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By:NikkiAllen8KWO

Howdidyouchooseyourtopic?
OurgroupchoseourenergyrelatedtopictobeCathodeRaysaswethoughtitwouldbe
aninteresting,andeasy,experimenttotackle.Themainresearchquestionthatwe
havechosentoansweris:HowdoesthestrengthofaMagneticFieldeffectthe
deviationofCathodeRays.ACathodeRayisadirectbeamofelectronsfiredfroma
stronglyvacuumedtube.ThisisalsoslightlyrelatedtoourpreviousworkonElectricity.
Lateron,mygroupconductedtwomoreexperiments,MagneticFieldStrengthvs
DistanceandMagneticFieldStrengthvsElectricalPowerwhichgreatlyrelatedto
furtherexplorethetopicofmagnetismandcathoderays.Wedecidedthatthistopicwas
highlyscientificasitincludedhowphotonsandelectronsgetaffectedbyamagnetic
field,whichwassomethingthatwehadntfullygoneintodepthbefore.Thistopic
introducedustoseveralnewcomponentsusedinphysicssuchasasolenoidsanda
cathoderays.Asolenoidisamagnetwithnoironcore,itismadebyacoilofwires
whichisabletocarryacurrentwhenelectricalpowerisappliedtoit.

Howdidyouconductyourresearch?
Firstly,sinceCathodeRayshavenotbeentaughttouspreviously,mygrouphadtofind
outwhataMalteseCrosstubeisandhowCathodeRaysworkforfurtherunderstanding
oftheproject.Thisinvolvedextensiveinternetresearchonanumberofwebsitesto
furtherlearnaboutApparatusandSafety1 ,ElectricBehaviourandEffectsofabar
Magnet2 andHistoryandDiscoveryofCathodeRays3.Afterthat,theonlyotherthings
weneededtoresearchwasadiagramofaMalteseCrosstubetomakesurethatwe
wouldntdamageourequipment.Inordertocollectourdata,wehadtoaskourteacher
aboutwhichtechnologiestouse.Intheend,wedecidedonusingamagneticsensor
attachedtoadataloggerforthefirstandsecondexperimentandanonlineprotractor
forthelastexperimenttouploadourphotosonto.Thiswasthefirsttimethatmygroup
hasusedamagneticsensorbutwefounditeasytouse.Allwehadtodowasattach
thesensortoadataloggerandgetthereadingsfromthenumbersshownonthedata
1

ApparatusandSafety

http://practicalphysics.org/maltesecrosscastingshadows.html
2
ElectricalBehaviourandEffectsofabarmagnet
http://sirius.ucsc.edu/demoweb/cgibin/?e_mquantummaltese
3
HistoryandDiscoveryofCathodeRays
https://explorable.com/cathoderayexperiment
http://theinventors.org/library/inventors/blcathoderaytube.htm

logger.Myteamworkedwelltogetherincollectingthedata,wehadrolesonwhotyped
intheresults,whodidtheexperimentandwhoreadthedata.Therewasaslighterrorin
thesecondexperiment,whichwaslookingathowdistanceaffectsmagneticfield
strength,aswewererecordingthemagneticfieldstrengthfromthewrongpoint.The
solenoidsmagneticfieldthatweusedtraveledinadifferentmannerasitwascircular,
meaningthatwehadtoredoourresultsandmeasurethemagneticfielddirectlyparallel
abovethecenterofthesolenoid.

Howdoesyourprojectrelatetoyouryearsthemeindifferentdisciplines?
ThesubjectsofelectricityandmagnetismhavebeenstudiedinNovember2015aspart
ofourYear8work.Theselessonsincludedanintroductiontoelectricity,waves,light,
magnetismandelectromagnetism.Basedonthis,wedecidedtofurtherassesthe
relationshipbetweenCathodeRaysandMagneticFields.Mygroupalsothoughtthatno
oneelsewouldvethoughtoftheseexperimentsandthereforethatthisworkwouldbea
valuablecontributiontoourYearsgroupofexperiments.

Howdidyoudecideonthedesignofyourexhibitandsite?
Forthewebsite,mygroupandIdeliberatedonwhatinformationtoadd.Thethreemain
pointsthatwedecidedtoaddintoourwebsitewas:
1)
AbriefhistoryofhowCathodeRayswerefoundandhowitgotdiscovered.This
wouldmakethelearningofCathodeRaysmoresimpleasitisnotalongwriteupwhich
peoplewouldhavetotakealongtimeinreadingtounderstand.
2)
Photosofeachexperimenttomakeavisualrepresentationoftheexperiment,
equipmentandmethod.
3)
Clearlystructuredresults,completedwithgraphsandaconclusion.

TheexhibitionissomethingthatmygroupandIarestilldiscussing.Wewerethinkingof
either
bringingin
themaltesecrosstubealongwithagametohelpthestudentsand
judgeslearnwhatCathodeRaysarebyactually
doing
theexperimentthemselves.