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1844-1923

Flag

1882, Design of coat of


arms

The Ottoman Empire


By Abhishek Mukherjee

The Rise of the Ottoman Empire


The Turkish army defeated the Byzantine army (Roman Empire in the east)
and occupied Anatolia (present-day Turkey) in 11 th century
The last part of the Byzantine Empire was captured in 1453, when the
Ottomans captured Constantinople (Istanbul)
Founded by Osman 1, a great warrior and Sultan- lasted 600 years !
-Peak of power in the 16th century; empire spanning Europe, Asia and Middle
East

The
Ottoman
empire
extended
from the
gates of
Vienna in
Europe to
the Arabian
Peninsula
to as far as
Western
Algeria in
Africa

Government
Government:

The government of the Ottoman empire was monarchy


The Sultan was the head of the government and he had supreme
power
He had a council of ministers to advise him (Who made up the council)
It had 2 divisions, civil and military

Legal System:

They had separate laws for Muslims (Sharia) and secular legal
systems for non-muslims

Trade and Economy

The Ottoman Empires main source of money was conquering


neighbouring countries and agriculture
They also gave importance to trade and commerce
They mainly sold animal and wool products
They mainly bought wheat and lumber from Mediterranean countries
and spices from the Persian countries

Trade and economy

They controlled the spice trade as they are at the border of the east and
the west
Then in 1498, Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India reducing
the importance of the Ottoman Empire
Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492
Thus, Europe started becoming more powerful than the Ottomans in terms
of trade and commerce
Due to wars in 18th and 19th century, trade and economy started failing

Art

Jewelry was common in the Ottoman Empire


Many people worked to make one painting
Colors were made from egg-white and diluted gum
Colors used were mainly red, green and different shades of
blue
They usually showed pictures of books they were in

Currency

The Ottoman empire used the Kurus as the main unit of currency till 1844
Then the Empire used switched to the Ottoman Lira
100 Kurus=1 Ottoman Lira
Today, 1 Turkish Lira=100 Kurus

Time of Religious Tolerance, Promotion


of Culture
Religious Tolerance
The Ottomans were mainly Muslims.
They allowed other people such as Jews and Christans to follow their
religions
This helped them integrate other countries peacefully
Food The Ottoman Empire has impacted the food and cuisine in the west,
Europe and Mediterranean countries
Ottoman cuisine such as Kebab and rice pilaff are popular till today
Science
Advanced in science mainly in astronomy and geography
Built an observatory in Istanbul in the 15th century
Prominent Ottoman geographer-Muhiddin Piri Reis
In the court of Suleiman the Magnificent
He made a map of the world in the 16th century

Language and Literature

Language

The language was mainly Ottoman Turkish, a variation of


Turkish

Other minority languages could be used

Ottoman Turkish was required to speak with the government

Literature

The oldest form of literature were epics, such as Kitab-i


Dede Korkut

Poetry was a popular form of literature

Sufi poetry is well known branch of literature

Two forms of Ottoman poetry were Gazels and Kasides

Ghazels were rhyming couplets about love

Architecture

The Architecture was based on Persian, Byzantine, Seljuk and Islamic


Mamluk architecture
In the 16th century, the Ottoman architecture reached its height

Social Hierarchy

The social hierarchy began from the Sultan who was the most powerful

Fun Facts

The leader of the Ottoman empire was given the title Sultan

The queen mother or valide was often the most important person in the
Sultanate.

The new Sultan would be the eldest son of the current Sultan

Often a new Sultan would put all of his brothers in prison.

If the new Sultan had a son, he would execute his brothers, he didnt
want his son to have any competition

How The Empire ended


The Empire was collapsing during the 19th century due to War and
rise of Nationalism
War
Egypt was taken by Napoleon, the emperor of France in 1798
They lost a war against Russia and Serbia, Romania and Montenegro
gained independence
In World War I, the Ottoman Empire was on the side of Germany under
Enver Pasha (military leader)
Turkey lost the war, further weakening the economy and region
Nationalism
The Young Turks revolted against the sultan Abdul Hamid
They wanted a modern Turkey

How The Empire ended

In 1923, Kemal Atatrk led a war of


independence against Allied forces
He formed a new nation based on
modern principles of secularism,
education and economic reform

Quiz

Name a Sultan
When did the Ottoman Empire finally collapse?
Who was the most powerful person in the empire?

15

Acknowledgements

Ms Madhu and Ms Flona


My parents
Ms Priti
The language teachers

Bibliography
Site

Date

Time

http://www.britannica.com/place/Ottoman-Empire

25-Feb-2016

2:35 PM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire

25-Feb-2016

2:40 PM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territorial_evolution_of_
25-Feb-2016
the_Ottoman_Empire
http://www.ducksters.com/history/renaissance/ottoman 26-Feb-2016
_empire.php
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rise_of_the_Ottoman_Emp 26-Feb-2016
ire#/media/File:Anatolian_Beyliks_in_1300.png

2:51 PM

http://www.britannica.com/place/Anatolia

7:39 AM

27-Feb-2016

2:05 PM
3:12 PM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suleiman_the_Magnificent 27-Feb-2016

10:57 AM

http://kids.britannica.com/elementary/art-87525/The-O 27-Feb-2016
ttoman-Empire-once-controlled-lands-in-Europe-Africaand
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suleiman_the_Magnificent 27-Feb-2016

11:35 AM

12:02 PM

Bibliography
Site

Date

Time

http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/bosnia/readings 1-Mar-2016
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2:00 PM

https://www.boundless.com/arthistory/textbooks/boundless-art-historytextbook/islamic-art-11/the-ottom-safavid-and-mughaidynasties-83/ottoman-empire-415-7111/

1-Mar-2016

2:21 PM

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show=full

1-Mar-2016

2:30 PM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_lira

1-Mar-2016

2:47 PM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuru

1-Mar-2016

2:47 PM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mustafa_Kemal_Atatrk
http://www.melahatcakir.com/Symbol-of-Turkish-Lira

1-Mar-2016 6:12 pm
1-Mar-2016

http://www.turkish-cuisine.org/historical-development-1 3-Mar-2016
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6:41 PM
7:59 PM

Bibliography
Site

Date

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https://howellworldhistory.wordpress.com/quarter-one/unit-3-europeanglobal-interactions/global-exploration/

4-Mar-2016

2:48 PM

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4Mar-2016

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7:16 PM

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8-Mar-2016

11:17 AM

original

Books-Bibliography
Name

Publishe Author
r

Edition

Complete History
of the world

Collins

2009, India

Richard Overy and


many others