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# Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA
THERMOFLUID LAB
(CGE 536)
EXPERIMENT
DATE PERFORMED
SEMESTER
PROGRAMME/CODE
GROUP

: FLOWMETER DEMONSTRATION
: 29/9/2015
:3
: THERMOFLUID LAB / CGE 536
: EH2433B

NAMA
MUHAMMAD EZWAN BIN MOHD
HANAFIAH
NUR AMANINA BINTI AHMAD
NIZAMUDDIN

NO PELAJAR
2014620734
2014260632

NO.
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2014418774

TITLE

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ABSTRACT/SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
AIMS/OBJECTIVES
THEORY
APPARATUS
PROCEDURES
RESULT
CALCULATIONS
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSIONS
RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
TOTAL

## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

Remarks :
Checked by:
CONTENT

PAGE

SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES
THEORY
APPARATUS/MATERIALS
PROCEDURE
RESULT
CALCULATION
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATION/REFERENCE
APPENDICES

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SUMMARY:

## EXPERIMENT 1: Demonstration of the operation and characteristic

of three different basic
types of flowmeter

The experiment has been done to measure the flow rate and pressure
loses using three basic types of flow measuring techniques; rotameter,
venturimeter and orifice meter. After all apparatus have been set up, we must
measure the time taken of a known volume of water (3 litres) to accumulate in
the water tank to calculate the flow rate. Next, we have to record the
manometer reading (A-J) and the flow rate reading in different techniques. To get
accurate reading, we must repeat the experiment 3 times.
EXPERIMENT 2: Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid
flows through a 90 degree
elbow

The experiment has been done to determine the loss coeffient when fluid
flows through a 90 degree elbow. After all apparatus have been set up, the flow
rate have been taken by measure the time of a known volume of water to
accumulate in a tank. The reading in manometer I and J is record. At the end of

V 2s
2g

## coefficient of losses. To get accurate reading, we must repeat the experiment 3

times.

INTRODUCTION :
EXPERIMENT 1:
Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour of fluid
especially liquid in many form of application which is statics, dynamics and
thermodynamics. In order to study this behaviour of fluids, we need a device
known as flowmeter. Flowmeter is a device used to measure the flow rate or a
quantity of fluids flow through a pipe.
The hydraulic bench (Model: FM 110) is provided in the laboratory and
were connected to the flowmeter measurement apparatus (Model: FM 101) which
consists of venturi meter, orifice meter and rotameter.

Venturi meter
Venture meter is a tube consists of three parts which is a short converging
part, throat and diverging part. Inside the venture meter, pressure difference is
4

## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

created by reducing the cross sectional area of the flowing path. The pressure
difference is measured using the manometer. The pressure difference is useful to
calculate the flow rate of fluid through the pipe line. The inlet area of the venturi
is larger than the throat causing the velocity at the throat increases due to the
pressure decreases. As the conclusion, a pressure difference is created between
the inlet and the throat of the venturi. To understand the principle of venture
meter, we must know the Bernoullis equation.

Orifice meter
An orifice meter is generally a thin orifice plate with a hole in the middle. It
is placed in a pipe which a fluid flows. As the fluid reaches the orifice plate, the
fluid is forced to flow through the hole in the middle of the orifice plate. Vena
contracta which is the point of maximum convergence is produced downstream
of physical orifice. As this occurs, the velocity and the pressure will change. At
the vena contracta, the velocity and pressure change once again due to the fluid
expand. The flow rates can be obtained from Bernoullis equation by measuring
the pressure difference between normal pipe section and the vena contracta.

## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

Rotameter.
Rotameter is a class of meters called as variable area meters. It consists of three
basic elements that are a uniformly tapered flow tube, a float and a
measurement scale. Rotameter is usually position vertically in the system with
smallest diameter at the end of the tapered flow tube at the bottom which is the
fluid inlet. When fluid flow through a float in tapered tube, pressure difference is
created. As the float moves upwards, the fluid flowing area increases due to the
decreasing of pressure difference.

EXPERIMENT 2:
The value of the loss coefficient is very important to accurately calculate
the flow rates and pressure drop in pipes. In long straight pipe, the pressure drop
is due to the friction in the pipe which is also known as major losses. The
pressure drop caused by fittings or valves is known as minor losses which will be
calculated at the end of the experiment. As pipes get shorter and more
complicated the proportion of losses due to fittings and valves gets larger, but by
convention is also known as minor losses. The type of pipe fitting contain in this
experiment is 90 degree elbow.

## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

OBJECTIVE :
EXPERIMENT 1:

To obtain the flow rate measurement by utilizing three basic types of flow
measuring techniques; rotameter, venturi meter and orifice meter.

EXPERIMENT 2:

## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

THEORY:
EXPERIMENT 1:
Bernoulli equation is applied to calculate the flow rate in both venturi meter and
orifice:
1. By determine point 1 and 2 at the flowmeter:

calculation:

## In this experiment, Z1=Z2. Therefore, Z1 and Z2can be cancelling out.

A1 : Area at point 1
A2: Area at point 2
P1: Pressure at point 1
P2: Pressure at point 2
U1: Velocity at point 1
U2: Velocity at point 2
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## Values of discharge coefficient are determined by experimented, the

assumed values used in the software are:
CdVenturi meter= 0.98
Cd Orifice plate = 0.63
The head loss (h, metre) is recorded due to the height reading of
manometer. In this experiment, the head losseswill be compared with the flow
rate used. Pressure loss for venture meter is low while for the orifice the pressure
loss is medium.

EXPERIMENT 2:
To calculate the loss coefficient, the equation use is:
2

HL = K x

V
2g

Where,
K= Loss Coefficient
V= flow velocity
g= Acceleration of gravity

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## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

The usual value use for g is 9.81N.

APPARATUS:

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## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

PROCEDURE:
EXPERIMENT 1:
1. Apparatus was placed on the bench, inlet pipe connected to bench supply and
outlet pipe into volumetric tank.
2. With the bench valve fully closed and the discharge valve fully opened, the
pump supply and the hydraulic bench was started up.
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## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

3. The bench valve was slowly opened until it is fully opened.
4. When the flow in the pipe is steady and there is no trapped bubble, bench
valve is started to close in order to reduced the flow to the maximum
measurable flowrate.
5. By using the air bleed screw, water lvl in the manometer was adjusted.
maximum reading of manometer was retained with the maximum measurable
flowrate.
6. Reading on manometer(A-J), Rotormeter and maximum measureable flowrate
was noted.
7. Step 6 is repeated for different flow rates. The flow rates can be adjusted by
utilizing both bench valve and discharge valve.

EXPERIMENT 2:
1. Repeat step (1-6) from experiment 1.
2. Complete the data table.
2

Vs
2g
3. Graph of H against

## for 90 degree elbow was plotted to determined the

coefficient of losses.

RESULT
Demonstration of the operation and characteristic of three different basic types
of flowmeter

NO.

C
D
E
F
G
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## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

1
2
3
4
NO.

265
295
338
374

263
290
327
255

ROTA
METER
(L/MIN)
5

253
256
256
241

259
277
301
315

VOL
(L)

TIME
(MIN)

0.5155

10

261
282
312
333

252
287
322
349

FLOWRA
TE
Q(L/MIN)
5.82

0.2618

11.16

262
287
322
348

239
203
143
57

104

105

1.8623

1.7570

10

15

20

0.2000

15.00

0.1363

21.53

248
235
210
166

FLOWRATE USING
BERNOULLI EQ
VENTURI
ORIFICE
1.0330
9.1939

249
238
215
170

10

2.7004

2.5648

104

104

3.4391

3.2702

10

10

Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree elbow

No.

Volume

Time

(L)

(sec)

Flowrate,
Q

Differential Piezometer

(l/min)

Elbow (hI-hJ)

3
3

(m/s)

(mm)
1.7087

0.183
1

16.13

103
6.2790

0.351
0

15.00

0.471
8

0.01134

21.23

0.677
2

0.0233

11.16
3

V2/2g

30.93
5.82

12.00
8.36

14

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## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

CALCULATION

EXPERIMENT 1
For the venturi meter
Upstream pipe diameter

Throat diameter

= 26mm

A1

4
= 5.3093 10
m2

= 16mm

## Cross sectional area of throat

Discharge coefficient

d2
4

A2

Cd ven

d2
4

4
= 2.0106 10
m2

=0.98

## For the orifice plate

Upstream pipe diameter

= 26 mm

Throat diameter

= 5.3093 10

m2

= 16mm

## Cross sectional area of throat

Discharge coefficient

d2
4

Cdorifice

A2

d2
4

=0.63

15

= 2.0106 10

m2

## Timed Flow rate, Qt (m3/s) = V = Volume Collected

t Timed to collect
= 0.003 m3/ 30.93
= 9.70 x 10-5 m3/s
Variable Area Flow Rate, Qa (m3/s) = Value from instrument reading (L/min)
60, 000
= 5 L / min
60, 000
= 8.33 x 105 m3/s

Cd A2

( )
2g H
A2 2
1( )
A1
0.016

( 2 4)

2(9.81)(0.023)
0.016 4
1(
)
0.026

(0.63)

16

Cd A2

( )
2g H
A 2
1( 2 )
A1

0.016

( 2 4)

2(9.81)(0.012)
0.016 4
1(
)
0.026

(0.98)

## = 1.0330 x 10-4 m3/s

Rotameter % Error

## = (Qa Qt) x 100

Qt
= (8.3333 x 105 9.70 x 10-5) x 100%
9.70 x 10-5
= -14.08%

## (Qo Qt) x 100

Qt
= (9.1939 x 105 9.70 x 10-5) x 100%
9.70 x 10-5
= -5.21%

## (Qv Qt) x 100

Qt
= (1.0330 x 10-4 9.70 x 10-5) x 100%
9.70 x 10-5
= 6.49%

This calculation is repeated for the 2 , 3 ,4 repeated experiment to find accurate data
Flow rate
17

No

Qt (m3/s)

1
2
3
4

9.699 10

Rotameter
Flow Rate Qa
(m3/s)
8.3333
5

10

1.8599 10

2.5000 10

3.5894 10

1.6667

10

2.5000

10

3.3333

10

Venturi meter
Flow rate Qv
(m3/s)

(m3/s)

1.0330 10

9.1939 10

1.8623 10

1.7570 10

2.7004 10

2.5648 10

3.4391 10

3.2702 10

## Percentage error compare to time flowrate

No
1
2
3
4
average

Rotameter %
flow rate error
(%)
-14.08
-10.39
0
-7.13
7.90

Orifice plate %
flow rate error (%)

-rate error (%)

6.50
0.13
8.02
-4.19
4.71

-5.21
-5.53
2.59
-8.89
5.56

## Average is calculated by change negative value to positive to determine the

accurate flowrate measurement .

EXPERIMENT 2
Theoritical value :
Elbow flanged regular 90= 0.3

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## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

H
6
5
f(x) = 0.12x + 1.94

H
Linear (H)

Linear (H)

2
1
0
0

10

15

20

25

## The slope, K = 0.1228

% error =( 0.1228-0.3) x 100%
0.3
= 57.0%

DISCUSSIONS
Objective of this experiment 1 is to obtain the flow rate measurement by utilizing
three basic types of flow measuring techniques which is rotameter , venturi and orifice .The
flowrate is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time represented by unit Q.

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## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

Since the percentage error for this experiment from A-Z is not more than 15% so it is
considered as successful experiment . By referring percentage of error that we calculated by
comparing to time flowrate for rotameter , orifice and venture is 7.90% , 4.71% and 5.49% .
Its can be conclude that percentage error for orifice is the lowest and make it the best device
for calculate flow rate .
But from the theory, venturi meter is a more accurate than orifice and rota meter.
From the calculation, we determine that orifice meter is more accurate than others. Actually,
it should be the venturi meter. We found that one of the major factors that affect the readings
is the bubble in pipeline. Besides that, the position of eyes also gives effect to the manometer
For experiment 2, the objective is to investigate the lost coefficient of fluid through 90
degree elbow. From the graph that have been plotted, gradient (K) of the graph is 0.1228. But
the actual theoretical value is 0.3 for Elbow flanged regular 90. The percentage error for this
experiment is 57%. So it is considered the experiment is unsuccessful. We assumed the experiment is
considered fail because the percentage exceeded 15%. This occurrence may be caused by bubble that
trap inside the tube that connected to manometer.

CONCLUSION
As a conclusion for experiment 1, we can say that the most accurate flow meter is a
venturi meter. From this experiment, we determine that the flow rate % error for venturi

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## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

meter is higher than the orifice meter. From the theory, the more efficiency of flow meter has
a less flow rate % error.
As a conclusion for experiment 2, we can state that the loss coefficient is 0.1228.
Percentage difference for the experiment is 57%. The experiment is unsuccessful.

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## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

RECOMMENDATION:
There are some precautions and suggestions that can be taken for safety and to
get better result when conducting the experiment of Flow Measurement
Apparatus experiment. The recommendations are as followed:

1. Before starting the experiment, students must follow all the instructions
from the supervisor and do general set-up procedures .
2. Avoid error in taking readings and make sure eyes of observer are parallel
to the reading scale.

3. The observer must be fixed to one person only to measure the apparatus
reading to avoid perspective errors.

## 4. The experiment must be conduct at least twice to obtained average result.

5. Make sure to follow the shut-down procedures after finishing the
experiment.

REFERENCE:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_measurement
https://www.mathesongas.com/pdfs/.../flowmeter-product-line-overview
Lab manual, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, UiTM Shah Alam
Google search keyword rotameter , venture , orifice ,flowrate

demonstration
www.engineeringtoolbox.com/

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## Thermofluid lab: Flowmeter demonstration

APPENDICES

Figure 1: APPARATUS

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