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# Hydraulic system

1.
Hydraulic basic knowledge
z 2.
The introduction of hydraulic components
z 3.
Hydraulic system of excavator
z 4.
The introduction of hydraulic pipe line
z 5.
z 6.
Troubleshooting
z

1.1
Pascals theorem
1.

## Pressure on a confined liquid will

exert the same force in all
directions equally .

Large area

2.
The speed of the load, as it moves,
is in direct proportion to the area of
its cylinder verses the area of the
cylinder F.
3.

## Fluid pressure is created by

4.
Conservation of energy

Small area F

Full of oil

FpA
PvF

vqA

F--force p--pressure
A--area
q--flow
P--power v--speed

1.2
Lines and symbols commonly used in hydraulic systems
Lines:
Thick solid lines represent work lines
Broken solid lines represent pilot or drain lines
Double dotted lines represent
combined elements
Intersect lines with small dots
represent connected lines.
Intersecting lines with
small circular offset, represent lines or circuits that do not meet

Symbols
P Pressure oil of pump
AB
The work oil port of cylinder or motor
OTDr Reservoir

1.3
Basic composition of the hydraulic system
4
Hydraulic system consist of 4 parts:

## Hydraulic pump: Converts the

mechanical energy to hydraulic energy.

## Implement components: Convert the

hydraulic energy to mechanical energy.
For example cylinder, motor and so on.

1.3
Basic composition of the hydraulic system

## Control components: Valves. Generally,

there are pressure control valves, flow
control valves, directional control valve.

## Auxiliary components: Hydraulic tank,

filters, piping, joints, seals, coolers,
accumulators and so on.

1.4
Symbol of hydraulic components
Hydraulic pump:

One-way, fixed
displacement

Two-way, fixed
displacement

One-way, variable
displacement

1.4
Symbol of hydraulic components
Hydraulic valves :

One-way valve

Relief valve

Shuttle Valve

Pressure
reducing valve

## Flow Control Valve

Solenoid valve

Variable Flow
Control Valve

Shut-off valve

1.4
Symbol of hydraulic components
Hydraulic motor:

One-way, fixed
displacement

Two-way, fixed
displacement

Two-way, variable
displacement

1.4
Symbol of hydraulic components
Hydraulic cylinder :

Double-acting
hydraulic cylinder

Single-acting
hydraulic cylinder

1.4
Symbol of hydraulic components
Auxiliary components:

Hydraulic
Reservoir

Cooler

Filter

Accumulator

1.5
Recommended Hydraulic oil

## Use of Motor oil is prohibited.

1.
Hydraulic basic knowledge
z 2.
The introduction of hydraulic components
z 3.
Hydraulic system of excavator
z 4.
The introduction of hydraulic pipe line
z 5.
z 6.
Troubleshooting
z

Main hydraulic components

Main pump

Travel Motor&Reducer

## Main control valve

Swing Motor&Reducer

## Pilot valve Travel pilot valve Pilot valve block

2.
The introduction of hydraulic components

## 2.1 Main pump

2.2 Main control valve
2.3 Swing Motor&Reducer
2.4 Travel Motor&Reducer
2.5 Pilot valve
2.6 Travel pilot valve
2.7 Pilot valve block

2.1 ()
Main pump (description)

This pump is composed of main pump and pilot pump. The main pump is
a variable displacement axial plunger pump. It provides high pressure oil for
the hydraulic system of excavator. The pilot pump is a fixed displacement
gear pump. It supplies oil for the control system. The main pump is driven by
the engine through a coupler. The pilot gear pump is connected directly by the
drive shaft of the main pump at the same rotate speed.

2.1 ()
Main pump (main parameters)
Item

unit

Type

Main pump

923D/925D

Duplex Variable
Axial Piston
Pump

Duplex Variable
Axial Piston
Pump

Displacement

cc

108

115

Flow

L/min

2215

2230

Rated pressure

MPa

34.3

34.3

Gear pump

Gear pump

Type

Pilot pump

920D/922D

Displacement

cc

10

10

Flow

L/min

20

20

Rated pressure

MPa

3.9

3.9

2.1 ()
Main pump (shape)

Left pump

Models
920D ()
922D ()
923D ()
925D ()

Oil outlet

Right pump

Pilot pump

Pilot pressure

of min. flow

Regulator for
right pump

## The adjust bolt of max. flow

Solenoid Proportional
Reducing Valve

Regulator for
right pump

of min. flow

2.1 ()
Main pump (Hydraulic schematic )
P1
Regulator for
P1 pump

Solenoid Proportional
Reducing Valve

Models
920D ()
922D ()
923D ()
925D () 925D()

P2
Regulator for
P2 pump

Pilot pump
P1 pump
P2 pump

2.
The introduction of hydraulic components

## 2.1 Main pump

2.2 Main control valve
2.3 Swing Motor&Reducer
2.4 Travel Motor&Reducer
2.5 Pilot valve
2.6 Travel pilot valve
2.7 Pilot valve block

2.2 ()
Main control valve (description)

The main control valve is located between the main pump and
actuators(all of the cylinders and motors).It controls the oil direction, pressure,
and flow rate for all of the actuators. Main control valve is pilot control, open
negative flow control, and paralleling monolithic multi-ported directional valve
composed of nine spools. It includes spools for the boomarmbucket
swingtravel and auxiliary devices. Main control valve has the auxiliary
functions for boom raise confluencearm confluencearm regeneration
swing priorityboom anti-driftarm anti-drift and straight travel.

2.2 ()
Main control valve (main parameters)
Item

unit

920D/922D

923D/925D

()
Main relief pressure,
(standard)

Mpa

31.8

32.2

()
Main relief pressure,
(boost)

Mpa

33.3

34.6

Implement circuits

Mpa

25.5

25.5

2.2 ()
Main control valve (Shape)

Models
920D()
922D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

2
2nd arm spool

Lock valve
for boom

Bucket spool

1
1st arm spool

1
1st boom spool

2
2nd boom spool

for bucket spool

Swing spool

for boom spool

Lock valve
for boom

Left travel
spool

Right travel
spool

## Port relief valve for

option spool

Option spool

Models

2.2 ()
Main control valve (Shape)
C2

/LCo

HV

HV

C1

920D()
922D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

/CCb

/LCa1

CP2

FR

FL

/LCb1

/LCk

/LCa2

CSp

CSp

/CMR1&CMR2

2.2 ()
Main control valve (Hydraulic schematic )

Models
920D()
922D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

2.
The introduction of hydraulic components

## 2.1 Main pump

2.2 Main control valve
2.3 Swing Motor&Reducer
2.4 Travel Motor&Reducer
2.5 Pilot valve
2.6 Travel pilot valve
2.7 Pilot valve block

2.3 ()
Swing motor & reduction gear (description)

## The swing motor&reducer consists of a hydraulic motor and a

reduction gear.It rotates the upper structure of excavator.

920D/922D

923D/925D

2.3 ()
Swing motor & reduction gear (shape)

Port for
lubricating oil

Relief valve

Oil dipstick

Models
920D()
922D()
922D()

## Port for pressure test

Anti-reversion valve

Time-delay valve
for braking

## Swing reduction gear

2.3 ()
Swing motor & reduction gear (shape)

Models
923D()
925D()
925D()

Relief valve

Port for
lubricating oil

Oil dipstick

## Port for main

pressure

Anti-reversion valve

Swing reduction
gear

2.3 ()

## Swing motor & reduction gear (hydraulic schematic)

Models
920D()
922D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

2.
The introduction of hydraulic components

## 2.1 Main pump

2.2 Main control valve
2.3 Swing Motor&Reducer
2.4 Travel Motor&Reducer
2.5 Pilot valve
2.6 Travel pilot valve
2.7 Pilot valve block

2.4 ()
Travel motor & reduction gear (description)

## The Travel motor & reducer consists of a hydraulic motor and a

reduction gear. It is used to control the forward, backward, left
turn and right turn operation of the machine.The travel speed can
be controled by travel speed control switch.There are two speed
positons:Low Speed and High Speed. It does not automatically
downshift.

2.4 ()
Travel motor & reduction gear (Shape)

Models
920D()
922D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

Balance valve

Relief valve
/
Pilot Port/control
travel speed

Travel
reduction gear

Relief valve

Refill oil

pressure

## Oil drain plug

Models

2.4 ()
Travel motor & reduction gear (hydraulic schematic )

920D()
922D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

Relief valve

Balance valve

2.
The introduction of hydraulic components

## 2.1 Main pump

2.2 Main control valve
2.3 Swing Motor&Reducer
2.4 Travel Motor&Reducer
2.5 Pilot valve
2.6 Travel pilot valve
2.7 Pilot valve block

2.5 ()
Pilot valve (description)

## The pilot control valve is used to control implements speed and

operation. One is installed on the left side of operator seat in the
cab, and another is installed on the right side. The left one
controls swing, arm and horn. The right one controls boom and
bucket and power boost in standard mode.

2.5 ()
Pilot valve (Hydraulic schematic )

2.
The introduction of hydraulic components

## 2.1 Main pump

2.2 Main control valve
2.3 Swing Motor&Reducer
2.4 Travel Motor&Reducer
2.5 Pilot valve
2.6 Travel pilot valve
2.7 Pilot valve block

2.6 ()
Travel pilot valve (Description)

The travel pilot valve supplies pilot oil for the travel spools of the
main control valve to control the forward, backward, left turn and
right turn operation of the machine. It also has hydraulic
dampeners to smooth operation of the travel system.

2.6 ()
Travel pilot valve (Hydraulic schematic )

2.
The introduction of hydraulic components

## 2.1 Main pump

2.2 Main control valve
2.3 Swing Motor&Reducer
2.4 Travel Motor&Reducer
2.5 Pilot valve
2.6 Travel pilot valve
2.7 Pilot valve block

2.7 ()
Pilot valve block (description)

Models
920D()
922D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

Pilot oil goes through the pilot valve block to remote pilot control valve. There
are three solenoid valves which control pilot lock, two speed travel. and power
boost of main relief valve.

Pilot lock
Two speed travel
Power boost

2.7 ()
Pilot valve block (Hydraulic schematic )

Pilot Lock
Two Speed Travel

Power Boost

1.
Hydraulic basic knowledge
z 2.
The introduction of hydraulic components
z 3.
Hydraulic system of excavator
z 4.
The introduction of hydraulic pipe line
z 5.
z 6.
Troubleshooting
z

3.
Hydraulic system of excavator

## 3.1 Hydraulic system parameters

3.2 Drive diagram of hydraulic system
3.3 Hydraulic system schematic
3.3.1 Negative flow control system
3.3.2 Boom raise
3.3.3 Boom lower
3.3.4 Arm out
3.3.5 () Arm In (with regeneration)
3.3.6 () Arm In (without regeneration)
3.3.7 Bucket in
3.3.8 Bucket out
3.3.9 Swing left
3.3.10 Swing right
3.3.11 () Forward travel (high speed)
3.3.12 ( ) Backward travel (low speed)
3.3.13 Straight travel

3.1
Hydraulic system parameters
Item

Unit

920D/922D

923D/925D

Piston Pump

Piston Pump

cc

108

115

L/min

2215

2230

## Relief pressure, main

MPa

31.8

32.2

Relief pressure,
boost

MPa

33.3

34.6

Swing Circuit
pressure

MPa

25.5

25.5

Travel circuit
Pressure

MPa

31.8

31.8

/Boom

MPa

36.3/36.3

36.6/36.6

/Arm

MPa

37.2/37.2

36.6/37.2

10

/Bucket

MPa

35.3/36.3

36.6/37.2

11

Option Relief
Pressure

Mpa

19.6

19.6

3.1
Hydraulic system parameters
12

## Pilot pump type

Gear pump

Gear pump

13

Pilot pumpdisplacement

cc

10

10

14

## Pilot pump flow

L/min

20

20

15

Pilot pressure

MPa

3.9

3.9

16

(
) boom cylinder
(BorerodStroke -Min. Installation
Dimension )

mm

120851187-1794

1259013501950

17

(
) arm cylinder
(BorerodStroke -Min. Installation
Dimension )

mm

135951450-2063

1401051610223
5

18

(
) bucket cylinder
(BorerodStroke -Min. Installation
Dimension )

mm

120851058-1593

1309010751665

19

(/)hydraulic oil
(tank/system)

230/330

230/330

20

3.4

4.4

21

## Drive motor gear oil

5.5*2

5.5*2

3.2
Drive diagram of hydraulic system

Drive

Control oil

Pilot
pump

Engine

Drive

Work oil

Work
pump

Implement work

Control

Carry out

Driver

Control oil

Work oil

Main valve

Pilot valve

Motor

Work oil

Carry out

Cylinder

SwingTravel

3

BOOM RAISE
3.3.2 Boom
Raise

BOOM LOWER
3.3.3 Boom
Lower

ARM OUT

## 3.3.4 Arm Out

ARM IN
WITH REGENERATION

## 3.3.5 ()Arm In (With Regeneration)

3.3.6 () WITHOUT
ArmARMREGENERATION
InIN(Without Regeneration)

BUCKET IN
3.3.7
Bucket In

3.3.8 BUCKET
Bucket
Out
OUT

SWING LEFT
3.3.9 Swing
Left

3.3.10Swing
SWING RIGHT Right

3.3.11 () Forward
Travel (High Speed)
FORWARD TRAVLE(HIGH SPEED)

3.3.12 () Backward
Travel (Low Speed)
BACKWARD TRAVLE(LOW SPEED)

## 3.3.13 Straight Travel

STRAIGHT TRAVLE

1.
Hydraulic basic knowledge
z 2.
The introduction of hydraulic components
z 3.
Hydraulic system of excavator
z 4.
The introduction of hydraulic pipe line
z 5.
z 6.
Troubleshooting
z

4.1
Main pump piping
Case
Drain hose

Models
920D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

Pressure
sensor

Working hose

Solenoid Proportional
Reducing Valve

## Sensor for hydraulic

oil temperature

4.2
Swing Motor Piping

Models
920D()
922D()922D()

Working hose

Make up oil
inlet

Swing pressure
test point

Port for
lubricating oil

Case Drain
hose

Swing
relief valve

Oil dipstick

4.2
Swing Motor Piping

Case Drain
hose

Swing
relief valve

Models
923D()
925D()925D()

Make up oil
inlet

Port for
lubricating oil

Oil dipstick

Swing pressure
test point

Working hose

4.3 ()

Models
922D()

Accumulator

Pilot relief
valve

Pressure sensor

Pilot pressure
test point

Pilot filter

4.3 ()

Models

## Pilot hydraulic pipe line(Pilot valve block)

920D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

Accumulator

Pilot pressure
test point

Pressure sensor

Pilot filter

1.
Hydraulic basic knowledge
z 2.
The introduction of hydraulic components
z 3.
Hydraulic system of excavator
z 4.
The introduction of hydraulic pipe line
z 5.
z 6.
Troubleshooting
z

5.1
System pressure test
P2

P1

a2

a1

Models
920D()
922D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

P1P2:(a1a2 ,G1/4)
Port P1P2 pressure test:(pressure test ports a1a2
dimension:G1/4)
1a1a2(
070MPa)
Remove the plug a1/a2 in the illustration with a spanner and
connects with a pressure testing joint and a pressure
gauge(with a range of 0~70MPa);
2505

## Start engine, Slowly operate the excavator to raise the

hydraulic oil temoerature to 505;then read the data from
the gauge;
316Nm
Remove pressure gauge and pressure testing joint.Tighten the
plugs to a torque of 16Nm.

5.2

Models
920D()
922D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

1
Start the engine, increase its rotating speed slowly to full speed
2
Set the excavator monitor to the function of cheking the left and right pump pressure;
3505
31.8~32.8MPa
33.3~34.3MPa
Turn on the pilot cutoff lever, operate the work implements to let the hydraulic oil temperature
raises to 505, then operate the boom up or arm to extreme position to make the main relief
valve open. At the moment the pressure value should be 31.8~32.8MPa, then press the burst
button located on the right joystick, the pressure value should be 33.3~34.3MPa
4
If the pressure values are not in the arrange above, we need to adjust them as following
procedure:
(1) 30mm3
Loose locknut number 3 with open-end wrench(30mm);

5.2

Models
920D()
922D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

(2) 6mm4
33.3-34.3MPa43
Press the burst button located on the right joystick turn number 4 slightly inwards or outwards
slowly with inner hexagon spanner(6mm) and check the pressure value in the monitor.Stop turning
number 4 when the pressure value reaches to 33.3-34.3MPa, then tighten number 3 loose the
burst button located on the right joystick ;
(3)22mm56mm
431.8-32.8MPa45

## Loose locknut number 5 with open-end wrench(22mm) in anticlockwise direction.Turn number 4

inwards or outwards slowly with hexagon spanner(6mm) and check the pressure value in the
monitor. Stop turning number 4 and tighten number 5 when the pressure value reaches to
31.8~32.8MPa.

## Main relief valve

5.3
Pilot pressure test

Models
920D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

a3G1/4
Pilot pressure test and adjust:(pressure test port a3
dimension:G1/4)
1a3466
(06MPa);
Remove the plug a3number466 in the illustration with
a pressure testing joint and a spanner and connects with a
pressure gauge(with a range of 0~6MPa);
2505

## Start engine, Slowly operate the excavator to raise the

hydraulic oil temperature to 505;

a3
The port of pilot pressure test a3

3
3.9~4.1MPa
Set the engine speed to full speed , check the pressure
gauge,the value should be between 3.9~4.1MPa.

5.3
Pilot pressure test

Models
920D()
922D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

124(
06MPa);
Remove the plug number 2 or 4 in the illustration by hand and
connects with a pressure gauge(with a range of 0~6MPa);
2505

## Start engine, Slowly operate the excavator to raise the hydraulic

oil temperature to 505;
3
3.9~4.1MPa
Set the engine speed to full speed, check the pressure gauge,the
value should be between 3.9~4.1MPa.

5.4

Models
920D()
922D()
923D()
925D()925D()

## If the Pilot pressure pressure value is incorrect, adjust

it as following procedure:
(1)22mm312
6mm311
,3.9~4.1MPa
312
Loose locknut 312 with open-end wrench(22mm)as shown
in the illustration. Tighten screw 311 by inner hexagon
spanner(6mm). The pressure will increase when rotate in
clockwise direction and decrease when rotate in
anticlockwise direction. Tighten locknut 312 when the
pressure value reaches to 3.9~4.1MPa. After that,

Pilot pressure

(2)16Nm
Remove pressure gauge and pressure testing joint.
Tighten the plug to a torque of 16Nm.

5.4

Model
922D()

## If the Pilot pressure pressure value is incorrect, adjust

it as following procedure:
(1)

,3.9~4.1MPa

## Loose locknut that installed on the pilot relief valve as

shown in the illustration. The pressure will increase when
rotate in clockwise direction and decrease when rotate in
anticlockwise direction. Tighten locknut 312 when the
pressure value reaches to 3.9~4.1MPa. After that,
(2)16Nm
Remove pressure gauge and pressure testing joint.
Tighten the plug to a torque of 16Nm.

1.
Hydraulic basic knowledge
z 2.
The introduction of hydraulic components
z 3.
Hydraulic system of excavator
z 4.
The introduction of hydraulic pipe line
z 5.
z 6.
Troubleshooting
z

6.1
Hydraulic components works slowly
Cause

Solutions

Cold oil

Worn pump

## Check pump suction pipe

6.2
Hydraulic oil over hot
Cause

Solutions

Worn pump

Relief valve

Unclean oil

components

## Proper adjustment for the hydraulic

components

6.3
Low pressure or no oil pres-sure
Cause

Solutions

Wrong oil

## Use the correct oil

hydraulic components

hydraulic components

Worn cylinder

Relief valve

## Check and adjust the relief

valve

6.4
Cylinder can work but can not lift load
Cause

Solutions

Worn pump

## Low pressure of main relief valve

Check
and adjust the main relief valve
pressure

## Check suction pipeline

6.5
One control lever does not work
Cause

Solutions

## Low pressure of the oil port relief

valve

Check
and adjust the oil port relief valve
pressure

## Tube or hose damaged

Repair or replace

## Hydraulic components loosen

Tighten

O
O
O-ring is damaged when assembled Replace a new O-ring

Pilot valve

## Repair or replace worn parts of

pilot valve

Pilot lines

Repair or replace

6.6
One cylinder does not work
Cause

Solutions

Spool of
control valve damaged or polluted by
dust

## Replace and repair worn parts of

control valve or cleaning it

## Tube or hose damaged

Repair or replace

## Hydraulic components loosen

Tighten

O
O
O-ring of hydraulic components damaged Replace a new O-ring

Pilot valve

## Replace and repair worn parts of hand

pilot valve or clean it

Repair or replace

6.7
One travel motor does not work
Cause

Solutions

## Check for internal leakage

of center swivel joint

Pilot circuit

## Replace and repair worn parts of

travel motor or clean it

## Repair or replace worn parts of

travel pilot valve or clean it

Repair or replace

6.8
Can not swing

Cause

Solutions

release valve

Swing motor

swing motor

Pilot valve

## Replace and repair worn parts of

hand pilot valve or clean it

Thank you !

Questions?