special request). Please contact Hitachi agents.

Type

Graphic Display Controller

Type Number

HD61830
LCDC

HD61830B
LCDC

HD64645F
HD64646FS
LCTC

HD66841FS
LVIC

Power supply for


internal circuits (V)

4.5 to 5.5

4.5 to 5.5

4.5 to 5.5

4.5 to 5.5

Power supply for


LCD driver circuits (V)

Current consumption (mA)

10

10

50

Operating
temperature (C)

20 to +75

20 to +75*

20 to +75

20 to +75

Memory
LCD driver

ROM (bit)

7360

7360

RAM (bit)

Common

Instruction set

Column

12

12

15

16/24

Operation
frequency (MHz)

1.1

2.4

10

30 MHz (841)

Recommend duty

Static1/128

Static1/128

Static1/512

Static1/1024

Package

FP-60

FP-60

FP-80
FP-80B

FP-100A

Note: 40 to +80C (special request). Please contact Hitachi agents.

Quick Reference Guide

Type Number Order


Sorted by Type Name
Type
HD44780U

Function
(LCD-II)

HD61202U

64-channel column driver within RAM

HD61203U

64-channel common driver

HD61830

(LCDC)

LCD controller for serial I/F LCD driver

HD61830B

(LCDC)

LCD controller for serial I/F LCD driver

HD64645

(LCDC)

LCD controller for paralel I/F LCD driver

HD64646

(LCDC)

HF66002

Page

LCD controller/driver (8 2 character)

LCD contorller for paralel I/F LCD driver


80-channel driver

HD66100F

80-channel column driver

HD66108

165-channel graphics driver within RAM

HD66110ST

160-channel column driver (VLCD=40V)

HD66112T

160-channel column driver (VLCD=40V)

HD66113T

120-channel common driver (VLCD=40V)

HF66115T

160-channel common driver (VLCD=40V)

HF66120T

240-channel column driver (VLCD=40V)

HD66130T

320-channel column driver

HD66131ST

240-channel common driver

HF66132T

240-channel column driver (VLCD=5V)

HF66133T

120-channel common driver (VLCD=70V)

HD66134ST

240-channel column driver

HD66135T

120-channel common driver

HD66206

80-channel common/column driver

HD66321T

258-channel Gate driver for Multiscan Functions

HD66322T

384-channel TFT 64 grayscale driver (VLCD=10V)

HD66324T

384-channel TFT 64 Grayscale driver

HD66326T

384-channel TFT 64 Grayscale driver for Multiscan Functions

HD66330T

192-channel TFT 64 grayscale driver (VLCD=5V)

HD66410

128 33 dot graphics driver within RAM

HD66420

160 80 dot graphics driver within RAM

HD66503

240-channel common driver

HD66520T

160-channel grayscale driver within RAM

HD66522

160-channel grayscale driver within RAM

HD66523R

240-channel common driver within LCD timing circuit

HD66701

LCD controller/driver (16 2 character)

HD66702

LCD controller/driver (20 2 character)

HD66705U

LCD controller/driver (12 2 character)

HD66710

LCD controller/driver (8 4 character)

HD66712U

LCD controller/driver (12 4 character)

HD66717

LCD controller/driver (12 4 character) Low power

Type Number Order


Type

Function

HD66720

LCD controller/driver within 5 6 keyscan function (8 2 character)

HD66724

LCD controller/driver with keyscan function (12 3 character)

HD66725

LCD controller/driver with keyscan function (16 3 character)

HD66726

LCD controller/driver with keyscan function (16 5 character)

HD66727

LCD controller/driver within 4 8 keyscan function (12 4 character)

HD66728

LCD controller/driver (10 16 character)

HD66730

LCD controller/driver (2 6 character)

HD66731

LCD controller/driver (4 10 character)


Graphics LCD controller/driver (4 10 character Kanji)

HD66732
HD66841

10

(LVIC)

LCD video interface controller (8 grayscale control)

Page

Selection Guide
Hitachi LCD Driver System
LCD controller/driver
alpha-numeric display (5 8 dot)
digit/ line
line No.
1

8 com

16 com

24 com

32 com

8
40 seg

10
50 seg

12
60 seg

16
80 seg

20
100 seg

24
120 seg

HD44780U
HD66720

HD66720

HD44780U
HD66720

HD66702R

(HD44780U
+ HD66002)

HD66705U
HD66730*
(alpha-numeric)

HD66710

HD66710

HD66712
HD66717
HD66727
HD66724
HD66731

(HD44780U
+ HD66002)
HD66712U

(HD66710 + HD66002)

Note: HD66730 font is 6 12 dot.

Japanese Kanji, Chinese or Korean font (16 16 dot)


digit/ line
line No.

6
96 seg

8
128 seg

10
160 seg

HD66410

16 com

32 com

HD66730 *

48 com

HD66108

64 com

HD66410 2
HD66410 2
(HD61202U 2
+ HD61203U)

12
192 seg

16
256 seg
HD66410 2

HD66730 *
+ HD66002

HD66108
+ HD61203U
HD66731

(HD61202U 3
+ HD61203U)

20
320 seg

HD66108 2

(HD66108 2
+ HD61203U)

Note: HD66730 font is 12 13 dot.

11

Selection Guide
Graphics Display
Horizon
Vertical
33 com

64 seg

128 seg

160 seg

192 seg

240 seg

320 seg

(HD61202U
+ HD61203U)

HD66410

HD66108
+ HD61203U

HD66410 2

(HD61202U 3
+ HD61203U)

HD66108 2

(HD66108 2
+ HD61203U)

HD66410 2

64 com
80 com

HD66420 2

HD66420

128 com (HD61202U 2


+ HD61203U)

(HD66108 2
+ HD61203U)

(HD66520
+ HD66503)

240 com

(HD66520
+ HD66503)
(HD66524
+ HD66523)

(HD66520 2
+ HD66503)
(HD66524 2
+ HD66523)

Horizon
Black & White
Vertical

160 seg

240 seg

320 seg

480 seg

640 seg

120 com

HD66110ST
+ HD66113T

HD66120T
+ HD66113T

HD66110ST 2
+ HD66113T

HD66120T 2
+ HD66113T

HD66110ST 4
+ HD66113T

160 com

HD66110ST
+ HD66115T

HD66120T
+ HD66115T

HD66110ST 2
+ HD66115T

HD66120T 2
+ HD66115T

HD66110ST 4
+ HD66115T

240 com

HD66110ST
+ HD66113T 2

HD66120T
+ HD66113T 2

HD66110ST 2
+ HD66113T 2

HD66120T 2
+ HD66113T 2

HD66110ST 4
+ HD66113T 2

HD66120T 2
+ HD66115T 2

HD66110ST 4
+ HD66115T 2

320 com

HD66110ST 8
+ HD66115T 3

480 com
600 com
768 com

Horizon
Color
Vertical

320 dot
960 seg

640 dot
1920 seg

800 dot
2400 seg

1024 dot
3072 seg

120 com
160 com
240 com

HD66120T 4
+ HD66113T 2

320 com
480 com
600 com
768 com

12

HD66120T 16
+ HD66115T 3
HD66120T 20
+ HD66113T 4
HD66120T 26
+ HD66115T 5

Differences Between Products


1. HD61830 and HD61830B
HD61830

HD61830B

Oscillator

Internal

External

Operating frequency (MHz)

1.1 MHz

2.4 MHz

Display duty

Static to 1/128

Static to 1/128

Programmable screen size (max)

64 240 dots
(1/64 duty)

128 480 dots


(1/64 duty)

Other

Pin 6: C
Pin 7: R
Pin 9: CPO

Pin 6: CE
Pin 7: OE
Pin 9: NC

Package marking

Figure 1 Package Marking

13

Differences Between Products


Differences between HD64645 and HD64646
Figure 1 and Figure 2 show the relation between display data transfer period, when display data shift clock
CL2 changes, and display data latch clock CL1. Figure 1 shows the case without skew function and Figure
2 shows the case with skew function.
In Figure 1, high period between CL2 and CL1 of HD64645 overlap. HD64646 has no overlap like
HD64645, and except for this overlap, HD64646 is the same as HD64645 functionally.
Also for the skew function, phase relation between CL1 and CL2 changes. As Figure 2 shows, data transfer
period and CL1 high period of HD64646 never overlap with the skew function.

MCLK

15

16

DISPTMG
CL1
(HD64645)

MCLK 16

CL1
(HD64646)

MCLK 11

CL2
(fCL2 = fMCLK)
CL2
(fCL2 = 2fMCLK)
Notes: fMCLK = Output frequency of MCLK
fCL2 = Output frequency of CL2

Figure 1 Differences between HD64645 and HD64646 (No Skew)

14

Differences Between Products


MCLK

15

16

DISPTMG

CL1
(HD64645)

MCLK 16

CL1
(HD64646)

MCLK 11

CL2
(fCL2 = fMCLK)

CL2
(fCL2 = 2fMCLK)
1 Character Skew

MCLK

15

16

DISPTMG

CL1
(HD64645)

MCLK 16

CL1
(HD64646)

MCLK 11

CL2
(fCL2 = fMCLK)

CL2
(fCL2 = 2fMCLK)
2 Character Skew

Figure 2 Differences between HD64645 and HD64646 (Skew)

15

Differences Between Products

16

Package Information
Package Information
The Hitachi LCD driver devices use plastic flat packages to reduce the size of the equipment in which they
are incorporated and provide higher density mounting by utilizing the features of thin liquid crystal display
elements.

Package Dimensions
Unit: mm
25.6 0.4
20
36

54

35

1.0 0.15

60
1

2.0
5

1.0

0 Min

2.0

2.70

*0.37 0.08
0.35 0.06

*Dimension including the plating thickness


Base material dimension

*0.17 0.05
0.15 0.04

24
23

3.10 Max

14

19.6 0.4

55

2.8
1.0

0 10

2.0
1.7 0.3
Hitachi Code
JEDEC
EIAJ
Weight (reference value)

FP-60

1.7 g

17

Package Information
Unit: mm

25.6 0.4
20

40

80

25

19.6 0.4
14

65

0 Min

18

*0.17 0.05
0.15 0.04

3.10 Max

0.8

2.70

24

*0.37 0.08
0.35 0.06

*Dimension including the plating thickness


Base material dimension

0.8 0.15

41

64

2.8
1.0
0 10

1.7 0.3
Hitachi Code
JEDEC
EIAJ
Weight (reference value)

FP-80

1.8 g

Package Information
Unit: mm

24.8 0.4
20

41

65

40

80

25

0.8

0.15
*Dimension including the plating thickness
Base material dimension

2.70

0.15 M

*0.17 0.05
0.15 0.04

24

0.20 +0.10
0.20

1
*0.37 0.08
0.35 0.06

3.10 Max

0.8

14

18.8 0.4

64

2.4
1.0
0 10

1.2 0.2
Hitachi Code
JEDEC
EIAJ
Weight (reference value)

FP-80B

1.7 g

19

Package Information
Unit: mm

25.6 0.4
20

50

14
100

31
1

0 Min

0.58

*Dimension including the plating thickness


Base material dimension

20

*0.17 0.05
0.15 0.04

*0.32 0.08
0.30 0.06

2.70

30
3.10 Max

19.6 0.4

81

0.65 0.15

51

80

2.8
0.83
0 10
1.7 0.3

Hitachi Code
JEDEC
EIAJ
Weight (reference value)

FP-100

1.8 g

Package Information
Unit: mm
16.0 0.3
14
75

51
50

100

26

0.10

*Dimension including the plating thickness


Base material dimension

*0.17 0.05
0.15 0.04

0.08 M
1.0

2.70

25

0.12 +0.13
0.12

1
*0.22 0.05
0.20 0.04

3.05 Max

0.5

16.0 0.3

76

1.0
0 8
0.5 0.2

Hitachi Code
JEDEC
EIAJ
Weight (reference value)

FP-100B

Conforms
1.2 g

21

Package Information
Unit: mm
16.0 0.3
14
75

51
50

100

26

0.10

*Dimension including the plating thickness


Base material dimension

22

*0.17 0.05
0.15 0.04

0.08 M
1.0

2.70

25

0.12 +0.13
0.12

1
*0.22 0.05
0.20 0.04

3.05 Max

0.5

16.0 0.3

76

1.0
0 8
0.5 0.2

Hitachi Code
JEDEC
EIAJ
Weight (reference value)

FP-100B

Conforms
1.2 g

Package Information
Unit: mm

22.0 0.2
20
65

102

64

0.5

14
128

39

0.10

*Dimension including the plating thickness


Base material dimension

*0.17 0.05
0.15 0.04

0.75

2.70

0.10 M

+0.15
0.10

*0.22 0.05
0.20 0.04

3.15 Max

38

0.10

16.0 0.2

103

1.0
0.75

0.5 0.2
Hitachi Code
JEDEC
EIAJ
Weight (reference value)

0 10

FP-128

1.7 g

23

Package Information
22.0 0.3
20
108

73
72

144

37

0.10

24

0.17 0.05
0.15 0.04

0.08 M

1.45

36

0.12 0.08

1
0.22 0.05
0.20 0.04

1.70 Max

0.5

22.0 0.3

109

1.25

1.0

0 8
0.5 0.1
Hitachi Code
JEDEC Code
EIAJ Code
Weight

FP-144A

ED-7404A
1.4 g

Package Information
Unit: mm
16.0 0.2
14

60

41
40

80

21

0.65

16.0 0.2

61

0.10

0.10 0.10

0.83

*Dimension including the plating thickness


Base material dimension

*0.17 0.05
0.15 0.04

0.13 M
1.00

*0.32 0.08
0.30 0.06

1.20 Max

20

1.0

0.5 0.1
Hitachi Code
JEDEC
EIAJ
Weight (reference value)

0 8

TFP-80F

Conforms
0.5 g

25

Package Information
Unit: mm
16.0 0.2
14
75

51
50

100

26

1.0

0.10

*Dimension including the plating thickness


Base material dimension

26

1.00

0.08 M

*0.17 0.05
0.15 0.04

25

0.10 0.10

1
*0.22 0.05
0.20 0.04

1.20 Max

0.5

16.0 0.2

76

1.0
0 8
0.5 0.1

Hitachi Code
JEDEC
EIAJ
Weight (reference value)

TFP-100B

Conforms
0.5 g

Notes on Mounting
1. Damage from Static Electricity
Semiconductor devices are easily damaged by static discharges, so they should be handled and mounted
with the utmost care. Precautions are discussed below.
1.1 Work Environment
Low relative humidity facilitates the accumulation of static charge. Although surface mounting package
devices must be stored in a dry atmosphere to prevent moisture absorption, they should be handled and
mounted in a work environment with a relative humidity of 50% or greater to prevent static buildup.
1.2 Preventing Static Buildup in Handling
1. Avoid the use of insulating materials that easily accumulate a static charge in workplaces where
mounting operations are performed. In particular, charged objects can induce charges in semiconductors
and finished PC boards even without direct contact. Recommended measures include the use of antistatic work garments, conductive carrier boxes, and ionized air blowers.
2. Ground all instruments, conveyors, work benches, floor mats, tools, and soldering irons to prevent the
accumulation of static charges. Lay conductive mats (with a resistance on the order of 109 t o 1011 )
on workbenches and floors and ground them. (See Figure 1.)
3. Personnel should wear grounding bracelets on their arms or legs. To prevent electric shocks, insert a
resistor of 1 M or greater in series as shown in Figure 2.
4. If soldering irons are used, use low voltage (12V to 24V) soldering irons designed for use with
semiconductors. Ground soldering iron tips as shown in Figure 3.

Resistor

High resistance conductive mat (grounded)


Personal ground (bracelet)
High resistance conductive mat (grounded)
Humidifier
Anti-static work clothes
Anti-static shoes

Figure 1 Static Electricity Countermeasures for Semiconductor Handing

27

Notes on Mounting
1.3 Preventing Semiconductor Discharges
Semiconductors are not damaged by static charges on the package or chip itself. However, damage will
occur if the lead frame contacts a metal object and the charge dissipates. Grounding the metal object does
not help in this situation.
The following measures should be taken.
1. Avoid contact or friction between semiconductors and easily charged insulators.
2. Avoid handling or working with semiconductors on metal surfaces. Semiconductors should be handled
on grounded high resistance mats.
3. If a semiconductor may be charged, do not allow that device to contact any metal objects.
1.4

Precautions during Mounting

1. Grounded high resistance mats must be used when mounting semiconductors on PC boards. Ground
mats before handling semiconductors. Particular caution is required following conductivity testing,
since capacitors on the PC board may retain a charge.
2. PC boards can also acquire a static charge by contact, friction, or induction. Take precautions to prevent
discharge through contact with transport boxes or other metal objects during transportation. Such
precautions include the use of anti-static bags or other techniques for isolating the PC boards.
Metal or conductive material

Insulated wire
R = over 1 M

Figure 2 Personal Ground

100V AC

12V to 24V

1 M

Soldering
iron tip

Figure 3 Soldering Iron Grounding Example

28

Notes on Mounting
2. Precautions Prior to Reflow Soldering
Surface mount packages that hold large chips are weaker than insertion mount packages. Since the whole
package is heated during the reflow operation, the characteristics described below should be considered
when determining the handling used prior to reflow soldering and the conditions used in the reflow
operation.
2.1 Package Cracking Mechanism in Reflow Soldering
Packages that have absorbed moisture are thought to crack due to the mechanism shown in Figure 4.
Moisture absorbed during storage diffuses through the interior of the package. When a package in this state
is passed through the reflow furnace, that moisture rediffuses. Some of it escapes along the boundary
between the resin and the frame. This can lead to boundary separation. As the pressure in this space
increases the resin warps, finally resulting in a crack.
The Fick diffusion model can be used to calculate the diffusion of moisture in resin:

C (x, t)
2C (x, t)
= D(t)
2 x2
t
The volume of moisture absorbed by the package can be expressed as follows:
Q (t) = C (x, t) dx
The increase in internal pressure can be calculated from the moisture diffusion during reflow heating by
using the C (x, t) function.
Figure 5 shows the relationships between the maximum stresses when packages of various moisture
absorption states are heated, the adhesion strength between the resin and frame at various temperatures, and
the strength of the resin itself. While this model indicates that cracks will result in this example when the
moisture absorption ratio exceeds 0.2 wt% in a VPS (vapor phase soldering at 215C) process, actual tests
show that cracks result in packages with a moisture absorption ratio of 0.25 wt%. This indicates that the
model is valid.
Therefore moisture management should focus on the moisture content in the vicinity of the frame.

29

Notes on Mounting

Moisture
absorption

Storage

Chip
Resin

1 mol H2O
22.4 /latm
pV = nRT

Vaporization of
internal moisture
content

Solder reflow

c
2c
=D
t
x2
c: Package internal moisture
density
D: Water diffusion coefficient

a
Frame

(T) > fad (T)


fad: Resin bonding strength
: Generated stress
Boundary
separation
a4
P
Eh3
Form coefficient
Resin Youngs modulus
Internal pressure
Tab shorter dimension
Thickness of the resin
under the tab

Wmax =
:
E:
P:
a:
h:

Expansion

max
P

max = > F (T)

Cracking

max =

a2 P
h2

F (T): Resin strength


:
Form coefficient

Crack

Figure 4 Package Crack Generation Mechanism


10

Fs

6
(MLX)SAT

4
Moisture
absorption ratio
(85C 85%RH)

0.3 wt 2

Fad
2

Generated stress MLX


(SI units/mm2)

VPS

(SI units/mm2)

Adhesive strength Fad bending strength Fs

10

0.2 wt
0

0.1 wt
100

150

200

250

Temperature (C)

Figure 5 Temperature Dependence of Resin Adhesive Strength,


Mechanical Strength, and Generated Stress

30

Wmax

Notes on Mounting
3. Recommended Soldering Conditions
Soldering temperature stipulations must be followed and the moisture sbsorption states of plastic packages
must be carefully monitored to prevent degradation of the reliability of surface mount packages due to
thermal chock. This section presents Hitachis recommended soldering conditions.
3.1 Recommended Soldering Temperatures
See Table 1.
Table 1

Recommended IC Soldering Temperatures

Method

Recommended Conditions

Notes

Vapor-phase reflow

Package surface
temperature

215C

30 s,
maximum

140 to 160C

About 60 s
1 to 5C/s
Time

Infrared reflow
Hot-air reflow
Package surface
temperature

235C,
maximum

10 s,
maximum

140 to 160C

About 60 s 1 to 4C/s
1 to 5C/s

Since TSOP, TQFP, and


packages whose body
thickness is less than 1.5 mm
are especially vulnerable to
thermal shock, we
recommend limiting the
soldering conditions to a
maximum temperature of
230C for a maximum time of
10 secondes for these
packages.

Time

31

Notes on Mounting
4. Moisture Absorption Prevention Conditions
Plastic packages absorb moisture when stored in a high humidity. If devices are mounted using solder
reflow techniques when they have absorbed moisture they are susceptible to reflow cracking. Products that
are particularly susceptible to the influence of absorbed moisture are packed in moisture-proof packing.
These products should be handled under the following conditions after opening the moisture-proof packing.
4.1 Storage and Handling after Opening Moisture-Proof Packing
Storage temperature:5C to 30C
Storage humidity:

Under 60% relative humidity

Time between unpacking and reflow soldering:


1. If specified on the label attached to the moisture-proof packing, or in the delivery specifications: follow
those specifications.
2. If not specified on the label attached to the moisture-proof packing or in the delivery specifications:
perform reflow soldering within 168 hours (one week) with the product stored under the conditions
specified above.
4.2 Baking
4.2.1 Baking is Required in the Following Situations
1. If the desiccant indicator has turned pink.
2. If the storage period following unpacking exceeds the specifications for that period.
4.2.2 Recommended Baking Conditions
1. TSOP and TQFP: 125C for 4 hours
2. Packages other than TSOP and TQFP: 125C for 16 hours to 24 hours
3. If specified in the delivery specifications or other documentation, follow those specifications.
4.2.3

Other Points

Use heat-proof trays in the baking operation.

32

Notes on Mounting
Surface Mounting Package Handling Precautions
1. Package Temperature Distribution
The most common method used for mounting a surface mounting device is infrared reflow. Since the
package is made of a black epoxy resin, the portion of the package directly exposed to the infrared heat
source will absorb heat faster and thus rise in temperature more quickly than other parts of the package
unless precautions are taken. As shown in the example in Figure 6, the surface directly facing the infrared
heat source is 20 to 30C higher than the leads being soldered and 40C to 50C higher than the bottom of
the package. If soldering is performed under these conditions, package cracks may occur.
To avoid this type of problem, it is recommended that an aluminum infrared heat shield be placed over the
resin surface of the package. By using a 2-mm thick aluminum heat shield, the top and bottom surfaces of
the resin can be held to 175C when the peak temperature of the leads is 240C.

Infrared rays
(Surface)

(Resin)

Temperature (C)

300

250

T 2 T1
T3
(Soler)
T1
T2

200

T3

150

100

60 sec
30 sec
Time (sec)

Figure 6 Temperature Profile During Infrared Heat Soldering (Example)


2. Package Moisture Absorption
The epoxy resin used in plastic packages will absorb moisture if stored in a high-humidity environment. If
this moisture absorption becomes excessive, there will be sudden vaporization during soldering, causing the
interface of the resin and lead frame to spread apart. In extreme cases, package cracks will occur.
Therefore, especially for thin packages, it is important that moisture-proof storage be used.
To remove any moisture absorbed during transportation, storage, or handling, it is recommended that the
package be baked at 125C for 16 to 24 hours before soldering.

33

Notes on Mounting
3. Heating and Cooling
One method of soldering electrical parts is the solder dip method, but compared to the reflow method, the
rate of heat transmission is an order of magnitude higher. When this method is used with plastic items,
there is thermal shock resulting in package cracks and a deterioration of moisture-resistant characteristics.
Thus, it is recommended that the solder dip method not be used.
Even with the reflow method, an excessive rate of heating or cooling is undesirable. A rate in temperature
change of less than 4C/sec is recommended.
4. Package Contaminants
It is recommended that a resin-based flux be used during soldering. Acid-based fluxes have a tendency of
leaving an acid residue which adversely affects product reliability. Thus, acid-based fluxes should not be
used.
With resin-based fluxes as well, if a residue is left behind, the leads and other package parts will begin to
corrode. Thus, the flux must be thoroughly washed away. If cleansing solvents used to wash away the flux
are left on the package for an extended period of time, package markings may fade, so care must be taken.
The precautions mentioned above are general points to be observed for reflow. However, specific reflow
conditions will depend on such factors as the package shape, printed circuit board type, reflow method, and
device type.
For details on surface mounting small thin packages, please consult the separate manual available on
mounting. If there are any additional questions, please contact Hitachi, Ltd.

34

The Information of TCP


Features of TCP (TAB Technology)
The structure and materials used by Tape Carrier Package (TCP) give it the following features as compared
with conventional packages:
Thin, Lightweight, and Fine Pitch
With thickness less than 1 mm and fine-pitch leads, a reduced pad pitch on the device enables more
functionality in a package of equivalent size. Specifically, these features enable:
Thin and high definition LCM (Liquid Crystal display Module)
Lightweight and ultra-high pin count systems
Flexible Design
The following can be tailored to the design of the system (e.g. mother board design):
Pattern layout
TCP design

TCP Applications
Thinness, ultra-high pin count, and fine pitch open up new possibilities of TCP applications for compact
and highly functional systems. Figure 1 shows some applications of TCP-packaged chips.

Personal computers,
word processors

LCD driver

LCD modules

Calculators and
organizers

Memory

Memory cards

Workstations

Computers

Figure 1 Examples of TCP-Packaged Chip Applications

35

The Information of TCP


Hitachi TCP Products
TCP for Hitachi LCD Driver
Hitachi offers tape-carrier-packaged LCD drivers for LCD modules ranging from miniature to large sizes.
Table 1 shows some examples of standard tape carrier packages for LCD drivers. Hitachi LCD drivers
combine a device that can withstand high voltages and provide high definition with a tape carrier package
that promises excellent reliability, making possible applications that would not be feasible with a
conventional QFP. For material specifications of the products in Table 1, see Table 3.
Table 1

TCPs for Hitachi LCD Drivers


Function

Application Drive
1

TFT*

Column
only

Color
2
STN*
liquid
crystal

Column
only

Color
2
STN*
liquid
crystal

Column
only

Signal
Output

Appearance

Product Code

Total Pin
Count
(Output)

Outer
Lead
Pitch

HD66330TA0

236 (192)

0.16 mm

HD66110STB2

191 (160)

0.092 mm

Analog

Digital

Digital

Outer lead pitch:


0.074 mm
products are also
available
HD66120TA0

Color
2
STN*
liquid
crystal

Common Digital
only

Small
liquid
crystal

Column Digital
and
common

HD66115TA0

269 (240)

181 (160)

0.07 mm

0.18 mm

Outer lead pitch:


0.250 mm
products are also
available
Built-in controller
(on-chip RAM)

HD66108T00
Notes: 1. TFT: Thin Film Transistor
2. STN: Super Twist Nematic

36

Remarks

208 (165)

0.4 mm

The Information of TCP


Table 1

TCPs for Hitachi LCD Drivers (cont)


Function

Application Drive
Small
liquid
crystal

Signal
Output

Appearance

Product Code

Total Pin
Count
(Output)

Outer
Lead
Pitch

HD66712TA0

128 (94)

0.24 mm

Remarks

Column Digital
and
common

Folding TCP

HD66712TB0

128 (94)

0.3 mm

37

The Information of TCP


TCP External View and Cross-Sectional Structure
TCP Components

Sprocket hole
(perforation)

Wiring

Test pad

Outer lead for output

Resin

Guide pattern

LSI chip

Guide hole

Base film

 

User area

Outer lead for input

Solder resist

Outer lead hole

,,,,,,

Cross-Sectional Structure

Solder resist

Resin

Copper foil

Base film

Adhesive

LSI chip

38

Bump (Au)

The Information of TCP


TCP Materials and Features
TCP Material Specifications: Table 2 lists Hitachi TCP material specifications. Ask us if you require
other materials. In this case, use TCP ordering manual [ADE-801-001 (O)].
Table 3 lists current material specifications for various Hitachi products.
Table 2

Hitachi TCP Material Specifications

No.

Item

Specifications

Base film

UPILEX S-type: thickness 75 m 5 m


KAPTON V-type: thickness 125 or 75 m 5 m

Adhesive

Toray #5900
TOMOEGAWA E-type

Copper foil

Rolled copper: thickness 35 or 25 m 5 m


Electro-deposited copper: thickness 35 or 25 m 5 m

Resin

Epoxy resin

Outer lead plating

Tin

Solder resist

Epoxy solder resist

Solder resist on rear


surface of folding TCP slit

Polyimide solder resist

Cross-sectional view

,,,,
,,
,,
,,,
,,
,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,

3 5

,,
,,,
,,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,
,,,
,,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,
,,,,

LSI chip

1
7*
Note: Folding TCP only.

Table 3

Material Specifications for Hitachi Products

Product Code

Application

Base Film

Adhesive

Copper Foil

Outer Lead
Plating

39

The Information of TCP


HD66330TA0

TFT

UPILEX S

TOMOEGAWA
E-type

Electro-deposited Tin
copper

HD66110STB2

Color STN

UPILEX S

TOMOEGAWA
E-type

Electro-deposited Tin
copper

HD66120TA0

Color STN

UPILEX S

TOMOEGAWA
E-type

Electro-deposited Tin
copper

HD66115TA0

Color STN

UPILEX S

TOMOEGAWA
E-type

Electro-deposited Tin
copper

HD66108T00

Small liquid
crystal

KAPTON V

Toray #5900

Rolled copper

HD66712TA0

Small liquid
crystal

UPILEX S

TOMOEGAWA
E-type

Electro-deposited Tin
copper

HD66712TB0

Small liquid
crystal

UPILEX S

TOMOEGAWA
E-type

Electro-deposited Tin
copper

Tin

Properties of Materials: Properties of Hitachi TCP materials are as follows.


1. Base film
The properties of base film are shown in Table 4. Hitachi currently adopts UPILEX S, which exhibits
high rigidity and super dimensional stability with respect to temperature changes compared with
conventional KAPTON V.
2. Copper foil (copper wiring)
The properties of rolled foil and electro-deposited foil are shown in Table 5. Hitachi plans to adopt
electro-deposited foil due to its excellent elongation properties at room temperature (RT) compared
with conventional rolled foil.
Table 4

Properties of Base Film (See references 1 and 2, page 28)


UPILEX S
(Ube Industries, Ltd.)

KAPTON V
(Du Pont-Toray Co., Ltd.)

To 100C

0.8

To 200C

1.0

2.6

8826.0

3481.4

Property
Coefficient of linear
5
expansion 10 /C
Tensile modules (MPa)

40

The Information of TCP


Table 5

Properties of Copper Foil (See reference 3, page 28)


Sampling
Condition

Rolled Foil
(Hitachi Cable, Ltd.)
CF-W5-1S-LP

Electro- Deposited Foil


(Mitsui Mining & Smelting
Co., Ltd.) 3EC-VLP

Tensile strength at RT
(MPa)

Raw foil

421.7

538.4

Elongation at RT
(%)

Raw foil

1.0

10.1

Tensile strength at 180C


2
(kgf/mm )

Raw foil

229.5

249.1

Elongation at 180C
(%)

Raw foil

7.7

7.0

Property

Note: Data from film suppliers.


Number of measured samples: 2 pieces each
1
2
1 MPa = 1.01972 10 kgf/mm

41

The Information of TCP


3. Adhesive
The relationship between peeling strength (adhesive/electro-deposited foil) and lead width is shown in
Figure 2. Hitachi adopts the following two combinations because of their higher peeling strength.
Adhesive TOMOEGAWA E-type/electro-deposited foil
Adhesive Toray #5900/rolled foil

Adhesive

12

Copper foil

* Peeling strength (gf/100 m)

TOMOEGAWA Electro-deposited
foil
E-type
10
Toray #5900

Rolled foil

TOMOEGAWA
Rolled foil
E-type

0
40/40
(80 m)

60/60
(120 m)

80/80
(160 m)

100/100
(200 m)

Line width/space (m)


(pattern pitch)

* Peeling strength

How to measure
Measuring method: 90 peel

Peeling
direction

Copper foil

Measuring condition: 25C


Number of measured samples:
Five pieces are measured for each
specification, and two leads are
measured for each piece.

Pattern pitch

Adhesive
Base film

Line width

Space

Figure 2 Relationship between Peeling Strength and Lead Width

42

The Information of TCP


Fine-Pitch Bump Formation
Bumps are essential in TCP products; they are the foundation of TAB technology and have excellent
corrosion resistance in their structure. When the current trend toward high-performance chips with ultralarge pin-out began driving pad counts upward (and reducing pad pitch), Hitachi was quick to develop a
volume production process for forming fine-pitch bumps.
Figure 3 shows the Hitachi TCP bump structure. Figure 4 shows a flowchart of the bump formation
process.

Straight-Wall Bumps (Fine-Pitch)


100, 80, 70
Bump (Au)
70, 50*2, 40*3

30
UBM*1

Passivation
Al pad
Si
Notes: 1. UBM: Under Bump Metal
2. Case of 80-m bump pitch
3. Case of 70-m bump pitch

Unit: mm

Figure 3 Hitachi TCP Bump Structure

43

The Information of TCP


Al photolithography
Passivation
Through-hole photolithography
UBM evaporation deposition
Bump photolithography
Bump formation process
Gold plating
Remove resist
UBM etching

Figure 4 Bump Formation Flowchart

44

The Information of TCP


TCP Fabrication Flow
TCP Tape: TCP tapes are purchased from tape manufacturers. In many cases, the quality of TCP products
depends critically on the quality of the tape, so in addition to evaluating constituent materials, Hitachi
strictly controls the stability of the tape fabrication process.
TCP Fabrication Process: The TCP fabrication process starts from wafers (or chips) with bumps, and a
patterned tape. After being bonded by a high-precision inner lead bonder, the chips are sealed in resin.
Figure 5 shows the standard fabrication process for TCPs used in Hitachi LCDs.
Bump (gold)
Wafer
TCP tape
Bump formation

Silicon chip

Pelletizing

Inner lead bonding

Inner Lead Bonding


This step bonds the bumps on the chips to the inner leads formed
by patterning. Gang bonding has been adopted as a standard
procedure at Hitachi.

Sealing

Sealing
Chips are sealed in resin to ensure inner lead bonding strength.
The standard bonding process employs a potting liquid resin which
seals the chip.

Marking
Resin

Inner lead

Inspection

Copper foil
LSI chip

Shipping and packing

Base tape

Figure 5 Standard Fabrication Process for TCPs Used in Hitachi LCDs

45

The Information of TCP


Packing
Packing Format: TCP products are packed in moisture-proof packages. A reel wound with TCP tape is
sealed in an opaque antistatic sheet with N2 to protect the product from mechanical shock and then packed
into a carton before delivery to ensure the solderability of lead plating.
Labels which indicate the product name, quantity, and so on are placed on the reel, antistatic sheet, and
carton. Figure 6 shows the TCP packing format.

46

The Information of TCP


35 mm Width Products

70 mm Width Products

Label

Reel

Conductive
separator

Label

Reel

Separator

Lead tape

Lead tape
TCP tape

Conductive
tape

TCP tape
Antistatic sheet

Antistatic sheet

Label

Label
Silica gel

Silica gel

Label on the
carton side
Shock
absorber
Carton
Label on the carton side

Shock
absorber
Carton

Figure 6 Packing Format

47

The Information of TCP


Tape Specification:
Width of Tape
35 mm

70 mm

TCP tape

40 m

40 m

Lead tape

2 +1/0.5 m
added to both ends of the TCP

2 +1/0.5 m
added to both ends of the TCP

Conductive tape

40 m

Separator

40 m

Conductive separator

40 m

Note: The lengths of the TCP tape, conductive tape, and separator may vary slightly depending on the
quantity of the product on the tape.

Reel Specification: Figure 7 shows reel dimensions.


For recycling purpose, we would appreciate it if you return the reel and separator to us after use.
Units: mm
Material: Styrene
43, 77*

Dimensions without tolerance


are design values.

Note: For 70 mm width tape.

Figure 7 Reel Dimensions

48

25.9 0.2

127

405

16.75
0.3

4 0.2

The Information of TCP


TCP Winding Direction: Figure 8 shows one way of winding TCPs. The combination of two product
directions when pulling it out from the reel and placement of the patterned face on either the front or back
of the tape makes for four types of TCP winding directions.
The winding direction is an essential specification which affects the chip punching machine and assembly
equipment during the packaging process. As the wind direction differs according to the product, please
check the delivery specification before using TCP.

Note

Product direction (two types)

Patterned face on either front or


back (two types)
||
Four types of TCP winding direction

Magnification
(example)

Product
(TCP tape)

Reel

Figure 8 Example of TCP Winding Direction

49

The Information of TCP


TCP Mounting Methods
TCP Mounting Structure
Typical example of an LCM structure using TCPs is illustrated in Figure 9.
Basic Mounting Process
See Figure 10.

LCD panel

Note: PCB: Printed circuit board

Figure 9 LCM Structure

50

TCP

PCB*

The Information of TCP


TCP
ACF*

LCD panel

Punching
Single TCP

ACF applied
TCP Prepress
Thermocompression
bonding

PCB

Contact
inspection

Repair

Soldering
Contact
inspection

Repair

Resin coating

Lighting test

Note: ACF: Anisotropic conductive film

Figure 10 TCP OLB (Outer Lead Bonding) Basic Flowchart

51

The Information of TCP


Process Outline
An outline of LCM assembly process using TCPs is given in Figure 11.

ACF applied
Applies ACF on LCD glass panel
by thermal pressing.

LCD panel
ACF

TCP prepress

Aligns the LCD panel and TCP


patterns and temporarily
connects them by low
temperature and low pressure.
TCP

Thermo-compression
bonding

Thermocompresses multiple
TCPs to the LCD panel, which
have been temporarily
connected, by high temperature
and high pressure either
individually or all together.

Soldering
Joins output leads of TCPs and
PCB patterns by soldering.

PCB

Figure 11 Outline of LCM Assembly Process

52

The Information of TCP


TCP Mounting Conditions
Mounting TCPs on LCD Panels (See reference 4, page 28): ACF is an adhesive film that can connect
electrodes on an LCD glass panel with output leads of TCPs. There are two types of ACFs:
One whose thermosetting and thermoplastic properties make handling easier (such as in repair) and
reduces the stresses caused by temperature changes.
One whose thermosetting properties provide low connection resistance and high thermostability.
Please select ACF depending on the type of application.
1. Selection of ACF thickness
An appropriate ACF thickness must be selected depending on the height, line width and space width of
the circuit to be connected; a rough calculation formula for obtaining a proper ACF thickness is shown
below.
Electrode



,,,,,,

P

Glass substrate

t1

S1

S2

Copper foil (circuit)


Adhesive
Base film

ACF thickness before connection t0 =


t1 :
T:
P:
S1 :
S2 :
:

S1 + S2
2
P

T + t1 +

ACF thickness after connection (2 m)


Circuit height
Pitch
Space width (top)
Space width (bottom)
Correction value
AC-6073, AC-61030.15T
AC-7104, AC-71440.25T

Incomplate filling can occur in the space if ACF thickness is too thin, while if too thick, connectin
reliability becomes poor since conductive paricles are not flattened out. It is necessary to select an
apprepriate ACF thickness. Some adjustment of ACF thickness can be controlled by bonding
conditions (especially pressure).

53

The Information of TCP


2. Laminating and bonding conditions
It is necessary to optimize bonding conditions according to ACF, TCP and glass panel specifications.
The bonding conditions adopted by ANISOLM (Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd.) are shown in Table 6 for
reference. Please determine your optimum bonding conditions based on the following.
Table 6

Bonding Conditions of ANISOLM

Item

Unit

Mixture of
Thermosetting and
Thermoplastic

Thermosetting

Remarks

AC-6073 AC-6103 AC-7104 AC-7144


Standard
specifications

Min. pitch

Line

Resolution

Space

m Line/
mm
m

Thickness

Width

mm

Length

Color
Core diameter
Laminating Temperature
Bonding
conditions

Bonding

50

70
22

22, 18

50

10

35

50

14

35
25

3, 2.5, 2

16
3, 2.5, 2

50

50

Transparent (gray)

Transparent (gray)

mm

18.5

18.5

80 to 100

70 to 90

MPa

Time

Temperature

Pressure

MPa *

20

Note: MPa = 1.01972 101 kgf/mm2

10

50

Pressure

Time

54

70

Temperature on
ANISOLM

170 to 190

160 to 180
2

3
20

Temperature on
ANISOLM

The Information of TCP


Measuring Method of ACF Temperature Profile (example)

Heating head
Silicone rubber (0.2 to 0.3mm)
Teflon film (25 to 50m)
Base film
Adhesive
Glass substrate

Copper foil

ACF

Glass plate

ANISOLM temperature (C)

Thermocouple

Final temperature

20 s

Time (s)

Temperature after 5 sec should be over 90% of final


temperature (C)

Figure 12 Bonding Temperature Profile

55

The Information of TCP


Soldering Conditions: Solder TCPs on the PCB under the following conditions. If soldering temperature is
low, solder may not melt. However, if soldering temperature is too high, solder may not adequately spread
over the leads owing to their oxidized surfaces, and/or the leads plating may become attached to the heating
collet. In the latter case, copper foil of leads may become exposed. Please determine adequate soldering
conditions for mass production carefully.
Soldering temperature (at solder joint): 230 to 260C

Temperature at solder joint (C)

Soldering time: 10 seconds max.

230 to 260C

10 seconds (max.)

Time (second)

Note 1: Temperature at solder joint is normally 30 to 50C lower than the heating collet temperature. Soldering temperature has a agreat impact on the quality of the products. Operating
conditions should therefore be specified after examining the temperature relationship
between the tip of the heating collet and solder joint.
Heating collet
Base film
Outer lead
Solder joint

56

Footprint
PCB

The Information of TCP


Note 2: In case of soldering quad type TCPs, please fix the TCP using vacuum collets or equivalent to prevent vase film warpage and circuit position misalignment.

Vacuum collet
Heating collet
LSI die

Outer lead
Base film
Footprint
PCB
Vacuum collet
Heating collet

57

The Information of TCP


Storage Restrictions
1. Packed TCP products should be used within six months.
2. TCP products removed from the antistatic sheet should be stored in N2 having a dew point of 30C or
lower. However, they should be used as soon as possible after removal, because solderability of leads
plated with Sn or solder decreases with time.
Handling Precautions
Electrical Handling
1. Anti-electrostatic discharge measures
TCP products require the following care beyond what is required for non-TCP products.

Give special attention to ion-blow and grounding especially when removing TCP products from the
reel, since they easily collect static electricity because of the base film. If TCP products become
charged, discharge the electricity little by little using the ion-blow; rapid discharge may damage the
devices.

Handle the product so that static electricity is not applied to outer leads. Depending on the
equipment used, this may require taking proper anti-electrostatic discharge measures, such as not
allowing the tapeguide to contact the outer leads.

2. Outer lead coating


Outer leads should be coated with resin or other appropriate materials to prevent short-circuits and
disconnections due to corrosion. Conductive foreign particles can easily cause short-circuits since lead
spacing for TCP products is much narrower than that for non-TCP products. Disconnections from
corrosion can also easily occur due to solder flux or similar materials adhering to leads while mounting
the products on a board. This is because TCP product leads are formed by bonding very thin copper foil
to the base film in order to attain high-density mounting.
3. To prevent electric breakdown when mounting TCP products on a board, do not allow any electrical
contact with the dies bottom surface. These types of failures easily occur since TCP products have a
bare Si monocrystal on the dies bottom surface in order to make the product as thin as possible.
To prevent degradation of electrical characteristics, do not expose TCP products to sunlight.
Mechanical Handling
1. To prevent die cracks when mounting TCP products on a board, do not allow any physical contact with
the dies bottom surface. These types of failures easily occur since TCP products have a bare Si
monocrystal on the dies bottom surface in order to make the product as thin as possible.
2. Handle TCP products carefully to avoid bending the leads from base film transformation.
3. Do not bend TCP products since this may cause cracks in the solder resist.

58

The Information of TCP


4. Punching
Punching the continuous base film to extract single TCP products requires the following care.

Align each product correctly according to tape perforations (sprocket holes).

Use a metal punching die with pressing installation to prevent resin cracks and reduce cutting
stresses in the outer leads. (Refer to Figure 13.)

Determine the punching position so that the cutting edge does not touch the molding area based on
the relationship between maximum molding area (specified in the design drawing) and the punching
die accuracy.
Punch TCP products in the section where outer leads are straight (not slanted) to prevent short-circuits
caused by conductive particles. (Refer to Figure 14.)
Punching die without
pressing installation

Punching die with


pressing installation
Pressing
installation

Cutting edge

Stress

TCP

Figure 13 Punching Die

No punching area

Margin area

Punching area

Figure 14 Punching Position

59

The Information of TCP


5. Mounting structure
Copper foil can easily break even from a small physical stress because of its thinness needed to
accommodate fine patterns. Large stresses should therefore not be applied to the copper foil when
mounting TCP products on a board.
Bending stresses
When the edges of a die and a PCB are aligned, resin cracks may occur due to bending stresses. To
avoid this problem, locate the board closer to the LCD panel so that it can support the molded part of
the package. (Refer to Figure 15.)
Thermal stresses
LCM consists of glass, TCPs and a glass-epoxy substrate having their respective coefficients of
thermal expansion (CTE). This difference in expansion effects may cause thermal stresses that
especially concentrate in TCPs. The joining structure of LCMs is roughly shown in Figure 16.
Before beginning mass production, investigate and determine a joining structure that reduces
thermal stresses so as to prevent contact and other defects from occurring.
6. Do not stack more than ten cartons of products.
7. Do not subject cartons to high physical impact.
LSI die
Bending
stresses

PCB

LCD

LCD

PCB

Move the PCB closer to the LCD panel


Bending Stresses Applied

No Bending Stresses Applied

Figure 15 Positioning of Mounting TCPs on a PCB

,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,

TCP

Glass

LCM is composed of
various materials having
their respective CTEs.

PCB

Figure 16 Joining Structure of LCM

60

The Information of TCP


Correction of ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) Electrode Pitch: TCP products expand by absorbing moisture or
heat during storage and assembly. Pitch correction for the ITO electrode should be performed based on the
TCP dimensions after it is mounted on a conductive film. However, if ITO pitch correction is performed
based on TCP dimensions before mounting, it must be based on data measured after removing TCP
products from the package and storing at a temperature of 20 to 25C and a humidity of 50 to 70% RH for
48 hours.
Correct the ITO electrode pitch depending on the bonding equipment and conditions used.
Miscellaneous
1. Do not heat the lead tape and separator; they have poor heat-resistivity and will expand.
2. Do not subject TCPs to high temperature for a long period of time while cleaning or other operations;
copper foil may peel off due to the rapid deterioration of adhesion between the copper foil and base
film.
3. Carrier tapes have some waviness that may cause problems in tape transport. Use a tapeguide or
equivalent to secure the tape.
18.75
+0.15
Output dimension after TCP is joined to ACF
18.74

Output dimension (mm)

18.73
+0.05
18.72
0
18.71
0.05
18.70

18.69

Dimensional change rate (%)

+0.10

48 hours
0.10

Measured sample: HD66214TA7 (Base film: 75 m UPILEX S)


Number of measured samples: 5 pieces
Storage conditions: 25 5C, 50 to 60%RH

18.68
Before sealing
in a carton

1
Immediately
after unsealing

10

50

100 200

Storage time (hours)

Figure 17 Dimensional Change of Output

61

The Information of TCP


4. The number of folding TCP bending operations that can be performed before the lead breaks is shown
in Figure 18. The greater the bending angle, the sooner the lead will break. The TCP should be mounted
in such a way that the bending angle of each slit does not exceed 90.

62

The Information of TCP


42.6

0.15
0.3p

1.25

0.7

1.0

3 slits

0.45

Tape cutting position

Unit: mm

Folding slit shape


Folding with 2 slits
Thickness
(measured
value)
1.9 mm

Slide glass

Folding with 3 slits


Thickness
(measured
value)
3.6 mm

TCP

Slide glass

Double-bend (90 degrees per slit)

TCP

Triple-bend (90 degrees or less per slit)

99.99
Number of measured sample:
10 pieces in each case
HD66712TB0
Polyimide application
to rear of slit

Cumulative defect rate (%)

99

90

Double-bend

70
50
30
10
Triple-bend
1

0.01

10

100

1000

Number of times folded

Figure 18 Example of Number of Times Folded vs Cumulative Defect Rate

63

The Information of TCP


TCP Standardization
At present, standardization of LCD drive TCPs is difficult because of differences in mounting methods and
customer specifications. However, standardization of TCPs (QTP and DTP) that correspond in shape to
TQFP and TSOP packages has been discussed by the Tape Carrier Package Working Group in the
Semiconductor External Standards Committee (EE-13) of the EIAJ (Electronics Industries Association of
Japan). This working group, which is composed of various semiconductor manufacturers including Hitachi,
tape manufacturers, and socket manufacturers, is taking a comprehensive approach.
The EIAJ has adopted metric control standards against JEDEC*s inch control standards, and has
determined standards based on the following two items:
Fixed test pad layout, variable package size
Fixed test pad layout, variable terminal pitch
Accordingly, users can share the socket by deciding the width of tape and the test pad pitch. As JEDEC has
already agreed to the metric-control TCP, Hitachi is now making efforts to produce metric-control TCPs.
General rules covering TCP outlines that have already been formulated and published by the EE-13
committee are shown below.
EIAJ ED-7431

Quad Tape Carrier Package (QTP)

EIAJ ED-7432

Dual Tape Carrier Package (Type I) (DTP(I))

EIAJ ED-7433

Dual Tape Carrier Package (Type II) (DTP(II))

A summary of these general rules is given below.


Note that these standards do not necessarily apply to LCD drive TCPS.
Note: JEDEC:
Joint Electronic Device Engineering Council.

64

The Information of TCP


Quad Tape Carrier Package (QTP)
EIAJ ED-7431
1. Tape width: 35, 48, 70 mm
2. Package size: 35 mm 14 14, 16 16, 18 18, 20 20
48 mm 16 16, 20 20, 24 24, 26 26, 28 28
70 mm 24 24, 28 28, 32 32, 36 36, 40 40
3. Test pad pitch: 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.25 mm
4. Outer lead pitch: 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.25, 0.2, 0.15 mm
5. Sprocket-hole type: 35 mm
Super
48 mm Wide, Super
70 mm Wide, Super
6. Number of test pads: Fixed maximum number of test pads, regardless of the outer lead count.
For 35-mm tape: 196 for 0.5 pitch; 244 for 0.4 pitch.

Dual Tape Carrier Package (Type I) (DTP(I))


1. Tape width: 35 mm
2. Package size: 6 14, 6 16, 6 18, 6 20
(E (D + 1)) 8 14, 8 16, 8 18, 8 20
10 14, 10 16, 10 18, 10 20
12 14, 12 16, 12 18, 12 20
3. Test pad pitch: 0.5 mm
4. Outer lead pitch: 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 mm
5. Sprocket-hole type: 35 mm Super
6. Number of test pads: N = 50 (E = 6, 8, 10)
66 (E = 12)

Dual Tape Carrier Package (Type II) (DTP(II))


1. Tape width: 35 mm
2. Package size: 300 mil, 350 mil, 400 mil, 450 mil, 500 mil, 550 mil,
600 mil
(Enom)
3. Test pad pitch: 1.27 mm (outer lead pitch: 1.27, 1.0)
0.8 mm (outer lead pitch: 0.8, 0.65)
4. Outer lead pitch: 1.27, 1.0, 0.8, 0.65 mm
5. Sprocket-hole type: Super
6. Number of test pads: N = 42 (test pad pitch: 1.27 mm)

EIAJ ED-7432

EIAJ ED-7433

70 (test pad pitch: 0.8 mm)

65

The Information of TCP


Reference Materials
TCP Mounting Equipment Manufacturer
Manufacturer: Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd.
Area

Address

Tel No.

Fax No.

USA

Hitachi Chemical Co., America, Ltd.


4 International Drive, Rye Brook,
NY 10573, U.S.A.

(914) 934-2424

(914) 934-8991

Europe

Hitachi Chemical Europe Gm bH.


Immermmstr. 43, D-4000
Dsseldorf 1, F. R. Germany

(211) 35-0366 to 9

(211) 16-1634

S.E. Asia

Hitachi Chemical Asia-Pacific Pte, Ltd.


51 Bras Basah Road, #08-04
Plaza By The Park, Singapore 0718

337-2408

337-7132

Taiwan

Hitachi Chemical Taipei Office


Room No. 1406, Chia Hsim Bldg.,
No. 96, Sec. 2, Chung Shang Road N,
Taipei, Taiwan

(2) 581-3632,
(2) 561-3810

(2) 521-7509

Beijing

Hitachi Chemical Beijing Office


(1) 501-4331 to 2
Room No. 1207, Beijing Fortune Building,
5 Dong, San Huan Bei-Lu, Chao Yang District,
Beijing, China

(1) 501-4333

Hong Kong

Hitachi Chemical Co., (Hong Kong) Ltd.


Room 912, Houston Centre, 63 Mady Road,
Tsimshatsui East, Kowloon, Hong Kong

(3) 723-3549

66

(3) 66-9304 to 7

The Information of TCP


Manufacturer: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
Area

Address

Tel No.

USA (Illinois)

Panasonic Factory Automation Company

(708) 452-2500

Deutschland

Panasonic Factory Automation Deutchland

(040) 8549-2628

Asia (Japan)

Matsushita
Manufacturing Equipment D.

(0552) 75-6222

Fax No.

Manufacturer: Shinkawa Co., Ltd.


Area

Address

Tel No.

Fax No.

U.S.A.

MARUBENI INTERNATIONAL
ELECTRONICS CORP. U.S.A.
3285 Scott Blvd, Santa Clara,
CA. 95054

408-727-8447

408-727-8370

Singapore,
Malaysia,
Thailand

MARUBENI INTERNATIONAL
ELECTRONICS CORP. SINGAPORE
18 Tannery Lane #06-01/02,
Lian Teng Building, SGB 1334

741-2300

741-4870

Korea,
Hong Kong,
China,
Taiwan,
Philippine,
Brazil

MARUBENI HYTECH CORP.


Japan
20-22, Koishikawa 4-chome,
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112, Japan

(03)-3817-4952

(03)-3817-4959

Europe

MARUBENI INTERNATIONAL
0211-4376-00
ELECTRONICS EUROPE GMBH
Niederrhein STR, 42 4000
Dsseldorf 30 Federal Republic of Germany

0211-4332-85

67

The Information of TCP


Manufacturer: Kyushu Matsushita Electric Co., Ltd.
Area

Address

Tel No.

Fax No.

CHICAGO

1240 Landmeier Rd.


Elk Grove Village, IL 60007

(708) 822-7262

(708) 952-8079

ATLANTA

1080 Holcomb Bridge Rd.


Building 100, Suite 300
Roswell, Georgia 30076

(404) 906-1515

(404) 998-9830

SAN JOSE

177 Bovet Road, Suite 600


San Mateo, CA 99402

(415) 608-0317

(415) 341-1395

LONDON

238/246 King Street, London W6 ORF


United Kingdom

(081) 748-2447

(081) 846-9580

SINGAPORE

1 Scotts Road, #21-10/13 Shaw Centre


Singapore 0922

7387681

7325238

SEOUL

2ND Floor, Donghwa Bldg.


454-5, Dokok-1 Dong, Kangnam-Ku,
Seoul, Korea

(02) 571-2911

(02) 571-2910

TAIWAN

6TH, FL., 360, FU HSING 1ST ROAD,


KWEISHAN, TAOYUAN HSIEN,
TAIWAN

(03) 328-7070

(03) 328-7080
(03) 328-7090

MALAYSIA

KUALALUMPUR BRANCH
8TH FLOOR, WISMA LEE RUBBER,
JAPAN MELAKA, 50100
KUALALUMPUR

(03) 291-0066

(03) 291-8002

BANGKOK

20TH FL., Thaniya Plaza Bldg, 52


Silom Road, Bangrak, BANGKOK,
10500 THAILAND

(02) 231-2345

(02) 231-2342

Manufacturer: Japan Abionis Co., Ltd.


Area

Address

Tel No.

Fax No.

Worldwide

Overseas Department
Contact: Mr. K. Asami, or Mr. K. Ito

81-3-3501-7358

81-3-3504-2829

68

The Information of TCP


TCP Tape Manufacturers
Manufacturer: Hitachi Cable Ltd.
Area

Address

Tel No.

Fax No.

U.S.A.

HITACHI CABLE AMERICA INC.

1-914-993-0991

001-1-914-993-0997

Europe

HITACHI CABLE
INTERNATIONAL, LTD. (LONDON)

001-44-71-4397223

001-44-71-494-1956

Sigapore

HITACHI CABLE
INTERNATIONAL, LTD (SINGAPORE)

001-65-2681146

001-65-2680461

Hong Kong

HITACHI CABLE
INTERNATIONAL, LTD (HONG KONG)

001-852-721-2077

001-852-369-3472

Manufacturer: Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd.


Area

Address

Tel No.

Fax No.

U.S.A.

MITSUI MINING AND


SMELTING CO., (USA) INC.

212-679-9300 to 2

212-679-9303

Europe

MITSUI MINING AND


SMELTING CO., LTD. London Office

71-405-7717 to 8

71-405-0227

Asia

MITSUI MINING AND


SMELTING CO., LTD. MICROCIRCUIT
DIVISION

03-3246-8079

03-3246-8063

Manufacturer: Shindo Company Ltd.


Area

Address

Tel No.

Fax No.

U.S.A.

SHINDO COMPANY LTD.,


U.S. BRANCH OFFICE
2635 NORTH FIRST ST., STE. 124
SAN JOSE, CA 95134 U.S.A.

408-435-0808

408-435-0809

69

The Information of TCP


Aeolotropy Conductive Film Manufacturers
Manufacturer: Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd.
Area

Address

Tel No.

Fax No.

USA

Hitachi Chemical Co., America, Ltd.


4 International Drive, Rye Brook,
NY 10573, U.S.A.

(914) 934-2424

(914) 934-8991

Europe

Hitachi Chemical Europe GmbH.


Immermannstr. 43, D-4000
Dsseldorf 1, F. R. Germany

(211) 35-0366 to 9

(211) 16-1634

S.E. Asia

Hitachi Chemical Asia-Pacific Pte, Ltd.


51 Bras Basah Road, #08-04
Plaza By The Park, Singapore 0718

337-2408

337-7132

Taiwan

Hitachi Chemical Taipei Office


Room No. 1406, Chia Hsin Bldg.,
No. 96, Sec. 2, Chung Shang Road N,
Taipei, Taiwan

(2) 581-3632,
(2) 561-3810

(2) 521-7509

Beijing

Hitachi Chemical Beijing Office


Room No. 1207, Beijing Fortune Building,
5 Dong, San Huan Bei-Lu, Chao Yang
District, Beijing, China

(1) 501-4331 to 2

(1) 501-4333

Hong Kong

Hitachi Chemical Co., (Hong Kong) Ltd.


(3) 66-9304 to 7
Room 912, Houston Centre, 63 Mady Road,
Tsimshatsui East, Kowloon, Hong Kong

(3) 723-3549

Manufacturer: Sony Chemicals


Area

Address

Tel No.

Fax No.

U.S.A.

SONY CHEMICALS
CORPORATION OF AMERICA

1-(708) 616-0070

1-(708) 616-0073

Europe

SONY CHEMICALS
EUROPE B.V.

31-20-658-1850

31-20-659-8481

Southeast Asia

SONY CHEMICALS
SINGAPORE PTE LTD.

65-382-1500

65-382-1750

References
1. KAPTON V Catalog
2. UPILEX S Catalog

Du Pont-Toray Co., Ltd.

3. Electro-deposited Foil Comparison List

Mitsui Mining Smelting Co., Ltd.

Ube Industries, Ltd.


Electronic Devices Group

4. Hitachi Anisotropic Discharge Film

Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd.


1992.7.21

70

HD66108T00
HD66108TA0
HD66108TA1
HD66108TB0
HD66110STB2
HD66110STB4
HD66110STB5
HD66110STB8
HD66110STC0
HD66110STC1
HD66110STC2
HD66110STC3
HD66112TA2
HD66113TA0
HD66113TA1
HD66115TA0
HD66115TA3
HD66120TA3
HD66120TA4
HD66130TB0
HD66131TB0
HD66132TA3
HD66132TA3
HD66134TA1
HD66135TA1
HD66300T00
HD66322TA0
HD66330TA0
HD66410TA0
HD66410TB0
HD66420TA0
HD66503TA0
HD66503TB0
HD66520TA0
HD66520TB0
HD66522TA0
HD66523TA0
HD66705UxxxTA0
HD66712xxxTA0
HD66717xxxTA0
HD66717xxxTA1
HD66717xxxTA2
HD66724xxxTA0
HD66727xxxTA0
HD66731xxxTA0
HD66731xxxTB0
within RAM driver
within RAM driver
within RAM driver
within RAM driver
Column
Column
Column
Column
Column
Column
Column
Column
Column
Common
Common
Common
Common
Column
Column
Column
Common
Column
Common
Column
Common
TFT analog
TFT digital
TFT 64 gray scale
within RAM driver
within RAM driver
within RAM driver
Common
Common
within RAM driver
within RAM driver
within RAM driver
Common
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver

Function

165
165
165
165
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
120
120
160
160
240
240
320
240
240
120
240
120
120
384
192
188
188
240
240
240
160
160
160
240
110
93
109
110
110
100
110
141
176

Bending- No. of
Output
TCP

400
280
400
250
92
80
180
200
220
240
260
280
88
190
240
180
250
70
74
150
200
70
190
70
190
300
85, 80, 65
160
300
200
240
200
200
200
200
200
240
240
240
220
240
240
260
260
240
200
2
5.34
2
8.5
2.6
2.19
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
1.9
3.3
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.6
2.1
2.6
2.9
3
3.3
3.3
2.1
2.8
3
6.2
3
6.2
2.7
2.8
2.8
3.3
3.3
2.8
2.8
3
2.7
3
3.1
0.4
0.8
0.4
0.65
0.5
0.45
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.5
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.8
1.8
0.7
0.8
0.6
0.8
0.8
0.4
0.65
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.8
0.65
0.65
0.5
0.65
0.65
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.8

Output Lead Output Lead Input Lead


Pitch
Length
Pitch
(m)
(mm)
(mm)

E
F

2
2.7
2
2
1.2
1
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
0.9
1.5
1.2
1.5
1.5
1
1
1.5
1.5
1.3
1.2
0.9
1.2
3
3
1.5
2.5
2.5
2
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.1
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
20.7
51
20.7
46
15.6
16.6
32
35.3
38.17
41
44.71
48
17.6
24.5
31.8
32.4
44
20.08
20.28
55.25
55.8
19.6
24.5
19.6
24.5
46
32.4
35.3
58.7
38.8
59.73
52
56.2
36
38.2
36
61
28
25.2
25.2
28
28
26.9
32
36.4
38
31.8
23.3
31.8
23.6
9.3
7.3
10.7
10.85
11.12
11.25
11.4
11.5
5.5
10.5
9
11
11.6
7.3
7.6
16.8
17.9
5.5
10.5
5.5
9.5
21.5
33.25
11.7
16.78
21.58
15.15
15.4
19.55
17.8
21.3
12.55
16.13
12.6
17.4
12.55
12.6
12.6
12.75
12.6
16.7
20.6

Input Lead User Area User Area


Length
Width
Length
(mm)
(mm)
(mm)

35
35
35
35
35
35
70
70
48
48
70
70
35
35
48
70
70
35
35
70
70
35
35
35
35
35
48
70
70
48
70
70
70
70
70
48
70
35
35
35
35
35
35
48
48
48

Tape
Width
(mm)

Table 7

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

No. Product

TCP Dimension Symbol

The Information of TCP

Hitach Standard TCP Product Structure

Hitachi can provide the standard TCP products listed in Table 7.

Figure 19 shows the structures of the standard TCP.


Hitachi Standard TCP Product Specifications

71

The Information of TCP


No. Product
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

HD66108T00
HD66108TA0
HD66108TA1
HD66108TB0
HD66110STB2
HD66110STB4
HD66110STB5
HD66110STB8
HD66110STC0
HD66110STC1
HD66110STC2
HD66110STC3
HD66112TA2
HD66113TA0
HD66113TA1
HD66115TA0
HD66115TA3
HD66120TA3
HD66120TA4
HD66130TB0
HD66131TB0
HD66132TA3
HD66133TA0
HD66134TA1
HD66135TA1
HD66300T00
HD66322TA0
HD66330TA0
HD66410TA0
HD66410TB0
HD66420TA0
HD66503TA0
HD66503TB0
HD66520TA0
HD66520TB0
HD66522TA0
HD66523TA0
HD66705UxxxTA0
HD66712xxxTA0
HD66717xxxTA0
HD66717xxxTA1
HD66717xxxTA2
HD66724xxxTA0
HD66727xxxTA0
HD66731xxxTA0
HD66731xxxTB0

Function

No. of
Perforrations

Tape*
Material

Adhesive

Copper foil

Copper foil
thicness
(um)

within RAM driver


within RAM driver
within RAM driver
within RAM driver
Column
Column
Column
Column
Column
Column
Column
Column
Column
Common
Common
Common
Common
Column
Column
Column
Common
Column
Common
Column
Common
TFT analog
TFT digital
TFT 64 gray scale
within RAM driver
within RAM driver
within RAM driver
Common
Common
within RAM driver
within RAM driver
160ch column driver
240ch column driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver
Controller/driver

8
12
8
11
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
4
3
4
5
3
3
3
3
10
7
4
4
5
4
4
5
5
5
3
4
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
4
5

K
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
K
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U

Toray #5900
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X
Toray #5900
Toray #7100
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
Toray #7100
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-E
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X
TOMOEGAWA-X

Rolled copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Rolled copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper
Electro-deposited copper

35
35
35
35
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
18
25
18
25
25
18
18
18
18
18
25
18
25
35
18
25
25
25
18
25
25
25
25
25
18
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25

Note: Tape material: K = Kapton, U = Upilex


Kapton is a trademark of Dupont, Ltd.
Upilex is a trademark of Ube Industries, Ltd.

72

The Information of TCP

HD66108T00 only

A
G

E
C

F
73

The Information of TCP


Figure 19 Structures of the standard TCP

74

Chip Shipment Products


COB (chip on board) and COG (chip on glass) products form only a small percentage of the thin form and
miniature mounting products shipped. However, these products, which are referred to here as chip
shipment products, involve shipping unmounted chips from the factory.
Since chip shipment products are treated as semi-finished products, there will be differences between their
quality guarantee ranges and electrical characteristics items and those published for the packaged (i.e.,
complete) products. The differences in the quality guarantee ranges, electrical characteristics items, and
visual inspection are described in the CAS (customer approval specifications). Product functionality and
operation is completely identical to the complete (packaged) product.
This section describes the standard shipment specifications for chip shipment products. The actual shipment
stipulations will be those mentioned or stipulated in the CAS for the individual products.

1. Electrical Characteristics and Quality Level


As mentioned above, the quality guarantee ranges and electrical characteristics for chip shipment products
differ from those for standard products. Refer to the CAS for the individual products for specific details.
The basic differences are as follows.
1.1 Electrical Characteristics
The electrical characteristics for chip shipment products are guaranteed at the single point Ta = 75C.
1.2 Quality Level
Electrical characteristics: AQL 4.0%
Visual inspection:
AQL 4.0%
(The specific details for visual inspection and other items are contained in the CAS.)

2. Chip Packing Specifications


2.1 Delivery Units
Delivery unit counts (lot size) range from a minimum of 100 units to 10,000 units.
2.2 Packing Specifications
Trays are vacuum packed and sealed with up to 24 trays in a single pack. All the chip products in a given
pack will be from the same production lot. Figure 1 shows the chip shipment product packing. Chip
products are stored in the trays protected by a sheet of protective paper.

75

Chip Shipment Products


2.3 Markings
The following items will be marked on each tray.
1. Product number
2. Lot number
3. Count
4. Inspection certification seal
The following items will be marked on each pack.
1. Product number
2. Disbursement lot number
3. Count
4. Inspection certification seal
The following items will be marked on the outer packing.
1. Product number
2. Disbursement lot number
3. Count
4. Inspection certification seal
If possible, please return empty trays to your Hitachi sales representative.

3. Storage Specifications
After delivery and after opening the transport packaging, chip shipment products must be stored in a
manner that does not cause their electrical, physical, or mechanical properties to degrade due to humidity or
reactive gas contamination.
We recommend the following storage conditions for these products.
3.1 When Stored in the Packed State
Storage conditions: In dry Nitrogen, at 30C (30 degrees below zero, Celsius)
Storage period:
Six months
The date of the inspection certification seal shall be used as the start of the storage period.

76

Chip Shipment Products


3.2 When Stored after Die Bonding or Wire Bonding
Storage condition 1:

Temperature: under 30C,


Humidity: under 70%, Airborne particles: less than 5000 per cubic foot
Storage period 1:
Seven days
Storage conditions 2: In dry Nitrogen, at 30C
Storage period 2:
20 days
Cardboard box (cover)

Product tag

Urethane foam
Product tag

Product tag

Silica gel

Urethane foam

Vacuum pack

Cardboard box

51

51

Chip tray

(Unit: mm)

Figure 1 Chip Packing

77

Chip Shipment Products


4. Chip Shape Specifications
See Figure 2.

5. Products Available as Chip Shipment Products


Hitachi, Ltd. currently provides the products listed in Table 1 as chip shipment products. Refer to each data
sheet for their respective chip sizes and bonding pad layouts.
Table 1

Chip Shipment Product Table

Product No.

Base Product No.

HCD44780Uxxx

HD44780UxxxFS

HCD61202U

HD61202UFS

HCD61203U

HD61203UFS

HCD66002

HD66002FS

HCD66206

HD66206TE

HCD66110SBP

HD66110ST

HCD66113BP

HD66113T

HCD66116BP

HD66115T

HCD66120BP

HD66120T

HCD66130BP

HD66130T

HCD66131BP

HD66131T

HCD66132BP

HD66132T

HCD66133BP

HD66133T

HCD66134BP

HD66134T

HCD66135BP

HD66135T

HCD66410BP

HD66410T

HCD66420BP

HD66420

HCD66503BP

HD66503

HCD66520BP

HD66520

HCD66522BP

HD66522

HCD66523BP

HD66523

HCD66524BP

HD66524

HCD66321

HD66321

HCD66702Rxxx

HD66702RxxxF

HCD66705UxxxBP

HD66705Uxxx

HCD66710xxx

HD66710xxx

HCD66712Uxxx

HD66712Uxxx

78

Chip Shipment Products


Table 1

Chip Shipment Product Table (cont)

Product No.

Base Product No.

HCD66717xxx

HD66717xxx

HCD66717xxxBP

HD66717xxx

HCD66720xxx

HD66720xxx

HCD66724xxx

HD66724xxx

HCD66727xxx

HD66727xxx

HCD66727xxxBP

HD66727xxx

HCD66730xxx

HD66730xxx

HCD66731xxx

HD66731xxx

HCD66731xxxBP

HD66731xxx

HCD66100D

HD66100

HCD66108BP

HD66108

Min. 220
400 30
Max. 150
x, y

Surface shape maximum values

X direction: x + 250
Y direction: y + 250

(unit: m)

( x and y are the chip dimensions)

Figure 2 Chip Cross-Section

79

Chip Shipment Products

80

Reliability and Quality Assurance


1. Views on Quality and Reliability
Hitachis basic quality aims are to meet individual users purchase purpose and quality required, and to be
at a satisfactory quality level considering general marketability. Quality required by users is specifically
clear if the contract specification is provided. If not, quality required is not always definite. In both cases,
Hitachi tries to assure reliability so that semiconductor devices delivered can perform their function in
actual operating circumstances. To realize this quality in the manufacturing process, the key points should
be to establish a quality control system in the process and to enhance the quality ethic.
In addition, quality required by users of semiconductor devices is going toward higher levels as
performance of electronic system in the market is increasing and expanding in size and application fields.
To cover the situation, Hitachi is performing the following:
1. Building in reliability in design at the stage of new product development.
2. Building in quality at the sources of the manufacturing process.
3. Executing stricter inspection and reliability confirmation of final products.
4. Making quality levels higher with field data feedback.
5. Cooperating with research laboratories for higher quality and reliability.
With the views and methods mentioned above, utmost efforts are made to meet users requirements.

2. Reliability Design of Semiconductor Devices


2.1 Reliability Targets
The reliability target is the important factor in manufacture and sales as well as performance and price. It is
not practical to rate reliability targets with failure rates under certain common test conditions. The
reliability target is determined corresponding to the character of equipment taking design, manufacture,
inner process quality control, screening and test method, etc. into consideration, and considering the
operating circumstances of equipment the semiconductor device is used in, reliability target of the system,
derating applied in design, operating condition, maintenance, etc.

81

Reliability and Quality Assurance


2.2 Reliability Design
To achieve the reliability required based on reliability targets, timely study and execution of design
standardization, device design (including process design, structure design), design review, reliability test
are essential.
2.2.1 Design Standardization
Establishment of design rules, and standardization of parts, material and process are necessary. To establish
design rules, critical quality and reliability items are always studied at circuit design, device design, layout
design, etc. Therefore, as long as standardized process, material, etc. are used, reliability risk is extremely
small even in newly developed devices, except in cases where special functions are needed.
2.2.2 Device Design
It is important in device design to consider the total balance of process design, structure design, circuit and
layout design. Especially when new processes and new materials are employed, careful technical study is
executed prior to device development.
2.2.3 Reliability Evaluation by Test Site
Test site is sometimes called test pattern. It is a useful method for design and process reliability evaluation
of ICs and LSIs which have complicated functions.
Purposes of test site are:
Marking fundamental failure mode clear
Analysis of relation between failure mode and manufacturing process condition
Search for failure mechanism analysis
Establishment of QC point in manufacturing
Evaluation by test site is effective because:
Common fundamental failure mode and failure mechanism in devices can be evaluated.
Factors dominating failure mode can be picked up, and comparison can be made with processes that
have been experienced in field.
Relation between failure causes and manufacturing factors can be analyzed.
Easy to run tests.
Etc.

82

Reliability and Quality Assurance


2.3 Design Review
Design review is an organized method to confirm that a design satisfies the required performance
(including users) and that design work follows the specified methods, and whether or not improved
technical items accumulated in test data of individual major fields and field data are effectively built in. In
addition, from the standpoint of enhancement of the competitive power of products, the major purpose of
the design review is to ensure quality and reliability of the products. In Hitachi, design reviews are
preformed from the planning stage for new products and even for design changed products. Items discussed
and determined at design review are as follows:
1. Description of the products based on specified design documents.
2. From the standpoint of the specialties of individual participants, design documents are studied, and if
unclear matter is found, calculation, experiments, investigation, etc. will be carried out.
3. Determine contents of reliability and methods, etc. based on design documents and drawings.
4. Check process ability of manufacturing line to achieve design goal.
5. Discussion about preparation for production.
6. Planning and execution of subprograms for design changes proposed by individual specialists, and for
tests, experiments and calculation to confirm the design changes.
7. Reference of past failure experiences with similar devices, confirmation of methods to prevent them,
and planning and execution of test programs for confirmation of them. These studies and decisions are
made using check lists made individually depending on the objects.

3. Quality Assurance System of Semiconductor Devices


3.1 Activity of Quality Assurance
General views of overall quality assurance in Hitachi are:
1. Problems in an individual process should be solved in the process. Therefore, at final product stage, the
potential failure factors have been already removed.
2. Feedback of information should be used to ensure satisfactory level of process capability.
3. To assure required reliability as a result of the items mentioned above is the purpose of quality
assurance.
The following discusses device design, quality approval at mass production, inner process quality control,
product inspection and reliability tests.

83

Reliability and Quality Assurance


3.2 Quality Approval
To ensure required quality and reliability, quality approval is carried out at the trial production stage of
device design and the mass production stage based on reliability design as described in section 2.
Hitachis views on quality approval are:
1. A third party must perform approval objectively from the standpoint of customers.
2. Fully consider past failure experiences and information from the field.
3. Approval is needed for design change or work change.
4. Intensive approval is executed on parts material and process.
5. Study process capability and variation factor, and set up control points at mass production stage.
Considering the views mentioned above, Figure 1 shows how quality approval is performed.
3.3 Quality and Reliability Control at Mass Production
For quality assurance of products in mass production, quality control execution is divided organically by
function between manufacturing department and quality assurance department, and other related
departments. The total function flow is shown in Figure 2. The main points are described below.
3.3.1 Quality Control of Parts and Material
As the performance and the reliability of semiconductor devices improve, the importance of quality control
of material and parts (crystal, lead frame, fine wire for wire bonding, package) to build products, and
materials needed in manufacturing process (mask pattern and chemicals) increases. Besides quality
approval on parts and materials stated in section 3.2, the incoming inspection is also key in quality control
of parts and materials. The incoming inspection is performed based on an incoming inspection
specification, following purchase specification and drawings, and sampling inspection is executed based
mainly on MIL-STD-105D.
The other activities of quality assurance are as follows:
1. Outside vendor technical information meeting
2. Approval on outside vendors, and guidance of outside vendors
3. Physical chemical analysis and test
The typical check points of parts and materials are shown in Table 1.

84

Reliability and Quality Assurance


Step

Contents

Target
specification
Design
trial
production

Purpose

Design review

Materials,
parts approval

Characteristics approval

Characteristics of materials
and parts
Appearance
Dimension
Heat resistance
Mechanical
Electrical
Others
Electrical characteristics
Function
Voltage
Current
Temperature
Others
Appearance, dimension

Confirmation of
characteristics and
reliability of materials
and parts

Confirmation of target
spec. (mainly
electrical characteristics)

Quality approval (1)

Reliability test
Life test
Thermal stress
Moisture resistance
Mechanical stress
Others

Confirmation of quality
and reliability in design

Quality approval (2)

Reliabilty test
Process check (same as
quality approval (1))

Confirmation of quality
and reliability in mass
production

Mass
production

Fiture 1 Quality Approval Flowchart

85

Reliability and Quality Assurance


3.3.2 Inner Process Quality Control
Inner process quality control performs a very important function in quality assurance of a semiconductor
device. The following is a description of control of semifinal products, final products, manufacturing
facilities, measuring equipments, circumstances and submaterials. The quality control in the manufacturing
process is shown in Figure 3 corresponding to the manufacturing process.
1. Quality control of semifinal products and final production products
Potential failure factors of semiconductor devices should be removed in manufacturing process. To
achieve this, check points are setup in each process, and products that have potential failure factors are
not transferred to the next process. For high reliability semiconductor devices, especially manufacturing
line is carefully selected, and the quality control in the manufacturing process is tightly executed: Strict
check on each process and each lot, 100% inspection to remove failure factor caused by manufacturing
variation, and necessary screening, such as high temperature aging and temperature cycling. Contents of
inner process quality control are:

86

Reliability and Quality Assurance


Process

Quality control

Method

Material, parts
Material,
parts

Inspection
of material and
parts

Manufacturing

Inspection of material and


parts for semiconductor
devices

Lot sampling and


confirmation of
quality level

Manufacturing equipment,
environment, submaterial,
worker control

Confirmation of
quality level

Screening

Inner process quality


control

Lot sampling and


confirmation of
quality level

100% inspection

100% inspection of
appearance and electrical
characteristics

Testing and
inspection

Products
inspection

Sampling inspection on
appearance and electrical
characteristics

Lot sampling

Reliability test

Confirmation of
quality level,
lot sampling

Products

Lot
assurance
test

Receiving
Feedback of
information
Shipment

Customer

Quality information
Claim
Field experience
General quality
Information

Figure 2 Flowchart of quality Control in Manufacturing Process

87

Reliability and Quality Assurance


Condition control on individual equipment and workers, and sampling check of semifinal products
Proposal and carrying-out of work improvement
Education of workers
Maintenance and improvement of yield
Detection of quality problems, and execution of countermeasures
Transmission of information about quality
2. Quality control of manufacturing facilities and measuring equipment
Equipment for manufacturing semiconductor devices has been developing extraordinarily, with required
high performance devices and production improvements. They are important factors to determine
quality and reliability. In Hitachi, automation of manufacturing equipment is promoted to improve
manufacturing variation, and controls maintain proper operation and function of high performance
equipment. Maintenance inspection for quality control is performed daily based on related
specifications, and also periodical inspections. At the inspection, inspection points listed in the
specification are checked one by one to avoid any omissions. During adjustment and maintenance of
measuring equipment, maintenance number and specifications are checked one by one to maintain and
improve quality.
3. Quality control of manufacturing circumstances and submaterials
Quality and reliability of semiconductor devices is greatly affected by manufacturing process.
Therefore, manufacturing circumstances (temperature, humidity, dust) and the control of submaterials
(gas, pure water) used in manufacturing process are intensively controlled. Dust control is described in
more detail below.
Dust control is essential to realize higher integration and higher reliability of devices. In Hitachi,
maintenance and improvement of cleanness and manufacturing site cleanness are executed paying close
attention to buildings, facilities, airconditioning systems, packaging materials, clothes, work, etc., and
periodical inspection for floating dust in room, falling dust, and floor dust.
3.3.3 Final product Inspection and Reliability Assurance
1. Final product inspection
Lot inspection is done by quality assurance department for products that were judged to be 100% good
in tests, which is the final process in the manufacturing department. Though 100% good products is
expected, sampling inspection is executed to prevent inclusion of failed products by mistake, etc. The
inspection is executed not only to confirm that the products meet users requirements, but to consider
potential trouble factors. Lot inspection is executed based on MIL-STD-105D.
2. Reliability assurance tests
To assure reliability of semiconductor devices, periodical reliability tests and reliability tests on
individual manufacturing lots required by user are performed.

88

Reliability and Quality Assurance


Table 1

Quality Control Check Points of Material and Parts (Example)

Material, Parts

Important Control Items

Points to Check

wafer

Appearance
Dimension
Sheet resistance
Defect density
Crystal axis

Damage and contamination on surface


Flatness
Resistance
Defect numbers

Mask

Appearance
Dimension
Registration
Gradation

Defect numbers, scratch


Dimension level

Appearance
Dimension
Purity
Elongation ratio

Contaminatin, scratch, bend, twist

Appearance
Dimension
Processing accuracy
Plating
Mounting characteristics

Contamination, scratch
Dimension level

Appearance
Dimension
Leak resistance
Plating
Mounting characteristics
Electrical characteristics
Mechanical strength

Contamination, scratch
Dimension level
Airtightness
Bondability, solderability
Heat resistance

Composition
Electrical characteristics
Thermal characteristics
Molding performance
Mounting characteristics

Characteristics of plastic material

Fine wire for wire


bonding

Frame

Ceramic package

Plastic

Uniformity of gradation

Purity level
Mechanical strength

Bondability, solderability
Heat resistance

Mechanical strength

Molding performance
Mounting characteristics

89

Reliability and Quality Assurance


Process

Control Point

Purpose of Control

Characteristics, appearance

Scratch, removal of crystal


defect wafer

Purchase of material
Wafer

Wafer
Surface oxidation

Oxidation

Inspection of surface
oxidation
Photo resist

Assurance of resistance
Appearance, thickness of
oxide film

Pinhole, scratch

Dimension, appearance

Dimension level

Photo
resist

Inspection of photo resist


PQC level check

Check of photo resist


Diffusion

Diffusion depth, sheet


resistance

Diffusion status

Gate width
Characteristics of oxide
film, breakdown voltage

Control of basic parameters


(VTH, etc.) cleanness of surface
Prior check of VTH
Breakdown voltage check

Evaporation

Thickness of vapor film,


scratch, contamination

Assurance of standard
thickness

Wafer inspection

Wafer

Thickness, VTH characteristics Prevention of cracks,


quality assurance of scribe

Inspection of chip
electrical characteristics

Chip

Electrical characteristics

Diffusion
Inspection of diffusion
PQC level check
Evaporation
Inspection of evaporation
PQC level check

Appearance of chip

Chip scribe
Inspection of chip
appearance
PQC lot judgement
Frame
Assembling

Assembling

PQC level check


Inspection after assembling

Appearance after chip


bonding
Appearance after wire
bonding
Pull strength, compression
width, shear strength

Quality check of chip


bonding
Quality check of wire
bonding
Prevention of open and
short

Appearance after assembling

PQC lot judgement


Package
Sealing
PQC level check

Sealing

Appearance after sealing


Outline, dimension

Marking

Marking strength

Guarantee of appearance
and dimension

Final electrical inspection


Failure analysis

Analysis of failures,
failure mode, mechanism

Feedback of analysis
information

Appearance inspection
Sampling inspection of
products
Receiving
Shipment

Figure 3 Example of Inter Process Quality Control

90

Reliability and Quality Assurance


Customer
Claim
(failures, information)
Sales dept.
Sales engineering dept.

Failure analysis
Quality assurance dept.

Design dept.

Manufacturing dept.

Countermeasures,
execution of
countermeasures

Report

Quality assurance dept.

Follow-up and confirmation


of countermeasure execution

Report

Sales engineering dept.


Reply

Customer

Figure 4 Process Flowchart of Field Failure

91

Reliability Test Data of LCD Drivers


1. Introduction
The use of liquid crystal displays with microcomputer application systems has been increasing, because of
their low power consumption, freedom in display pattern design, and thin shape. Low power consumption
and high density packaging have been achieved through the use of the CMOS process and the flat plastic
packages, respectively.
This chapter describes reliability and quality assurance data for Hitachi LCD driver LSIs based on test data
and failure analysis results.

2. Chip and Package Structure


The Hitachi LCD driver LSI family uses low power CMOS technology and flat plastic package. The Sigate process is used for high reliability and high density. Chip structure and basic circuit are shown in
Figure 1, and package structure is shown in Figure 2.

PSG

P+

Gate

Al

N+

P+

N+
P-Well

SiO2 Source

Drain
FET2

S
G

P-channel
EMOS

FET1
D
D
FET2

N-channel
EMOS

G
S

Figure 1 Chip Structure and Basic Circuit

93

Reliability Test Data of LCD Drivers


Chip

Plastic

Bonding wire

Lead

Figure 2 Package Structure

3. Reliability Test Results


The test results of LCD driver LSI family are shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3.
Table 1

Test Result 1, High Temperature Operation (Ta = 125C, VCC = 5.5V)

Device

Sample Size

Component Hour

Failure

HD44780

90

90,000

HD66100F

45

45,000

HD61202U

50

50,000

HD61203U

40

40,000

HD64646F

32

32,000

HD66841

45

45,000

HD61830

40

40,000

HD61830B

40

40,000

Table 2

Test Result 2

Test Item

Test Condition

Sample
Size

Component
Hour
Failure

High temp, storage

Ta = 150C, 1000h

180

180,000

Low temp, storage

Ta = 55C, 1000h

140

140,000

Steady state humidity

65C, 95% RH, 100h

860

860,000

1*

Steady state humidity, biased

85C, 90% RH, 1000h

165

170,000

2*

Pressure cooker

121C, 2 atm. 100h

200

20,000

Note: Aluminum corrosion

94

Reliability Test Data of LCD Driver


Table 3

Test Results 3

Test Items

Test Condition

Sample Size

Failure

Thermal chock

0 to 100C
10 cycles

108

Temperature cycling

55C to 150C
10 cycles

678

Soldering heat

260C, 10 seconds

283

Resistance to VPS

215C, 30 seconds

88

Solderability

230C, 5 seconds

140

4. Quality Data from Field Use


Field failure rate is estimated in advance through production process evaluation and reliability tests. Past
field data on similar devices provides the basis for this estimation. Quality information from the users is
indispensable to the improvement of product quality. Therefore, field data on products delivered to the
users is followed up carefully. On the basis of information furnished by the user, failure analysis is
conducted and the results are quickly fed back to the design and production divisions.
Failure analysis results on MOS LSIs returned to Hitachi is shown in Figure 3.

Damaged by
excessive
voltage and/or
current (26.7%)
Good
devices
(38.8%)

Sample
size
3,873

Others
13.8%

Assembly
(3.1%)
Marginal
14.5%

Poor functional
test pattern
(3.1%)

Figure 3 Failure Analysis Result

95

Reliability Test Data of LCD Drivers


5. Precautions
5.1 Storage
It is preferable to store semiconductor devices in the following ways to prevent deterioration in their
electrical characteristics, solderability, and appearance, or breakage.
1. Store in an ambient temperature of 5 to 30C, and in a relative humidity of 40 to 60%.
2. Store in a clean air environment, free from dust and reactive gas.
3. Store in a container that does not induce static electricity.
4. Store without any physical load.
5. If semiconductor devices are stored for a long time, store them in unfabricated form. If their lead wires
are formed beforehand, bent parts may corrode during storage.
6. If the chips are unsealed, store them in a cool, dry, dark, and dustless place. Assemble them within 5
days after unpacking. Storage in nitrogen gas is desirable. They can be stored for 20 days or less in dry
nitrogen gas with a dew point at 30C or lower. Unpackaged devices must not be stored for over 3
months.
7. Take care not to allow condensation during storage due to rapid temperature changes.
5.2 Transportation
As with storage methods, general precautions for other electronic component parts are applicable to the
transportation of semiconductors, semiconductor-incorporating units and other similar systems. In addition,
the following considerations must be taken, too:
1. Use containers or jugs which will not induce static electricity as the result of vibration during
transportation. It is desirable to use an electrically conductive container or aluminium foil.
2. Prevent device breakage from clothes-induced static electricity.
3. When transporting the printed circuit boards on which semiconductor devices are mounted, suitable
preventive measures against static electricity induction must be taken; for example, voltage built-up is
prevented by shorting terminal circuit. When a conveyor belt is used, prevent the conveyor belt from
being electrically charged by applying some surface treatment.
4. When transporting semiconductor devices or printed circuit boards, minimize mechanical vibration and
shock.

96

Reliability Test Data of LCD Driver


5.3 Handling for Measurement
Avoid static electricity, noise, and surge voltage when measuring semiconductor devices are measured. It is
possible to prevent breakage by shorting their terminal circuits to equalize electrical potential during
transportation. However, when the devices are to be measured or mounted, their terminals are left open
providing the possibility that they may be accidentally touched by a worker, measuring instrument, work
bench, soldering iron, conveyor belt, etc. The device will fail if it touches something that leaks current or
has a static charge. Take care not to allow curve tracers, synchroscopes, pulse generators, D.C. stabilizing
power supply units, etc. to leak current through their terminals or housings.
Especially, while testing the devices, take care not to apply surge voltage from the tester, to attach a
clamping circuit to the tester, or not to apply any abnormal voltage through a bad contact from a current
source. During measurement, avoid miswiring and short-circuiting. When inspecting a printed circuit
board, make sure that there is no soldering bridge or foreign matter before turning on the power switch.
Since these precautions depend upon the types of semiconductor devices, contact Hitachi for further details.

97

Reliability Test Data of LCD Drivers

98

Flat Plastic Package (QFP)


Mounting Methods
Surface Mounting Package Handling Precautions
1. Package Temperature Distribution
The most common method used for mounting a surface mounting device is infrared reflow. Since the
package is made of a black epoxy resin, the portion of the package directly exposed to the infrared heat
source will absorb heat faster and thus rise in temperature more quickly than other parts of the package
unless precautions are taken. As shown in the example in Figure 1, the surface directly facing the infrared
heat source is 20 to 30C higher than the leads being soldered and 40 to 50C higher than the bottom of
the package. If soldering is performed under these conditions, package cracks may occur.
To avoid this type of problem, it is recommended that an aluminum infrared heat shield be placed over the
resin surface of the package. By using a 2-mm thick aluminum heat shield, the top and bottom surfaces of
the resin can be held to 175C when the peak temperature of the leads is 240C.
2. Package Moisture Absorption
The epoxy resin used in plastic packages will absorb moisture if stored in a high-humidity environment. If
this moisture absorption becomes excessive, there will be sudden vaporization during soldering, causing the
interface of the resin and lead frame to spread apart. In extreme cases, package cracks will occur.
Therefore, especially for thin packages, it is important that moisture-proof storage be used.
To remove any moisture absorbed during transportation, storage, or handling, it is recommended that the
package be baked at 125C for 16 to 24 hours before soldering.
3. Heating and Cooling
One method of soldering electrical parts is the solder dip method, but compared to the reflow method, the
rate of heat transmission is an order of magnitude higher. When this method is used with plastic items,
there is thermal shock resulting in package cracks and a deterioration of moisture-resistant characteristics.
Thus, it is recommended that the solder dip method not be used.
Even with the reflow method, an excessive rate of heating or cooling is undesirable. A rate in temperature
change of less than 4C/sec is recommended.

99

Flat Plastic Package (QFP) Mounting Methods


4. Package Contaminants
It is recommended that a resin-based flux be used during soldering. Acid-based fluxes have a tendency of
leaving an acid residue which adversely affects product reliability. Thus, acid-based fluxes should not be
used.
With resin-based fluxes as well, if a residue is left behind, the leads and other package parts will begin to
corrode. Thus, the flux must be thoroughly washed away. If cleansing solvents used to wash away the flux
are left on the package for an extended period of time, package markings may fade, so care must be taken.
The precautions mentioned above are general points to be observed for reflow. However, specific reflow
conditions will depend on such factors as the package shape, printed circuit board type, reflow method, and
device type. For reference purposes, an example of reflow conditions for a QFP infrared reflow furnace is
given in Figure 2. The values given in the figure refer to the temperature of the package resin, but the leads
must also be limited to a maximum of 260C for 10 seconds or less.
Of the reflow methods, infrared reflow is the most common. In addition, there is also the paper phase
reflow method. The recommended conditions for a paper phase reflow furnace are given in Figure 3.
For details on surface mounting small thin packages, please consult the separate manual available on
mounting. If there are any additional questions, please contact Hitachi, Ltd.

Infrared rays
(Surface)

(Resin)

Temperature (C)

300

250

T 2 T1
T3
(Soler)
T1
T2

200

T3

150

100

60 sec
30 sec
Time (sec)

Figure 1 Temperature Profile During Infrared Heat Soldering (Example)

100

Flat Plastic Package (QFP) Mounting Methods

Temperature

10 sec. max.
235C max
140 to 160C
60 sec

1 to 4C/sec.

1 to 5C/sec
Time

Figure 2 Recommended Reflow Conditions for QFP


30 sec. max.

Temperature

215C

150 to 190C
60 sec

1 to 5C/sec

Time

Figure 3 Example Vapor-Phase Reflow Conditions

101

Flat Plastic Package (QFP) Mounting Methods


Soldering Iron
Method

Reflow Method
(Spare Solder)

Board
Parts

Solder

Board
Solder

Tacking

Soldering
~260C
(10 seconds)

Reflow Method
(Solder Paste)

Flux

Board
Solder paste

Spare solder

Spare
solder
parts

Printing

Flux applying

Tacking

Tacking

Preheating
100 to 150C
(20 seconds)

Washing

(Resin coating)

Preheating
100 to 150C
(20 seconds)
Reflow
235C
(10 seconds)
Reflow
235C
(10 seconds)

Washing

Washing

(Resin coating)

(Resin coating)

Figure 4 Recommended Paper Phase Reflow Conditions

102

Liquid Crystal Driving Methods


Driving a liquid crystal at direct current triggers an electrode reaction inside the liquid cell, degrading
display quality rapidly. The liquid crystal must be driven by alternating current. The AC driving method
includes the static driving method and the multiplex driving method, each of which has features for
different applications. Hitachi has developed different LCD driver devices corresponding to the static
driving method and the multiplex driving method. The following sections describe the features of each
driving method, the driving waveforms, and how to apply bias.

1. Static Driving Method


Figure 1 shows the driving waveforms of the static driving method and an example in which 4 is
displayed by the segment method. The static driving method is the most basic method by which good
display quality can be obtained. However, it is not suitable for liquid displays with many segments because
one liquid crystal driver circuit is required per segment.
The static driving method uses the frame frequency (1/tf) of several tens to several hundreds Hz.

103

Flat Plastic Package (QFP) Mounting Methods


Liquid crystal display
and terminal connection
VDD

COM0

V3

SEGn

VDD

COM0

SEGn+7

V3

SEGn+6
VDD

SEGn+5

V3

COMn+1

SEGn+4

SEGn+3

SEGn+2

SEGn

SEGn+1

V3

n = 0, 1, .........., 5
(n = 0, 1, .........., 7)

0V

COM0SEGn+1
Selected waveform

V3
1 frame
tf
COM0SEGn+1
Non-selected waveform

0V

Figure 1 Example of Static Drive Waveforms (Example of HD61302R/HD61603R)

104

2. Multiplex Driving Method


The multiplex driving method is effective in reducing the number of driver circuits, the number of
connections between the circuit and the display cell, and the cost when driving many display picture
elements. Figure 2 shows a comparison of the static drive with the multiplex drive (1/3 duty cycle) in an 8digit numeric display. The number of liquid crystal driver circuits required is 65 for the former and 27 for
the latter. The multiplex drive reduces the number of driver circuits. However, greater multiplexing reduces
the driving voltage tolerance. Thus, there are limits to the extent of multiplexing.
There are two types of multiplex drive waveforms: A type and B type. A type, shown in Figure 3, is used
for alternation in 1 frame. B type is used for alternation in between 2 frames (Figure 4). B type has better
display quality than A type in high multiplex drive.

Static driving
method

Multiplex driving
method
(1/3 duty cycle)

1f

1a 1b1g 2f 2a 2b 2g

8f

8a 8b 8g

1e

2e
1d 1c 1D.P 2d 2c 2D.P

8e

8d 8c 8D.P

Common

Com1
Com2
Com3

S1

S2

S3 S4S5

S6

S22 S23

S24

Figure 2 Example of Comparison of Static Drive wipth Multiplex Drive

105

Flat Plastic Package (QFP) Mounting Methods


Common

Segment

Common-segment

1 frame

Figure 3 A Type Waveforms (1/3 Duty Cycle, 1/3 Bias)

Common

Segment

Common-segment

1 frame

Figur 4 B Type Waveforms (1/3 Duty Cycle, 1/3 Bias)

106

2.1 1/2 Bias, 1/2 Duty Drive


In the 1/2 duty drive method, 1 driver circuit drives 2 segments. Figure 5 shows an example of the
connection to display 4 on a liquid crystal display of 7-segment type, and the output waveforms.
Liquid crystal display
and terminal connection

VDD
COM0

V1
V2

COM1
VDD
V1
COM1

V2

COM0

VDD
V2

SEGn

VDD

SEGn+3

SEGn+2

SEGn+1

SEGn

SEGn+1

V2

n = 0, 1, .........., 11

V2
V1
0V
V1
V2

COM0SEGn
(selected waveform)

V1
0V
V1

COM0SEGn+1
(non-selected waveform)
1 frame

Figure 5 Example of Waveforms in 1/2 Duty Cycle Drive (B Type)


(Example of HD61602R)

107

Flat Plastic Package (QFP) Mounting Methods


2.2 1/3 Bias, 1/3 Duty Cycle Drive
In the 1/3 duty cycle drive, 3 segments are driven by 1 segment output driver. Figure 6 shows an example
of the connection to display 4 on a liquid crystal display of 7-segment type, and the output waveforms.

Liquid crystal display


and terminal connection

VDD
V1

COM0

V2
V3
VDD
V1
COM2

COM1

V2
V3
VDD
V1
V2

COM1
COM2
COM0

V3
VDD
V1
V2

SEGn

V3
SEGn+1

VDD
V1
V2
V3
VDD
V1
V2

SEGn+2

SEGn+1

SEGn

SEGn+2

V3

n = 0, 1, .........., 16

V3
V2
V1
0V
V1
V2
V3

COM0SEGn
(selected waveform)

V1
0V
V1

COM0SEGn+1
(non-selected waveform)
1 frame

Figure 6 Example of Waveforms in 1/3 Duty Cycle Drive (B Type)


(Example of HD61602R)

108

2.3 1/3 Bias, 1/4 Duty Cycle Drive


In the 1/4 duty cycle drive, 4 segments are driven by 1 segment output driver. Figure 7 shows an example
of the connection to display 4 on a liquid crystal display of 7-segment type, and the output waveforms.

VDD
V1
V2

COM0
Liquid crystal display
and terminal connection

V3

COM3

VDD
V1
V2
V3
VDD
V1
V2
V3
VDD
V1
V2
V3
VDD
V1
V2
V3

COM1

COM2
COM2
COM1
COM0

COM3

SEGn

VDD
V1
V2
V3

SEGn+1

SEGn

SEGn+1
V3
V2
V1

n = 0, 1, .........., 24

0V
V1

COM3SEGn
(selected waveform)

V2
V3
V1
0V
V1

COM0SEGn
(non-selected waveform)
1 frame

Figure 7 Example of Waveforms in 1/4 Duty Cycle Drive (B Type)


(Example of HD61602R)

109

Flat Plastic Package (QFP) Mounting Methods


2.4 1/4 Bias, 1/8 Duty Cycle Drive

COM1

VCC
V1
V2(V3)
V4
V5

COM2

VCC
V1
V2 (V3)
V4
V5

SEG1

VCC
V1
V2 (V3)
V4
V5

SEG2

VCC
V1
V2 (V3)
V4
V5

Liquid crystal display

COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
COM5
COM6
COM7

SEG1
SEG2
SEG3
SEG4
SEG5

COM8

V1 = VCC 1/4VLCD
V2(V3) = VCC 1/2VLCD
V4 = VCC 3/4VLCD
V5 = VCC VLCD

VLCD

* Example of LCD II.


V2 is same voltage as V3.

1/4VLCD
1/4VLCD

COM1SEG1
(selected waveform)

VLCD

1/2VLCD
1/4VLCD
COM2SEG1
(non-selected waveform) 1/4VLCD
1/2VLCD
1 frame

Figure 8 Example of Waveforms in 1/8 Duty Cycle Drive (A Type)


(Example of LCD-II)

110

2.5 1/5 Bias, 1/8 Duty Cycle Drive

Common

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

1/8 duty,
1/5 bias
1 2345

Segment
Common 1

Data

Common 2

Segment 1
Segment 2

Common 1

V6

V5

V2
V1
V2

V5

Liquid crystal display waveforms

Common 2

V6

V1

V2

V4

Segment 1
V3

V1

Between segment 1
and common 1
(display off)
1 frame

Between segment 1
and common 2
(display on)

Figure 9 Example of Waveforms in 1/8 Duty Cycle Drive (A Type)


(Example of HD66002)

111

Flat Plastic Package (QFP) Mounting Methods


2.6 1/5 Bias, 1/16 Duty Cycle Drive

1
Liquid crystal display

COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
COM5
COM6
COM7

16

VCC
V1
V2
COM1 V3
V4
V5
VCC
V1
V2
COM2 V3
V4
V5

COM8
VCC
V1
SEG1 V2
V3
V4
V5

COM9
COM10
COM11
COM12
COM13
COM14
COM15

VCC
V1
SEG2 V2
V3
V4
V5
SEG1
SEG2
SEG3
SEG4
SEG5

COM16

COM1SEG1
(selected waveform)
V1 = VCC 1/5VLCD
V2 = VCC 2/5VLCD
V3 = VCC 3/5VLCD
V4 = VCC 4/5VLCD
V5 = VCC VLCD

VLCD

1/5VLCD
1/5VLCD

VLCD
VLCD
3/5VLCD
1/5VLCD

COM1SEG1
(non-selected waveform)

1/5VLCD
3/5VLCD
VLCD

1 frame

Figure 10 Example of Waveforms in 1/16 Duty Cycle Drive (A Type)


(Example of LCD-II)

112

2.7 1/5 Bias, 1/32 Duty Cycle Drive


32 1 2 3
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
COM5
COM6
COM7
COM8
COM9
COM10
COM11
COM12
COM13
COM14
COM15
COM16
COM17
COM18
COM19
COM20
COM21
COM22
COM23
COM24
COM25
COM26
COM27
COM28
COM29
COM30
COM31
COM32

32 1 2 3

32 1 2

V2
V5
V4
V3
COM1
V6
V1
V2
V5
V4
COM2
V3
V6
V1
V2
V5
V4
SEG1
V3
V6
V1
V2
V5
V4
V3
SEG2 V6
V1
VLCD

COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
COM5
COM6
COM7
COM8
COM9
COM10
COM11
COM12
COM13
COM14
COM15
COM16
COM17
COM18
COM19

3/5VLCD
1/5VLCD

1/5VLCD
COM1 to SEG1
(non-selected waveform) 3/5VLCD
VLCD
VLCD

COM1 to SEG8 1/5VLCD


(selected waveform)
1/5VLCD

VLCD
1 frame

Figure 11 Example of Waveforms in 1/32 Duty Cycle Drive


(Example of HD66108)

113

Flat Plastic Package (QFP) Mounting Methods


3. Power Supply Circuit for Liquid Crystal Drive
Table 1 shows the relationship between the number of driving biases and display duty cycle ratios.
3.1 Resistive Dividing
Driving bias is generally generated by a resistive divider (Figure 12).
The resistance value settings are determined by considering operating margin and power consumption.
Since the liquid crystal display load is capacitive, the drive waveform itself is distorted due to
charge/discharge current when the liquid crystal display drive waveform is applied. To reduce distortion,
the resistance value should be decreased but this increases the power consumption because of the increase
of the current through the dividing resistors. Since larger liquid crystal display panels have larger
capacitance, the resistance value must be decreased proportionally.
Table 1

Relationship between the Number of Display Duty Cycle Ratio and the Numver of
Driving Biases

Display Duty
Ratio
Number of
driving biases

Static 1/2
2

1/3

1/4

3
4
4
(1/2 bias) (1/3 bias)

1/7

1/8

5
5
(1/4 bias)

1/11

1/12

1/14

6
6
(1/5 bias)

V2

V5

1/32

VCC
R

V1

V2
VLCD

V3
V4

1/24

VCC (+5V)

VCC (+5V)
VCC
V1

1/16

R
R

V3
V4
V5

R
R
R
R
R
VR

VR
5V

5V
1/4 bias (1/8, 1/11 duty cycle)

1/5 bias (1/16 duty cycle)

Figure 12 Example of Driving Voltage Supply

114

VLCD

1/64

It is efficient to connect a capacitor to the resistors in parallel as shown in Figure 13 in order to improve
charge/discharge distortion. However, the effect is limited. Even if it is attempted to reduce the power
consumption with a large resistor and improve waveform distortion with a large capacitor, a level shift
occurs and the operating margin is not improved.
Since the liquid crystal display load is in a matrix configuration, the path of the charge/discharge current
through the load is complicated. Moreover, it varies depending on display condition. Thus, a value of
resistance cannot be simply determined from the load capacitance of liquid crystal display. It must be
experimentally determined according to the demand for the power consumption of the equipment in which
the liquid crystal display is incorporated.
Generally, R is 1 k to 10 k , and VR is 5 k to 50 k . No capacitor is required. A capacitor of 0.1 F is
usually used if necessary.
VCC (+5V)
VCC
R
V1
R
V2
R
V3
R
V4
R
V5

Common/segment selected high level


C
Common non-selected high level
C
Segment non-selected high level
C
Segment non-selected low level
C
Common non-selected low level
C
Common/segment selected low level

VR
5V

For contrast adjustment

With C

Large C and R cause


a level shift.
Without C

Figure 13 Example of Capacitor Connection for Improvement of Liquid Crystal Display Drive
Waveform Distortion (1/5 Bias) (Example of LCD-II)

115

Flat Plastic Package (QFP) Mounting Methods


3.2 Drive by Operational Amplifier
In graphic displays, the size of the liquid crystal becomes larger and the display duty ratio becomes smaller,
so the stability of liquid crystal drive level is more important than in small display system.
Since the liquid crystal for graphic displays is large and has many picture elements, the load capacitance
becomes large. The high impedance of the power supply for liquid crystal drive produces distortion in the
drive waveforms, and degrades display quality. For this reason, the liquid crystal drive level impedance
should be reduced with operational amplifiers. Figure 14 shows an example of an operational amplifier
configuration.
No load current flows through the dividing resistors because of the high input impedance of the operational
amplifiers. A high resistance of R = 10 k and VR = 50 k can be used.
3.3 Generation of Liquid Crystal Drive Levels in LSI
The power supply circuit for liquid crystal drive level may be incorporated in the LSI, such as one for a
portable calculator with liquid crystal display.
HD61602R, HD61603R for small display systems has a built-in power supply circuit for liquid crystal
drive levels.
3.4 Precaution on Power Supply Circuits
The LCD driver LSI has two types of power supplies: the one for logical circuits and the other for the liquid
crystal display drive circuit. The power supply system is complicated because of several liquid crystal drive
levels. For this reason, in the power supply design, take care not to deviate from the voltage range assured
in the maximum rating at the rise of power supply and from the potential sequence of each power supply. If
the input terminal level is indefinite, through current flows and the power consumption increases because of
the use of CMOS process in the LCD driver.
Simultaneously, the potential sequence of each power supply becomes wrong, which may cause latch-up.

(+5V) VCC

Common/segment selected high level

Common non-selected high level

Segment non-selected high level


R
Segment non-selected low level

Common selected low level


R
Common/segment selected low level
VR
(5V) VEE

Contrast
adjustment

For liquid crystal drive logic circuits


Operational amplifier voltage follower

Figure 14 Drive by Operational Amplifier (1/5 Bias

116

Hitachi LCD Controller/Driver LSI Data Book


Publication Date:

1st Edition, September 1994


8th Edition, December 1996
Published by:
Semiconductor and IC Div.
Hitachi, Ltd.
Technical Documentation Center
Edited by:
Hitachi Microcomputer System Ltd.
Copyright Hitachi, Ltd., 1995. All rights reserved. Printed in Japan.

117