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Introduction

Experimental IDMorgan N McGinnis


22 May, 2016
Period 4
How Much Acid is in Sunny D and Orange Juice?
Purpose- To find the pH of each juice, to determine how much acid each juice
contains, and which juice, Sunny D or 100% Orange Juice, is more acidic.
Hypothesis- I predict that Sunny D will range lower on the pH scale, making it
more acidic than 100% pure Orange Juice. I predict this because, Sunny D has more
preservatives and more acids than the 100% Orange Juice.
Experimental Procedure
Materials

.1 M NaOH
60 mL of each juice, 20 mL for each trial, so 3 trials total for each juice.
Plastic container to store the .1 M of NaOH in.
Buffers to calibrate pH meter
pH meter
Gloves
Goggles
Apron
Closed toe shoes and long sleeves
Buret
Volumetric flask
Mixer, to mix the juice when titrating it with the NaOH.
Funnel
Graduated cylinder
Beaker

Identification of Variables and ConstantsIndependent Variable: .1 M NaOH solution


Dependent Variable: pH of the juice
Constants: Same .1 M NaOH solution, same juice being used throughout each trial,
buret, pH meter, temperature of the room, temperature of .1 M NaOH and juices.
Control Setup- Sunny D and 100% Orange Juice
Procedure1. Prepare your NaOH with the ksp provided.

2. Make sure that youre dressed appropriate for the lab, including, gloves, long
sleeves, closed toe shoes, pant, goggles, and if you have long hair, that its
tied back.
3. Once these steps are finished, clean your buret with distilled water.
4. Then used some of the .1 M NaOH solution and rinse your buret out 3 times
before using for your trails.
5. Set up a ring stand and place the buret in the ring stand.
6. Get beakers approiate enough to put your juice in. Clean the beakers with
distilled water.
7. Rinse out the gradulated cylinder with distilled water as well.
8. Measure your amount of the juice, and place it in three beakers. One beaker
for each trial.
9. Then calibrate your pH meter with a buffer solution.
10.Tape the pH meter to the buret and have the end part of the pH meter in your
juice.
11.Place a mixer underneath your juice, along with a magnetic pill in the juice.
12.Fill the buret with your desired amount of NaOH.
13.Record that in your data table along with the initial pH.
14.Let about 5 mL of .1 M NaoH out at a time, every 5 mL record the pH.
15.Once there is a dramatic change to the pH, add only drops, record the volume
along with the pH.
16.Keeping doing this until you no longer see a change in the pH and then record
your ending volume of your .1 M NaOH.
17.Repeat steps 6-16 for each trial for each juice.
Safety Concerns- Wear a long sleeve shirt and pants so no skin is showing,
including closed toe shoes, gloves, and goggles to protect yourself. As .1 M of NaOH
can be dangerous and burn your skin. If you have long hair, tie it back to avoid any
harsh chemicals from getting on it and onto your skin. Do not eat in the lab room
and eating any of these chemicals is very dangerous.
Collective and Display Data
Data Table (mine is provided on my website through a different link) Trail 1 setup is
the same for all three trials.
Trial 1
Initial Volume and pH
5 mL and pH
10 mL and pH
15 mL and pH
Volume added and pH
once there is a dramatic
change. Adding drop by
drop. So example- .5 mL
and pH
Ending volume and
ending pH once you see
no more changes to the

Trial 2

Trial 3

pH

Data Analysis
Pictures of calculations are on my website.
Conclusion
How much acid is in Sunny D and 100% Pure Orange Juice? My team and I
conducted a titration to determine the Ka for each juice and which one would be
more acidic. I had predicted that Sunny D would be more acidic than 100% Pure
Orange Juice. In the ingredients of Sunny D there was citric acid with a Ka of
8.4*10^-4 and ascorbic acid with a Ka of 7.9*10^-5. My team and I wanted to see
which acid Sunny D was closest too so we could give an accurate reading of which
juice is more acidic. After doing three trials of the Sunny D titration, I got a Ka for
Sunny D at 2.1*10^-5. This data does not fit in with the Ka values of both citric and
ascorbic acid. Sunny D did have an acid concentration of .00774 M. I had come to
the conclusion that there is so much more ingredients that had affect this data
when trying to titrate. Not only was I titrating citric and ascorbic acid, but it was also
titrating so much junk or interfering ingredients. Because of this data I cannot tell
which acid Sunny D has more of, so I cannot compare it to my 100% Pure Orange
Juice. My 100% Pure Orange Juice had only ascorbic acid, with a Ka of 7.9*10^-5,
and when doing my calculations, I ended with a Ka for my Orange Juice at
7.94*10^-5. This Orange Juice concentration came out to be .0097 M.
The only source of errors that I had come across was my team ran out of
NaOH solution, so we had used some that someone else made. It was very close to .
1 M, but so was ours, so the slight change in the NaOH concentration could have
affected my data. The last error was that Sunny D had more than just some sugar
and acid in it, so our data for that juice came out very off, as like I said, we were not
only titrating just acid.
I can see how this is needed in the real world. Through my generation, there
has been a ton of talk of how so many things are bad for us. How modified
substances can cause a lot of issues. I experienced that first hand as the Ka for the
Sunny D was nowhere close to what it should have been, so what am I truly drinking
when I have Sunny D? Titrating helps chemist understand the concentrations, pH
level, the extent of how dangerous something can be, etc. This helps people open
up their eyes and realizes there may be more issues in the food or drink you are
consuming than whats listed in the ingredients section.