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PRODUCTION OF

ACRYLONITRILE BY
AMMOXIDATION OF
PROPYLENE

GROUP MEMBERS

Waheed Ahmed
Adnan Raf
Ahmed Haroon
Shahzad Ali Zahid

(2k11-ChE-09)
(2k11-ChE-16)
(2k11-ChE-23)
(2k11-ChE-49)

1a

CONTENTS
Introduction

Process

Description
Site Selection
Hazop study and EIA

1b

Introduction

Waheed Ahmad
(2k11-Che-09)

2a

INTRODUCTION

It was frst prepared in 1893 by the French


chemist Charles
Chemical Formula C3H3N.
This pungent-smelling colorless liquid
It is monomerfor the manufacture of plastics.
It produce toxic combustion products

2b

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
colorless liquid and faint characteristic odor.
Other trade names.
Acrylonitrile polymerizes explosively.

3b

Property

Value

Molecular weight

53.06

Boiling point, 0C

77.3 At 103.3 kPa

Critical temperature,
0
C
Density, g/L

246.0
806.0 At 20"C

Explosive limit at 250C, vol 3.05-17.0


%
Flash point 0C
-5
Freezing point, 0C

-83.55

Heat of polymerization,
kJ/mol
Ignition temperature, C

-72.4

Viscosity at 25C, cP

0.34

Heat capacity,

2.094

481.0

3c

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Reactions of the Nitrile Group


Hydration and Hydrolysis
Alcoholysis
NH-HX
CH2=CHCN + ROH + HX

XCH2CH2COR

3d

Reactions of the Double Bond


Diels-Alder Reactions
Hydrogenation
Halogenations
Hydrodimerization.

3e

Reactions of Both Functional Groups


Cyanoethylation Reactions (Michael-Type
Additions)
CH2=CHCN + RH

RCH2CH2CN

4a

USES AND APPLICATION


Acrylic Fibers.
Copolymer Resin ("Plastics'').
Nitrile Rubbers and Resins.

4b

Shahzad Ali Zahid


(2k11-Che-49)

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Early Processes
a.

Passage through ethylene cyanohydrin

The following reactions are involved:


CH2-CH2 + HCN

CH2OH-CH2-CN

O
CH2OH-CH2-CN
Temperature 200C
Yield 90%

CH2=CH-CN+H2O

b. Addition of hydrogen cyanide to acetylene


HC CH +HCN

CH2=CH-CN

H0298 -175 kJ / mol

catalyst consisting of cuprous chloride and

ammonium chloride in solution in hydrochloric acid

temperature of 80 to 90C

molar yield is up to 90 per cent

by-products are acetaldehyde, vinyl acetylene,divinyl


acetylene, vinyl chloride, cyano butene, lacto nitrile,

methyl vinyl ketone

C.

Passage through lactonitrile

CH3-CHO + HCN
CH3CHOH-CN

CH3CHOH-CN (10-20) C
CH2-CH-CN + H2O

Yield 90 percent
D.

Nitric oxide with propylene

4CH2=CH-CH3+6NO

4CH2=CH-CN + 6H2O + N2

E. From Propionitrile.
CH3CH2CN

CH2 = CHCN + H2

F. From Propionaldehyde.
CH3CH2CHO + NH3

CH2 = CHCN + H20 + 2H2

G. Acrylonitrile Manufacture by ammoxidation of


propylene (Sohio Process)
CH2=CH-CH3+NH3+3/2O2

CH2=CH-CN+3H2O
H0298 -515kJ/mol

Better quality product

Economical

Its conversion in a single pass is high

Energy efficient process

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
Raw Material

Ammonia (NH3)

Air

Propylene(C3H6)

FEED RATIO= PROPENE/AMMONIA/AIR=1/1.2/9.5

the oxygen (air) is introduced below


mixed propylene and ammonia through
spiders positioned above the grid
The operating pressure should be low to prevent
the by-ptoducts
The residence time in the reactor is between
2 and 20 s
The main reaction is
CH2=CH-CH3+NH3+3/2O2
CH2=CH-CN+3H2O

H0298 -515kJ/mol

It now appears clear that this overall result can


be explained by the production of Acrolein as the
main intermediate

CH2 = CH CH3 + O2
CH2 = CH CHO + NH3
CH2 = CH CH = NH + 1/202

CH2 = CH CHO + H2O


CH2 = CH CH = NH + H2O
CH2 = CH CN + H2O

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT VARIABLES


ON CONVERSATION
Effect of residence time
Effect of reaction temperature
Effect of reaction pressure
Effect of Catalyst

REACTION MECHANISM

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

QUENCHER

It is used to remove ammonia from the reactor


effluent and low down its temperature using sulphuric
acid. It produces ammonium sulphate salt ((NH4)2SO4)
at bottom which is used as a fertilizer and the top
effluent is sent to absorber.

No. of Stages : 10

Sulphuric acid: 30% concentrated H2SO4

Bottom stream coming out of quencher mainly consists


of ammonium sulphate. This stream is further passed
into Crystallizer where crystals of ammonium sulphate
are produced which is used as fertilizer.

ABSORBER

Function of Absorber is to remove the residual gases,


containing unconverted propylene, CO2 and other VOC.
Random Packing: 5 segments of Raschig rings made up of
ceramic, diameter=0.375in

Height of each packing segment=10ft

Column Diameter=5ft

RECOVERY UNIT
Idea is to recover the useful components from the
aqueous solution like ACN, AN etc.
No. of stages: 10
Random Packing: Saddles made up of ceramic,
diameter=0.5in
Total tower height=40ft
Column diameter=5ft

CATALYST

Sohio, who initially employed bismuth phosphomolybdate


in 1967 by a mixture based on oxides of antimony and
uranium
In 1972, Sohio then returned to an iron and bismuth
phosphomolybdate doped by additions of cobalt, nickel and
potassium
The catalysts used in the process are mostly based on
mixed metal oxides such as bismuth-molybdenum oxide,
iron-antimony oxide, uranium-antimony oxide, tellurium
- molybdenum oxide etc.

Adnan Raf
2k11-Che-15

HAZOP STUDY
A HAZOP survey is one of the most common and
widely accepted methods of systematic
qualitative hazard analysis.
It is used for both new or existing facilities and can
be applied to a whole plant, a production unit, or
a piece of equipment

4c

OBJECTIVES OF A HAZOP STUDY

To identify areas of the design.


To identify and study features of the design.
To familiarize the study team.
To ensure a systematic study.
To identify pertinent design information.
To provide a mechanism for feedback.

4d

STEPS OF HAZOP STUDY


1.
2.
3.

Specify the purpose


Select the HAZOP study team
Collect data

4e

5a

HAZOP GUIDE WORDS AND


MEANINGS
Guide Words

Meanings

No

Negation of design Intent

Less

Quantitative decrease

More

Quantitative increase

Part of

Qualitative decrease

As well as

Qualitative increase

Reverse

Logical opposite of

Other than

Complete substitution

5b

4. Conduct the study


5.
Write the report
HAZOP Study of Storage Tank for Propylene