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FLIGHT PLAN

FLUGPLAN

BUNDESREPUBLIK
DEUTSCHLAND
ADRESSEE(S)
ANSCHRIFTEN

FF

ORIGINATOR
AUFGEBER

FILING TIME
AUFGABEZEIT

SPECIFIC IDENT OF ADRESSEE(S) AND/OR ORIGINATOR


BESONDERE ANSCHRIFTEN UND/ODER AUFGEBER

FLUGREGELN

LFZ.-KENNUNG

( FPL

EQUIPMENT

WAKE TURBULNCE CATEGORY


WIRBELSCHLEPPENKATEGORIE

TYPE OF AIRCRAFT
MUSTER D. LFZ

NUMBER

9 ANZAHL

TYPE OF FLIGHT
ART DES FLUGES

8 FLIGHT RULES

7 AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION

10 AUSRSTUNG

/
ROUTE
ROUTE

LEVEL
REISEFLUGHHE

SPEED

15 GESCHWINDIGKEIT

TIME
ZEIT

DEPARTURE AERODROME

13 STARTFLUGPLATZ

TOTAL EET
VORAUSS. GESAMTFLUGDAUER
HR
MIN

DESTINATION AERODROME

16 ZIELFLUGPLATZ

2ND ALTERNATE AERODROME


2. AUSWEICHFLUGPLATZ

ALTERNATE AERODROME
AUSWEICHFLUGPLATZ

OTHER INFORMATION

18 ANDERE ANGABEN

)
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATON - ERGNZENDE ANGABEN
ENDURANCE
HCHSTFLUGDAUER
HR
MIN

19

SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT
RETTUNGSAUSRSTUNG
POLAR

UHF

EMERGENCY RADIO
NOTFUNKFREQUENZ
VHF

ELBA

FLUORES

UHF

VHF

PERS. ON BOARD
PERS. AN BORD

DESERT

MARITIME

JUNGLE

JACKETS
SCHWIMMWESTEN

LIGHT

DINGHIES/SCHLAUCHBOOTE
NUMBER
ANZAHL

CAPACITY
TRAGFHIGKEIT

COVER

COLOUR
FARBE

C
AIRCRAFT COLOUR AND MARKINGS
FARBE UND MARKIERUNG D. LFZ

/
REMARKS
BEMERKUNGEN

/
PILOT IN COMMAND
VERANTWORTLICHER LFZ.-FHRER

REMARKS NOT FOR TRANSMISSION


BEMERKUNGEN NICHT ZU BERMITTELN
FILED BY
NAME DES FLUGPLANAUFGEBERS

SIGNATURE AIS
UNTERSCHRIFT FB

Zustzliche Angaben sofern erforderlich / Additional remarks if applicalbe

Erreichbarkeit bis EOBT-Tel.:


Available until EOBT

-FAX:

Bitte Beratung
Request Briefing

3-

Beispielberechnungen
Mittelstreckenstrahlflugzeug

2011 Civil Aviation Training

ATPL(A) Mass and Balance

V5.0-ts

Seite 124

Safety Regulation Group

CAP 696
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations
Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Third Edition July 2006

www.caa.co.uk

Safety Regulation Group

CAP 696
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations
Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Third Edition July 2006

www.caa.co.uk

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Civil Aviation Authority 2006


All rights reserved. Copies of this publication may be reproduced as training material for students, for
use within a company or organisation, or for personal use, but may not otherwise be reproduced for
publication or for commercial gain.
To use or reference CAA publications for any other purpose, please contact the CAA at the address
below for formal agreement.
ISBN 0 11790 389 2
First published August 1999
Second edition June 2001
Third edition July 2006

Enquiries regarding the content of this publication should be addressed to:


Personnel Licensing Department, Safety Regulation Group, Civil Aviation Authority, Aviation House,
Gatwick Airport South, West Sussex, RH6 0YR.
The latest version of this document is available in electronic format at www.caa.co.uk, where you may
also register for e-mail notification of amendments.
Published by TSO (The Stationery Office) on behalf of the UK Civil Aviation Authority.
Printed copy available from:
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CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

List of Effective Pages


Section

Page
iii

Date

Page

Date

July 2006

iv

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vi

July 2006

Revision History

July 2006

Revision History

July 2006

Section 1

July 2006

Section 1

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Section 1

July 2006

Section 1

July 2006

Section 1

July 2006

Section 1

July 2006

Section 2

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Section 2

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Section 2

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Section 2

July 2006

Section 3

July 2006

Section 3

July 2006

Section 3

July 2006

Section 3

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Section 3

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Section 3

July 2006

Section 4

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Section 4

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Section 4

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Section 4

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Section 4

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Section 4

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Section 4

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10

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CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Table of Contents

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Section 4

July 2006

List of Effective Pages

iii

Revision History

General Notes
Introduction

Aircraft Description

Layout of Data Sheets

Definitions

Conversions

Standard Mass Values

Data for Single-Engine Piston Aeroplane (SEP1)


Aeroplane Description and Data

Procedure for Mass and Balance Calculation

Data for Light Twin-Engine Piston Aeroplane (MEP1)


Aeroplane Description and Data

Configuration Options

Procedure for Mass and Balance Calculations

Data for Medium-Range Twin Jet (MRJT1)


Aircraft Description

Aircraft Data Constants

Mass and Balance Limitations

Fuel Data

Passenger and Personnel Data

Cargo Data

Mass and Balance Calculations

Page v

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Page vi

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Revision History
1st Edition
August 1999
CAP 696, CAA JAR-FCL Examinations Loading Manual, was produced to support training and
examinations in JAR-FCL Subject 031 - Mass and Balance for Aeroplanes.
2nd Edition
The manual was reissued to incorporate CAA House Style.

June 2001

3rd Edition
July 2006
This edition has been retitled and upgraded with digitised graphics. Definitions and conversions have been rationalised and known errors have been corrected.

July 2006

Revision History Page 1

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CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

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July 2006

Revision History Page 2

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Section 1

General Notes

Introduction

1.1

The data sheets in this manual are produced to support training and examinations in
JAR-FCL Subject 031 - Mass and Balance for Aeroplanes.

1.2

The data contained within these sheets are for training and examination purposes
only. The data must not be used for any other purpose and, specifically, are not to
be used for the purpose of planning activities associated with the operation of
any aeroplane in use now or in the future.

Aircraft Description

2.1

The aeroplanes used in these data sheets are of generic types related to the classes
of aeroplane on which the appropriate examinations are based.

2.2

Candidates must select the correct class of aeroplane for the question being
attempted.
Generic Aeroplanes
Single-Engine Piston

certificated under CS 23 (Light Aeroplanes)


Performance Class B

Multi-Engine Piston

certificated under CS 23 (Light Aeroplanes)


Performance Class B

Medium-Range Jet Transport

MEP1

certificated under CS 25 (Large Aeroplanes)


Performance Class A

2.3

SEP1

MRJT1

The same set of generic aeroplanes will be utilised in the following subjects:
031 - Mass and Balance - Aeroplanes
032 - Performance - Aeroplanes
033 - Flight Planning and Monitoring - Aeroplanes

July 2006

Section 1 - General Notes Page 1

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Layout of Data Sheets

3.1

Each set of data sheets will consist of an introduction that will contain some pertinent
information relating to the aircraft and the subject being examined. This data will
include (but not be limited to) a list of abbreviations and some conversion factors.

3.2

This will be followed by a selection of graphs and/or tables that will provide coverage
suitable for the syllabus to be examined. A worked example will accompany each
graph/table and will demonstrate typical usage.

Definitions
Definitions given in italics are not given in ICAO, or JAA or EASA documentation but
are in common use.

4.1

Mass Definitions:
Basic Empty Mass (Basic Mass)

is the mass of an aeroplane plus standard items


such as: unusable fuel and other unusable
fluids; lubricating oil in engine and auxiliary
units; fire extinguishers; pyrotechnics;
emergency oxygen equipment; supplementary
electronic equipment.

Dry Operating Mass (DOM)

is the total mass of the aeroplane ready for a


specific type of operation excluding usable fuel
and traffic load. The mass includes items such
as:
i) Crew and crew baggage.
ii) Catering and removable passenger service
equipment.
iii) Potable water and lavatory chemicals.
iv) Food and beverages.

Maximum Structural Landing Mass the maximum permissible total aeroplane mass
(MSLM)
on landing in normal circumstances.
Maximum Structural Take-Off Mass the maximum permissible total aeroplane mass
(MSTOM)
at the start of the take-off run.
Maximum Structural Taxi Mass

is the structural limitation of the mass of the


aeroplane at commencement of taxi.

Maximum Zero Fuel Mass (MZFM) is the maximum permissible mass of an


aeroplane with no usable fuel.
Operating Mass (OM)

is the DOM plus fuel but without traffic load.

Performance Limited Landing Mass is the mass subject to the landing aerodrome
(PLLM)
limitations.
Performance Limited Take-Off Mass is the take-off mass subject to departure
(PLTOM)
aerodrome limitations.

July 2006

Section 1 - General Notes Page 2

CAP 696

4.2

July 2006

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Regulated Landing Mass (RLM)

is the lowest of the performance limited


landing mass and structural limited landing
mass.

Regulated Take-Off Mass (RTOM)

is the lowest of the performance limited TOM


and structural limited TOM.

Take-Off Mass (TOM)

is the mass of the aeroplane including


everything and everyone contained within it at
the start of the take-off run.

Taxi Mass

is the mass of the aeroplane at the start of the


taxi (at departure from the loading gate).
Sometimes referred to as Ramp Mass.

Traffic Load

is the total mass of passengers, baggage and


cargo, including any non-revenue load.

Useful Load

is the total mass of the passengers, baggage


and cargo, including any non-revenue load and
usable fuel.
It is the difference between the Dry Operating
Mass and the Take-Off Mass.

Zero Fuel Mass (ZFM)

is DOM plus traffic load but excluding fuel.

Other Definitions
Balance Arm (BA)

is the distance from the datum to the centre of


gravity of a mass.

Centre of Gravity (CG)

is that point through which the force of gravity is


said to act on a mass.

Datum

(relative to an aeroplane) is that point on the


longitudinal axis (or extension thereof) from
which the centres of gravities of all masses are
referenced.

Dry Operating Index (DOI)

is the index for the position of the centre of


gravity at Dry Operating Mass.

Loading Index (LI)

is a non-dimensional figure that is a scaled


down value of a moment. It is used to simplify
mass and balance calculations.

Moment

is the product of the mass and the balance arm

Section 1 - General Notes Page 3

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Conversions
All conversions are taken from ICAO Annex 5.

5.1

5.2

5.3

Mass Conversions
Pounds (lb) to Kilograms (kg)

lb x 0.454

Kilograms (kg) to Pounds (lb)

kg x 2.205

Volumes (Liquid)
Imperial Gallons to Litres (l)

Imp. Gall x 4.546

US Gallons to Litres (l)

US Gall x 3.785

Lengths
Feet (ft) to Metres (m)

5.4

Distances
Nautical mile (NM) to metres (m)

July 2006

ft x 0.305

NM x 1852.0

Section 1 - General Notes Page 4

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Standard Mass Values


Mass Values for Passengers: 20 Passenger Seats or more
20 or more

30 or more

Passenger seats
Male

Female

All Adult

All flights except holiday charters

88 kg

70 kg

84 kg

Holiday charters

83 kg

69 kg

76 kg

Children

35 kg

35 kg

35 kg

Mass Values for Passengers: 19 Passenger Seats or less


Passenger seats

1-5

6-9

10-19

Male

104 kg

96 kg

92 kg

Female

86 kg

78 kg

74 kg

Children

35 kg

35 kg

35 kg

Mass Values for Baggage: 20 Passenger Seats or more


Type of Flight

Baggage Standard Mass

Domestic

11 kg

Within the European Region

13 kg

Intercontinental

15 kg

All other

13 kg

NOTE: The masses above are subject to change. Candidates should therefore
regard these as accurate for examination purposes only. For operational
purposes refer to JAR-OPS 1.

July 2006

Section 1 - General Notes Page 5

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CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

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Section 2 - SEP1 Page 6

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Section 2

Data for Single-Engine Piston Aeroplane


(SEP1)

Aeroplane Description and Data


Monoplane
Single reciprocating engine
Propeller - constant speed
Retractable undercarriage
Performance Class B

FWD AFT
LIMIT LIMIT

DATUM

FIREWALL

39.0
INS
74.0 INS
80.4 INS

NOSEWHEEL

3.1 INS AFT OF DATUM

MAIN WHEEL

97.0 INS AFT OF DATUM

87.7 INS

Figure 2.1 Location Diagram


Reference datum

39.00 inches forward of firewall

Centre of Gravity (CG) limits

forward limit 74.00 - 80.4 in


aft limit 87.7 in

MSTOM
MSLM

3,650 lb
3,650 lb

BEM

2,415 lb

BEM CG location

77.7 in

BEM Moment 100

July 2006

1,876.46 in.lbs

Landing Gear retraction/extension

does not significantly affect CG position

Floor structure load limit

50 lb per square foot between front and rear


spars (includes Baggage Zone A)
100 lb per square foot elsewhere (Baggage
Zones B & C)

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 1

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

FIREWALL
FRONT SEATS
SEATS 3 & 4

BAGGAGE
ZONE A

SEATS 5 & 6
BAGGAGE
ZONE C

BAGGAGE
ZONE B

BAGGAGE/LOAD ZONE
A
B
C

ARM (INCHES)
108
150
180

Figure 2.2 Seating and Baggage Arrangements

Leading Edge Tanks


(Fuel Tank Centroid Arm=75 in Aft of Datum)
Gallons

Weight (lb)

Moment
100 (in. lbs)

Gallons

Weight (lb)

Moment
100 (in. lbs)

30

22.5

44

264

198

10

60

45

50

300

225

15

90

67.5

55

330

247.5

20

120

90

60

360

270

25

150

112.5

65

390

292.5

30

180

135

70

420

315

35

210

157.5

74

444

333

40

240

180

Figure 2.3 Useful Mass and Moments of Usable Fuel

July 2006

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 2

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Procedure for Mass and Balance Calculation


(Refer to Figure 2.4)

2.1

Record the Basic Empty Mass and moment in the Basic Empty Condition row. The
moment must be divided by 100 to correspond to Useful Mass and Moments table.

2.2

Record the Mass and corresponding moment for each of the useful load items
(except fuel) to be carried in the aeroplane (occupants, baggage).

2.3

Total the Mass column and moment column. The SUB-TOTAL is the Zero Fuel
Condition

2.4

Determine the Mass and corresponding moment for the fuel loading to be used. This
fuel loading includes fuel for the flight, plus that required for start, taxi and take-off.
Add the Fuel to Zero Fuel Condition to obtain the SUB-TOTAL Ramp Condition.

2.5

Subtract the fuel to be used for start, taxi and run-up to arrive at the SUB-TOTAL Takeoff Condition.

2.6

Subtract the Mass and moment of the fuel in the incremental sequence in which it is
to be used from the take-off weight and moment. The Zero Fuel Condition, the Takeoff Condition and the Landing Condition moments must be within the Centre of
Gravity envelope at Figure 2.5.

2.7

If the total moment is less than the minimum moment allowed, useful load items
must be shifted aft or forward load items reduced. If the total moment is greater than
the maximum moment allowed, useful load items must be shifted forward or aft load
items reduced. If the quantity or location of load items is changed, the calculations
must be revised and the moments re-checked.
Item

Mass

Arm (in)

Moment
100

1. Basic Empty Condition


2. Front Seat Occupants

79

3. Third and Fourth Seat PAX

117

4. Baggage Zone A

108

5. Fifth And Sixth Seat PAX

152

6. Baggage Zone B

150

7. Baggage Zone C

180

Sub-total = Zero Fuel Mass


8. Fuel Loading
Sub-total = Ramp Mass
9. Subtract Fuel for Start, Taxi and Run Up
(see Note)
Sub-total = Take-off Mass
10. Trip Fuel
Sub-total = Landing Mass

NOTE: Fuel for start taxi and run up is normally 13 lb at an average entry of 10 in the
column headed Moment ( 100)

Figure 2.4 Blank Loading Manifest SEP1

July 2006

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 3

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

300

290

320

3800

3700
3650
3600

270

260

3500

250

3400

240

3300

3200

MOMENT / 100

230

220

3100

210

3000

2900

200

2800

190

WEIGHT - POUNDS

280

310

87.7

CAP 696

2700

180

2600

170

2500

2400

160

2300

150

2200
70

72

74

76

78

80

82

84

86

88

90

2100

CENTRE OF GRAVITY - INCHES AFT OF DATUM

Figure 2.5 Blank Centre of Gravity Envelope

July 2006

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 4

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Section 3

Data for Light Twin-Engine Piston


Aeroplane (MEP1)

Aeroplane Description and Data

1.1

Description

Monoplane
Twin reciprocating supercharged engines
Counter- rotating, constant speed propellers
Retractable undercarriage
Performance Class B
BEM CG ARM
88.5 IN
FWD
LIMIT

AFT
LIMIT

DATUM

78.4 IN

25.3 IN

82.0 IN
94.6 IN
109.8 IN

Figure 3.1 Location Diagram


Reference datum

78.4 inches forward wing leading edge at inboard


edge of inboard fuel tank
CG limits fwd
82.0 inches to 90.8 inches (subject to aeroplane mass)
aft
94.6 inches
MSTOM
4,750 lb
MSLM
4,513 lb
MZFM
4,470 lb
BEM
3,210 lb
BEM CG location
88.5 inches
BEM Moment 100
=
2840.9 in.lbs
Gear retraction/extension does not significantly affect CG position
Structural Floor Loading Limit 120 lb/square foot

Configuration Options

2.1

Baggage/Freight Zones

Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4

July 2006

Max Mass

Arm

100 lb
360 lb
400 lb
100 lb

22.5
118.5
157.6
178.7

available only with centre seats removed


available only with rear seats removed

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 1

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

2.2

Standard Allowances

2.2.1

Fuel relative density - an average mass of 6 lb per US gallon should be used.


Passenger and pilot mass - actual mass values should be used.

Procedure for Mass and Balance Calculations


See example at Figures 3.2 and 3.3. Figures 3.4 and 3.5 are provided for your use.
a) Enter all mass values in correct locations on table (Figure 3.2/3.4)
b) Calculate moments for each entry
c) Total mass values to obtain zero fuel mass
d) Total moments for zero fuel mass condition
e) Determine arm at zero fuel mass
f) Add total fuel mass and arm
g) Obtain moment for fuel load
h) Add fuel mass and moment to determine ramp mass and moment
i) Deduct start-up, taxi and run-up fuel allowance and correct moment to obtain takeoff conditions.
j) Check CG position lies within envelope (chart at Figure 3.3/3.5)
k) Deduct estimated fuel burn to destination
l) Obtain estimated landing mass and moment
m) Check CG position at landing to ensure that it lies within envelope (chart at Figure
3.3/3.5)
Mass
(lb)

Arm Aft of
Datum (in)

Moment 100
(in.lbs)

3,210

88.5

2,840.85

Pilot and Front Passenger

340

85.5

290.7

Passengers (Centre Seats) or


Baggage Zone 2 (360 lb max)

236

118.5

279.66

Passengers (Centre Seats) or


Baggage Zone 3 (400 lb max)

340

157.6

535.84

Baggage Zone 1 (100 lb max)

100

22.5

22.5

Baggage Zone 4 (100 lb max)

N/A

178.7

NIL

4,226

93.9

3969.55

545

93.6

510.12

4,771

93.9

4479.67

-23

93.6

-21.53

Take-off Mass (4,750 lb max)

4,748

93.9

4458.14

Minus Estimated Fuel Burn-off

-450

93.6

-421.2

Landing Mass (4,513 lb max)

4,298

93.9

4036.94

ITEM
Basic Empty Mass

Zero Fuel Mass (4,470 lb max)


Fuel (123 US gallons Max)
Ramp Mass (4,773 lb max)
Fuel Allowance for Start, Taxi Run-up

NOTE: Maximum mass values given in this table are for structural limits only.
Figure 3.2 Example Loading Manifest MEP1

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 2

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

4750

92

MSTOM

90
TAKE-OFF
MASS

4600
MSLM
MZFM

4513
4470
4400

94

88

4200

LANDING
MASS
ZERO FUEL
MASS

86

4000

3800

84

3400

82

3200

3000

IMIT 9

4.6

AIRCRAFT MASS - LBS

3600

2200

2
IMIT 8

2400

FWD L

2600

AFT L

2800

82

84

86

88

90

92

94

CG LOCATION (INCHES AFT OF DATUM)

Figure 3.3 Example Centre of Gravity Envelope

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 3

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

ITEM
Basic Empty Mass

Mass
(lbs)

Arm Aft Of
Datum (in)

3210

88.5

Pilot and Front Passenger

85.5

Passengers (Centre Seats) or


Baggage Zone 2 (360 lb Max.)

118.5

Passengers (Rear Seats) or


Baggage Zone 3 (400 lb Max.)

157.6

Baggage Zone 1 (100 lb Max.)

22.5

Baggage Zone 4 (100 lb Max.)

178.7

Moment 100
(in.lbs)

Zero Fuel Mass (4,470 lb Max - Std)


Fuel (123 gal. Max.)

93.6

Ramp Mass (4,773 lb Max)


Fuel Allowance for Start, Taxi, Run-up

93.6

Take-off Mass (4,750 lb Max.)


Minus Estimated Fuel Burn-off

93.6

Landing Mass (4,513 lb Max.)

NOTE: Maximum mass values given in this table are for structural limits only.
Figure 3.4 Blank Loading Manifest

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 4

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

4750

92

MSTOM

94

90

4600
MSLM
MZFM

4513
4470
4400

88

4200

86

4000

3800

84

3400

82

3200

3000

IT 94.

AIRCRAFT MASS - LBS

3600

2400

2200

T 82
IMI
FWD L

2600

AFT L
IM

2800

82

84

86

88

90

92

94

CG LOCATION (INCHES AFT OF DATUM)

Figure 3.5 Blank Centre of Gravity Envelope

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 5

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July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 6

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CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Section 4 Data for Medium-Range Twin Jet (MRJT1)


1

Aircraft Description
Monoplane
Twin high-bypass gas turbine engines
Retractable undercarriage
Certified under FAR 25/CS 25
Performance Class A

Aircraft Data Constants


Balance Arm (INS)
26

-22

118

176

DATUM

348
370
414

458

500
540

589.5
627.5

727
747
787

831

875
895

1123
1164

1365

FS

Figure 4.1 Locations Diagram


Body Station
130 to 500

Conversion
B.S. - 152 in

Balance Arm - in
-22 to 348

500A
500B
500C
500D
500E
500F
500G

348 + 22 in
348 + 44 in
348 + 66 in
348 + 88 in
348 + 110 in
348 + 132 in
348 + 152 in

370
392
414
436
458
480
500

540 to 727

B.S. + 0 in

540 to 727

727A
727B
727C
727D
727E
727F
727G
747 to 1217

727 +
727 +
727 +
727 +
727 +
727 +
727 +

20 in
40 in
60 in
82 in
104 in
126 in
148 in

B.S. + 148 in

747
767
787
809
831
853
875
895 to 1,365

Figure 4.2 Table to Convert Body Station to Balance Arm

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 1

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

2.1

Datum point

540 inches forward of front spar (FS)

2.2

Landing Gear Retraction/Extension

negligible effect from operation of landing gear

2.3

Flap Retraction
From

To

Moment Change (kg - inches x 1,000)

-11

15

-14

30

-15

40

-16

Figure 4.3 Effect of Flap Retraction


2.4

Take-off Horizontal Stabiliser Trim Setting


AEROPLANE 1
NOSE DOWN

1.1

GREEN BAND

2.2

3
STABILISER
TRIM UNITS
4

A
FL

15

S5

AP

FL

AEROPLANE
NOSE UP
6

PS

5.1
5.7
0

10

15

20

25

30

CENTRE OF GRAVITY % MAC

Figure 4.4 Graph of Trim Units for CG Position


2.5

Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC)


MAC Leading edge

Mass and Balance Limitations

3.1

Mass Limits

3.2

Maximum Structural Taxi Mass


Maximum Structural Take-off Mass
Maximum Structural Landing Mass
Maximum Structural Zero Fuel Mass

3.3

Centre of Gravity Limits

134.5 inches
625.6 inches aft of datum

63,060 kg
62,800 kg
54,900 kg
51,300 kg

The centre of gravity for this aeroplane must at all times be within the limits
prescribed by the CG envelope shown in Figure 4.11.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 2

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Fuel Data

BA
(full tanks)

Volume
(US Gallons)

Mass
(kg)

Left Wing Main Tank 1

650.7

1,499

4,542

Right Wing Main Tank 2

650.7

1,499

4,542

Centre Tank

600.4

2,313

7,008

Max. Total Fuel (assumes 3.03 kg/US gall.)

628.8

5,311

16,092

Caution - If centre tank contains more than 450 kg the wing tanks must be full.

Figure 4.5 Fuel Tank Location and Maximum Volume

Location

Volume (US Galls)

Mass (kg)

BA

Wing Tank 1

4.6

14.0

599.0

Wing Tank 2

4.6

14.0

599.0

Centre Tank

7.9

24.0

600.9

Figure 4.6 Unusable Fuel Quantities

CENTRE
WING TANK
MAIN WING
TANK 1

MAIN WING
TANK 2

Figure 4.6a Fuel Tank Location Diagram

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 3

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Passenger and Personnel Data

5.1

Maximum Passenger Load


First Class
Club/Business
Economy

5.2

Passenger Distribution
Figure 4.7 shows the balance arms (in inches) for the distribution of passengers. If the
pax load is low, zones B, C and D are the preferred seating areas.

DATUM

ZONES

141
15
18
108

284

386

505

641

777

896

998

Figure 4.7 Balance Arms (in)

ZONE

NO. PAX

B.A.

15

284

18

386

24

505

24

641

24

777

18

896

18

998

Figure 4.8 Table of Passenger Zones, Number of Passengers and Balance Arms
5.3

Passenger Mass
Unless otherwise stated, passenger mass is assumed to be 84 kg (this includes a 6 kg
allowance for hand baggage).

5.4

Passenger Baggage
Unless otherwise stated, a baggage allowance of 13 kg may be made per passenger.

5.5

Personnel
Standard Crewing
No.

July 2006

BA

Standard Mass (kg) each

Flight Deck

78.0

90

Cabin Staff Forward

162.0

90

Cabin Staff Aft

1,107.0

90

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 4

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Cargo Data

Forward Cargo Compartment (Cargo Hold 1)


BA - in

228

Maximum Compartment Running Load


(kg per inch)

286
13.15

343
8.47

Maximum Distribution Load Intensity


(kg per ft2)

500
13.12

68

Maximum Compartment Load (kg)

762

483

2059

Compartment Centroid (BA - in)

257

314.5

421.5

Maximum Total Load (kg)

3305

Fwd Hold Centroid (BA - in)

367.9

Fwd Hold Volume (cu. ft)

607

Aft Cargo Compartment (Cargo Hold 4)


BA - IN
Maximum Compartment Running Load
(kg per inch)

731

940
14.65

Maximum Distribution Load Intensity


(kg per ft2)

997
7.26

1096
7.18

68

Maximum Compartment Load (kg)

3,062

414

711

Compartment Centroid (BA - in)

835.5

968.5

1,046.5

Maximum Total Load (kg)

4187

Aft Hold Centroid (BA - in)

884.5

Aft Hold Volume (cu. ft)

766

Figure 4.9 Cargo Compartment Limitations

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 5

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Mass and Balance Calculations

7.1

Using Loading Manifest (Figure 4.10) and CG limits envelope (Figure 4.11)
a) Enter DOM and balance arm on Figure 4.10.
b) Enter all details of passenger loads and distribution on Figure 4.10.
c) Enter all details of cargo loads and distribution on Figure 4.10.
d) Calculate all moments on Figure 4.10.
e) Add up Items 1 to 11 (inclusive) to obtain the Zero Fuel Mass and ZFM moment on
Figure 4.10.
f) Check ZFM does not exceed MZFM.
g) Insert fuel mass and distribution on Figure 4.10.
h) Calculate and insert the fuel moments on Figure 4.10.
i) Determine the taxi mass and moment by adding the fuel values to the ZFM values.
j) Check taxi mass does not exceed structural maximum.
k) Determine the taxi fuel mass and moment values.
l) Determine Take-off Mass and moment by subtracting the values at k) from those
of i).
m) Check TOM does not exceed the MSTOM or PLTOM.
n) Determine Take-off CG BA and plot on Figure 4.11 to check it is within the
envelope.
o) Determine Take-off stabiliser trim setting (if required).
p) Calculate and insert the Flight Fuel values on Figure 4.10
q) Deduct the Flight Fuel values from those at l) to determine the LM values.
r) Check landing mass does not exceed the MSLM or the PLLM.
s) Determine moment at landing mass.
t) Determine CG BA at landing and plot on Figure 4.11 to check that it is within the
safe limits of the envelope.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 6

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Max Permissible Aeroplane Mass Values:


TAXI MASS -

ZERO FUEL MASS -

TAKE OFF MASS -

LANDING MASS -

ITEM

MASS
(kg)

B.A. (in)

MOMENT
kg - in/1,000

CG
% MAC

1. DOM
2. PAX Zone A

284

3. PAX Zone B

386

4. PAX Zone C

505

5. PAX Zone D

641

6. PAX Zone E

777

7. PAX Zone F

896

8. PAX Zone G

998

9. Cargo Hold 1

367.9

10. Cargo Hold 4

884.5

11. Additional Items


ZERO FUEL MASS
12. Fuel Tanks 1 and 2
13. Centre Tank
TAXI MASS
Less Taxi Fuel
TAKE OFF MASS
Less Flight Fuel
EST. LANDING MASS

Figure 4.10 Loading Manifest - MRJT1

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 7

CAP 696

75000

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

16

12

20

24

28

32

70000

65000

MTOM 62800 KG

AEROPLANE GROSS MASS KGS

60000

MLM 54900 KG

55000

MZFM 51300 KG
50000

45000

40000
FORWARD CG
LIMIT

AFT CG
LIMIT

35000

30000

12

16

20

24

28

32

CENTRE OF GRAVITY LIMITS % MAC

Figure 4.11 CG Envelope - MRJT1

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 8

Section 1

Section 2

Addresses

Date

Ma

No. of
Fe Ch

In

T
O
T
A
L PASSENGER MASS
TOTAL TRAFFIC LOAD
Dry Operating Mass
ZERO FUEL MASS
Max.
Take-Off Fuel
TAKE-OFF MASS
Max.
Trip Fuel
LANDING MASS
Max.

Dest.

Notes:

OPERATING MASS

Take-Off Fuel

Tr
B
C
M

Tr
B
C
M

TOTAL

Registration

Version

initials

.1

.1

PAX

REMARKS
PAX
C
Y

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

20

10 Pax

INDEX 10

30

4-6

7 - 10

24

40

NO EFFECT

50

DRY OPERATING INDEX:

1-3

Row

18

10

it

20

11

12

30

13

14

16

Part B

40

15

17

50

18

19

20

16 - 20

24

60

60

21

22

PITCH 10 Pax

24

25

0g

22 - 26

18

70

80

LMC NOT INCLUDED

10 Pax

PITCH 1000 kg

80

21 -23

it
m
l li
na
io
t
a
er
op

23

0f
18

PITCH 10 Pax

70

Group/Cockpit Crew

11 - 15

24

FOR CREW ONLY: STAB. TRIM UNITS FOR T.O. FLAPS 5 ONLY

PITCH 10 Pax

PITCH 10 Pax

PITCH 1000 kg

limit LIZFM

% MAC

18

18

24

24

24

18

15

8 7

0 5

10

Load & Trim Sheet


JAA - FCL Twin Jet
PASSENGER COMPARTMENT DIVISION
0a
0b
0c
0d
0e
15

CPT.
No. of Seats

DRY OPERATING INDEX

l lim

Part A

63,000

FUEL
INDEX

0g

0f

0e

0d

0c

0b

0a

Cpt. MASS / No.

...............%

MAC at TOM

na

LOAD LMC (Total)


TOF Adjustment
TOTAL LMC
Prepared by:

LAST MINUTE CHANGES


Dest Specification Cl Cpt plus
minus

.0

.0

PAX

LANDING

Date

tio

Approved by:

.4

.4

TRIP
FUEL

ZERO FUEL TAKE-OFF

Crew

ALL MASSES IN KILOGRAMS

DISTRIBUTION MASS
4
0

UNDERLOAD
before LMC

Total
Traffic Load

Allowed
Traffic Load

Allowed Mass
for Take-Off
Lowest of a, b, c

MAXIMUM
MASSES FOR

Recharge Date Time

DRY OPERATING MASS

Flight

Originator

Prefix

o
ra
pe

Section 3

July 2006
x 1000 kg

CAP 696
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Figure 4.12 Load and Trim Sheet (Blank)

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 9

CAP 696

7.2

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Using Load and Trim Sheet


The load/trim sheet (as shown in the example at Figure 4.12) is in two parts.
Part A (to the left) is a loading summary which should be completed as follows:
Section 1 is used to establish the limiting take-off mass; maximum allowable traffic
load; underload before last minute changes (LMC).
Section 2 shows the distribution of the traffic load. In this section the following
abbreviations are used:
TR
B
C
M
Pax
Pax F
Pax C
Pax Y

Transit
Baggage
Cargo
Mail
Passengers
First Class
Club/Business
Economy

Section 3 is used to summarise load and cross check that limits have not been
exceeded.
The example shown uses the following data:
DOM

34,300 kg

MZFM

51,300 kg

DOI

45.0

MSTOM

62,800 kg

MSLM

54,900 kg

Passengers

130

Average Passenger Mass

84 kg

Baggage

130 items at 14 kg per piece (this example only)

Cargo

630 kg

Take-off Fuel Total

14,500 kg

Trip Fuel

8,500 kg

Part B is the trim portion


Using data from the loading summary, start by entering the index for the DOM.
Move the index in turn (for the mass in each cargo hold) then in accordance with
the passenger distribution.
Establish the CG % MAC at ZFM and ensure that it lies within the envelope.
Add fuel index correction (from Figure 4.14) to obtain the TOM index and ensure
that the CG lies within the envelope.
Extract the % MAC value for the CG position at TOM.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 10

Section 1

Section 2

Addresses

Date

Ma

No. of
Fe Ch

In

T
130
O
T
A
L PASSENGER MASS
TOTAL TRAFFIC LOAD
Dry Operating Mass
ZERO FUEL MASS
Max. 5 1 3 0 0
Take-Off Fuel
TAKE-OFF MASS
Max. 6 2 8 0 0
Trip Fuel
LANDING MASS
Max. 5 4 9 0 0

L
M 130
G

Dest.

Notes:

OPERATING MASS

Take-Off Fuel

2450

18 2 0
630

53670

6 2 17 0
8 50 0

.1

.1

8500

1850

60 0

.0

.0

10920
PAX

PAX

0 5

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

10

20

10 Pax

INDEX 10

7 - 10

24

40

NO EFFECT

50

10

it

20

11

12

30

13

14

16

Part B

40

15

17

19

50

MZFM

18

20

16 - 20

24

60

60

21

22

ZFM

LM

TOM

10 Pax

70

80

LMC NOT INCLUDED

it
m

25

22 - 26

PITCH 1000 kg

80

PITCH 10 Pax

24

0g
18

45.0

21 -23

l li
na
tio
a
er
op

23

0f
18

PITCH 10 Pax

70

Group/Cockpit Crew

11 - 15

24

FOR CREW ONLY: STAB. TRIM UNITS FOR T.O. FLAPS 5 ONLY

PITCH 10 Pax

PITCH 10 Pax

PITCH 1000 kg

4-6

18

DRY OPERATING INDEX:

1-3

Row

30

Load & Trim Sheet


JAA - FCL Twin Jet
PASSENGER COMPARTMENT DIVISION
0a
0b
0c
0d
0e
15

CPT.
No. of Seats

DRY OPERATING INDEX

limit LIZFM

% MAC

12.9

18

16

18

16

24

24

24

24

24

24

18

12

15

14

8 7

1 8 5 0

63,000

FUEL
INDEX

0g

0f

0e

0d

0c

0b

0a

6 0 0

Cpt. MASS / No.

18.3
...............%

MAC at TOM

l lim

Part A

Approved by:

LOAD LMC (Total)


TOF Adjustment
TOTAL LMC
Prepared by:

LAST MINUTE CHANGES


Dest Specification Cl Cpt plus
minus

1220
630

.4

REMARKS
PAX
F
C
Y

630

13 3 7 0

14 0 0 0

4 8800

10920

DISTRIBUTION MASS
4
0

.4

TRIP
FUEL

LANDING

54900

Date

658006280063400

14 5 0 0

ZERO FUEL TAKE-OFF

Crew

ALL MASSES IN KILOGRAMS

5 13 0 0

60 0

UNDERLOAD
before LMC

Total
Traffic Load

Allowed
Traffic Load

Allowed Mass
for Take-Off
Lowest of a, b, c

MAXIMUM
MASSES FOR

Version

initials

e
na

47670
14 5 0 0

10 9 2 0
13 3 7 0
34 300

Tr
B
C
M

Tr
B
C
M

TOTAL

4 8800

14 5 0 0

34 30 0

Registration

Recharge Date Time

DRY OPERATING MASS

Flight

Originator

Prefix

op
io
rat

Section 3

July 2006
x 1000 kg

CAP 696
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Figure 4.13 Load and Trim Sheet (Example)

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 11

CAP 696

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Mass and Balance Manual (Aeroplanes)

Fuel Mass
(kg)

tanks 1 and 2 full

Index Units

Fuel Mass
(kg)

Index Units

500

-1.0

9,330

-0.3

750

-1.5

9,580

-0.9

1,000

-1.9

9,830

-1.5

1,250

-2.3

10,080

-2.1

1,500

-2.6

10,330

-2.7

1,750

-3.0

10,580

-3.3

2,000

-3.3

10,830

-3.9

2,500

-3.7

11,080

-4.5

3,000

-4.3

11,330

-5.1

3,500

-4.7

11,580

-5.7

4,000

-5.1

11,830

-6.3

4,500

-5.4

12,080

-6.9

5,000

-5.7

12,330

-7.5

5,500

-5.9

12,580

-8.1

6,000

-6.0

12,830

-8.7

6,500

-6.1

13,080

-9.3

7,000

-5.9

13,330

-9.9

7,500

-5.0

13,580

-10.5

7,670

-4.6

13,830

-11.1

7,830

-4.1

14,080

-11.7

8,000

-3.7

14,330

-12.3

8,170

-3.2

14,580

-12.9

8,330

-2.6

14,830

-13.5

8,500

-2.1

15,080

-14.1

8,630

-1.6

15,330

-14.8

8,750

-1.1

15,580

-15.4

8,880

-0.6

15,830

-16.3

9,000

-0.1

16,080

-17.1

9,080

+0.3

16,140

-17.3

centre tank full

Usable fuel quantities in lines = 20 kg (included in the tables).


Interpolation not necessary!

For mass figures not printed in these tables the index of the next higher mass is
applicable.
Figure 4.14 Fuel index correction table

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 12

Safety Regulation Group

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations
Aeroplane Performance Manual

Third Edition July 2006

www.caa.co.uk

Safety Regulation Group

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations
Aeroplane Performance Manual

Third Edition July 2006

www.caa.co.uk

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Civil Aviation Authority 2006


All rights reserved. Copies of this publication may be reproduced as training material for students, for
use within a company or organisation, or for personal use, but may not otherwise be reproduced for
publication or for commercial gain.
To use or reference CAA publications for any other purpose, please contact the CAA at the address
below for formal agreement.
ISBN 0 11790 653 0
First published August 1999
Second edition June 2001
Third edition July 2006
Third edition (corrected) September 2006

Enquiries regarding the content of this publication should be addressed to:


Personnel Licensing Department, Safety Regulation Group, Civil Aviation Authority, Aviation House,
Gatwick Airport South, West Sussex, RH6 0YR.
The latest version of this document is available in electronic format at www.caa.co.uk/publications,
where you may also register for e-mail notification of amendments.
Published by TSO (The Stationery Office) on behalf of the UK Civil Aviation Authority.
Printed copy available from:
TSO, PO Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN
Telephone orders/General enquiries: 0870 600 5522
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Textphone: 0870 240 3701

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

List of Effective Pages


Section

Page

Date

iii

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iv
v

Section

Page

Date

Section 4

July 2006 (corr.)

July 2006

Section 4

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July 2006

Section 4

July 2006

Revision History

July 2006 (corr.)

Section 4

July 2006

Revision History

July 2006

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July 2006

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10

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Page iii

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Page iv

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Contents

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Section 4

July 2006

List of Effective Pages

iii

Revision History

General Notes
Aircraft Description

Layout of Data Sheets

Definitions

Conversions

Data for Single-Engine Piston Aeroplane (SEP1)


General Considerations

Take-Off

Take-Off Climb

En-Route

Landing

Data for Multi-Engine Piston Aeroplane (MEP1)


General Considerations

Take-Off

Take-Off Climb

En-route

17

Landing

17

Data for Medium-Range Jet Transport (MRJT1)


General Considerations

Take-Off

Obstacle Clearance

35

En-route

39

Landing

45

Page v

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Page vi

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Revision History
1st Edition

August 1999

CAP 698, CAA JAR-FCL Examinations Performance Manual, was produced to support training
and examinations in JAR-FCL Subject 032 - Performance for Aeroplanes.
2nd Edition

June 2001

The manual was reissued to incorporate CAA House Style.


3rd Edition

July 2006

This edition has been upgraded with digitised graphics. Definitions and conversions have been
rationalised and known errors have been corrected.
3rd Edition (corrected)

September 2006

Since the publication of the third edition, some errors and omissions have been identified. The
corrections are as follows:
Section/Aircraft

Page(s)

Correction

2/SEP

Text of paragraph 2.1 corrected.

2/SEP

Correction to Example and Solution at paragraph 2.2.1.

3/MEP

5/8

Fig 3.2 and 3.4 associated conditions; 'reaction time'


corrected to 'recognition time'.

3/MEP

11

Fig 3.5 ROC scale; '800' corrected to '500'.

3/MEP

13

Fig 3.6 Associated conditions; 'Inoperative engine


feathered' added.

3/MEP

21/23

Fig 3.9 and 3.10 'obstacle speed' corrected to 'barrier


speed'.

3/MEP

23

Fig 3.10 speed scale of barrier speed ; '90' changed to


'82' and '66' changed to '68'.

4/MRJT

Fig 4.1 - At base of graph, 'crosswind component' added.

4/MRJT

41, 42, 43, 44

Figs 4.24, 4.25, 4.26 and 4.27; Max continuous thrust


limit box; 'A/C Auto (High)' corrected to 'A/C OFF'.

The affected pages are identified by the word (corr.) after the page date.

July 2006 (corr.)

Revision History Page 1

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Revision History Page 2

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Section 1
1

General Notes

Introduction
Important Notice

1.1

The data sheets in this manual are produced to support training and examinations in
JAR-FCL Subject 032 - Performance for Aeroplanes.

1.2

The data contained within these sheets are for training and examination purposes
only. The data must not be used for any other purpose and, specifically, are not to
be used for the purpose of planning activities associated with the operation of
any aeroplane in use now or in the future.

Aircraft Description

2.1

The aeroplanes used in these data sheets are of generic types related to the classes
of aeroplane on which the appropriate examinations are based.

2.2

Candidates must select the correct class of aeroplane for the question being
attempted.
Generic Aeroplanes
Single-Engine Piston

certificated under CS 23 (Light Aeroplanes)


Performance Class B

Multi-Engine Piston

certificated under CS 23 (Light Aeroplanes)


Performance Class B

Medium-Range Jet Transport

MEP1

certificated under CS 25 (Large Aeroplanes)


Performance Class A

2.3

SEP1

MRJT1

The same set of generic aeroplanes will be utilised in the following subjects:
031 - Mass and Balance - Aeroplanes
032 - Performance - Aeroplanes
033 - Flight Planning and Monitoring - Aeroplanes

Layout of Data Sheets

3.1

Each set of data sheets will consist of an introduction that will contain some pertinent
information relating to the aircraft and the subject being examined. This data will
include (but is not limited to) a list of abbreviations and some conversion factors.

3.2

This will be followed by a selection of graphs and/or tables that will provide coverage
suitable for the syllabus to be examined. A worked example will accompany each
graph/table and will demonstrate typical usage.

July 2006

Section 1 - General Notes Page 1

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Definitions
Definitions given in italics are not given in ICAO, or JAA or EASA documentation but
are in common use.

July 2006

Altitude

The altitude shown on the charts is pressure


altitude. This is the height in the International
Standard Atmosphere at which the prevailing
pressure occurs. It may be obtained by
setting the sub-scale of a pressure altimeter
to 1013 hPa (29.92 inches or 760 mm. of
mercury).

Climb Gradient

The ratio, in the same units of measurement,


expressed as a percentage, as obtained from
the formula:Gradient = Change in Height x 100%
Horizontal Distance

Elevation

The vertical distance of an object above mean


sea level. This may be given in metres or feet.

Gross Height

The true height attained at any point in the


take-off flight path using gross climb
performance. Gross height is used for
calculating pressure altitudes for purposes of
obstacle clearance and the height at which
wing flap retraction is initiated.

Gross Performance

The average performance that a fleet of


aeroplanes should achieve if satisfactorily
maintained and flown in accordance with the
techniques described in the manual.

Height

The vertical distance between the lowest part


of the aeroplane and the relevant datum.

International Standard
Atmosphere (ISA)

A structure of assumed conditions relating to


the change of pressure, temperature and
density with height in the atmosphere.

lAS

The airspeed is the reading obtained on a


pitot-static airspeed indicator calibrated to
reflect standard adiabatic compressible flow
at mean sea level.

Maximum Structural Landing


Mass

The maximum permissible total mass of an


aeroplane on landing (under normal
circumstances).

Maximum Structural Take-Off


Mass

The maximum permissible total mass of an


aeroplane at the start of the take-off run.

Section 1 - General Notes Page 2

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Net Height

The true height attained at any point in the


take-off flight path using net climb
performance. Net height is used to determine
the net flight path that must clear all
obstacles by the statutory minimum to
comply with the Operating Regulations.

Net Performance

Net performance is the gross performance


diminished to allow for various contingencies
that cannot be accounted for operationally
e.g., variations in piloting technique,
temporary below average performance, etc.
It is improbable that the net performance will
not be achieved in operation, provided the
aeroplane is flown in accordance with the
recommended techniques.

Outside Air Temperature (OAT or


SAT)

The free air static (ambient) temperature.

Take-Off Mass (TOM)

The mass of an aeroplane, including


everything and everyone contained within it,
at the start of the take-off run.

TAS

The 'true airspeed' is the speed of the


aeroplane relative to the undisturbed air.

Total Air Temperature (TAT)

The static air temperature plus adiabatic


compression (ram) rise as indicated on the
Total Air Temperature indicator.

N.B. Within these data sheets the term 'weight' should be considered to
have the same meaning as 'mass'.

July 2006

Section 1 - General Notes Page 3

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Conversions
The following conversions, based on those in ICAO Annex 5, are satisfactory for use
in JAR-FCL examinations in 030 subjects.

5.1

5.2

5.3

Mass conversions
Pounds (lb) to Kilograms (kg)

lb x 0.454 = kg

Kilograms (kg) to Pounds (lb)

kg x 2.205 = lb

Volumes (Liquid)
Imperial Gallons to Litres (L)

Imp. Gall x 4.546 = Litres

US Gallons to Litres (L)

US Gall x 3.785 = Litres

Lengths
Feet (ft) to Metres (m)

5.4

Distances
Nautical mile (NM) to Metres (m)

July 2006

Feet x 0.305 = Metres

NM x 1852.0 = Metres

Section 1 - General Notes Page 4

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Section 2

Data for Single-Engine Piston Aeroplane


(SEP1)

General Considerations

1.1

Performance Classification
The specimen aeroplane is a low wing monoplane with retractable undercarriage. It
is powered by a single reciprocating engine and a constant speed propeller.
The aeroplane, which is not certificated under CS/FAR 25, is a land-plane classified in
Performance Class B.

1.2

General Requirements
An operator shall not operate a single-engine aeroplane:
a) At night.
b) In instrument meteorological conditions except under special visual flight rules.
c) Unless surfaces are available which permit a safe forced landing to be executed.
d) Above a cloud layer that extends below the relevant minimum safe altitude.

1.3

Aeroplane Limitations
Structural Limitations
Maximum Take-Off Mass

3650 lb

Maximum Landing Mass

3650 lb

Maximum Runway Cross Wind

17 kt

Take-Off

2.1

Requirements
The only take-off requirement for a single engined aeroplane is for the Field Length
as detailed in paragraph 2.1.1 below. As explained in paragraph 3, there is no take-off
climb requirement.

2.1.1

Field Length Requirements


a) When no stopway or clearway is available the take-off distance when multiplied by
1.25 must not exceed TORA.
b) When a stopway and/or clearway is available the take-off distance must:
i) not exceed TORA
ii) when multiplied by 1.3, not exceed ASDA
iii) when multiplied by 1.15, not exceed TODA

July 2006 (corr.)

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 1

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

c) If the runway surface is other than dry and paved the following factors must be
used when determining the take-off distance in a) or b) above:
Surface Type

Condition

Factor

Grass (on firm soil)

Dry

x 1.2

up to 20 cm Long

Wet

x 1.3

Paved

Wet

x 1.0

d) Take-off distance should be increased by 5% for each 1% upslope. No


factorisation is permitted for downslope.
NOTE: The same surface and slope correction factors should be used when
calculating TOR or ASD.
2.2

Use of Take-Off Graphs


There are two take-off distance graphs. One with flaps up (Figure 2.1) and the other
with flaps approach (Figure 2.2). These graphs are used in exactly the same manner.

2.2.1

Distance Calculation
To determine the take-off distance:
a) Select the graph appropriate to the flap setting.
b) Enter at the OAT. Move vertically up to the aerodrome pressure altitude.
c) From this point, travel horizontally right to the mass reference line. Parallel the grid
lines to the take-off mass input.
d) Continue horizontally right to the wind component reference line. Parallel the grid
lines to the wind component input.
e) Proceed horizontally right to the obstacle reference line. Continue horizontally right
to read ground roll distance or proceed parallel to the grid lines to read total
distance to 50ft obstacle (TOD).
f) Factorise for surface and slope.
Example:
Flaps Up
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
Take-Off Mass
Wind Component
Runway Slope
Runway Surface
Runway Condition
Calculate:

Take-Off Distance

Solution:
Graphical Distance
Surface Factor
Slope Factor
Take-Off Distance

July 2006 (corr.)

5653 ft
+15C
3650 lb
10 kt Head
1.5% Uphill
Grass
Wet

3450 ft
x 1.3
x 1.075
4821 ft

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 2

-30

SU

IT
LT

50

0
200
SL

0
400

00
60

00
80

0
,00
10

ft

0
40
-20 -10
10
20
30
OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE - C

ISA

-40

S
RE

A
RE

E
UD

60

POWER......................... TAKE-OFF POWER SET


BEFORE BRAKE RELEASE
MIXTURE...................... FULL RICH
FLAPS........................... UP
LANDING GEAR........... RETRACT AFTER POSITIVE
CLIMB ESTABLISHED
COWL FLAPS............... OPEN
RUNWAY........................ PAVED, LEVEL, DRY SURFACE

3600

3650
3600
3400
3200
3000
2800

MASS
lb

3400

3200
MASS - lb

73
72
71
70
68
65

3000

84
83
82
80
78
75

TAKE-OFF SPEED kt
ROTATION
50 ft

2800

IN
D

30
20
10
0
WIND COMPONENT
kt

HE
AD

REFERENCE LINE
T
A
IL
W
IN
D

GROUND ROLL............................................... 1900 ft


TOTAL DISTANCE OVER 50 ft OBSTACLE.... 3450 ft
TAKE-OFF SPEED AT:
ROTATION.................................................. 73 kt
50 ft............................................................ 84 kt

OAT................................................................... 15C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.................................... 5653 ft
TAKE-OFF MASS..............................................3650 lb
HEAD WIND COMPONENT............................. 10 kt

EXAMPLE

REFERENCE LINE

July 2006
50
OBSTACLE HEIGHT
ft

G
INT
U
ID
ER
ME E LI
N
D
E
I
S
A
TE
N
O
O
TA
BS
P
TA
CL PLIC
E
A
H
EIG BLE
FO
HT
R
S

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 2.1 Take-Off Distance Flaps Up

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 3

DISTANCE - ft

REFERENCE LINE

CAP 698

2.2.2

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Mass Calculation
To calculate the field length limited take-off mass it is necessary to apply the
requirements of JAR-OPS. Only the take-off distance graph is used but the right
vertical axis is entered with shortest available de-factored distance. The factors to be
considered are those of slope, surface, condition and regulation.
a) Enter at the ambient temperature. Move vertically to the aerodrome pressure
altitude.
b) From this point, travel horizontally right to the mass reference line. Mark this
position with a pencil.
c) Enter the right vertical axis with the shortest available de-factored distance at the
50ft height. Parallel the grid lines down to the reference line.
d) Now travel horizontally left to the appropriate wind component input. Parallel the
grid lines to the wind component reference line.
e) From this point, draw a horizontal line left through the mass grid.
f) From the position marked in b), above, parallel the grid lines to intersect the
horizontal line from e), above.
g) At the intersection, drop vertically to read the field length limited TOW.
Example:

Flaps Approach

Aerodrome Pressure Altitude


Ambient Temperature
Wind Component
Runway Slope
Runway Surface
Runway Condition

5653 ft
+15C
10 kt Head
2% Uphill
Grass
Dry

TORA 4250 ft; ASDA 4470 ft; TODA 4600 ft

Calculate the Field Length Limited TOW.


TORA

ASDA

TODA

Given Distances

4250 ft

4470 ft

4600 ft

Slope Factor

1.1

1.1

1.1

Surface/Condition Factor

1.2

1.2

1.2

Regulation Factor

1.0

1.3

1.15

De-factored Distance

3220 ft

2605 ft

3030 ft

Field Length Limited TOW

July 2006

3530 lb Using 2605 ft

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 4

10

20

30

40

50

60

0
400
0
200
L
S

0
600

00
80

0
,00
10

ft

67
67
66
65
64
62

3600

77
77
76
75
73
71

TAKE-OFF SPEED kt
ROTATION
50 ft

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-30 -20 -10

ISA

-40

S
RE

RE
SU

TI
AL

D
TU

3650
3600
3400
3200
3000
2800

MASS
lb

POWER......................... TAKE-OFF POWER SET


BEFORE BRAKE RELEASE
MIXTURE...................... FULL RICH
FLAPS........................... APPROACH
LANDING GEAR........... RETRACT AFTER POSITIVE
CLIMB ESTABLISHED
COWL FLAPS............... OPEN
RUNWAY........................ PAVED, LEVEL, DRY SURFACE

REF LINE

July 2006

3400

MASS lb

3200

3000

2800

10

20

30
WIND COMPONENT
kt

AD

HE

WI
ND

GROUND ROLL............................................... 1150 ft


TOTAL DISTANCE OVER 50 ft OBSTACLE.... 2200 ft
TAKE-OFF SPEED AT:
ROTATION.................................................. 65 kt
50 ft............................................................ 75 kt

OAT................................................................... 15C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.................................... 5653 ft
TAKE-OFF MASS............................................. 3250 lb
HEAD WIND COMPONENT............................. 10 kt

EXAMPLE

REF LINE
T
A
IL
WI
ND

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

REF LINE
0

GU
INT
IDE
ER
LI
M
E
DIA NES
NO
TE
T
O
A
B
PP
ST
LIC
AC
LE
AB
L
H
EF
EIG
OR
HT
S

OBSTACLE HEIGHT
ft

50

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 2.2 Take-Off Distance Flaps Approach

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 5

DISTANCE ft

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Take-Off Climb

3.1

Requirements
There are no obstacle clearance limits or minimum acceptable climb gradient required
by JAR-OPS 1.

3.2

Use of Climb Graph

3.2.1

Climb Gradient and Rate of Climb.


To determine the climb gradient and rate of climb:
a) Use the navigation computer to calculate the TAS.
b) Enter the graph at the ambient temperature. Move vertically up to the pressure
altitude.
c) From this point, travel horizontally right to the mass reference line. Parallel the grid
lines to the appropriate mass input.
d) Now continue horizontally right to the first vertical axis to read the rate of climb.
Continue horizontally to the TAS reference line.
e) Parallel the grid lines to intersect the TAS input then travel horizontally right to the
right vertical axis to read the climb gradient.
Example:
Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
Weight

11500 ft
-5C
3600 lb

Solution:
Graphical ROC
TAS
Climb Gradient
3.2.2

515 fpm
120 kt
4.2%

Maximum Weight
To determine the maximum weight for a given gradient:
a) Enter the graph at the ambient temperature. Move vertically up to the Pressure
Altitude.
b) From this point, travel horizontally right to the weight reference line and mark with
a pencil.
c) Calculate the TAS using the Navigation Computer.
d) Enter the right vertical axis at the appropriate gradient and travel horizontally left to
intercept the TAS calculated in c). From this point follow the grid lines to reach the
reference line and draw a horizontal line through the weight grid.
e) From the pencil mark in b), above, parallel the grid lines to intersect the horizontal
line drawn in d) above. Drop vertically to read the Climb-Limited Take-off weight.
Example:
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude 11000 ft
Ambient Temperature
+25C
Gradient
4.2%
Solution:
TAS
Maximum Weight

July 2006

125 kt
3360 lb

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 6

-50 -40

16,0
00

14,0
00

12,0
00

10,0
00

-20 -10

0
10

20

30

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-30

800
0

SL

200
0

400
0

600
0

PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
ft

40

50

60

CLIMB SPEED 100 kt IAS ALL MASSES

POWER......................... FULL THROTTLE 2700 rpm


MIXTURE....................... FULL RICH
FLAPS............................ UP
LANDING GEAR............ UP
COWL FLAPS................ AS REQUIRED

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

3600

3400

3000
MASS lb

3200

2800

RATE OF CLIMB........................... 515 fpm


TAS ...............................................120 kt
CLIMB GRADIENT........................ 4.2%

OAT................................................-5C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.................11,500 ft
MASS............................................ 3600 lb

EXAMPLE

REF LINE
0
2600

100
110

100
TAS kt

140 130120

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

RATE
OF
CLIMB
ft/min

90

10

11

12

13

CLIMB GRADIENT %

July 2006

ISA

14

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 2.3 Climb

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 7

REF LINE

CAP 698

3.2.3

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Distance to Reach given height.


To calculate the ground distance travelled in order to attain a given height above
reference zero:
a) Convert the IAS 100 kt to a TAS, assume no position error.
b) Apply the wind component to the TAS to obtain the ground speed.
c) Determine the climb gradient from the graph.
d) Calculate the still air distance using the formula:
Still Air Distance (ft) = Height Difference (ft) x 100
Gradient
e) Calculate ground distance using the formula:
Ground Distance = Still Air Distance x Groundspeed
TAS
Example:
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
Wind Component
Take-Off Weight

4000 ft
+30C
30 kt tail
3200 lb

Calculate the ground distance to reach 950 ft above reference zero from the end of
TODR.
Solution:
100 kt lAS

= 110 kt TAS

Groundspeed

= 140 kt

Graph Gradient

= 10.0%

Still Air Distance

= 900
10.0

Ground Distance = 9000 x

En-Route

4.1

Requirements

100 = 9000 ft
140 = 11455 ft = 1.88 NM.
110

The aeroplane may not be assumed to be flying above the altitude at which a rate of
climb of 300 ft/min is attained.
The net gradient of descent, in the event of engine failure, shall be the gross gradient
of descent increased by a gradient of 0.5%

July 2006

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 8

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Landing

5.1

Requirements
Field Length Requirements
a) The landing distance, from a screen height of 50 ft, must not exceed 70 % of the
landing distance available, i.e. a factor of 1.43.
b) If the landing surface is grass up to 20 cm long on firm soil, the landing distance
should be multiplied by a factor of 1.15.
c) If the METAR or TAF or combination of both indicate that the runway may be wet
at the estimated time of arrival, the landing distance should be multiplied by a
factor of 1.15.
d) The landing distance should be increased by 5% for each 1% downslope. No
allowance is permitted for upslope.
e) The despatch rules for scheduled (planned) landing calculations are in JAR - OPS
1.550 (c).

5.2

Use of the Landing Field Length Graph


Distance Calculations
a) Enter at the ambient temperature. Move vertically to the aerodrome pressure
altitude.
b) From this point, move horizontally right to the landing mass reference line. Parallel
the grid lines to the appropriate landing mass input.
c) Continue from this intersection to the wind component reference line. Parallel the
grid line to the appropriate wind component input.
d) Travel horizontally right to the ground roll reference line. Either continue
horizontally to the right vertical axis to read the ground roll distance or parallel the
grid lines to the right vertical axis to read the graphical distance.
e) Apply the surface and slope factors to the graphical distance to obtain the landing
distance. Apply the regulatory factor to the landing distance to obtain the landing
distance required.
Example:
Normal Landing
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
Landing Mass
Wind Component
Runway Slope
Runway Surface
Runway Condition

3965 ft
+25C
3479 lb
10 kt Head
1% down
Grass
Wet

Calculate Landing Distance Required


Solution:
Graphical Distance
Slope Correction Factor
Surface Correction Factor
Condition Correction Factor
Regulatory Factor
Landing Distance Required =

July 2006

1500 ft
x 1.05
x 1.15
x 1.15
x 1.43
2979 ft

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 9

-40

-20

-10

SL

10

20

30

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-30

10,000
8000
6000 0
400
2000

ISA

PRESSURE ALTITUDE ft

40
50

3400

MASS lb

3200

79
80
81
81
78

3650
3400
3200
3000
2800

3600

SPEED AT 50 ft
kt

3000

EXAMPLE

2800

10

20

WI

30

ND

WIND COMPONENT
kt

HE
AD

GROUND ROLL............................................... 960 ft


TOTAL DISTANCE OVER 50ft OBSTACLE.... 1470 ft
APPROACH SPEED......................................... 80 kt

OAT................................................................... 25C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.................................... 3965 ft
LANDING MASS............................................... 3479 lb
HEAD WIND COMPONENT.............................. 10 kt

REF LINE

MASS
lb

ND
WI

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

REF LINE

POWER......................... TO MAINTAIN 900 fpm


ON FINAL APPROACH
FLAPS........................... DOWN (AMBER)
LANDING GEAR........... DOWN
RUNWAY........................ PAVED, LEVEL DRY SURFACE
APPROACH SPEED...... IAS AS TABULATED
BRAKING....................... MAXIMUM

50
OBSTACLE HEIGHT
ft

G
AP UID
IN PLI ELI
TE CA NE
O RM BL S N
B
HE ST ED E F OT
O
A I
I
G CL ATE R
HT E
S

July 2006
TA
IL

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 2.4 Landing

Section 2 - SEP1 Page 10

DISTANCE ft

REF LINE

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Section 3

Data for Multi-Engine Piston Aeroplane


(MEP1)

General Considerations

1.1

Performance Classification
The specimen aeroplane is a low wing monoplane with retractable undercarriage. It
is powered by twin, reciprocating, engines (both of which are supercharged). These
drive counter-rotating, constant speed propellers.
The aeroplane, which is not certificated under CS/FAR 25, is a land-plane and is
classified in Performance Class B.

1.2

General Requirements
This class of aeroplane includes all propeller-driven aeroplanes having 9 or less
passenger seats and a maximum take-off weight of 5,700 kg or less. Performance
accountability for engine failure, on a multi-engine aeroplane in this class, need not be
considered below a height of 300 ft

1.3

Aeroplane Limitations
Structural Limitations
Maximum Take-Off Mass
Maximum Landing Mass

4750 lb
4513 lb

Runway Crosswind Limitation


Maximum Demonstrated Crosswind

17 kt

Take-Off

2.1

Requirements
There are two requirements for take-off with which compliance is necessary. They
are the minimum field length and climb gradient requirements. The take-off climb
requirements are considered in paragraph 3.

2.1.1

Field Length Requirements


a) When no stopway or clearway is available the take-off distance when multiplied by
1.25 must not exceed TORA.
b) When a stopway and/or clearway is available the take-off distance must:
i) not exceed TORA
ii) when multiplied by 1.3, not exceed ASDA
iii) when multiplied by 1.15, not exceed TODA
c) If the runway surface is other than dry and paved the following factors must be
used when determining the take-off distance in a) or b) above:
Surface Type

July 2006

Condition

Factor

Grass (on firm soil)


up to 20 cm. Long

Dry

x 1.2

Wet

x 1.3

Paved

Wet

x 1.0

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 1

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

d) Take-off distance should be increased by 5% for each 1% upslope. No


factorisation is permitted for downslope.
NOTE: The same surface and slope correction factors should be used when
calculating TOR or ASD.
2.2

Use of Take-Off Graphs


There are two sets of take-off graphs: one for a normal take-off with 0 flap and the
other for a maximum effort (short field) take-off with 25 flap. Each set comprises
two graphs, one for determining the take-off run and take-off distance, the other for
calculating the accelerate-stop distance.

2.2.1

Distance Calculation
Procedure
To determine the distance used for take-off:
a) Select the appropriate graph.
b) Enter at the OAT. Travel vertically to the aerodrome pressure altitude.
c) From this point proceed horizontally right to the mass reference line. Parallel the
grid lines to the appropriate take-off mass.
d) Continue horizontally right to the wind component reference line and parallel the
grid lines to the wind component input
e) To read the appropriate distance:
i) Continue horizontally from the wind component for TOR or ASD as appropriate
to the graph used.
ii) For take-off distance continue to the ground roll reference line then parallel the
grid lines on Figure 3.1 or Figure 3.3, as appropriate.
f) Factorise for surface and slope.
Example:
Normal Take-Off
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
Take-Off Mass
Wind Component
Runway Slope
Runway Surface
Aerodrome Field Lengths

2000 ft
+21C
3969 lb
9 kt Head
1.5% Uphill
Wet Grass
Unbalanced

Calculate: Take-Off Distance Required


Solution:

Graphical Distance 1,650 ft


Surface Factor = x 1.3
Slope Factor = x 1.075
Take-Off Distance = 2306 ft
Regulatory Factor = x 1.15
Take-Off Distance Required = 2652 ft

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 2

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-30

0
200

0
400

-10

MP

10

20

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-20

TE

0
600

ISA

00
80

30

DE

U
TIT
AL
E
UR
SS
E
R

ft

40

4500

MASS lb

4000

3500

3000

HE
A

10

DW

IND

15
WIND COMPONENT kt

REF LINE ZERO WIND

TAKE -OFF GROUND ROLL.................................... 1350 ft


TAKE-OFF DISTANCE OVER 50 ft OBSTACLE..... 1650 ft

OAT........................................................................... 21C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE............................................ 2000 ft
TAKE-OFF MASS..................................................... 3969 lb
HEAD WIND COMPONENT..................................... 9 kt

ND
WI
TA
IL

POWER......................... 2800 rpm 40 in MAP


FLAPS........................... UP
RUNWAY........................ PAVED, LEVEL DRY SURFACE
LIFT-OFF........................ 79 kt IAS
OBSTACLE AT................ 79 kt IAS
COWL FLAPS................ HALF OPEN

EXAMPLE

GROUND ROLL

July 2006

REF LINE

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

TAKE-OFF DISTANCE ft

Figure 3.1 Take-Off Normal Procedure

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 3

REF LINE 4750 lb

CAP 698

2.2.2

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Mass Calculation
To calculate the field length limited take-off mass it is necessary to apply the
requirements of JAR-OPS. Only the take-off distance graph is used but the right
vertical axis is entered with shortest available de-factored distance. The factors to be
considered are those of slope, surface condition and regulation. Examples are shown
at page 6.
Procedure
a) Enter at the ambient temperature. Move vertically to the aerodrome pressure
altitude.
b) From this point, travel horizontally right to the mass reference line. Mark this
position with a pencil.
c) Enter the right vertical axis at the shortest available de-factored distance at the 50ft
height. Parallel the grid lines to the ground roll reference line.
d) Now travel horizontally left to the appropriate wind component input. Parallel the
grid lines to the wind component reference line.
e) From this point draw a horizontal line left through the mass grid.
f) From the position marked in b) above, parallel the grid lines to intersect the
horizontal line from e) above.
g) At the intersection, drop vertically to read the field length limited TOM.

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 4

-40

SL

-30

-10

0
10

20

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-20

SSU

PRE

E ft

ITUD

LT
RE A

0
400
0
200

EM

0
600

T
ISA

0
800

NOTE: DISTANCES INCLUDE A THREE


SECOND RECOGNITION TIME

30

40

OAT................................................................... 21C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.................................... 2000 ft
TAKE-OFF MASS............................................. 3970 lb
HEAD WIND COMPONENT............................. 9 kt

STANDARD WHEELS, TYRES & BRAKES


FULL POWER BEFORE BRAKE RELEASE
RUNWAY........................ PAVED, LEVEL DRY SURFACE
FLAPS ........................... ZERO
THROTTLES.................. CLOSED AT ENGINE FAILURE
COWL FLAPS................ HALF OPEN
BRAKING....................... MAXIMUM
ABORT SPEED.............. 79 kt IAS

4500

MASS lb

4000

3500

3000

REDUCE DISTANCES BY 7% IF
HEAVY DUTY BRAKES ARE FITTED

REF LINE ZERO WIND

HE
A

DW

10

IND

15
WIND COMPONENT
kt

ND
WI
TA
IL

July 2006 (corr.)

ACCELERATE & STOP DISTANCE................. 3280 ft

EXAMPLE

REF LINE 4750 lb

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

ACCELERATE & STOP DISTANCE ft

Figure 3.2 Accelerate/Stop Distance Flaps 0

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 5

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Example 1:

Maximum Effort Take-Off (Short Field) (Figure 3.3)

Normal Take-Off
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
Wind Component
Runway Slope
Surface Type
Surface Condition

2000 ft
+30C
5 kt Tail
2 % Uphill
Grass
Dry

TORA: 2,400 ft; ASDA: 2,500 ft; TODA: 2,600 ft


Calculate the field length limited take-off mass
Solution:
TORA

ASDA

TODA

Given Distances

2400 ft

2500 ft

2600 ft

Slope Factor

1.1

1.1

1.1

Surface/Condition Factor

1.2

1.2

1.2

Regulation Factor

1.0

1.3

1.15

De-Factored Distance

1818 ft

1457 ft

1713 ft

Field Length Limited TOM 4000 lb, Using 1457 ft

Example 2: Normal Take-Off (Figure 3.1)


Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
Wind Component
Runway Slope
Surface Type
Surface Condition
TORA: 2500 ft

4000 ft
+20C
5 kt Tail
2% down
Concrete
Wet
No Stopway or Clearway

Calculate the field length limited take-off mass


Solution:
Given Distance
Slope Factor
Surface Condition Factor
Regulation Factor
De-factored Distance
Field Length Limited TOM

July 2006

2500 ft
1.0
1.0
1.25
2000 ft
3100 lb Using 2000 ft

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 6

ISA

TEM

-40

-30

-10

10

20

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-20

4000
2000
ft
ITUDE
SL
E ALT
R
U
S
PRES

8000
6000

30

40

4500

POWER......................... 2800 rpm 40 in MAP BEFORE BRAKE RELEASE


FLAPS........................... 25
RUNWAY........................ PAVED, LEVEL DRY SURFACE
LIFT-OFF........................ 64 kt IAS
OBSTACLE AT................ 66 kt IAS
COWL FLAPS................ HALF OPEN

REF LINE 4750 lb

3500
MASS lb

4000

3000

10

15
WIND COMPONENT
kt

IND

DW

HEA

REF LINE ZERO WIND


TA
I
LW
IN
D

TAKE -OFF GROUND ROLL.................................... 800 ft


TAKE-OFF DISTANCE OVER 50 FT OBSTACLE.....1050 ft

OAT........................................................................... 21C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE............................................ 2000 ft
TAKE-OFF MASS..................................................... 4250 lb
HEAD WIND COMPONENT..................................... 9 kt

EXAMPLE

GROUND ROLL

July 2006

REF LINE

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

500

1000

1500

2000

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

TAKE-OFF DISTANCE ft

Figure 3.3 Take-Off Maximum Effort

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 7

T
ISA

EM

-30

PRE

-10

ft

10

20

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-20

ITUDE
E ALT
SSUR

8000
6000
4000
2000
SL

-40

NOTE: DISTANCES INCLUDE A THREE


SECOND REACTION TIME

30

40

OAT................................................................... 22C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.................................... 3000 ft
TAKE-OFF MASS............................................. 4000 lb
HEAD WIND COMPONENT............................. 10 kt

STANDARD WHEELS, TYRES & BRAKES


FULL POWER BEFORE BRAKE RELEASE
RUNWAY........................ PAVED, LEVEL DRY SURFACE
FLAPS ........................... 25
THROTTLES.................. CLOSED AT ENGINE FAILURE
COWL FLAPS................ HALF OPEN
BRAKING....................... MAXIMUM
ABORT SPEED.............. 64 kt IAS

4500

3500
MASS lb

4000

3000

REDUCE DISTANCES BY 13% IF


HEAVY DUTY BRAKES ARE FITTED

REF LINE ZERO WIND

HE

WIN
D

10

AD

15
WIND COMPONENT
kt

TA
I

D
IN
LW

July 2006 (corr.)

ACCELERATE & STOP DISTANCE................. 2100 ft

EXAMPLE

REF LINE 4750 lb

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

1000

2000

3000

4000

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

ACCELERATE & STOP DISTANCE ft

Figure 3.4 Accelerate/Stop Distance Flaps 25

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 8

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Take-Off Climb

3.1

Requirements
The take-off climb requirements only apply to aeroplanes with two or more engines.
The take-off climb extends from 50 ft above the surface at the end of TODR to 1500 ft
above the same surface. The maximum take-off power setting is limited to 5 minutes
from the commencement of the take-off climb, at which point it must be reduced to
the maximum continuous power setting.
If visual reference for obstacle avoidance is lost, it is assumed that the critical power
unit becomes inoperative at this point. All obstacles encountered in the accountability
area must be cleared by a vertical interval of 50 ft
Turns are not permitted in the take-off climb before the end of the TODR and
thereafter the angle of bank must not exceed 15.

3.1.1

The Obstacle Accountability Area


The dimensions of the obstacle accountability area are as follows:
a) Starting semi-width at the end of TODA of 90 m, if the wing span is less than 60 m,
then (60 m + wing span) is the semi-width to be used.
b) The area expands from the appropriate semi-width, at the rate of 0.125 x D, to the
maximum semi-width where D is the horizontal distance travelled from the end of
TODA or TOD if a turn is scheduled before the end of TODA.
c) Maximum Semi-width
Condition
Change of Track Direction

3.1.2

Maximum Semi-width
0 to 15

Over 15

Able to Maintain Visual


Guidance or same Accuracy

300m.

600 m.

All Other Conditions

600 m

900 m.

Minimum Gradients of Climb


The minimum permissible gradients of climb, as specified in JAR-OPS 1, are:
a) All engines operating 4% at screen height
b) One engine inoperative:
i) at 400 ft above the take-off surface level measurably positive.
ii) at 1500 ft above the take-off surface level 0.75%.

3.2

Use of Take-Off Climb Data


Because the graphs provided only permit the calculation of the rate of climb it is
necessary to utilise the following formula to solve take-off climb problems:
Time to Climb = Height Difference (ft) x 60 seconds
Rate of Climb (fpm)
Distance to Climb nm = Height Difference (ft) x Groundspeed (kt)
Rate of Climb (fpm)
60
Still Air Gradient of Climb = Rate of Climb (fpm) x 6000%
TAS (kt)
6080

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 9

CAP 698

3.2.1

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Climb graphs
There are three graphs provided for climb calculations:
a) Gear extended, maximum take-off power (Figure 3.5)
b) Gear retracted, maximum take-off power (Figure. 3.6)
c) Gear retracted, maximum continuous power (Figure 3.7)
NOTE: If a graph is used to show compliance with the obstacle clearance
requirement, the gradient from 50 ft to the assumed engine failure height is
to be the average all-engine gradient x 0.77. This is equivalent to the distance
travelled with all engines operating x 1.3.

3.2.2

Use of Graph (Figure 3.5)


a) Enter with the temperature and travel vertically to the pressure altitude.
b) Travel horizontally to the curved graph line.
c) From this intersection drop a vertical line to the bottom scale. Read off rate of
climb.
An example is shown on the graph.

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 10

July 2006 (corr.)

-30

ISA P
TEM

-40

-10

0
10

20

30

40

SL

0
200

0
400

0
600

0
800

000
10,

000
12,

000
14,

000
16,

000
18,

000
20,

000
22,

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-20

000
24,

NOTE:

500

RATE OF CLIMB fpm

1000

1500

2000

RATE OF CLIMB....................1125 fpm

OAT........................................10C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.........8000 ft

EXAMPLE

POWER.......................... TAKE-OFF POWER, BOTH ENGINES


MIXTURE....................... FULL RICH
LANDING GEAR............ EXTENDED
FLAPS............................ UP
MASS............................. 4750 lb
COWL FLAPS................ HALF OPEN
SPEED........................... 92 kt IAS

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

TAKE-OFF POWER IS LIMITED TO 5 MINUTES OF CONTINUOUS OPERATION

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 3.5 Take-Off Climb Performance Gear Extended

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 11

CAP 698

3.2.3

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Use of Graphs (Figure 3.6 and Figure 3.7)


a) Enter with OAT. Travel vertically to the pressure altitude.
b) From this point, travel horizontally right to intercept the interpolated value of takeoff mass.
c) Drop vertically to read the all-engine-operating rate of climb.
d) From the TOM intersection, continue horizontally right to intercept the second
interpolated weight (if applicable).
e) Drop vertically to read the one-engine-inoperative rate of climb.
Example 1:
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
10000 ft
Ambient Temperature
+10C
Take-Off Mass
4000 lb
Gear up (Undercarriage Retracted)
Flaps 0;
Climb speed
92 kt lAS
Cloud Base
400 ft above Reference Zero
Wind Component
40 kt Head
Calculate the distance from the end of TODR to 1500 ft above Reference Zero for the
purpose of obstacle clearance.
Solution:
All engines rate of climb at take-off power 1650 fpm
One engine inoperative rate of climb at take-off power 300 fpm
One engine inoperative rate of climb at MCP 220 fpm
Time to cloud base at take-off power = 350 x 60 = 12.73 seconds
1650
Time to 1500 ft from cloud base at take-off power =
1100 x 60 = 220 seconds = 3 minutes 40 seconds.
300
Total time = 12.73 Seconds + 3 minutes 40 seconds = 3 minutes 52.73 seconds.
i.e. less than 5 minutes. Therefore Maximum Take-off Power can be maintained
throughout the climb.
92 kt IAS = 110 kt TAS.
G/S = 110 = 20 = 90 kt

(Using 50% of head wind component)

Distance to cloud base = 350 x 90 x 1.3 = 0.414 NM


1650 60
Distance cloud base to 1500 = 1100 x 90 = 5.5 NM
300 60
Total Distance = 0.414 + 5.5 = 5.914 NM

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 12

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

EXAMPLE

July 2006 (corr.)

TEM
IT
LT

-30
-10

ft

30

40

2000
RATE OF CLIMB fpm

1000

lb
4750

20

lb
4000

10

SL

00
20

00
40

00
60

00
80

200

400
RATE OF CLIMB fpm

100

300

SINGLE ENGINE SHADED AREA


ABOVE MAX CONT POWER ABSOLUTE CEILING

0 lb
475

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-20

SA
ES
R
P

P
E
UD

0
,00
10

0
,00
12

0
,00
14

0
,00
16

0
,00
18

2 ENGINES

lb
00
40

-40

ISA

0
,00
20

0
,00
22

0
,00
24

OAT.......................................10 C
TAKE-OFF POWER
PRESSURE ALTITUDE........10,000 ft
MIXTURE.....................FULL RICH
TAKE-OFF MASS.................4000 lb
GEAR...........................UP
FLAPS..........................UP
2 ENGINE CLIMB.................1650 fpm
COWLFLAPS...............HALF OPEN ON OPERATING ENGINE
SINGLE ENGINE CLIMB......300 fpm
CLOSED ON INOPERATIVE ENGINE
INOPERATIVE ENGINE FEATHERED
CLIMB SPEED ........... 92 kt IAS
NOTE: TAKE-OFF POWER IS LIMITED TO 5 MINUTES OF CONTINUOUS OPERATION

500

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 3.6 Take-Off Climb Performance Gear Retracted

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 13

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Example 2:
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
Take-Off Mass
Gear up (Undercarriage Retracted)
Flaps 0
Climb Speed
Cloud Base
Wind Component

6000 ft
+20C
4500 lb

92 kt lAS
400 ft above Reference Zero
13 kt Tail

Obstacle in the domain at 14000 ft from the end TODR and 600 ft above
Reference Zero
Calculate the vertical clearance of the obstacle by the aeroplane.
Solution:
Figure 3.6 All engines rate of climb at take-off power 1510 fpm
Figure 3.6 One engine inoperative rate of climb at take-off power 255 fpm
Figure 3.7 One engine inoperative rate of climb at maximum continuous power
220 fpm
Time to cloud base =350 x 60 = 13.9 seconds
1510
Time to 1500 ft from cloud base =
1100 x 60 = 258.8 seconds = 4 minutes 18.8 seconds
255
Total time = 13.9 seconds + 4 minutes 18.8 seconds = 4 minutes 32.7 seconds.
Therefore Maximum Take-Off power can be maintained throughout the take-off
climb.
92 kt IAS = 104 kt TAS.
G/S = 104 + 20 = 124 kt

(Using 150% of tailwind component rounded up)

Distance to cloud base = 350 x 124 x 6080 x 1.3 = 3786 ft


1510 60
Distance cloud base to obstacle = 14000 - 3786 = 10214 ft
Height gain = 10214 x 255 x 60 = 207.3 ft
124 x 6080
Height at obstacle = 400 + 207.3 = 607.3 ft
Clearance = 607.3 - 600 = 7.3 ft

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 14

July 2006

ISA

TEM

-40

-30
-10

0
10

20

30

MIXTURE
FULL RICH

lb
50
47

500

lb
00
35

1000

2000
RATE OF CLIMB fpm

1500

MIXTURE
LEANED TO
25F OF
PEAK EGT

SINGLE ENGINE

2 ENGINE RATE OF CLIMB......1400 fpm


1 ENGINE RATE OF CLIMB......220 fpm

OAT............................................10 C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.............10,000 ft
MASS........................................ 4000 lb

EXAMPLE

100

350

600

OPERATING ENGINE AT MAX CONT POWER


COWL FLAPS HALF OPEN
MIXTURE FULL RICH
INOPERATIVE ENGINE FEATHERED COWL FLAPS CLOSED
GEAR & FLAPS UP
3 - 5 BANK TOWARDS OPERATING ENGINE
92 kt IAS

1 ENGINE CLIMB

0 lb
475

40

SL

0
200

0
400

0
600

0
800

000
10,

000
12,

000
14,

000
16,

000
18,

000
20,

000
22,

2 ENGINES

BOTH ENGINES AT MAX CONT POWER


GEAR & FLAPS UP
COWL FLAPS HALF OPEN
MIXTURE AS NOTED
92 kt IAS

2 ENGINE CLIMB

0 lb
350
lb
4000

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-20

000
24,

PRESSURE ALTITUDE ft

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

lb
00
40

Figure 3.7 Climb Performance Gear Retracted Maximum Continuous Power

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 15

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 16

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

En-route
The en-route phase extends from 1500 ft above the take-off surface level to 1000 ft
above the landing aerodrome surface level.

4.1

Requirements
In the event of engine failure, with the remaining engine(s) set at the maximum
continuous setting, the aeroplane must be able to continue flight at or above the
relevant minimum safe altitude to an aerodrome at which the landing requirements
can be attained.
To show compliance:
a) The aeroplane may not be assumed to be flying above that altitude at which the
rate of climb is 300 fpm with all engines operating.
b) The one-engine-inoperative net gradient of climb is the gross gradient of climb
decreased by 0.5%, or the net gradient of descent is the gross gradient of descent
increased by 0.5%.

Landing

5.1

Requirements
There are three requirements for landing with which compliance is necessary. They
are the climb gradient requirements in the event of a balked landing and a missed
approach, and the landing field length requirement.

5.1.1

Field Length Requirements


a) The landing distance, from a screen height of 50 ft, must not exceed 70% of the
landing distance available, i.e. a factor of 1.43.
b) If the landing surface is grass up to 20 cm long on firm soil, the landing distance
should be multiplied by a factor of 1.15.
c) If the METAR or TAF or combination of both indicate that the runway may be wet
at the estimated time of arrival, the landing distance should be multiplied by a
factor of 1.15.
d) The landing distance should be increased by 5% for each 1% downslope. No
allowance is permitted for upslope.
e) The despatch rules for scheduled (planned) landing calculations are in JAR-OPS
1.550 (c).

5.1.2

Balked Landing Requirements


The minimum acceptable gross gradient of climb after a balked landing is 2.5%. This
must be achieved with:
a) The power developed 8 seconds after moving the power controls to the take-off
position.
b) The landing gear (undercarriage) extended.
c) Flaps at the landing setting.
d) Climb speed equal to VREF.

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 17

CAP 698

5.1.3

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Missed Approach Requirements


The minimum acceptable gross gradient of climb, after a missed approach, is 0.75%
at 1500 ft above the landing surface. This must be achieved with:
a) The critical engine inoperative and the propeller feathered.
b) The live engine set at maximum continuous power.
c) The landing gear (undercarriage) retracted.
d) The flaps retracted.
e) Climb speed not less than 1.2 VS1.
Example: Flaps Up
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
Aeroplane Mass

= 6000 ft
= +10C
= 4000 lb

Calculate the missed approach gradient of climb:


Solution: Use Figure 3.7: One-engine-inoperative grid
= 102 kt
True Airspeed
= 300fpm
Rate of Climb
= 300 x 6000 = 2.9%
Gradient of Climb
102 6080
5.2

Balked Landing Climb Graph


The graph provided for this purpose is constructed for the maximum landing mass of
4513 lb (Figure 3.8).
Use of Graph:
a) Enter at the ambient temperature. Travel vertically to the aerodrome pressure
altitude.
b) From this point travel horizontally right to intercept the rate of climb graph line.
Now drop a vertical to read the rate of climb.
c) Convert the rate of climb to a still-air gradient of climb using the formula:
Still Air Gradient of Climb = ROC (fpm) x 6000 %
TAS (kt)
6080
Example:
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
Solution:
Graphical ROC
IAS 85 kt
Climb Gradient

July 2006

=
=
=

3000 ft
+22C

810 fpm.
91 kt TAS
810 x 6000 = 8.78%
91 6080

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 18

-40

1
4
,0
00

10
,0
00

-10

ft
T

UD
E

10

20

30

SL

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-20

RE

16
,0
00

-30

80
00

PR

SS
U

60
00

1
2
,0
00

MP

40
00

July 2006

AL
TI

ISA TE

20
00

40

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

400

800

1000

RATE OF CLIMB....................810 fpm

OAT........................................22C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.........3000 ft

EXAMPLE

RATE OF CLIMB fpm

600

POWER......................... TAKE-OFF POWER


MIXTURE....................... FULL RICH
LANDING GEAR........... EXTENDED
FLAPS........................... 40
MASS............................. 4513 lb
COWL FLAPS................ HALF OPEN
SPEED........................... 85 kt IAS

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 3.8 Balked Landing Climb Performance

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 19

CAP 698

5.3

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Use of Landing Field Length Graphs


There are two landing field length graphs: one for normal landings with 40 landing
flap (Figure 3.9), and the other for short field landings with 40 landing flap. (Figure
3.10).

5.3.1

Distance Calculations
a) Enter at the ambient temperature. Move vertically to the aerodrome pressure
altitude.
b) From this point, move horizontally right to the landing weight reference line.
Parallel the grid lines to the appropriate landing mass input.
c) Continue from this intersection to the wind component reference line. Parallel the
grid lines to the appropriate wind component input.
d) Travel horizontally right to the ground roll reference line. Either continue
horizontally to the right vertical axis to read the ground roll distance or parallel the
grid lines to the right vertical axis to read the landing distance from 50 ft.
e) Apply the appropriate factors to the landing distance to obtain the landing distance
required.
Example:

Normal Landing

Aerodrome Pressure Altitude


Ambient Temperature
Landing Mass
Wind Component
Runway Slope
Runway Surface
Runway Condition

3000 ft
+22C
3650 lb
10 kt Head
1% Down
Grass
Wet

Calculate Landing Distance Required


Solution:
Graphical Distance
Slope Correction Factor
Surface Correction Factor
Condition Correction Factor
Regulatory Factor
Landing Distance Required

July 2006

2220 ft
x 1.05
x 1.15
x 1.15
x 1.43
= 4408ft

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 20

-40

-10

10

20

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-20

E ft

UD
ALTIT
SURE

PRES

-30

MP

SL

IS

TE

8000
6000
4000
2000

STANDARD WHEELS, TYRES & BRAKES


THROTTLES CLOSED
FLAPS 40
FULL STALL TOUCHDOWN
PAVED, LEVEL DRY RUNWAY
MAXIMUM BRAKING

30

40

REF LINE 4513 lb MAX LANDING WEIGHT


4500

90 88

MASS lb

4000

3500

BARRIER SPEED kt
86 84
82
80
78

3000

76

LANDING GROUND ROLL........ 1120 ft


TOTAL LANDING DISTANCE
OVER 50 ft BARRIER........... 2220 ft
BARRIER SPEED.................... 82 kt

OAT.............................................22C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE............. 3000 ft
HEADWIND................................10 kt
GROSS MASS........................... 3650 lb

EXAMPLE

HE

AD

IN
D

10

15

GROUND ROLL REF LINE


WIND COMPONENT kt

ND
WI

July 2006 (corr.)

REF LINE ZERO WIND


TA
IL

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

3200

3400

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

LANDING DISTANCE ft

Figure 3.9 Landing Distance Normal Procedure

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 21

CAP 698

5.3.2

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Landing Mass Calculations


The procedure for calculating the field length limited landing mass is:
a) De-factorise the landing distance available by dividing by the slope correction
factor, the surface type correction factor, the surface condition correction factor
and the regulatory factor.
b) Enter at the ambient temperature. Move vertically to the aerodrome pressure
altitude.
c) From this point, travel horizontally right to the mass reference line. Mark with a
pencil.
d) Enter right vertical axis with the distance from a) above. Parallel the grid lines to
the ground roll reference line.
e) From this point, travel horizontally left to the appropriate wind component input.
Parallel the grid lines to the wind component reference line.
f) Now draw a line horizontally from this point through the mass grid.
g) From the pencil mark in c) above, parallel the grid lines to intersect the horizontal
line. Drop vertically to read field length limited landing mass.
Example:

Short Field Landing

Aerodrome Pressure Altitude


Ambient Temperature
Landing Distance Available
Wind Component
Runway Slope
Runway Surface
Runway Condition

3000 ft
+22C
3733 ft
10 kt Head
1% down
Grass
Wet

Calculate the field length limited landing mass


Solution:
Landing Distance Available
Slope Correction Factor
Surface Type Correction Factor
Surface Condition Correction Factor
Regulatory Factor
De-factorised LDA
Field Length Limited Landing Mass

July 2006

3733 ft
1.05
1.15
1.15
1.43
= 1880 ft
= 3800 lb

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 22

-40

TE

-30

-10

10

20

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-20

E ft

D
LTITU
URE A
S
S
E
PR

8000
6000
4000
2000
SL

IS

STANDARD WHEELS, TYRES & BRAKES


THROTTLES CLOSED
FLAPS 40
FULL STALL TOUCHDOWN
PAVED, LEVEL DRY RUNWAY
MAXIMUM BRAKING

30

40

REF LINE 4513 lb MAX LANDING WEIGHT


4500

82 80

4000

MASS lb

3500

BARRIER SPEED kt
78 76
74 72
70

3000

68

HE
A

IND

10

DW

15

GROUND ROLL REF LINE

WIND COMPONENT kt

REF LINE ZERO WIND

LANDING GROUND ROLL...............................................1110 ft


TOTAL LANDING DISTANCE OVER 50 ft BARRIER....... 1825 ft
BARRIER SPEED............................................................. 74 kt

OAT................................................................................... 22C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.................................................... 3000 ft
HEADWIND.......................................................................10 kt
GROSS MASS.................................................................. 3650 lb

EXAMPLE

D
IN
W

July 2006 (corr.)

TA
IL

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

CAP 698
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

LANDING DISTANCE ft

Figure 3.10 Landing Distance Short Field

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 23

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1 Page 24

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Section 4

Data for Medium-Range Jet Transport


(MRJT1)

General Considerations

1.1

Performance Limitations

1.1.1

Performance Classification
The specimen aircraft is a landplane powered by two turbo fan engines. It is
certificated in the Transport Category (Passenger) and is operated in accordance with
CS/FAR 25 Performance Class A.

1.1.2

Flight Over Water Speed


The true airspeed to be assumed for the purpose of compliance with legislation
governing flight over water and en-route climb performance is 380 knots.

1.1.3

Engine Relighting
The maximum altitude to be assumed for engine relighting is 25000 feet.

1.1.4

Maximum Crosswind Component


The maximum crosswind component in which the aeroplane has been demonstrated
to be satisfactory for take-off and landing is 33 knots. This wind speed is related to a
height of 10 metres.

1.1.5

Standard Performance Conditions


Performance information relates to an average aeroplane of the type and the data are
based on:
a) Certified engine thrust ratings less installation losses, airbleed and accessory
losses.
b) Full temperature accountability within operational limits except for landing
distance, which is based on standard day temperatures.
c) Trailing edge flap settings:
5 or 15 for take-off,
4 transition setting,
22 for approach,
15, 30, 40 for landing
with leading edge devices in the full down position for these flap settings.
d) Operations on smooth, hard-surfaced, runways.

1.2

Aeroplane Limitations

1.2.1

Mass (Weight)
Maximum structural take-off mass is 62800 kg.
Maximum structural landing mass is 54900 kg.
Maximum zero fuel mass is 51300 kg.
On any given occasion, the maximum permitted take-off and landing mass may be
less than the structural limits given above.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 1

CAP 698

1.2.2

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Wing Span
The wingspan of the aeroplane is 28.88 metres.

1.2.3

Power Plant
The engines shall not be operated continuously at maximum take-off thrust for
periods exceeding 5 minutes.

1.2.4

Operating Limitations
Operational mass (weight) limits are determined from the following performance
considerations:
a) Take-off field lengths.
b) Take-off climb limits.
c) Tyre speed limits.
d) Brake energy limits.
e) Net take-off flight path.
f) En route climb performance.
g) Landing climb limits.
h) Landing field lengths.

1.3

Additional Definitions for Class A Aeroplanes

Air Minimum Control Speed - VMC

The minimum flight speed at which the


aeroplane is controllable, with a maximum
of 5 bank, when the critical engine
suddenly becomes inoperative with the
remaining engines at take-off thrust.

Approach and Landing Minimum


Control Speed - VMCL

The minimum speed with a wing engine


inoperative where it is possible to
decrease thrust to idle or increase thrust to
maximum take-off without encountering
dangerous flight characteristics.

Decision Speed - V1

The maximum speed during take-off at


which the pilot must take the first action
(e.g. apply brakes, reduce thrust, deploy
speed brakes) to stop the aeroplane within
the accelerate-stop distance available. It is
also the minimum speed during take-off,
following the failure of the critical engine at
VEF, at which the pilot can continue the
take-off and achieve screen height within
the take-off distance available. V1 must not
be less than VMCG, not greater than VR and
not greater than VMBE.

Ground Minimum Control Speed - VMCG

The minimum speed on the ground at


which the take-off can be safely continued,
when the critical engine suddenly
becomes inoperative with the remaining
engines at take-off thrust.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 2

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Maximum Brake Energy Speed - VMBE

The maximum speed on the ground from


which an aeroplane can safely stop within
the energy capabilities of the brakes.

Maximum Threshold Speed - VTMAX

The speed at the threshold above which


the risk of exceeding the scheduled
landing field length is unacceptably high.
Go-around action should normally be taken
if it appears that maximum threshold
speed will be exceeded. This speed is 15
knots greater than the all-engines
operating target threshold speed.

PMC

Power Management Computer.

QRH

Quick Reference Handbook.

Reference Landing Speed - VREF

The speed of the aeroplane, in the


specified landing configuration, at screen
height, which is used to determine the
landing distance for manual landings.

Rotation Speed - VR

The speed at which, during the take-off,


rotation is initiated with the intention of
becoming airborne.

Screen Height

The height of an imaginary screen placed


at the end of the Take-Off Distance
Required and at the beginning of the
Landing Distance Required.

Steady Initial Climb Speed - V4

The all engines operating take-off climb


speed used to the point where
acceleration to flap retraction speed is
initiated. V4 should be attained by a gross
height of 400 feet.

Take-Off Safety Speed - V2

The target speed to be attained at the


screen height with one engine inoperative,
and used to the point where acceleration
to flap retraction speed is initiated.

Threshold Speed - VT

The speed at which the pilot should aim to


cross the runway threshold to ensure that
the scheduled landing field lengths are
consistently achieved. The speeds at the
threshold are:
VTO - all engines operating
VT1 - a critical engine inoperative

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 3

CAP 698

1.4

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

The Determination of Wind Component


Use the graph at Figure 4.1
a) Calculate the relative direction of the wind to the runway. i.e. (wind direction runway direction) or (runway direction - wind direction).
b) Enter graph at left vertical axis with windspeed.
c) Follow circle until relative direction intercepted.
d) From the intersection draw a line horizontally left to the vertical axis to read the
along track component. Negative values are tailwinds.
e) From the intersection drop a vertical line to intersect the horizontal axis to read the
crosswind component.
f) The windspeed grids have already been factorised 50% for headwinds and 150%
for tailwinds. Therefore the grids may be entered with the reported or calculated
along track component.
Example:

W/V 330/30 Runway 02


Wind angle = 50
Headwind = 19 kt Crosswind = 23 kt left to right.
Note this graph is for use with take-off and landing computations only.

65

D
IN

40

45
40

50
35

20

kt

ANGLE

30

60 ITY
C
LO
55

VE

50

30

60

30
25

70

20
15

10
10

80

WIND COMPONENT PARALLEL TO RUNWAY kt

70

40

10
BETW
E
& RUN EN WIND DIR
WAY D
ECTIO
EGRE
N
ES
20

50

90

100

-10

110

15

12

14
0

10

170

160

-20

13

20

30

40

50

60

CROSSWIND COMPONENT kt

Figure 4.1 Wind Components for Take-Off and Landing

July 2006 (corr.)

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 4

CAP 698

1.5

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Conversion of QFE or QNH to Pressure Altitude


All altitudes in this manual refer strictly to pressure altitude. If only QFE or QNH are
known then it must be used to produce a pressure altitude.
QNH (IN.HG.)

Correction to elevation
for press. Alt. (ft)

28.81

to

+1000

976

to

979

28.91

to

29.02

+900

979

to

983

29.02

to

29.12

+800

983

to

986

29.12

to

29.23

+700

986

to

990

29.23

to

29.34

+600

990

to

994

29.34

to

29.44

+500

994

to

997

29.44

to

29.55

+400

997

to

1001

29.55

to

29.66

+300

1001

to

1004

29.66

to

29.76

+200

1004

to

1008

29.76

to

29.87

+100

1008

to

1012

29.87

to

29.97

1012

to

1015

29.97

to

30.08

-100

1015

to

1019

30.08

to

30.19

-200

1019

to

1022

30.19

to

30.30

-300

1022

to

1026

30.30

to

30.41

-400

1026

to

1030

30.41

to

30.52

-500

1030

to

1034

30.52

to

30.63

-600

1034

to

1037

30.63

to

30.74

-700

1037

to

1041

30.74

to

30.85

-800

1041

to

1045

30.85

to

30.96

-900

1045

to

1048

30.96

to

31.07

-1000

1048

to

1052

28.91

QNH (hPa)

Figure 4.2 QNH To Pressure Altitude


Example:

July 2006

Elevation
QNH
Correction
Press Alt.

= 2500 ft
= 29.48 in.Hg.
= +400 ft
= 2900 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 5

CAP 698

1.6

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Total Air Temperature at ISA


The cockpit temperature gauge shows the total air temperature (TAT), which is the
true outside air temperature plus the rise due to ram air compression. To calculate the
value of TAT, while flying in ISA conditions, enter the table in figure 4.3 at the
appropriate pressure altitude and move along the line to the appropriate indicated
Mach number to read the ISA/TAT.
Compare the actual TAT with the tabulated ISA/TAT to obtain the temperature
deviation from standard.

Pressure
Altitude
1000 ft

Indicated Mach Number


0

36 to 45
35
34

.40

.50

.60

.70

.74

.78

.80

.82

.84

.86

.88

.90

.92

-56
-54
-52

-41

-41
-39
-36

-35
-33
-31

-33
-30
-28

-30
-28
-25

-29
-26
-24

-27
-25
-23

-26
-23
-21

-24
-22
-20

-23
-20
-18

-21
-19
-17

-20
-17
-15

33
32
31

-50
-48
-46

-39
-37
-35

-34
-32
-30

-29
-26
-24

-26
-24
-22

-23
-21
-19

-22
-20
-17

-20
-18
-16

-19
-17
-14

-17
-15
-13

-16
-14
-11

-14
-12
-10

-13
-10
-8

30
29
28

-44
-42
-40

-33
-31
-29

-28
-26
-24

-22
-20
-18

-19
-17
-15

-17
-14
-12

-15
-13
-11

-14
-11
-9

-12
-10
-8

-11
-8
-6

-9
-7
-4

-7
-5
-3

-6
-3
-1

27
26
25

-38
-37
-35

-27
-25
-23

-22
-19
-17

-15
-13
-11

-13
-11
-8

-10
-8
-5

-8
-6
-4

-7
-5
-2

-5
-3
-1

-4
-2
1

-2
0
2

0
2
4

1
4
6

24
23
22

-33
-31
-29

-25
-23
-21

-21
-18
-16

-15
-13
-11

-9
-7
-5

-6
-4
-2

-3
-1
1

-2
0
3

0
2
4

1
4
6

3
5
8

5
7
9

6
9
11

8
11
13

21
20
19

-27
-25
-23

-19
-17
-15

-14
-12
-10

-9
-7
-5

-2
0
2

0
3
5

3
6
8

5
7
9

7
9
11

8
10
13

11
12
14

12
14

13

18
17
16

-21
-19
-17

-13
-11
-8

-8
-6
-4

-2
0
2

4
6
8

7
9
11

10
12
15

12
14
16

13
16

15

15
14
13

-15
-13
-11

-6
-4
-2

-2
0
2

4
6
8

11
13
15

14
16
18

17
19
21

18

12
11
10

-9
-7
-5

0
2
4

4
7
9

10
12
15

17
19
21

20
22

9
8
7

-3
-1
1

6
8
10

11
13
15

17
19
21

24
26
28

6
5
4

3
5
7

12
14
16

17
19
21

23
25
27

30
32

3
2
1

9
11
13

18
20
22

23
25
27

29
32
Total Air Temperature at ISA (C)

Figure 4.3 TAT in ISA conditions

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 6

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Take-Off

2.1

Field Length Limit


The field length limit graph (Figure 4.4) accounts for runway slope, wind component,
flap position, aerodrome pressure altitude and ambient temperature. It does not take
into account any stopway or clearway and is, therefore, a balanced-field take-off. The
field-length used in the graph is based on the minimum V1 being equal to VMCG. This
means that, if either stopway or clearway is available, a certain amount of payload,
which could have been carried, will have to be forgone.

2.1.1

2.1.2

The maximum take-off mass is determined as the lowest of:


the structural limit

the tyre speed limit

the field length limit

the brake energy limit

the climb limit (WAT)

the obstacle limit.

The Field Length requirements specified in CS 25 are:


a) If the take-off distance includes a clearway, the take-off run is the greatest of:
i) All power units operating (dry and wet runway). The total of the gross distance
from the start of the take-off run to the point at which VLOF is reached, plus one
half of the gross distance from VLOF to the point at which the aeroplane reaches
35 ft, all factorised by 1.15 to obtain the net TORR.
ii) One power unit inoperative (dry runway). The horizontal distance from the
brakes release point (BRP) to a point equidistant between VLOF and the point at
which the aeroplane reaches 35 ft with the critical power unit inoperative.
iii) One power unit inoperative (wet runway). The horizontal distance from the
brake release point (BRP) to the point at which the aeroplane is 15ft above the
take-off surface, achieved in a manner consistent with the attainment of V2 by
35ft, assuming the critical power unit inoperative at VEF.
b) The accelerate-stop distance on a wet runway is the greatest of:
i) All engines operating. The sum of the distances required to accelerate from
BRP to the highest speed reached during the rejected take-off, assuming the
pilot takes the first action to reject the take-off at the V1 for take-off from a wet
runway and to decelerate to a full stop on a wet hard surface, plus a distance
equivalent to 2 seconds at the V1 for take-off from a wet runway.
ii) One engine inoperative. The sum of the distances required to accelerate from
BRP to the highest speed reached during the rejected take-off, assuming the
critical engine fails at VEF and the pilot takes the first action to reject the take-off
at the V1 for take-off from a wet runway with all engines operating and to
decelerate to a full stop on a wet hard surface with one engine inoperative, plus
a distance equivalent to 2 seconds at the V1 for take-off from a wet runway.
iii) The accelerate-stop distance on a dry runway.
c) The take-off distance required is the greatest of the following three distances:
i) All engines operating. 115% of the horizontal distance travelled, with all engines
operating, to reach a screen height of 35 ft

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 7

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

ii) One engine inoperative (dry runway). The horizontal distance from BRP to the
point at which the aeroplane attains 35 ft, assuming the critical power unit fails
at VEF on a dry, hard surface.
iii) One engine inoperative (wet runway). The horizontal distance from BRP to the
point at which the aeroplane attains 15 ft, assuming the critical power unit fails
at VEF on a wet or contaminated hard surface, achieved in a manner consistent
with the achievement of V2 by 35ft.
2.1.3

Method of Use of the Take-Off Performance Field Limit Graph (Figure 4.4)
a) Enter with Field Length Available (TORA). Move vertically to the runway slope
reference line.
b) Parallel the grid lines to the appropriate runway slope then continue vertically to the
wind component reference line.
c) Parallel the grid lines to the appropriate wind component then continue vertically
to the flap reference line.
d) If flap is 15, parallel grid lines then, with a pencil, draw a vertical line through the
weight grid. If flap is 5, with a pencil, draw a vertical line from the reference line
through the mass grid.
e) Enter at the aerodrome ambient temperature and proceed vertically to the
aerodrome pressure altitude.
f) Proceed horizontally right to the mass grid reference line.
g) From this point interpolate and follow the grid lines to intersect the vertical line
drawn in d) above.
h) From this intersection draw a horizontal line to read the Field Length Limited TOM
i) Apply any corrections necessary.
Example:
Field Length Available (TORA)
Runway slope
Wind Component
Flaps
PMC
Ambient Temperature
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude

9600 ft
1% Uphill
20 kt Head
15
ON
+ 33 C
2,000 ft

Solution:
Field Length Limited TOM

July 2006

63000 kg

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 8

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

70

AIR

PO

RT
P

RE
S
100 SURE
0 ft
AL
TIT
-1
UD
E
0

65

60

MINIMUM FIELD LENGTH REQUIRED

4
5
6
7
8

50

45

A
TE SSU
MP
M
ER ED
LIM ATU
IT RE

ENV

IRO

NME

NTA

L LI

MIT

55

40

FIELD LENGTH LIMIT BRAKE RELEASE MASS 1000 kg

1
2

REF LINE

35

-50

-40 -30 -20 -10

10

20

30

40

50

60

30

70

15

BASED ON A/C AUTO.


FOR PACKS OFF, INCREASE
ALLOWABLE MASS BY 550 kg
HEAD

40

WIND 20
kt
0
TAIL

REF LINE

10

PMC OFF CORRECTION


ALTITUDE TEMPERATURE MASS DECREMENT
ft
C
kg
BELOW
0
ALL
5000
5000
ABOVE 21
0
& ABOVE
21 & BELOW
1660
VALID FOR ANTI-ICE ON OR OFF

2
REF LINE

100 m
1000 ft 3

12
4

16

20

24

28

32

36

5
7
8
6
9 10 11 12
FIELD LENGTH AVAILABLE ft x1000

-2
DOWN

40
13

UP
RUNWAY
SLOPE %

FOR ENGINE ANTI-ICE ON DECREASE


ALLOWABLE MASS BY 350 kg

REF LINE

FLAP
POSITION

AIRPORT OAT C

14

Figure 4.4 Take-Off Performance Field Length Limit Graph

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 9

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

2.2

Take-Off Climb

2.2.1

Requirements
During the take-off climb the aeroplane must:
a) Attain the most severe gradient requirement of the take-off Net Flight Path
b) Avoid all obstacles in the obstacle accountability area by the statutory minimum
vertical interval.

2.2.2

Use of the Climb Limit Graph (Figure 4.5)


The graph at Figure 4.5 guarantees attainment of the most severe gradient
requirement of the net flight path. It does not guarantee obstacle clearance.
Method of Use
a) Enter the graph at aerodrome ambient temperature.
b) Move vertically to the aerodrome pressure altitude.
c) Travel horizontally left to the flap reference line and apply the appropriate setting
to read climb limit mass.
d) Apply any corrections necessary.
Example:
Field Length Available (TORA)
OAT
Flaps

2000 ft
+ 33C
15

Solution:
Climb Limited TOM

July 2006

53400 kg

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 10

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

65
R
AI
RT
PO
SU
ES
PR
RE

60

TU
TI
AL
-1
0
DE

00
10

2
4
5

EN
TA
LL

50

IM
IT

VI

RO

NM

EN

CLIMB LIMIT BRAKE RELEASE MASS 1000 kg

ft

55

45

40

E
UR
AT
R
PE
EM T
T
I
D
ME LIM
SU
S
A

REF LINE

35

30
15

5
FLAP
POSITION

10
&
BELOW

20

30

40
AIRPORT OAT C

50

60

70

BASED ON A/C AUTO WITH APU ON OR OFF. FOR PACKS OFF, INCREASE ALLOWABLE MASS
BY 900 kg.
FOR OPERATION WITH ENGINE ANTI-ICE ON SUBTRACT 190 kg WHEN AIRPORT PRESSURE
ALTITUDE IS AT OR BELOW 8000 ft OR 530 kg WHEN AIRPORT PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS
ABOVE 8000 ft.

PMC OFF CORRECTION


ALTITUDE
ft
BELOW 5000
5000
& ABOVE

TEMPERATURE
C
ALL
ABOVE 21
21 & BELOW

MASS DECREMENT
kg
0
0
1860

Figure 4.5 Take-Off Performance Climb Limit

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 11

CAP 698

2.3

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Take-Off Tyre Speed Limit


The graph at Figure 4.6 presents the limitation on take-off weight for 225 mph tyres
and 5 flap.
Method of Use
Enter the graph with aerodrome OAT. Proceed vertically to the aerodrome
pressure altitude, then horizontally left to read the tyre speed limit.
Correct as necessary.
For 210 mph tyres and/or 15 flap, apply the correction below the graph.
Example:
OAT
Airfield Pressure Altitude
Flaps
PMC
Tyres
Uncorrected limit
Correction

+ 33C
2000 ft
15
ON
210 mph
80400 kg
-1500 kg

Solution:
Tyre Limit Mass

July 2006

78900 kg

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 12

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

225 MPH TYRES

-1

0
1

80

2
3

O
RP
RT

7
8

ES
PR
T
9
TI
AL
RE
SU

70

E
UD
00
10
ft

FLAPS 5 TYRE SPEED LIMIT MASS 1000 kg

AI

75

65

60

55

-40

-30

-20

-10

CONDITIONAL DEVIATION
15 Flap
210 mph Tyres
15 Flap + 210 mph Tyres
Headwind
Tailwind

0
10
20
AIRPORT OAT C

30

40

50

60

70

CORRECTION
+ 6600 kg
- 9600 kg
- 1500 kg
+ 400 kg per kt
-650 kg per kt

PMC OFF CORRECTION


ALTITUDE ft
Below 5000
5000 & Above

TEMPERATURE C

MASS DECREMENT kg

Above 21
21 & Below
Above 21
21 & Below

250
210
200
270

Figure 4.6 Take-Off Tyre Speed Limit

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 13

CAP 698

2.4

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Take-Off Brake Energy Limit


Figure 4.7 enables the determination of VMBE.
Generally VMBE will not be limiting except at hot, high aerodromes or operating with a
tail wind.
Always check VMBE when outside the shaded area of the top left grid or when there
is a tail wind or when employing the improved climb technique. If V1 exceeds VMBE,
apply the correction below the graph. Make V1 = VMBE and recalculate the other V
speeds for the reduced mass.
Method of Use
Enter the graph with aerodrome pressure altitude. Travel horizontally to OAT.
Drop vertically to take-off mass, then horizontally right to VMBE.
Example:
Take-Off Mass
Airfield Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
Runway Slope
Wind Component
PMC

64000 kg
5600 ft
-10 C
1.5% Uphill
10 kt Head
ON

Solution:
VMBE = 165 + 3 + 3 =171 kt

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 14

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

CHECK VMBE WHEN OUTSIDE SHADED AREA OR WHEN


OPERATING WITH TAILWIND OR IMPROVED CLIMB

ALL FLAPS

8
AI
RP
T
OR

T
OA
C

0
0 0
-5 -4 -3

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 1000 ft

10

2
0
45

50

55

60

65

70

0
-2
0
-1

40

10
20
30
40
50

-1
BRAKE RELEASE MASS 1000 kg

INCREASE VMBE BY 2 kt FOR


1% UPHILL RUNWAY SLOPE

200

0
00

56

INCREASE VMBE BY 3 kt FOR


10 kt HEADWIND

60

64

DECREASE VMBE BY 20 kt FOR


10 kt TAILWIND

LE

PMC OFF CORRECTION IS -1 kt

HT

68 EIG
W
SE

WIND

kg

180

170

VMBE kt IAS

48

190
52

DECREASE VMBE BY 5 kt FOR


1% DOWNHILL RUNWAY SLOPE

44

40

SLOPE

160

RE

AK

BR

150
140

ADJUST VMBE FOR SLOPE AND WIND


NORMAL TAKE-OFF: DECREASE BRAKE RELEASE MASS BY 300 kg FOR EACH
KNOT V1 EXCEEDS VMBE. DETERMINE NORMAL V1, VR, V2 SPEEDS FOR LOWER
BRAKE RELEASE MASS
IMPROVED CLIMB TAKE-OFF: DECREASE CLIMB MASS IMPROVEMENT BY 160 kg
FOR EACH KNOT V1 EXCEEDS VMBE. DETERMINE V1, VR, V2 SPEED INCREMENTS
FOR THE LOWER CLIMB MASS IMPROVEMENT

Figure 4.7 Take-Off Brake Energy Limit

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 15

CAP 698

2.5

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

V Speeds and % N1 Values


The V speeds quoted in Figures 4.8 and 4.9 are those for a balanced-field take-off with
no stopway or clearway. The runway is assumed to be hard, level and in still air
conditions. Sub-tables are provided to enable V1 to be corrected for the effects of
slope and wind. V1 can be further adjusted to account for any clearway or stopway by
using the following table. This table must not be used if the stopway and/or clearway
were used in the determination of the field length limited take-off mass.

2.5.1

V1 Adjustments
Normal V1 KIAS
Clearway
Minus
Stopway (ft)

100

120

140

160

800

-3

-2

600

-3

-2

-1

400

-4

-3

-2

-1

200

-2

-1

-1

-400

-800

Maximum Allowable Clearway

Field Length (ft)

Maximum Allowable Clearway for V1


Reduction (ft)

4000

400

6000

500

8000

550

10000

600

12000

700

14000

750

In the absence of more precise details the above table should be used as a guide to
the maximum allowable clearway permitted.
In no circumstances may V1 be less than the VMCG nor may it exceed VR or VMBE.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 16

CAP 698

2.5.2

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

The Calculation of V Speeds


To calculate the V speeds use the tables (at Figure 4.8 or 4.9 as appropriate) in the
following manner:
a) Enter the density sub-graph (below) with pressure altitude and ambient
temperature to determine which of the columns of the tables should be used.
b) Select the tables appropriate to the flap setting from Figure 4.8 or 4.9.
c) Enter the V speed tables at the actual take-off mass. Extract V1, VR and V2.
d) If it is necessary to correct V1 for slope and/or wind component, enter the table at
the top of Figure 4.8 or 4.9, as appropriate, at the actual take-off mass and
interpolate the correction necessary.
e) Apply the corrections to V1.
f) Use the sub-table below Figure 4.8 or 4.9, as appropriate, to determine the VMCG.
Enter the left column at the ambient temperature and then proceed right along the
row to the appropriate aerodrome pressure altitude (interpolating if necessary).
Extract VMCG.
g) Compare V1 with VMCG. If V1 is less than VMCG, take-off is not permitted.
h) Check TORA exceeds TORR. If it does not, the take-off mass must be reduced.
Density Sub Graph

40 & below
9

60

TEMPERATURE F
100

80

120

140

160

F
6
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft
3

E
D
C
B
A

0
4&
10
below

2.5.3

20

30
40
TEMPERATURE C

50

60

70

Stabiliser Trim Setting


To determine the take-off stabiliser trim setting select the appropriate table and use
the actual take-off mass and % MAC centre of gravity to read or calculate the
appropriate setting.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 17

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 4.8 Take-Off Speeds


Slope/Wind V1 adjustment

Flaps 5
PMC ON

Mass
(1000
kg)

Slope %

Wind kt

-2

-15

40

70

-3

-3

60

-2

-3

50

-2

-4

40

-2

-4

* V1 not to exceed VR
Mass
(1000
kg)

V1

VR

V2

V1

VR

V2

V1

VR

V2

70
65
60
55
50
45
40

158
151
144
137
129
121
113

163
155
148
139
131
123
114

168
161
155
149
142
136
130

158
152
145
138
130
122
113

164
156
148
140
132
124
116

169
162
155
149
142
135
129

153
146
138
131
122
113

157
149
141
133
125
116

162
155
148
142
135
128

Mass
(1000
kg)

V1

VR

V2

V1

VR

V2

V1

VR

V2

70
65
60
55
50
45
40

140
132
124
113

143
134
126
117

148
141
135
128

133
125
114

135
127
118

141
134
127

128
119

128
120

134
126

In shaded area check VMCG for actual temp.


VMCG
Actual OAT

Press. Alt. X 1000 ft

55
50
40
30
20
10
-50

131
122
104
86
68
50
-58

104
107
111
116
116
116
118

103
107
111
113
113
115

103
107
111
111
112

99
104
107
108
109

94
98
102
104
105

For A/C packs 'off' increase VMCG by 2 knots


Flaps 5
CG.% MAC
Stab. Trim

Stabiliser Trim Setting


6
5

10
5

14
4

18
3

22
3

26
2

30
2

For masses at or below 45350 kg subtract unit


For masses at or above 61250 kg add unit
Stab trim settings must be between 1 and 5 units

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 18

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 4.9 Take-Off Speeds


Slope/Wind V1 adjustment

Flaps 15
PMC ON

Mass
(1000
kg)

Slope %

Wind kt

-2

-15

40

70

-3

-3

60

-2

-3

50

-2

-4

40

-2

-4

* V1 not to exceed VR
Mass
(1000
kg)

V1

VR

V2

V1

VR

V2

V1

VR

V2

70
65
60
55
50
45
40

150
143
137
130
122
114
104

152
145
139
131
124
116
107

158
152
146
141
135
128
122

145
138
131
123
116
104

146
140
132
125
117
109

151
146
140
134
128
122

139
131
124
116
104

140
133
125
118
110

146
140
134
128
122

Mass
(1000
kg)

V1

VR

V2

V1

VR

V2

V1

VR

V2

70
65
60
55
50
45
40

134
126
118
109

134
126
119
111

140
134
127
121

127
120
111

128
120
112

133
126
120

120
112

121
113

127
120

In shaded area check VMCG for actual temp.


VMCG
Actual OAT

Press. Alt. X 1000 ft

55
50
40
30
20
10
-50

131
122
104
86
68
50
-58

104
107
111
116
116
116
118

103
107
111
113
113
115

103
107
111
111
112

99
104
107
108
109

94
98
102
104
105

For A/C packs 'off' increase VMCG by 2 knots

Flaps 15
CG.% MAC
Stab. Trim

Stabiliser Trim Setting


6
5

10

14

18
3

22

26

30
1

For masses at or below 45350 kg subtract unit


For masses at or above 61250 kg add unit
Stab trim settings must be between 1 and 5 units

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 19

CAP 698

2.5.4

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

% N1 Values
All % N1 tables may be used for either engine anti-icing 'on' and 'off' configurations.
Correction is necessary if the air conditioning packs are off.
To determine the % N1 values use the following procedure:
a) Select the table appropriate to either PMC on or off.
b) Select the table that is appropriate to the phase of flight (take-off, climb or goaround).
c) Enter the left column of the table with either aerodrome ambient temperature or
TAT as appropriate. Read % N1 in the aerodrome pressure altitude column.

Figure 4.10 Expanded Maximum Take-Off % N1


Airport OAT

Pressure Altitude ft

-1000

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

54
52
50
48
46
44
42
40
38
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12
-14
-16
-18
-20
-22
-24
-26
-28
-30

129
126
122
118
115
111
108
104
100
97
93
90
86
82
79
75
72
68
64
61
57
54
50
46
43
39
36
32
28
25
21
18
14
10
7
3
0
-4
-8
-11
-15
-18
-22

93.3
93.6
93.8
94.0
94.1
94.3
94.5
94.6
94.8
95.1
95.3
95.5
95.2
94.9
94.6
94.2
93.9
93.6
93.3
93.0
92.6
92.3
92.0
91.7
91.3
91.0
90.7
90.4
90.0
89.7
89.4
89.0
88.7
88.3
88.0
87.7
87.3
87.0
86.6
86.3
85.9
85.6
85.2

94.1
94.2
94.3
94.5
94.7
94.8
95.0
95.2
95.3
95.5
95.7
95.9
96.1
95.8
95.5
95.2
94.8
94.5
94.2
93.9
93.5
93.2
92.9
92.6
92.2
91.9
91.6
91.2
90.9
90.6
90.2
89.9
89.6
89.2
88.9
88.5
88.2
87.8
87.5
87.1
86.8
86.4
86.0

93.6
94.2
94.3
94.4
94.6
94.8
95.0
95.2
95.4
95.5
95.7
95.9
96.1
96.3
96.0
95.6
95.3
95.0
94.7
94.3
94.0
93.7
93.4
93.0
92.7
92.4
92.0
91.7
91.4
91.0
90.7
90.3
90.0
89.7
89.3
89.0
88.6
88.3
87.9
87.6
87.2
86.9
86.5

93.7
94.3
94.4
94.5
94.7
94.9
95.1
95.3
95.5
95.7
95.8
96.0
96.2
96.4
96.1
95.7
95.4
95.1
94.8
94.4
94.1
93.8
93.4
93.1
92.8
92.4
92.1
91.8
91.4
91.1
90.7
90.4
90.0
89.7
89.4
89.0
88.7
88.3
88.0
87.6
87.2
86.9

93.9
94.4
94.5
94.7
94.9
95.0
95.2
95.4
95.6
95.8
96.0
96.2
96.4
96.5
96.2
95.9
95.6
95.2
94.9
94.6
94.2
93.9
93.6
93.2
92.9
92.6
92.2
91.9
91.5
91.2
90.8
90.5
90.2
89.8
89.5
89.1
88.7
88.4
88.0
87.7
87.3

94.1
94.6
94.7
94.8
95.1
95.3
95.6
95.8
96.0
96.3
96.5
96.6
96.8
96.9
96.6
96.3
96.0
95.6
95.3
95.0
94.6
94.3
93.9
93.6
93.3
92.9
92.6
92.2
91.9
91.5
91.2
90.8
90.5
90.1
89.8
89.4
89.1
88.7
88.4
88.0

94.4
94.8
94.9
95.1
95.3
95.6
95.8
96.0
96.2
96.4
96.5
96.7
96.9
97.1
96.8
96.4
96.1
95.8
95.4
95.1
94.7
94.4
94.1
93.7
93.4
93.0
92.7
92.3
92.0
91.6
91.3
90.9
90.6
90.2
89.9
89.5
89.1
88.8
88.4

94.6
95.0
95.2
95.4
95.6
95.8
95.9
96.1
96.3
96.5
96.7
96.9
97.1
97.3
96.9
96.6
96.3
95.9
95.6
95.3
94.9
94.6
94.2
93.9
93.5
93.2
92.8
92.5
92.1
91.8
91.4
91.1
90.7
90.3
90.0
89.6
89.3
88.9

94.8
95.1
95.3
95.5
95.7
95.9
96.0
96.2
96.4
96.6
96.8
97.0
97.2
97.4
97.0
96.7
96.4
96.0
95.7
95.3
95.0
94.7
94.3
94.0
93.6
93.3
92.9
92.5
92.2
91.8
91.5
91.1
90.8
90.4
90.0
89.7
89.3

94.9
95.2
95.4
95.6
95.8
96.0
96.1
96.3
96.5
96.6
96.9
97.1
97.3
97.5
97.2
96.8
96.5
96.2
95.8
95.5
95.1
94.8
94.4
94.1
93.7
93.4
93.0
92.6
92.3
91.9
91.6
91.2
90.8
90.5
90.1
89.7

Valid for PMC 'on', A/C 'auto', engine anti-ice 'on' or 'off'
For A/C 'off' Add 1.0% N1
Do not operate engine anti-ice 'on' at airport OAT above 10C (50F).

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 20

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 4.11 Maximum T/O & Maximum Climb % N1 values


PMC ON

Maximum Take-Off % N1
Valid for 2 packs on (auto) Engine A/I on or off
Airport OAT

Airport Pressure Altitude (ft)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50

131
122
113
104
95
86
77
68
59
50
41
32
14
-4
-22
-40
-58

93.8
94.3
94.7
95.2
95.6
96.1
95.3
94.5
93.7
92.9
92.1
91.2
89.6
87.8
86.0
84.3
82.5

93.8
94.3
94.7
95.2
95.6
96.1
95.8
95.0
94.2
93.4
92.5
91.7
90.0
88.3
86.5
84.7
82.9

93.8
94.3
94.6
95.1
95.6
96.0
96.2
95.4
94.6
93.8
92.9
92.1
90.4
88.7
86.9
85.1
83.2

93.9
94.6
95.0
95.5
96.0
96.5
95.9
95.1
94.2
93.4
92.6
90.8
89.1
87.3
85.5
83.7

93.6
94.6
95.1
95.7
96.3
96.7
96.6
95.8
95.0
94.1
93.3
91.5
89.8
88.0
86.2
84.3

94.7
95.1
95.7
96.2
96.6
97.1
96.3
95.4
94.6
93.7
92.0
90.2
88.4
86.6
84.7

6000

8000

94.4
94.2
95.2
95.1
94.9
95.7
95.6
95.5
96.1
96.0
96.0
96.6
96.5
96.4
97.1
97.0
96.9
96.8
97.2
97.5
96.4
96.8
95.9
95.5
96.0
95.1
94.2
94.7
95.1
92.5
92.9
93.4
90.7
91.1
91.6
88.9
89.3
89.7
87.1
87.4
87.9
85.2
85.6
86.0
% N1 Bleed Adjustment
Configuration A/C packs
off + 1.0

Do not operate engine anti-ice 'on' at airport OAT above 10C


(50F)
Maximum Climb % N1

7000

250/280/0.74M

Valid for 2 packs on (auto) Engine A/I off


Airport Pressure Altitude x1000 (ft)

TAT(C)

% N1 Corr.
July 2006

50
40
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
A/C
Packs
Off
A/C
Packs
High
Engine
A/I On
Wing
A/I On

0
90.9
92.0
92.2
90.6
89.1
87.5
85.9
84.2
82.5
80.8
79.1

5
91.1
92.2
93.2
92.8
91.2
89.6
87.9
86.3
84.5
82.8
81.0

10
92.5
93.6
93.5
94.3
93.1
91.5
89.8
88.1
86.3
84.5
82.7

15

20

25

30

35

37

93.3
94.2
95.0
95.1
93.4
91.7
90.0
88.2
86.3
84.5

93.6
94.6
95.4
96.1
95.5
93.7
91.9
90.1
88.2
86.3

94.7
95.6
96.4
97.2
95.9
94.0
92.1
90.2
88.3

95.7
96.6
97.5
97.9
96.0
94.1
92.2
90.2

96.6
97.5
98.4
99.0
97.0
95.0
92.9

96.6
97.5
98.4
99.3
97.6
95.6
93.5

+ 0.5

+ 0.5

+ 0.6

+ 0.7

+ 0.8

+ 0.8

+ 0.9

+ 0.9

+ 0.9

-0.3

-0.3

-0.4

-0.4

-0.4

-0.4

-0.5

-0.6

-0.6

-0.7

-0.8

-0.9

-1.0

-1.0

-1.0

-1.0

-1.0

-1.0

-1.2

-1.2

-1.3

-1.4

-1.6

-1.7

-1.8

-2.0

-2.0

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 21

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 4.12 Maximum Go-Around % N1 values


PMC ON

Maximum Go-Around % N1
Valid for 2 packs on (auto)
Airport OAT

TAT

Engine A/I on or off


Pressure Altitude (ft)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

55
50
45

131
122
113

58
53
48

93.9
94.2
94.7

93.9
94.2
94.6

93.9
94.2
94.6

94.2
94.6

94.2
94.6

94.7

94.8

94.6

40
35
30

104
95
86

43
38
33

95.1
95.5
96.1

95.1
95.6
96.1

95.1
95.5
96.0

95.0
95.5
96.0

95.1
95.7
96.3

95.1
95.7
96.2

95.2
95.7
96.2

95.1
95.6
96.1

95.0
95.6
96.0

25
20
15

77
68
59

28
23
18

95.3
94.5
93.7

95.8
95.0
94.1

96.2
95.4
94.6

96.5
95.9
95.1

96.7
96.6
95.8

96.7
97.1
96.3

96.6
97.2
96.8

96.5
97.0
97.3

96.5
96.9
97.5

10
5
0

50
41
32

13
8
3

92.8
92.0
91.2

93.3
92.5
91.7

93.7
92.9
92.1

94.2
93.4
92.6

95.0
94.1
93.3

95.4
94.6
93.7

96.0
95.1
94.3

96.6
95.6
94.7

96.9
96.1
95.2

-10
-20
-30

14
-4
-22

-8
-18
-28

89.5
87.8
86.0

90.0
88.2
86.5

90.4
88.6
86.9

90.8
89.1
87.3

91.5
89.8
88.0

92.0
90.3
88.5

92.5
90.8
89.0

93.0
91.2
89.4

93.4
91.6
89.8

-40
-50

-40
-58

-38
-48

84.2
82.4

84.7
82.8

85.1
83.2

85.5
83.7

86.2
84.3

86.6
84.7

87.1
85.2

87.5
85.6

87.9
86.0

% N1 Bleed Adjustment
TAT C
Configuration

-60

+60

A/C Packs Off

+0.8

+1.0

A/C Packs High

-0.3

-0.3

Wings A/I
All Engines
1 Eng. Inop.

-1.3
-2.3

-1.6
-2.7

Do not operate engine anti-ice on at total air temperature above 10C (50F)

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 22

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 4.13 % N1 values


Maximum Take-Off % N1

PMC OFF

A/C Packs on (Auto)


Valid for Engine A/I on or off

Airport
OAT

Airport Pressure Altitude (ft)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50

131
122
113
104
95
86
77
68
59
50
41
32
14
-4
-22
-40
-58

94.9
95.4
95.9
96.3
96.8
96.6
95.8
95.0
94.1
93.3
92.5
91.7
90.0
88.2
86.5
84.7
82.8

94.9
95.4
95.9
96.3
96.8
96.8
96.0
95.2
94.4
93.5
92.7
91.9
90.2
88.4
86.7
84.9
83.0

94.9
95.4
95.9
96.3
96.8
97.2
96.5
95.7
94.8
94.0
93.2
92.3
90.6
88.9
87.1
85.3
83.5

95.4
95.9
96.3
96.8
97.2
97.0
96.2
95.4
94.6
93.7
92.9
91.2
89.4
87.6
85.8
83.9

95.4
95.9
96.3
96.8
97.2
97.4
96.5
95.7
94.9
94.0
93.2
91.5
89.7
87.9
86.1
84.2

95.9
96.3
96.8
97.2
97.6
96.9
96.3
95.2
94.4
93.5
91.8
90.0
88.2
86.4
84.5

95.9
96.4
96.8
97.2
97.5
97.1
96.3
95.5
94.7
93.8
92.1
90.3
88.5
86.7
84.8

95.9
96.4
96.8
97.1
97.5
97.1
96.3
95.6
94.8
93.9
92.2
90.4
88.6
86.8
84.9

96.4
96.8
97.1
97.4
97.1
96.3
95.7
94.9
94.0
92.3
90.5
88.7
86.9
85.0

Do not operate engine anti-ice on at airport OAT above 10C (50F)


Maximum Take-Off % N1

A/C Packs off


Valid for Engine A/I on or off

Airport OAT

Airport Pressure Altitude (ft)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50

131
122
113
104
95
86
77
68
59
50
41
32
14
-4
-22
-40
-58

95.9
96.4
96.8
97.3
97.7
97.5
96.7
95.9
95.0
94.2
93.4
92.5
90.8
89.1
87.3
85.5
83.6

95.9
96.4
96.8
97.3
97.7
97.7
96.9
96.1
95.3
94.4
93.6
92.7
91.0
89.3
87.5
85.7
83.8

95.9
96.4
96.8
97.3
97.7
98.1
97.4
96.6
95.7
94.9
94.1
93.2
91.5
89.7
88.0
86.1
84.3

96.4
96.8
97.3
97.7
98.1
97.9
97.1
96.3
95.6
94.6
93.8
92.0
90.3
88.5
86.6
84.7

96.4
96.8
97.3
97.7
98.1
97.9
97.1
96.3
95.8
94.9
94.1
92.3
90.6
88.8
86.9
85.0

96.8
97.3
97.7
98.1
97.9
97.1
96.3
96.1
95.2
94.4
92.6
90.9
89.1
87.2
85.3

96.8
97.3
97.7
98.1
97.9
97.1
96.3
96.3
95.4
94.5
92.8
91.0
89.2
87.3
85.5

96.9
97.3
97.7
98.1
97.9
97.1
96.3
96.3
95.4
94.5
92.8
91.0
89.2
87.4
85.5

96.9
97.3
97.7
98.0
97.9
97.1
96.3
96.3
95.4
94.5
92.8
91.0
89.2
87.4
85.5

NOTE:

For maximum climb and go-around use PMC 'on' % N1

Take-Off Speeds Adjustment


Speed Adjustment KIAS

Altitude
(ft)

Temperature
C (F)

VMCG

V1 & VR

Below 5000

Above 21 (70)
21 (70) & Below
Above 21 (70)
21 (70) & Below

+6
+4
+6
+4

0
0
0
+1

5000 & Above

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 23

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

2.6

Contaminated Runway Take-Off Calculations

2.6.1

These calculations assume an engine failure at V1

2.6.2

Contaminated runway take-offs are prohibited for:


a) Variable or reduced thrust take-offs.
b) Contaminant depths exceeding 13mm (0.5 in) due to spray impingement damage.

2.6.3

The Determination of Take-Off Mass


a) Calculate the normal limiting take-off mass for a dry runway i.e., field length limit,
climb limit or obstacle limit.
b) Select the table(s) appropriate to the depth of contaminant (interpolating if
necessary).
c) Enter the left column of the top table at the normal limiting take-off mass, travel
right to the aerodrome pressure altitude column. Interpolate for mass and pressure
altitude, if necessary. Extract the mass reduction. Calculate maximum take-off
mass for a contaminated runway by subtracting the mass reduction from the
normal limiting take-off mass.
d) If in the shaded area, proceed to the bottom table. Enter the left column with the
take-off run available (TORA), move right to the appropriate aerodrome pressure
altitude column. Interpolate as necessary. Extract the maximum permissible takeoff mass. Make V1 = VMCG.
e) The lower of the two values from c) and d) above is the maximum take-off mass
for a contaminated runway.
f) Calculate the V speeds for the actual take-off mass.
g) If not in the shaded area in c) above, then re-enter the left table at the actual mass
to determine the V1 reduction to be made.
h) Apply the reduction to V1. If adjusted V1 is less than VMCG, take-off is not permitted.
Example:
Airfield Pressure Altitude
OAT
Flaps
TORA
Runway Slope
Wind Component
TOM
PMC
Runway condition

2000 ft
+2C
5
5800 ft
2% Down
10 kt Head
50000 kg
ON
10 mm Slush

Calculate contaminated runway TOM and V speeds.


Mass & V1 interpolation for 50,000 kg @ 2000 ft = -7.54 (to 2 dp)
Revised Mass = 42,460 kg
Limiting Mass interpolation for 5800 ft TORA @ 2000 ft
Revised Mass = 44,786 kg
Maximum Take-Off Mass = 42,460 kg
V1 = VMCG = 114 kt
At 42460 kg, VR = 119 kt, V2 = 131 kt

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 24

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 4.14 Advisory Information Contaminated Runways


ALL FLAPS

One Engine Inoperative - A/C Auto or off


0.08 Inch (2mm) Slush/Standing Water Depth
Mass and V1 Reductions

Mass x 1000kg
Press Alt (ft)

4000

8000

40

1000 kg
KIAS

2.9
22

3.4
21

4.0
19

44

1000 kg
KIAS

3.7
22

4.2
21

4.9
18

48

1000 kg
KIAS

4.3
21

5.0
19

5.8
17

52

1000 kg
KIAS

4.9
20

5.7
18

6.5
15

56

1000 kg
KIAS

5.6
18

6.3
16

7.0
14

60

1000 kg
KIAS

6.1
16

6.8
15

7.3
12

64

1000 kg
KIAS

6.6
16

7.2
13

7.6
10

68

1000 kg
KIAS

6.9
13

7.5
11

8.2
8

Field Length
Available (ft)
(TORA)

July 2006

V1 = VMCG Limit Mass 1000 kg


Pressure Altitude (ft)
0

4000

8000

5600
5800
6000

39
42
45

34
37

6200
6400
6600

49
52
55

39
42
45

36

6800
7000
7200

59
62
65

47
50
53

39
41
43

7400
7600
7800

69
-

56
59
62

46
48
51

8000
8200
8400

65
68
71

53
56
58

8600
8800
9000

61
64
66

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 25

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 4.14 Continued Advisory Information Contaminated Runways


ALL FLAPS

One Engine Inoperative A/C Auto or off


0.25 Inch (6mm) Slush/Standing Water Depth
Mass and V1 Reductions

Mass x 1000kg
Press Alt (ft)

4000

8000

40

1000 kg
KIAS

3.4
19

4.0
16

4.9
12

44

1000 kg
KIAS

4.3
18

5.3
14

6.3
10

48

1000 kg
KIAS

5.3
16

6.3
12

7.5
9

52

1000 kg
KIAS

6.2
13

7.2
10

8.4
8

56

1000 kg
KIAS

7.0
11

8.1
8

9.1
7

60

1000 kg
KIAS

7.9
8

8.8
7

9.5
6

64

1000 kg
KIAS

8.7
7

9.4
5

9.7
5

68

1000 kg
KIAS

9.4
5

9.9
5

9.7
5

Field Length
Available (ft)
(TORA)

July 2006

V1 = VMCG Limit Mass 1000 kg


Pressure Altitude (ft)
0

4000

8000

5400
5600
5800

40
43
47

35
38

6000
6200
6400

50
53
56

41
43
46

36
38

6600
6800
7000

59
63
66

48
51
54

41
43
45

7200
7400
7600

70
-

57
60
63

48
50
52

7800
8000
8200

65
68
-

55
57
59

8400
8600
8800

62
64
67

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 26

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 4.14 Continued Advisory Information Contaminated Runways


ALL FLAPS

One Engine Inoperative A/C Auto or off


0.5 Inch (13mm) Slush/Standing Water Depth
Mass and V1 Reductions

Mass x 1000kg
Press Alt ft

4000

8000

40

1000 kg
KIAS

4.2
13

5.0
6

6.5
0

44

1000 kg
KIAS

5.5
9

6.8
2

8.5
0

48

1000 kg
KIAS

6.8
4

8.8
0

10.3
0

52

1000 kg
KIAS

8.2
1

10.2
0

11.8
0

56

1000 kg
KIAS

9.5
0

11.4
0

12.7
0

60

1000 kg
KIAS

11.5
0

12.5
0

13.1
0

64

1000 kg
KIAS

15.0
0

13.2
0

13.0
0

68

1000 kg
KIAS

13.8
0

13.8
0

12.4
1

Field Length
Available (ft)
(TORA)

July 2006

V1 = VMCG Limit Mass 1000 kg


Pressure Altitude (ft)
0

4000

8000

5000
5200
5400

38
41
44

35
37

5600
5800
6000

48
51
54

40
42
45

36
38

6200
6400
6600

56
59
62

47
50
52

40
42
44

6800
7000
7200

65
68
70

55
57
60

47
49
51

7400
7600
7800

62
64
67

53
55
58

8000
8200
8400

69
-

60
62
65

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 27

CAP 698

2.7

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Increased V2 Take-Off
If the maximum take-off mass is limited by the minimum acceptable climb gradients
of the net flight path, and there is a large excess of available field length over that
which is required, then it is possible to improve the take-off weight and still attain the
minimum climb gradient requirement (subject to the limitations of the tyre speed and
field length limitations). This is done by holding the aeroplane on the ground until it
reaches an increased VR and climbing at an increased V2, which equates to Vx (the
speed that will attain the maximum climb gradient).

2.7.1

Method of Use of Figure 4.15


a) Select the set of graphs appropriate to the flap setting on the improved climb
performance field length limit graph (Figure 4.15).
b) Enter the relevant left-hand graph with the value of the field length limit mass
minus the climb limit mass. Travel vertically up to the normal 'climb limit' mass
line.
c) From this intersection move horizontally left to the vertical axis to read the climb
mass improvement and horizontally right to the vertical axis to read the increase to
apply to V1.
d) Continue horizontally right to the reference line of the right-hand graph. From this
point interpolate and follow the grid lines to reach a vertical input in the right-hand
graph of the normal climb limit mass.
e) From this intersection, travel horizontally right to the vertical axis to read the
increase to apply to VR and V2.
f) Repeat this process in the improved climb performance tyre speed limit graph
(Figure 4.16) except that the initial entry point is the tyre limit mass minus the climb
limit mass.
g) The lower of the two mass increases is that which must be used together with its
associated speed increases.
h) Add the mass increase to the normal climb mass limit.
i) Determine the V speeds for this increased mass.
j) Apply the speed increases to the appropriate speeds. Check VMBE.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 28

CAP 698

FLAPS 5
70
NORMAL CLIMB
LIMIT MASS
1000 kg

60
50

NORMAL TAKE-OFF SPEED


INCREMENTS kt
VR, V2 MASS ADJUSTMENT

V1
28
24
20

20

16
14
12
10

40

VR, V2
25

16
14
12
10

REF LINE

CLIMB MASS IMPROVEMENT


1000 kg

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

2
1

4
2
1

0
5

10
15
(FIELD LIMIT MASS) MINUS
(CLIMB LIMIT MASS) 1000 kg

FLAPS 15
CLIMB MASS IMPROVEMENT
1000 kg

NORMAL CLIMB
LIMIT MASS
1000 kg

70
60
50

40

2
1

10
15
(FIELD LIMIT MASS) MINUS
(CLIMB LIMIT MASS) 1000 kg

20

40

24

VR, V2

20

25
20

16
14
12
10
8
6
4

15

2
1

50
60
NORMAL CLIMB LIMIT MASS
1000 kg

NORMAL TAKE-OFF SPEED


INCREMENTS kt
VR, V2 MASS ADJUSTMENT

V1

5
4

70

20

10
8
6

REF LINE

70

4
2
1

50
60
NORMAL CLIMB LIMIT MASS
1000 kg

40

USE SMALLER OF IMPROVED CLIMB MASS (FIELD LENGTH LIMITS) OR (TYRE SPEED LIMITS)
APPLY SPEED INCREMENTS TO NORMAL V1, VR, V2 FOR ACTUAL TAKE-OFF MASS
CHECK BRAKE ENERGY LIMITS

Figure 4.15 Improved Climb Performance Field Length Limit

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 29

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

NORMAL TAKE-OFF SPEED


INCREMENTS kt
FLAPS 5
70
NORMAL CLIMB
LIMIT MASS
1000 kg

VR, V2
25

24
60

20
18
16
14
12

50

VR, V2 MASS ADJUSTMENT

V1

40
3
2

20
15

10

10

6
REF LINE

CLIMB MASS IMPROVEMENT


1000 kg

4
1
2
1

0
0

15
20
25
10
30
(TYRE LIMIT MASS) MINUS
(CLIMB LIMIT MASS) 1000 kg

35

70

4
2
1

50
60
NORMAL CLIMB LIMIT MASS
1000 kg

40

NORMAL TAKE-OFF SPEED


INCREMENTS kt

CLIMB MASS IMPROVEMENT


1000 kg

NORMAL CLIMB
LIMIT MASS
1000 kg

60
50

VR, V2 MASS ADJUSTMENT

V1
70

40

2
1

VR, V2
24
25
20

20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
1

15
10
8
6
4

REF LINE

FLAPS 15
5

2
1

0
0

5
15
20
25
10
(TYRE LIMIT MASS) MINUS
(CLIMB LIMIT MASS) 1000 kg

30

70

50
60
NORMAL CLIMB LIMIT MASS
1000 kg

40

USE SMALLER OF IMPROVED CLIMB MASS (FIELD LENGTH LIMITS OR TYRE SPEED LIMITS)
APPLY SPEED INCREMENTS TO NORMAL V1, VR, V2 FOR ACTUAL TAKE-OFF MASS
CHECK BRAKE ENERGY LIMITS

Figure 4.16 Improved Climb Performance Tyre Speed Limit

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 30

CAP 698

2.8

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Reduced Thrust Take-Off


The reduced thrust take-off procedure is referred to by a number of different names
such as the 'Variable Thrust Take-Off' or the 'Assumed Temperature Take-Off'. It is a
technique employed to preserve engine life or reduce the noise generated at take-off.
This technique can only be used when the available distance greatly exceeds that
which is required. The maximum reduction in thrust permitted is 25% of that required
for a normal take-off.

2.8.1

Restrictions
A reduced thrust take-off is not permitted with:
icy or very slippery runways
contaminated runways
anti-skid unserviceable
reverse thrust unserviceable
increased V2 procedure
the PMC off.

2.8.2

Calculation Procedure
It is first necessary to determine the most limiting performance condition. The only
common parameter to enable comparison is that of temperature. Thus the maximum
permissible temperature must be calculated for the actual take-off mass from each of
the following:
field limit graph
climb limit graph
tyre-speed limit graph
obstacle limit graph
From these temperatures, select the lowest and ensure that it does not exceed the
environmental limit. If it does, then the environmental limit becomes the assumed
temperature.

2.8.3

Chart Procedure
a) Calculate the maximum assumed temperature from Figure 4.17a or b, as
appropriate. Enter the left column with the actual ambient temperature and read
the maximum temperature in the column appropriate to the aerodrome pressure
altitude.
b) From Figure 4.17c on bottom line, determine the minimum assumed temperature
for the aerodrome pressure altitude.
c) From the same table, for the assumed temperature to be used, determine the
maximum take-off % N1. Add 1.0% N1 if air conditioning packs are off. The
assumed temperature used must neither exceed the maximum from paragraph a)
above or be below the minimum from paragraph b) above.
d) Enter the left column of Figure 4.17d with assumed temperature minus ambient
temperature. Travel right along the line to the column appropriate to the ambient
temperature, interpolating if necessary. Read the % N1 adjustment.
e) Subtract the value determined at paragraph d) from that at paragraph c) to
determine the % N1 to be set at take-off.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 31

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

PMC ON
Assumed temp. % N1 = Maximum Take-Off % N1 minus % N1 adjustment
Maximum Assumed Temperature C1
Press. Alt 1000 (ft)

OAT

55
50
45

71
69
67

71
68
66

68
66

69
67

70
67

67

68

70

40
35
30

65
63
61

64
62
60

64
62
60

64
62
59

64
61
59

64
61
59

64
62
59

66
63
60

68
64
61

25
20
15 &
below

61
61
61

59
59
59

58
58
58

57
57
57

56
55
55

56
53
53

56
54
53

57
54
52

58
55
52

Figure 4.17 a Assumed Temperature Reduced Thrust


1.

Based on 25% Take-Off Thrust Reduction

Maximum Assumed Temperature F1


OAT
F

Press Alt. 1000 (ft)


0

130
120
110

159
155
151

159
154
149

154
149

155
150

157
151

151

152

155

100
90
80

148
143
142

145
141
139

145
141
138

145
140
136

145
140
135

147
140
135

145
140
135

149
143
137

151
144
138

70
60 &
below

142
142

138
138

136
136

135
135

131
131

129
127

129
127

130
126

132
126

Figure 4.17 b Assumed Temperature Reduced Thrust


1.

Based on 25% Take-Off Thrust Reduction

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 32

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

PMC ON

Maximum Take-Off % N1

For A/C off add 1.0% N1

Valid for 2 packs on (auto) Engine A/I on or off


Assumed
Temp

Airport Pressure Altitude (ft)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

75
70
65
60

167
158
149
140

85.4
87.6
89.7
91.8

85.4
87.4
89.4
91.3

87.4
89.2
91.0

87.6
89.2
90.8

89.2
90.7

89.3
90.7

89.5
90.8

89.9
91.1

90.4
91.4

55
50
45
40

131
122
113
104

93.8
94.3
94.7
95.2

93.2
94.3
94.7
95.2

92.7
94.3
94.6
95.1

92.4
93.9
94.6
95.0

92.1
93.6
94.6
95.1

92.1
93.4
94.7
95.1

92.0
93.2
94.4
95.2

92.1
93.2
94.2
95.1

92.3
93.2
94.0
94.9

35
30
25
20
15

95
86
77
68
59

95.6
96.1

95.6
96.1
96.6

95.6
96.0
96.5

95.5
96.0
96.5

95.7
96.3
96.7
97.1

95.7
96.2
96.6
97.1

95.7
96.1
96.6
97.1
97.6

95.6
96.0
96.5
97.0
97.5

95.5
96.0
96.4
96.9
97.5

30 (86)

28 (82)

26 (79)

24 (75)

22 (72)

20 (68)

18 (64)

16 (61)

15 (59)

Minimum
Assumed Temp.
C (F)

Figure 4.17 c Assumed Temperature Reduced Thrust

% N1 Adjustment for Temperature Difference


Assumed
Temp.
Minus
OAT

Outside Air Temperature


C

-40

-20

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

-40

-4

32

41

50

59

68

77

86

95

104

113

122 131

1.5
3.0
4.3
5.2

1.5
2.9
4.0
5.0

1.5
2.8
3.8
5.0

1.5
2.8
3.6

1.4
2.7
3.6

1.4
2.5
3.6

10
20
30
40

18
36
54
72

6.0

3.3
4.8
6.2

3.2
4.8
6.1

1.6
3.2
4.6
6.0

1.6
3.1
4.5
5.8

1.6
3.0
4.4
5.7

50
60
70
80

90
108
126
144

7.5
8.2
10.4 9.5 8.7
11.8 10.7 9.3
13.0 11.8 10.1

7.3
8.1

7.2
7.9

6.6

6.5

90
100
110

162
180
198

14.0 12.4
15.0 12.8
15.4

55

1.3
2.3
3.6

Figure 4.17 d Assumed Temperature Reduced Thrust

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 33

CAP 698

2.9

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Anti-Skid Inoperative (Simplified method)


Because the accelerate/stop distance will be adversely affected if the anti-skid is
inoperative, V1 has to be reduced to comply with the take-off requirements. This will
increase the take-off distance required beyond that which would normally be required
and thus decrease the distance to any obstacles encountered after take-off.

2.9.1

Simplified Calculation Method


a) Decrease the normal runway/obstacle limited take-off weight by 7700 kg.
b) Recalculate the V speeds for this reduced mass.
c) Further reduce V1 by the amount shown in the table at Figure 4.18.
Anti-Skid Inoperative V1 Decrements
Field length (ft)

V1 Reduction (kt)

6000

28

8000

21

10,000

17

12,000

14

14,000

11

Figure 4.18 V1 Decrements


d) If the actual take-off mass is already less than the anti-skid inoperative limited takeoff mass ensure V1 does not exceed the anti- skid operative V1.
e) If V1 is less than VMCG (see Figure 4. 19) and if ASDA exceeds 7900 ft, set V1 = VMCG.
f) Always ensure V1 is not less than VMCG shown in Figure 4.19.

Max Take-Off Thrust

VMCG

OAT

Pressure Altitude (Ft)

2000

4000

6000

8000

9000

55
50
45

131
122
113

105
107
109

103
105

101

96

40
35
30
25

104
95
86
77

111
113
116
116

107
109
111
113

103
105
107
109

99
101
104
105

94
96
98
100

94
96
98

20
15
-50

68
59
-58

116
116
118

113
113
115

111
111
112

107
108
109

102
104
105

100
102
104

Figure 4.19 VMCG


For packs 'OFF' add 2 kt

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 34

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Obstacle Clearance
These graphs are provided for Flaps 5 and Flaps 15 (Figures 4.20 and 4.21). They
provide a rapid means of obtaining the value of obstacle clearance after take-off. They
are intended for use when a detailed airport analysis is not available. Detailed analysis
for the specific case from the aeroplane flight manual may result in a less restrictive
weight and can account for the non-use of the air conditioning packs.
These graphs are not valid for A/C packs off or for take-offs using the improved climb
technique.

3.1

Obstacle-Limit Mass Determination


a) Select the graph appropriate to the flap setting.
b) Adjust the obstacle elevation to account for runway slope to determine obstacle
height as shown on Figure 4.20 and Figure 4.21.
c) Enter the bottom left vertical axis at the adjusted obstacle height.
d) Travel horizontally right to intersect the horizontal distance of the obstacle
measured from the brake release point.
e) From this intersection, move vertically up to the ambient temperature reference
line, then parallel the grid lines to the appropriate temperature.
f) Continue vertically to the aerodrome pressure altitude reference line. Parallel the
grid lines to the appropriate pressure altitude before continuing vertically to the
wind component reference line.
g) Parallel the grid lines from this point to the value of the wind component then
continue vertically to read the obstacle limited take-off mass.
Example:
Flap Setting
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Ambient Temperature
PMC
Wind Component.
Runway Slope
Obstacle Distance from BRP
Obstacle Elevation
Take-Off Distance Required

5
1,000 ft
+ 37C
ON
20 kt Head
2% down
18,000 ft
1,160 ft
10,000 ft

Solution:
Obstacle Height =
Obstacle Limited TOM =

July 2006

1160 - [1000 - (10000 x 2%)] = 360 ft


51,700 kg

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 35

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

OBSTACLE LIMIT MASS 1000 kg


48

WIND
kt

HEAD

PRESSURE ALT
1000 ft

TAIL

50

52

54

56

58

60

62

40
20
0

REF LINE

20
4
2
0

REF LINE

40

OAT C

30

REF LINE

20
10
0
1000

DI

ST
AN

OBSTACLE HEIGHT ft

800

CE

FR

OM
10 BRA
00
KE
30 ft
RE
LE
28
AS
E
26
24
22
20
18
16
14

600

400

200

12
8

10

0
PMC OFF CORRECTION
TEMPERATURE
MASS
C
DECREMENT kg
21.1 & BELOW
4970
ABOVE 21.1
4420

OBSTACLE HEIGHT MUST BE CALCULATED


FROM THE LOWEST POINT OF THE RUNWAY
TO CONSERVATIVELY ACCOUNT FOR
RUNWAY SLOPE

Figure 4.20 Obstacle Limits Flaps 5

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 36

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

OBSTACLE LIMIT MASS 1000 kg


46

WIND
kt

HEAD

PRESSURE ALT
1000 ft

TAIL

48

50

52

54

56

58

60

40
20
0

REF LINE

20
4
2
0

REF LINE

40

OAT C

30

REF LINE

20
10
0
1000

800

DI

OBSTACLE HEIGHT ft

ST
AN

CE

FR

OM
10 BR
0
A
30 0 ft KE
RE
28
LE
26
AS
24
E
22
20
18
16
14
12
10

600

400

200

8
0
PMC OFF CORRECTION
TEMPERATURE
MASS
C
DECREMENT kg
21.1 & BELOW
4970
ABOVE 21.1
4420

OBSTACLE HEIGHT MUST BE CALCULATED


FROM THE LOWEST POINT OF THE RUNWAY
TO CONSERVATIVELY ACCOUNT FOR
RUNWAY SLOPE

Figure 4.21 Obstacle Limits Flaps 15

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 37

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 38

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

En-route

4.1

Maximum % N1 Value
In the event of an engine failure during the cruise, it will generally be necessary to
reduce speed and descend to a lower altitude. This is accomplished by setting
maximum continuous thrust on the remaining live engine and allowing the speed to
reduce, while maintaining altitude, to the optimum drift-down speed. One engine
inoperative information is based upon one pack operating with the A/C switch on
auto or high.
The initial maximum continuous %N1 setting, with normal engine bleed for air
conditioning, one pack on, following engine failure in the cruise for 0.74 Mach, may
be determined from the upper table of Figure 4.22. The drift down speed and level off
altitude (stabilising altitude) may be determined from the lower table of Figure 4.22,
for specific weights and temperature deviation. This is the gross level-off altitude.

4.2

Level Off Altitude


For performance planning purposes the level off altitude should be determined from
Figure 4.23. This is based on the net one engine inoperative performance (i.e. gross
gradient -1.1%).

Figure 4.22 Driftdown


Optimum Driftdown Speed

One Engine Inoperative

Initial Maximum Continuous % N1

0.74 Mach

A/C Auto (High)

TAT C
Pressure
Altitude
(ft)

-50

-40

-30

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

37,000
35,000
33,000

93.0
92.4
91.5

95.0
94.5
93.5

97.0
96.5
95.5

98.0
97.5
96.5

98.7
98.4
97.4

98.3
98.3
98.4

98.0
98.0
98.1

97.6
97.6
97.7

97.0
97.0
97.1

96.5
96.5
96.6

96.0
96.0
96.1

95.7
95.7
95.8

95.1
95.1
95.2

31,000
29,000
27,000

90.3
89.3
88.1

92.3
91.3
90.1

94.3
93.2
92.0

95.3
94.1
92.9

96.2
95.1
93.9

97.1
96.0
94.8

98.1
96.9
95.7

97.7
97.7
96.6

97.1
97.1
97.1

96.6
96.6
96.6

96.1
96.1
96.1

95.8
95.8
95.8

95.2
95.2
95.2

DriftDown Speed/Level Off


Mass (1000 kg)
Start driftdown

Level off

Optimum
Driftdown
Speed KIAS

70
65
60
55

67
62
57
52

50
45
40
35

48
43
38
33

July 2006

Level Off Altitude (ft)


ISA + 10C &
below

ISA + 15C

ISA + 20C

245
237
228
218

14,200
16,700
19,200
21,900

12,900
15,500
18,200
20,900

11,400
14,200
17,000
19,800

209
198
187
175

24,800
27,700
30,700
33,900

23,800
26,900
30,100
33,400

22,800
26,000
29,300
32,700

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 39

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

1 ENGINE INOPERATIVE
30
28
26

LEVEL-OFF PRESSURE ALTITUDE 1000 ft

24
22
20

+1
0
+1 C &
BE
+2 5C
LO
0
C
W

A/C AUTO (HIGH)

IS

DE

VI

AT
I

18

ON

16
A/C OFF

14

+1
0
+1 C &
5
BE
C
+2
LO
0
W
C

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

GROSS MASS 1000 kg

BLEED CONFIGURATION
ENG ANTI-ICE ON
ENG & WING ANTI-ICE ON
A/C AUTO (HIGH)
BELOW 17,000 ft

MASS ADJUSTMENT kg
-1950
-5650
-2500

Figure 4.23 Net Level-Off Altitude

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 40

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

A/C AUTO (HIGH)

MAX CONTINUOUS THRUST LIMITS


BLEED CONFIGURATION MASS ADJUSTMENT kg
ENG ANTI-ICE ON
ENG & WING ANTI-ICE ON

+1950
+5650

A/C OFF
BELOW 17000 ft

-1750

GROSS MASS AT ENGINE FAILURE


1000 kg

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 37,000 ft

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

35
10 15
& below

35

EQUIVALENT GROSS MASS


AT ENGINE FAILURE 1000 kg

1 ENGINE INOPERATIVE

35
20

ISA DEV C
35

30

EQUIVALENT
GROSS
MASS
AT ENGINE
FAILURE
1000 kg

25

45

EL

FU

20

50

55

FR

50
0

RN

BU
EN

15

IN

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 1000 ft

40

RE

LU

I
FA

10
00

60

65

kg
15
00

10

20
00

70

5
0

10

20
25
35
15
30
40
TIME FROM ENGINE FAILURE min

45

50

55

100
HEAD
WIND kt

50
REF LINE

0
50

TAIL
100
0

50

100
150
200
250
GROUND DISTANCE FROM ENGINE FAILURE NM

300

Figure 4.24 Driftdown Profiles Net Flight Path

July 2006 (corr.)

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 41

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

MAX CONTINUOUS THRUST LIMITS


BLEED CONFIGURATION MASS ADJUSTMENT kg
ENG ANTI-ICE ON
ENG & WING ANTI-ICE ON
A/C OFF
BELOW 17000 ft

+1950
+5650
-1750

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

35
10 15
& below

EQUIVALENT GROSS MASS


AT ENGINE FAILURE 1000 kg

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 33,000 TO 35,000 ft

GROSS MASS AT ENGINE FAILURE


1000 kg

1 ENGINE INOPERATIVE

35
20

ISA DEV C
35

30

EQUIVALENT
GROSS
MASS
AT ENGINE
FAILURE
1000 kg

25
45

50

20

50
0

55

FU

BU

60

FR

EN

GI

NE

10

65

FA
I

LU

RE

kg

70
25
00

OM

20
00

RN

15
00

EL

15

10
00

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 1000 ft

40

5
0

10

20
25
35
15
30
40
TIME FROM ENGINE FAILURE min

45

50

55

100
HEAD
WIND kt

50
REF LINE

0
50

TAIL
100
0

50

100
150
200
250
GROUND DISTANCE FROM ENGINE FAILURE NM

300

Figure 4.25 Driftdown Profiles Net Flight Path

July 2006 (corr.)

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 42

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

GROSS MASS AT ENGINE FAILURE


1000 kg

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 29,000 TO 31,000 ft

MAX CONTINUOUS THRUST LIMITS


BLEED CONFIGURATION MASS ADJUSTMENT kg
ENG ANTI-ICE ON
ENG & WING ANTI-ICE ON

+1950
+5650

A/C OFF
BELOW 17000 ft

-1750

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40
40
10
15
20
& below
ISA DEV C

30

EQUIVALENT
GROSS
MASS
AT ENGINE
FAILURE
1000 kg

40
25
45

50

20

55

50
0

15

FU

EL

60

BU

RN

FR

OM

EN

10
00

65

GI

FA
I

LU

RE

KG

70
25
00

NE

20
00

10

15
00

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 1000 ft

EQUIVALENT GROSS MASS


AT ENGINE FAILURE 1000 kg

1 ENGINE INOPERATIVE

5
5

10

20
25
35
15
30
TIME FROM ENGINE FAILURE min

40

45

50

55

HEAD 100

WIND kt

50
REF LINE

0
50

TAIL 100
0

50

100
150
200
GROUND DISTANCE FROM ENGINE FAILURE NM

250

300

Figure 4.26 Driftdown Profiles Net Flight Path

July 2006 (corr.)

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 43

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 25,000 TO 27,000 ft

MAX CONTINUOUS THRUST LIMITS


BLEED CONFIGURATION MASS ADJUSTMENT kg
ENG ANTI-ICE ON
+1950
ENG & WING ANTI-ICE ON
+5650
A/C OFF
-1750
BELOW 17000 ft

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

EQUIVALENT GROSS MASS


AT ENGINE FAILURE 1000 kg

GROSS MASS AT ENGINE FAILURE


1000 kg

1 ENGINE INOPERATIVE

45
45
10
15
20
& below
ISA DEV C

EQUIVALENT
GROSS
MASS
AT ENGINE
FAILURE
1000 kg

25

20

50

55
50
0

15

60

FU

BU

OM

EN

65

GI

NE

FA
IL

UR

70
25
00

FR

20
00

RN

10

15
00

EL

10
00

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 1000 ft

45

kg

5
5

10

20
25
35
15
30
TIME FROM ENGINE FAILURE min

40

45

50

55

HEAD 100

WIND kt

50
REF LINE
0
50
TAIL 100
0

50

100
150
200
GROUND DISTANCE FROM ENGINE FAILURE NM

250

300

Figure 4.27 Driftdown Profiles Net Flight Path

July 2006 (corr.)

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 44

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Landing

5.1

Landing Performance
The landing performance calculations are divided into two elements.
a) The field length limited landing mass can be determined from Figure 4.28.
b) The landing 'climb limit' (Figure 4.29). This mass ensures the minimum permissible
gradient is obtained and should be corrected in accordance with the statements
beneath the graph.
c) The maximum landing mass is the lower of a), and b) and the structural limit.
Example 1
Given:

Aerodrome Pressure Altitude


Aerodrome OAT
Wind Component
Runway Condition
Flap Setting
Anti-skid System
Spoilers
Air Conditioning
Icing

Solution:
Figure 4.28: Field length limited landing mass
Figure 4.29: Climb limited landing mass
Structural limited landing mass
Therefore Maximum Landing Mass
5.2

2000 ft
+33 C
20 kt Head
Wet
30
Inoperative
Automatic
Auto
None forecast
46,800 kg
60,400 kg
54,900 kg
46,800 kg

Quick Turnaround Limit


The maximum permissible landing mass for a quick turnaround can be determined
from Figure 4.30. The masses are tabulated for aerodrome pressure altitude and
ambient temperature and should be adjusted in accordance with the statement below
the tables for runway slope and wind component. If the landing mass exceeds this
value then, after 53 minutes, check the wheel thermal plugs have not melted before
commencing a take-off.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 45

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

ANTI-SKID OPERATIVE
AUTOMATIC SPOILERS

60

55

50

FIELD LENGTH LIMIT MASS 1000 kg

AIR
PO

RT
P

RE
S

SU
RE
A

LTI
T

AIR
PO
RT
PR
ES
SU
RE
ALT
ITU
0
DE

UD
E

10

00

100
0 ft

ft

65

45

ANTI-SKID INOPERATIVE
AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL SPOILERS
40

30
REF LINE

FLAP
POSITION

15

WET

REF LINE

DRY

RUNWAY
CONDITION

40

20
REF LINE

WIND kt

40 HEAD

20 TAIL
10

100 m
1000 ft

12
4

16

14
5

18

20

22

24

6
7
8
FIELD LENGTH AVAILABLE

28

26
9

30

32

10

11

FOR MANUAL SPOILERS, ANTI-SKID OPERATIVE, DECREASE FIELD LENGTH AVAILABLE BY 650 ft.
STRUCTURAL MASS LIMITS MUST BE OBSERVED.

Figure 4.28 Landing Performance Field Length Limit

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 46

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

-1
0
1

65

2
3
4

60
CLIMB LIMIT LANDING MASS 1000 kg

5
6
7
55

8
9
AIRPORT PRESSURE
ALTITUDE 1000 ft

50

REF LINE

45

40

15 30 40
FLAP
POSITION

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

30

40

50

60

AIRPORT OAT C

BASED ON A/C AUTO.


FOR PACKS OFF INCREASE:
THE FLAPS 40 ALLOWABLE MASS BY 1250 kg,
THE FLAPS 30 ALLOWABLE MASS BY 1310 kg, OR
THE FLAPS 15 ALLOWABLE MASS BY 1440 kg
IF OPERATING IN ICING CONDITIONS DURING ANY PART OF THE FLIGHT WHEN THE FORECAST
LANDING TEMPERATURE IS BELOW 8C:
REDUCE THE FLAPS 40 CLIMB LIMIT MASS BY 4830 kg,
REDUCE THE FLAPS 30 CLIMB LIMIT MASS BY 4730 kg, OR
REDUCE THE FLAPS 15 CLIMB LIMIT MASS BY 4960 kg
FOR ANTI-ICE OPERATION, DECREASE ALLOWABLE MASS BY THE AMOUNT SHOWN IN THE
TABLE BELOW
ANTI-ICE OPERATION DECREMENT kg
FLAPS

ENGINE ONLY

ENGINE & WING

15
30
40

650
600
550

5800
5350
5250

NOTE:
ANTI-ICE BLEED SHOULD
NOT BE USED ABOVE 10C

Figure 4.29 Landing Performance Climb Limit

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 47

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Figure 4.30 Quick Turnaround Limit


Flaps 15

Aerodrome
Pressure
Altitude
(ft)

Maximum Quick Turnaround mass (1000 kg)


Airport OAT
F

-60

-40

-20

20

40

60

80

100

120

130

-51

-40

-29

-18

-7

16

27

38

49

54

59
58
56
55
54
54
53
51
50
49
49

57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
49
48

56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46

54
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45

53
52
51
50
49
49
48
47
46
45
44

52
51
50
49
49
48
47
46
45
44
44

51
50
49
49
48
47
46
45
44
44
43

50
49
49
48
47
46
45
44
44
43
42

49
49
48
47
46
45
44
44
43
42
41

49
48
47
46
45

48
47
46

-1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
Flaps 30

Aerodrome
Pressure
Altitude
(ft)

Maximum Quick Turnaround mass (1000 kg)


Airport OAT
F

-60

-40

-20

20

40

60

80

100

120

130

-51

-40

-29

-18

-7

16

27

38

49

54

66
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
56
55
54

64
63
62
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53

62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52

61
60
59
58
57
55
54
54
53
51
50

59
59
58
56
55
54
54
52
51
50
49

58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
49

57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
49
48

56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
49
48
47

55
54
53
52
51
50
49
49
48
47
46

54
53
52
51
50

54
53
52

-1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
Flaps 40

Aerodrome
Pressure
Altitude
(ft)
-1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000

Maximum Quick Turnaround mass (1000 kg)


Airport OAT
F

-60

-40

-20

20

40

60

80

100

120

130

-51

-40

-29

-18

-7

16

27

38

49

54

68
67
66
64
64
62
61
60
59
58
56

67
65
64
63
62
60
59
58
57
56
55

65
64
63
61
60
59
58
57
56
54
54

64
62
61
60
59
58
57
55
54
54
53

62
61
60
59
58
56
55
54
53
52
51

60
59
59
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50

59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49

58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
49

57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
49
48

56
55
54
53
52
51

55
54
54

Add
350 kg per 1% uphill slope
Subtract 1150 kg per 1% downhill slope

July 2006

Add
1100 kg per 10 kt headwind
Subtract 7450 kg per 10 kt tailwind

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 48

CAP 698

5.3

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

Brake Cooling Schedule


The graph at Figure 4.31 provides advisory information to enable the operator to avoid
brake overheat problems. The chart enables due allowance to be made for a single
stop and, by using the graph as indicated, provides advice on the procedure to be
adopted and the minimum cooling time. Separate sub-graphs are provided for
determining the stop distance with manual braking.

5.3.1

Method of Use of the Brake Cooling Schedule Graph (Figure 4.31)

5.3.1.1 Abandoned Take-Off


a) Enter the top left vertical axis at the Regulated Take-Off Mass and travel
horizontally right to V1 minus 50% of headwind or plus 150% of tailwind.
b) From this intersection, drop vertically to the first reference line then follow the
gridlines to correct for Pressure Altitude and OAT.
c) From this intersection continue vertically downward to read the Brake Energy per
Brake in millions of foot pounds.
d) To this value add one million foot pounds for each taxi mile to obtain the total
energy.
e) From the value of the total energy continue vertically downward to determine the
advised cooling schedule and recommended cooling time.
5.3.1.2

Landing
a) Enter the left vertical axis at the estimated landing mass and travel horizontally
right to a speed of (VREF - 3) kt corrected for wind component minus 50% of a
headwind or plus 150% for a tailwind.
b) From this intersection, drop vertically to the first reference line then follow the
gridlines to correct for Pressure Altitude and OAT.
c) From this intersection continue vertically downward to the Braking Configuration
reference line.
d) Follow the grid-lines to the appropriate braking configuration.
e) From the intersection continue vertically downward to read the Brake Energy per
Brake in millions of foot pounds.
f) To this value, add one million foot pounds for each taxi mile to obtain the total
energy.
g) From the value of the total energy on continue vertically downward to determine
the advised cooling schedule and recommend cooling time.

5.3.1.3 Braking Distance


For a manual braked landing with no reverse thrust or for a manual braked landing
with normal thrust #2 detent, select the appropriate sub-graph in Figure 4.31, then
enter the sub-graph at the Brakes ON IRS Ground Speed KIAS and travel vertically up
to intersect the equivalent autobrake setting. From this intersection travel horizontally
left to the vertical axis to read the stopping distance in thousands of feet.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 49

CAP 698

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Aeroplane Performance Manual

lb
140

kg
65

14

13
0

12
0

11
0

10

12
0

90

80
10
0

11
0

70

55

90

120

60

RTO MASS
X 1000

60

50
100

45
40

0
16 kt
D F
E
E OF
SP KEON TA
ES ED
AK CT
BR EJE
R
15

80

100

80

60

50

13
0

55

70

LANDING MASS
X 1000

120

45

14

16

15

ED

E
SP
ON ING
S
D
E
AK LAN
BR

40

PRESS ALT
1000 ft

80
0

18

17

0
19
kt

REF LINE

5
10
-20

OAT C

0
REF LINE
20
40

MAX

#3

PARKED
AIRBORNE GEAR DOWN
AIRBORNE GEAR UP

STOP DISTANCE
1000 ft

MANUAL BRAKE
LANDING
NO REVERSE

#3

#1 & #2

MAX

#1 & #2

20
12
16
BRAKE ENERGY PER BRAKE

0 10 20

30

40

50

60

0 10 20

30

40

50

60

0 1

EQUIVALENT
AUTO BRAKE
SETTING

24
28
FOOT POUNDS x MILLION
70

80

COOLING TIME

MAX

0
80

100 120 140 160


BRAKES ON
IRS GROUNDSPEED kt

MANUAL BRAKE
LANDING
NORMAL REVERSE
#2 DETENT

32

36

90
MINS
8

NO
REVERSE

NORMAL
REVERSE
#2 DETENT

1
2

STOP DISTANCE
1000 ft

AUTOBRAKE
LANDING

BRAKING
CONFIGURATION

REF LINE MAX MANUAL BRAKING NO REVERSE

EQUIVALENT
AUTO BRAKE
SETTING

MAX

2
0
80

100 120 140 160


BRAKES ON
IRS GROUNDSPEED kt

I NORMAL
No special procedure required.
II COOLING RECOMMENDED Cool as scheduled. Ground cooling schedule recommended prior to take-off.
III CAUTION
Wheel fuse plugs may melt. Delay take-off and inspect after 30 minutes.
After take-off, extend gear for at least 7 minutes.
IV FUSE PLUG MELT
No reverse thrust or braking configuration credit allowed in this area. Clear runway immediately.
Do not set parking brake. Do not approach gear or attempt taxi or subsequent take-off before
waiting mandatory time shown on quick turnaround limit chart. Alert fire equipment.

Figure 4.31 Brake Cooling Schedule

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1 Page 50

VFR-Flugplanung
bungsaufgabe VFR Flugdurchfhrungsplan

2008 Civil Aviation Training. JAR-ATPL . Flightplanning .V4.0-rp-06/2010

Seite 71

op

ur

.E

.T

C
.A

IFR Flugplanung
Jeppesen Kartenmaterial

3.10.1 Standard Instrument Departure Madrid

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3.10.2 Standard Terminal Arrival Routes Frankfurt/Main

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3.10.3 Instrument Approach Chart Frankfurt/Main RWY 25R

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3.10.4 Standard Instrument Departure Mnchen

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3.10.5 Standard Terminal Arrival Routes London/Heathrow

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3.10.6 Instrument Approach Chart London/Heathrow RWY


27R

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

4.12

bungsaufgaben

Auf den nachfolgenden Seiten finden Sie 3 bungsaufgaben inklusive Kartenmaterial, die zur Selbstkontrolle dienen. Die entsprechenden Lsungen befinden
sich hinter der dritten Aufgabe.

4.12.1 Long Range Flugplanung bungsaufgabe 1

001.) Calculate the Est. Landing Weight at Alternate.


Est. ZFW

238 000 kg

Contingency

5 200 kg

Holding Fuel

4 760 kg

002.) Calculate the Est. Landing Weight at Destination.


Est. ZFW
Load

200 100 kg
28 000 kg

Holding Fuel

3 960 kg

Contingency

5 200 kg

Alternate

5 000kg

003.) Calculate the Holding Fuel.


Est. ZFW

238 000 kg

Elev

639 ft

004.) Calculate The Est. TOW.


Est. LWDest
MTT

242 310 kg
10:00 h

005.) State the distance between EDDF and SPY (Spikerboor/NL).


(Departure Route FOXTO 2N)

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

006.) Calculate the Climb Additional (minutes and fuel) for a flight
from Frankfurt to Caracas.
Est. TOW

335 000 kg

Temp.

ISA +10

FL

280

007.) Name the step climb additional for a cruise climb from FL 290 to
FL 330.

008.) Calculate the descent fuel correction.


Est. LWDest
FL
a)

-700 kg

b)

-770 kg

c)

-590 kg

d)

-680 kg

227 700 kg
350

009.) Calculate the descent fuel correction.


Est LWDest
FL

370

Elevation
a)

-490 kg

b)

-615 kg

c)

-365 kg

d)

-400 kg

213 370 kg
2 500 ft

010.) Calculate the TAS for M. 084


OAT-

46 C

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

011.) Welche Behauptung ist richtig?


a)

PET : DIST = TAS : WC

b)

PET : DIST = GSR : GSR + GSC

c)

PET : DIST = GSR : GSC

d)

PET : DIST = WC : TAS

012.) What is the MINTOF for Reclearance?


a)

< Est. ALLTOF

b)

> Est. ALLTOF

c)

= TFDEST - Conti from RP + Holding Fuel + Altn. Fuel

d)

= TFdest + Conti from RP + Holding Fuel + Altn. Fuel

013.) PET Berechnung zwischen Nl und WOD fr den Flug


KLAX - EDDF.
Gesucht:
1. Ass. PET No Wind in NM
2. GSO
3. TASo
4. WC
5. GSR
6. GSC
7. PET von KLAX in NM
8. PET von KLAX in Zeit

014.) Calculate the Holding Fuel.


Est ZFW 220 100 kg
Elev.

639 ft

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

015.) Wie lautet die Formel zur Berechnung der Time to Reclearance?
a)

Fehlmenge : Conti x Flugzeit

b)

Fehlmenge x Conti x Flugzeit

c)

Fehlmenge x Conti: Flugzeit

d)

Antworten a - c sind richtig

016.) Was beinhaltet das DOW?

017.) Was beinhaltet das ZFW?

018.) Was beinhaltet das LWDest?

019.) Berechnen Sie den Kraftstoffverbrauch.


M
Gross Weight
NAM

0.84
323 600 kg
1686

Step climb from FL 280 to FL 350

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

020.) Wieviel Fuel, Distance und Time bei ISA +0 bentigen Sie um
mit einem Brake Release Weight von 320,0 t. auf FL 280 zu
steigen?

021.) Berechnen Sie die NAM


SFl
LT

TRK
221
229

W/V
300/45
300/25

WCA
+5
+3

TEMP
-41
-37

FL
290
290

SPEED
.84
.84

TAS
498
503

GS
488
494

DIST INT
362
306

ACC
1567
1873

022.) The Altemate Fuel Chart gives fuel and time for alternate flights
depending on
a)

Alternate distance in NAM, Wind Comp. and LW at Dest.

b)

Alternate distance in NM, Wind Comp. and LW at Dest.

c)

Alternate distance in NM, Wind Comp. and LW at Altem.

d)

Keine Antwort ist richtig

023.) Mark the correct order (sequence) for reclearance flight


planning:
1. Fuel control
2. Determination of reclearance point
3. Normal Planning to Dest
4. Flightplanning to refuelling airport.
Which sequence is correct?
a)

1234

b)

1342

c)

4231

d)

3241

024.) When should the Est. TOW be used to make preplanning?

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

025.) Welche Voraussetzungen sind ntig fr eine Flugplanung mit


reclearance.
a)

Est. TOF > All TOF

b)

Short fall < Conti Fuel

c)

Trip Fuel + Conti Fuel < All TOF

d)

a + b sind richtig

026.) Warum sollte dasselbe Flight Log fr die zu erstellende


Reclearance Flugplanung verwendet werden?

027.) Which informations are necessary for flight planning


(Preplanning)
a)

Max TOW

b)

Max ZFW

c)

Max LW

d)

all of above

028.) Where should the reclearance point be fixed?


a)

fixed for RAP not necessary

b)

before the RAP

c)

where you like (own convenience)

d)

after the RAP

029.) Holding fuel will be calculated upon which aircraft weight?


a)

Est. ZFW at Destination

b)

Act. ZFW at Alternate

c)

Est. ZFW at Alternate

d)

DOW at Destination

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

030.) Berechnen Sie die Fehlmenge.


Trip Fuel
Holding Fuel

110 to
3,9 to

Alternate Fuel

3,96 to

DOW

180 to

Load

20.1 to

MALTOW

323 to

031.) Berechnen Sie den FDP (RIF) in Zeit.


Flugzeit

9:30 Std

Fehlmenge

2,3 to

Contingency

6,5 to

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Langstreckenflugplanung
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Anlage zur bungsaufgabe

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Langstreckenflugplanung
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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

4.12.2 Long Range Flugplanung bungsaufgabe 2

001.) Calculate the estimated holding fuel for a flight from Frankfurt/
EDDF to Chicago/KORD with alternate Detroit/ KDTW (PA 410
ft)
DOW:

178 000 kg

Load:

60 000 kg

Holding Fuel:

___________ kg

002.) Holding fuel will be calculated upon which aircraft weight:


a)

Est. ZFW at Destination

b)

Act. ZFW at Alternate

c)

Est. ZFW at Alternate

d)

DOW at Destination

003.) Calculate the estimated alternate fuel for a flight from


Frankfurt/EDDF to Chicago/KORD with alternate Detroit/
KDTW. Distance from Chicago to Detroit: 208 NM., WC: -70 kts,
Est. LAW Alternate: 242 860 kg.
Alternate Fuel:
Flight Time:

___________ kg
___________ Min

004.) The alternate fuel chart gives fuel and time for alternate flights
depending on
a)

Alternate distance in NAM, Wind component and LW at destination.

b)

Alternate distance in NM, Wind component and LW at destination.

c)

Alternate distance in NM, Wind component and LW at alternate.

d)

No answer is correct.

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

005.) Calculate the estimated trip fuel for a flight from Frankfurt/
EDDF to Chicago/KORD.
Est. LW at Alternate:

242 860 kg

Holding Fuel:

4 860 kg

Alternate Fuel:

8 100 kg

MTT:

8:55 hr

Cont.:

___________ kg

LWDest.:

___________ kg

Trip Fuel:

___________ kg

Est. TOW:

___________ kg

006.) Was beinhaltet das DOW.

007.) Was beinhaltet das ZFW

008.) Was beinhaltet das LWDest

009.) Calculate the trip fuel for a flight from Frankfurt (EDDF) to
Chicago (KORD) and execute a Reclearance Flight Planning
taking the necessary data from Appendix 1

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

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Seite 356

Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

cont. 9.)

010.) Determine the T/O Fuel for a reclearance flight from Frankfurt
to Chicago using the data from above:
Trip:

kg

Ops Res.:

kg

Altn.:

kg

Hold.:

kg

Min. TOF:

kg

Extra:

kg

Taxi:

kg

Block:

kg

2011 Civil Aviation Training.

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

011.) Determine the PSR for a flight from Frankfurt/EDDF to


Chicago/KORD using the data given from above and appendix
1. Note: The minimum diversion fuel for a return flight to
Frankfurt is 11 000 kg.
1. Safe End.:

hrs

2. PSR No Wind:

hrs

3. Ass PSR:
4. GSO:

kts

5. TASO:

kts

6. WC:

kts

7. GSR:

kts

8. PSR from EDDF:

NM

9. PSR from EDDF:

hrs

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

012.) Determine the PET between Stornoway (STN) and Wabush (WK),
using the data from appendix 1:
1. PET No Wind:

NM

2. Ass. PET:
3. GSO:

kts

4. TASO:

kts

5. WC:

kts

6. GSR:

kts

7. GSC:

kts

8. PET from EDDF (Dist):

NM

9. PET from EDDF (Time):

hrs

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

4.12.3 Long Range Flugplanung bungsaufgabe 3


Prepare an Operational Flightplan based on following data and using all
necessary parts from the aircraft manual

from Frankfurt (EDDF)


to Toronto (CYYZ)
Altn Detroit (KDTW)
Routing to Destination:
EDDF0300
N0491F310 FOXTO2N DEVON UB5 SPY UB5 GOW UN590 BEN
UN59059N010W/M084F330 61N020W 61N030W 60N040W
58N050W DCT LOACH DCT YYR/N0492F350 NA230 ML J553 YOW
SUNDE5
ALTERNATE:

Elevation 639 ft

A reclearance procedure will be necessary for this flight:


Reclearance Airport:

Montreal (CYMX)

Altn:

Ottawa (CYOW) (Elevation 374 ft)

Data for the Flightplan:


Flight Number:

LH4712/dte

A/C Registration:

D - ABYO

A/C Type:

B 747

STD:

03:00 UTC

Est. Flight Time:


LOAD:
Mach Nr.:

08:49 hrs
87200 kg
M 0.84

For DOW, MALTOW and MALLW see list next page.

2011 Civil Aviation Training.

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Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

Flightplanning for a BOEING 747

OPERATIONAL DATA B 747


max. TAXI Weight

364.200 kg

max TAKE OFF Weight

362.900 kg

max LANDING Weight

285.800 kg

max ZERO FUEL Weight B/C

267.600 kg

DRY OPERATING Weight

152.800 kg

standard TAXI Fuel


standard APPR / DESC. CORR

900 kg
10 minutes

CONTINGENCY Fuel

5% of Tripfuel

CONTINGENCY-Time

calculated with EXTRA Fuel flow

EXTRA Fuel flow

10.000 kg/hour

Step Climb Fuel

100 kg/1000 ft

Alternate

LRC speed

below 350NM

FL according to distance

above 350NM

FL 350

Tank Capacity

2011 Civil Aviation Training.

157.400 kg / 196.750 ltr

ATPL . Flight Planning .v4.1-rp

Seite 364

Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

001.) Carry out a Preplanning and give following data:


a)

Est ZFW

b)

Holding Fuel

c)

Est Landing Weight at Alternate Aerodrome


.

d)

Alternate Fuel

e)

Contingency Fuel

f)

Est Landing Weight at Destination .

g)

Est Trip Fuel

h)

Estimated Take Off Weight.

i)

Est MINTOF

002.) Prepare an Operational Flightplan (OFP B) including the


Reclearance procedure:
Give following data:
TOC:

time MIN

fuel

KG

distance

NM

DESC Correction: fuel

KG

time

MIN

2011 Civil Aviation Training.

ATPL . Flight Planning .v4.1-rp

Seite 365

Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

003.) Carry out the FUEL CALCULATION for the Final Destination and
the FUEL CALCULATION and ENDURANCE for the Reclearance
Destination on the OFP B and calculate the Minimum TOF for
Reclearance according the data of the prepared OFP.
Minimum TOF for Reclearance:
Fuel

time

Trip Fuel:

CONT. Fuel:

Altn Fuel:

Hold Fuel:

Mintof/Reel:

2011 Civil Aviation Training.

ATPL . Flight Planning .v4.1-rp

Seite 366

Langstreckenflugplanung
bungsaufgaben

004.) Calculate the SAFE ENDURANCE


(Diversion fuel = 11000 kg):
a)

SAFE ENDURANCE

. hrs

005.) Find out the PSR (Point of Safe Return) for a return flight to
Frankfurt (EDDF, distances from the OFP B)
a)

PSR (no wind):

. hrs

b)

ASS PSR:

. hrs

c)

GSO:

. kts

d)

TASO:

. kts

e)

WC:

. kts

f)

GSR:

. kts

PSR:

. NM

. hrs

006.) Find out the PET (Point of Equal Time) between Glasgow (GOW)
and Goosebay (YYR, distances from the OFP B)
a)

PET (no wind):

. NM

b)

ASS PET:

. NM

(Position)

c)

GSO:

. kts

d)

TASO:

. kts

e)

WC:

. kts

f)

GSR:

. kts

g)

GSC:

. kts

PET:

. NM

2011 Civil Aviation Training.

. hrs

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2011 Civil Aviation Training.

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2011 Civil Aviation Training.

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2011 Civil Aviation Training.

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bungsaufgaben

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2011 Civil Aviation Training.

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2011 Civil Aviation Training.

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2011 Civil Aviation Training.

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bungsaufgaben

2011 Civil Aviation Training.

ATPL . Flight Planning .v4.1-rp

Seite 376

VFR-Flugplanung
bungsaufgabe VFR Flugdurchfhrungsplan

Sichtan-/abflugkarte Nrnberg

2008 Civil Aviation Training. JAR-ATPL . Flightplanning .V4.0-rp-06/2010

Seite 73

VFR-Flugplanung
bungsaufgabe VFR Flugdurchfhrungsplan

Ausschnitt (1) Luftfahrtkarte ICAO 1:500 000 Blatt Nrnberg

2008 Civil Aviation Training. JAR-ATPL . Flightplanning .V4.0-rp-06/2010

Seite 74

VFR-Flugplanung
bungsaufgabe VFR Flugdurchfhrungsplan

Ausschnitt (2) Luftfahrtkarte ICAO 1:500 000 Blatt Frankfurt

2008 Civil Aviation Training. JAR-ATPL . Flightplanning .V4.0-rp-06/2010

Seite 75

VFR-Flugplanung
bungsaufgabe VFR Flugdurchfhrungsplan

Ausschnitt (3) Luftfahrtkarte ICAO 1:500 000 Blatt Hannover

2008 Civil Aviation Training. JAR-ATPL . Flightplanning .V4.0-rp-06/2010

Seite 76

VFR-Flugplanung
bungsaufgabe VFR Flugdurchfhrungsplan

Ausschnitt (4) Luftfahrtkarte ICAO 1:500 000 Blatt Hannover

2008 Civil Aviation Training. JAR-ATPL . Flightplanning .V4.0-rp-06/2010

Seite 77

VFR-Flugplanung
bungsaufgabe VFR Flugdurchfhrungsplan

Sichtan-/abflugkarte Hannover

2008 Civil Aviation Training. JAR-ATPL . Flightplanning .V4.0-rp-06/2010

Seite 78

VFR-Flugplanung
bungsaufgabe VFR Flugdurchfhrungsplan

Cruise Performance Tables

2008 Civil Aviation Training. JAR-ATPL . Flightplanning .V4.0-rp-06/2010

Seite 79

VFR-Flugplanung
bungsaufgabe VFR Flugdurchfhrungsplan

2008 Civil Aviation Training. JAR-ATPL . Flightplanning .V4.0-rp-06/2010

Seite 80

VFR-Flugplanung
bungsaufgabe VFR Flugdurchfhrungsplan

Climb Graph (Cruise Climb)

2008 Civil Aviation Training. JAR-ATPL . Flightplanning .V4.0-rp-06/2010

Seite 81

VFR-Flugplanung
bungsaufgabe VFR Flugdurchfhrungsplan

Descent Graph

2008 Civil Aviation Training. JAR-ATPL . Flightplanning .V4.0-rp-06/2010

Seite 82

Safety Regulation Group

CAP 697
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations
Flight Planning Manual

Second Edition July 2006

www.caa.co.uk

Safety Regulation Group

CAP 697
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations
Flight Planning Manual

Second Edition July 2006

www.caa.co.uk

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Civil Aviation Authority 2006


All rights reserved. Copies of this publication may be reproduced as training material for students, for
use within a company or organisation, or for personal use, but may not otherwise be reproduced for
publication or for commercial gain.
To use or reference CAA publications for any other purpose, please contact the CAA at the address
below for formal agreement.
ISBN 0 11790 652 2
First published August 1999
Second edition July 2006
Second edition (corrected) September 2006

Enquiries regarding the content of this publication should be addressed to:


Personnel Licensing Department, Safety Regulation Group, Civil Aviation Authority, Aviation House,
Gatwick Airport South, West Sussex, RH6 0YR.
The latest version of this document is available in electronic format at www.caa.co.uk/publications,
where you may also register for e-mail notification of amendments.
Published by TSO (The Stationery Office) on behalf of the UK Civil Aviation Authority.
Printed copy available from:
TSO, PO Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN
Telephone orders/General enquiries: 0870 600 5522
Fax orders: 0870 600 5533

www.tso.co.uk/bookshop
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Textphone: 0870 240 3701

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

List of Effective Pages


Section

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CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Contents

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Section 4

July 2006

List of Effective Pages

iii

Revision History

General Notes
Introduction

Aircraft Description

Layout of Data Sheets

Definitions

Conversions

Single-Engined Piston Aeroplane (SEP1)


Aeroplane Details

Fuel, Time and Distance to Climb

Recommended and Economy Cruise Power Settings

Range Profile

Endurance Profile

Multi-Engined Piston Aeroplane (MEP1)


Aeroplane Details

Fuel, Time and Distance to Climb

Range at Standard Temperatures

Cruise Power Setting and Fuel Flow

True Airspeed

Endurance

Descent

Medium-Range Jet Transport Aeroplane (MRJT1)


Aeroplane Details

Optimum Altitudes

Simplified Fuel Planning

Holding Fuel Planning

17

Detailed Fuel Planning

18

Non-Normal Operation

71

Extended Range Operations (EROPS)

72

Fuel Tankering

77

Page v

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Page vi

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Revision History
1st Edition

August 1999

CAP 697, CAA JAR-FCL Flight Planning Manual, was produced to support training and
examinations in JAR-FCL Subject 033 - Flight Planning and Monitoring for Aeroplanes.
2nd Edition

July 2006

This edition has been upgraded with digitised graphics, definitions and conversions have been
rationalised, and errors identified in the first edition have been corrected.
2nd Edition (corrected)

September 2006

Since the publication of the second edition, some errors and omissions have been identified.
The corrections are as follows:
Section/Aircraft Page

Correction

2/SEP

Fig 2.1 Example distance to climb; '38' corrected to '36'

3/MEP1

Paragraph 7.1 d) last word; 'climb' corrected to 'descent'

4/MRJT

Fig 4.3.1a Landing weight and Fuel required scales; 'Kkg'


corrected to 'kg'

4/MRJT

Fig 4.3.1b '50 kt' values added to wind scale

4/MRJT

14

Fig 4.3.4 Distance scale and title corrected to read from '0 to
1000 NM'

4/MRJT

16

Fig 4.3.6 Alternate aerodrome weight grid corrected to '1000 kg'

4/MRJT

74

Fig 4.7.1b Second line of notes; '20%' corrected to '18%'

The affected pages are identified by the word (corr.) after the page date.

July 2006 (corr.)

Revision History

Page 1

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CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Revision History

Page 2

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Section 1
1

General Notes

Introduction
Important Notice

1.1

The data sheets in this manual are produced to support training and examinations in
JAR-FCL Subject 033 - Flight Planning and Monitoring for Aeroplanes.

1.2

The data contained within these sheets are for training and examination purposes
only. The data must not be used for any other purpose and specifically, are not to be
used for the purpose of planning activities associated with the operation of any
aeroplane in use now or in the future.

Aircraft Description

2.1

The aeroplanes used in these data sheets are of generic types related to the classes
of aeroplane on which the appropriate examinations are based.

2.2

Candidates must select the correct class of aeroplane for the question being
attempted.
Generic Aeroplanes
Single-Engined Piston

certificated under CS 23 (Light Aeroplanes)


Performance Class B

Multi-Engined Piston

certificated under CS 23 (Light Aeroplanes)


Performance Class B

Medium-Range Jet Transport

MEP1

certificated under CS 25 (Large Aeroplanes)


Performance Class A

2.3

SEP1

MRJT1

The same set of generic aeroplanes will be utilised in the following subjects:
031 Mass and Balance - Aeroplanes
032 Performance Aeroplanes
033 Flight Planning and Monitoring Aeroplanes

Layout of Data Sheets

3.1

Each set of data sheets will consist of an introduction that will contain some pertinent
information relating to the aeroplane and the subject being examined. This data will
include (but is not limited to) a list of abbreviations and some conversion factors.

3.2

This will be followed by a selection of graphs and/or tables that will provide coverage
suitable for the syllabus being examined. A worked example will accompany each
graph/table and will demonstrate its use.

July 2006

Section 1 - General Notes

Page 1

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Definitions
Definitions given in italics are not given in ICAO, or JAA or EASA documentation but
are in common use.

July 2006

Basic Empty Mass (Basic Mass)

is the mass of an aeroplane plus standard


items such as: unusable fuel and other
unusable fluids; lubricating oil in engine and
auxiliary units; fire extinguishers;
pyrotechnics; emergency oxygen equipment;
supplementary electronic equipment.

Dry Operating Mass (DOM)

is the total mass of the aeroplane ready for a


specific type of operation excluding usable
fuel and traffic load. The mass includes items
such as:
i) Crew and crew baggage.
ii) Catering and removable passenger
service equipment.
iii) Potable water and lavatory chemicals.
iv) Food and beverages.

Maximum Structural Landing Mass


(MSLM)

is the maximum permissible total aeroplane


mass on landing in normal circumstances.

Maximum Structural Take-Off Mass


(MSTOM)

is the maximum permissible total aeroplane


mass at the start of the take-off run.

Maximum Structural Taxi Mass

is the structural limitation of the mass of the


aeroplane at commencement of taxi.

Maximum Zero Fuel Mass (MZFM)

is the maximum permissible mass of an


aeroplane with no usable fuel.

Operating Mass (OM)

is the DOM plus fuel but without traffic load.

Performance Limited Landing Mass


(PLLM)

is the landing mass subject to the destination


aerodrome limitations.

Performance Limited Take-Off Mass


(PLTOM)

is the take-off mass subject to departure


aerodrome limitations.

Regulated Landing Mass (RLM)

is the lowest of the performance limited


and structural limited landing mass.

Section 1 - General Notes

Page 2

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Regulated Take-Off Mass (RTOM)

is the lowest of the performance limited


and structural limited TOM.

Take-Off Mass (TOM)

is the mass of the aeroplane including


everything and everyone contained within it
at the start of the take-off run.

Taxi Mass

is the mass of the aeroplane at the start of


the taxi (at departure from the loading gate).
Sometimes referred to a Ramp Mass.

Traffic Load

is the total mass of passengers, baggage and


cargo, including any non-revenue load.

Zero Fuel Mass (ZFM)

is DOM plus traffic load but excluding fuel.

N.B. Within these data sheets the term weight should be considered to have
the same meaning as mass.

July 2006

Section 1 - General Notes

Page 3

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Conversions
The following conversions, based on those in ICAO Annex 5, are satisfactory for use
in JAR-FCL examinations in 030 subjects.

5.1

5.2

5.3

Mass Conversions
Pounds (lb) to Kilograms (kg)

lb 0.454

Kilograms (kg) to Pounds (lb)

kg 2.205

Volumes (Liquid)
Imperial Gallons to Litres (l)

Imp. Gal 4.546

US Gallons to Litres (l)

US Gal 3.785

Lengths
Feet (ft) to Metres (m)

5.4

Distances
Nautical mile (NM) to Metres (m)

July 2006

Feet 0.305

NM 1852.0

Section 1 - General Notes

Page 4

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Section 2
1

Single-Engined Piston Aeroplane (SEP1)

Aeroplane Details
The aeroplane is a monoplane with a single reciprocating engine and a constant speed
propeller. It has a retractable undercarriage.

July 2006

MTOM

3,650 lb

MLM

3,650 lb

Maximum fuel load

74 US gallons

Fuel Density

6 lb per US gallon (unless


otherwise specified)

Section 2 - SEP1

Page 1

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Fuel, Time and Distance to Climb

2.1

Calculation Method
a) Enter the graph at the ambient temperature of the aerodrome (or start of climb)
and travel vertically to intersect the aerodrome (or start of climb) Pressure Altitude
grid-line.
b) From this grid-line move horizontally right to intersect the aeroplane mass grid-line,
interpolating if necessary.
c) From this point drop vertically to read the time taken to climb from the upper scale,
fuel used on the climb from the middle scale and the air distance from the bottom
scale.
d) Enter the graph at the ambient temperature at the top of climb and travel vertically
to intersect the top of climb Pressure Altitude grid-line.
e) From this grid-line move horizontally right to intersect the aeroplane mass grid-line,
interpolating if necessary.
f) From this point drop vertically and read the time taken to climb from the upper
scale, fuel used on the climb from the middle scale and the air distance from the
bottom scale.
g) Subtract the values determined at c) above from those determined at f) above to
obtain the values of the time taken to climb, the fuel used to climb and the air
distance travelled in the climb.

2.2

Example
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Aerodrome Ambient Temperature
Cruise Pressure Altitude
Cruise Ambient Temperature
Initial Climb Weight

2.3

5,653 ft
+15C
11,500 ft
-5C
3,650 lb

Solution
Graphical values at the aerodrome altitude = 6.5 min; 2.5 US gal; Dist. 12.5 NAM.
Graphical values at the top of climb altitude = 18.0 min; 6.0 US gal; Dist. 36.0 NAM.
Values for the climb =11.5 min; 3.5 US gal; 23.5 NAM.

July 2006

Section 2 - SEP1

Page 2

Figure 2.1

July 2006 (corr.)

-50

-40

ISA

-30

-10

10

20

30

40

50

60

CLIMB SPEED 110 KT ALL WEIGHTS

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATUREC

-20

SL

2000

4000

6000

8000

10,000

12,000

RE
SSU
PRE UDE
T
ALTI T
FEE
00
16,0
0
14,00

POWER............................FULL THROTTLE, 2500 RPM


FUEL DENSITY................6.0 LB/GALL
MIXTURE.........................FULL RICH
COWL FLAPS..................AS REQUIRED

Section 2 - SEP1

0
365

4 5
7
8
9 10
6
FUEL TO CLIMB - GALLONS

10
20
30
TIME TO CLIMB - MINUTES

00
34

11

10
20
30
40
50 60 70 80
DISTANCE TO CLIMB - NAUTICAL MILES

0 1

INITIAL
MASS - LB

TIME TO CLIMB (18 - 6.5)..................11.5 MIN


FUEL TO CLIMB 6.0 - 2.5)..................3.5 GAL
DISTANCE TO CLIMB (36 - 12.5).......23.5 NM

40

OAT AT TAKE-OFF...............................15C
OAT AT CRUISE..................................-5C
AIRPORT PRESSURE ALTITUDE......5653 FT
CRUISE PRESSURE ALTITUDE........11,500 FT
INITIAL CLIMB MASS.........................3650 LB

EXAMPLE:

26
00
30
00

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:

CAP 697
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Time, Fuel and Distance to Climb

Page 3

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Recommended and Economy Cruise Power Settings


The following Tables cover cruises with 20C lean mixture.
Table 2.2.1: 25.0 in. Hg (or full throttle); 2,500 RPM recommended cruise power
Table 2.2.2: 25.0 in. Hg (or full throttle); 2,100 RPM recommended cruise power
Table 2.2.3: 23.0 in. Hg (or full throttle); 2,300 RPM recommended cruise power
Table 2.3.1: 21.0 in. Hg (or full throttle); 2,100 RPM economy cruise power

3.1

Method of use
a)
b)
c)
d)

Select the correct table for the power setting.


Select the appropriate temperature deviation block(s).
Enter the block(s) at the appropriate cruising level.
If necessary, interpolate to extract the required data.

Table 2.2.1
Off-peak EGT

25.0 in. Hg (or full throttle) @ 2,500 rpm


Cruise lean mixture @ cruise weight 3,400 lb

ISA
Dev.

Press.
Alt.

oC

Feet

oC

oF

In. Hg

PPH

GPH

KIAS

KTAS

0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000

-3
-6
-10
-14
-18
-22
-26
-30
-35
17
14
10
6
2
-2
-6
-10
-15
37
34
30
26
22
18
14
10
5

27
20
13
6
-1
-8
-15
-23
-30
63
56
50
42
35
28
21
13
6
99
92
86
79
71
64
57
49
42

25.0
25.0
25.0
24.1
22.3
20.6
19.1
17.7
16.3
25.0
25.0
25.0
24.1
22.3
20.6
19.1
17.7
16.3
25.0
25.0
25.0
24.1
22.3
20.6
19.1
17.7
16.3

86.3
89.3
92.3
89.8
82.6
76.0
70.2
65.5
60.8
82.9
85.6
88.5
86.1
79.3
73.3
67.8
63.5
59.1
79.5
82.1
84.7
82.5
76.2
70.5
65.5
61.5
57.5

14.4
14.9
15.4
15.0
13.8
12.7
11.7
10.9
10.1
13.8
14.3
14.8
14.4
13.2
12.2
11.3
10.6
9.9
13.3
13.7
14.1
13.8
12.7
11.8
10.9
10.3
9.6

168
168
168
164
157
150
143
135
126
163
163
163
159
152
145
137
129
120
158
158
158
154
147
140
132
123
113

159
164
169
170
168
165
162
158
152
160
165
170
171
169
166
162
157
150
161
166
171
172
169
165
161
155
146

-20

+20

Figure 2.2

Man.
Press.

IOAT

Fuel Flow

Recommended Cruise Power Settings

NOTE 1:

Full-throttle manifold pressure settings are approximate.

NOTE 2:

Shaded areas represent operation with full throttle.

NOTE 3:

Fuel flows are to be used for flight planning. Lean using the EGT.

July 2006

Airspeed

Section 2 - SEP1

Page 4

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Table 2.2.2
Off-peak EGT

25.0 in. Hg (or full throttle) @ 2,100 rpm


Cruise lean mixture @ cruise weight 3,400 lb

ISA
Dev.

Press.
Alt.

oC

Feet

oC

oF

In. Hg

PPH

GPH

KIAS

KTAS

0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000

-3
-7
-11
-15
-19
-23
-27
-31
-35
17
13
9
5
1
-3
-7
-11
37
33
29
25
21
17
13
-

26
19
12
5
-2
-9
-17
-24
-32
62
55
48
41
34
27
19
12
98
91
84
77
70
63
55
-

25.0
25.0
25.0
24.3
22.5
20.8
19.3
17.9
16.5
25.0
25.0
25.0
24.3
22.5
20.8
19.3
17.9
25.0
25.0
25.0
24.3
22.5
20.8
19.3
-

63.8
66.4
68.9
68.3
63.9
60.1
56.7
54.5
52.2
61.9
64.2
66.6
66.1
61.9
58.5
55.6
53.5
60.1
62.1
64.4
63.9
60.2
56.8
54.5
-

10.6
11.1
11.5
11.4
10.7
10.0
9.5
9.1
8.7
10.3
10.7
11.1
11.0
10.3
9.8
9.3
8.9
10.0
10.4
10.7
10.7
10.0
9.5
9.1
-

148
149
149
147
139
132
123
113
95
143
143
144
141
134
126
116
103
138
138
139
136
128
119
108
-

140
145
150
152
148
144
139
132
114
140
145
150
152
148
143
136
125
140
145
150
151
147
141
131
-

-20

+20

Figure 2.2

Man.
Press.

IOAT

Fuel Flow

Recommended Cruise Power Settings (continued)

NOTE 1:

Full-throttle manifold pressure settings are approximate.

NOTE 2:

Shaded areas represent operation with full throttle.

NOTE 3:

Fuel flows are to be used for flight planning. Lean using the EGT.

July 2006

Airspeed

Section 2 - SEP1

Page 5

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Table 2.2.3
Off-peak EGT

23.0 in. Hg (or full throttle) @ 2,300 rpm


Cruise lean mixture @ cruise weight 3,400 lb

ISA
Dev.

Press.
Alt.

oC

Feet

oC

oF

In. Hg

PPH

GPH

KIAS

KTAS

0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000

-3
-7
-11
-15
-18
-23
-27
-31
-35
17
13
9
5
2
-3
-7
-11
-15
37
33
29
25
22
17
13
9
-

26
20
13
6
-1
-9
-16
-23
-31
62
56
49
42
35
27
20
13
5
98
92
85
78
71
63
56
48
-

23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
22.4
20.7
19.2
17.8
16.4
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
22.4
20.7
19.2
17.8
16.4
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
22.4
20.7
19.2
17.8
-

67.6
69.7
72.1
74.4
73.8
68.4
63.8
60.0
56.3
65.4
67.4
69.4
71.7
71.1
66.2
61.8
58.5
55.3
63.2
65.1
67.1
69.0
68.5
64.0
60.0
57.1
-

11.3
11.6
12.0
12.4
12.3
11.4
10.6
10.0
9.4
10.9
11.2
11.6
12.0
11.9
11.0
10.3
9.8
9.2
10.5
10.9
11.2
11.5
11.4
10.7
10.0
9.5
-

152
152
153
153
150
143
135
127
117
147
147
148
148
145
137
129
120
109
142
143
143
142
140
132
123
113
-

144
149
154
158
160
157
153
148
141
145
149
154
159
160
157
152
146
137
145
149
154
158
160
156
151
142
-

-20

+20

Figure 2.2

Man.
Press.

IOAT

Fuel Flow

Recommended Cruise Power Settings (continued)

NOTE 1:

Full-throttle manifold pressure settings are approximate.

NOTE 2:

Shaded areas represent operation with full throttle.

NOTE 3:

Fuel flows are to be used for flight planning. Lean using the EGT.

July 2006

Airspeed

Section 2 - SEP1

Page 6

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Table 2.3.1
Off-peak EGT

21.0 in. Hg (or full throttle) @ 2,100 rpm


Cruise lean mixture @ cruise weight 3,400 lb

ISA
Dev.

Press.
Alt.

oC

Feet

oC

oF

IN. HG

PPH

GPH

KIAS

KTAS

0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000

-4
-8
-11
-15
-19
-23
-27
-31
-35
16
12
9
5
1
-3
-7
-11
36
32
29
25
21
17
13
-

25
18
12
5
-2
-9
-17
-24
-32
61
54
48
41
34
27
19
12
97
90
83
77
70
63
55
-

21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
20.8
19.3
17.9
16.5
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
20.8
19.3
17.9
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
20.8
19.3
-

52.7
54.0
55.4
56.9
58.9
60.1
56.7
54.5
52.2
51.8
53.1
54.4
55.7
57.3
58.5
55.6
53.5
50.8
52.1
53.4
54.7
55.9
56.8
54.5
-

8.8
9.0
9.2
9.5
9.8
10.0
9.5
9.1
8.7
8.6
8.9
9.1
9.3
9.6
9.8
9.3
8.9
8.5
8.7
8.9
9.1
9.3
9.5
9.1
-

126
128
130
131
132
132
123
113
95
120
123
124
125
126
126
116
103
114
116
118
119
120
119
108
-

120
125
130
136
141
144
139
132
114
118
124
129
134
140
143
137
125
115
121
127
132
137
141
131
-

-20

+20

Figure 2.3

Man.
Press.

IOAT

Fuel Flow

Economy Cruise Power Settings

NOTE 1:

Full-throttle manifold pressure settings are approximate.

NOTE 2:

Shaded areas represent operation with full throttle.

NOTE 3:

Fuel flows are to be used for flight planning. Lean using the EGT.

July 2006

Airspeed

Section 2 - SEP1

Page 7

640

660

680

700

720

25
00

IN
HG
5
/2

760

780

800

820

840

PM

860

150

TH

LE
TT
O
R

880

M
RP
00
1
/2

RP

Section 2 - SEP1

RANGE - NAUTICAL MILES

740

R
300

SL
620

154

LL
FU

E
TL
OT
R
TH
LL 160
FU

/2

HG

1000

TAS - kt

FU

HR

T
LL

PM

0R
250
LE 169
TT

162

M
RP
00
3
2

IN
25

2000

170

RANGE INCLUDES CRUISE CLIMB &


ALLOWS FOR TAXI, RUNUP, & 45 MINUTES
RESERVE FUEL AT ECONOMY CRUISE POWER

HG

3000

NOTE:

RANGE...............................866 NM

148

152

900

920

129

140

CRUISE ALTITUDE.............11,500 FT
POWER SETTING..............FULL THROTTLE 2500 RPM

20C LEAN of PEAK EGT

ISA

IN
23

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10,000

11,000

12,000

13,000

14,000

MASS....................................... 3663 LB BEFORE ENGINE START


FUEL........................................ AVIATION GASOLINE
FUEL DENSITY........................ 6.0 LB/GAL
INITIAL FUEL LOAD................. 74 U.S. GAL (444 LB)
TAKE-OFF ALTITUDE.............. SEA LEVEL
WIND........................................ ZERO

EXAMPLE:

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:

PM

July 2006
10
0R

Figure 2.4
100 RPM

NOTE:

HG / 2

21 I
N

CAP 697
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Range Profile
The graph at Figure 2.4 provides a simple and rapid means of determining the still-air
range (nautical miles) for the sample aeroplane. An example of the use of the graph
is shown.
The figures make allowance for the taxi, run-up and 45 minutes reserve fuel.

Range

Page 8

3.5
4.0

00 R

NH
25
G/

4.5

5.5

150

Section 2 - SEP1

6.0

148

M
RP
00
1
/2

HG
IN
M
5
2
RP
00
3
2
/
HG
IN
3
2
ENDURANCE - HOURS

5.0

152

6.5

140

129

TAS - kt

7.0

M
RP
00
1
2
/

SL
3.0

1000

O
25 I

2000

160

154

162

HG

3000

2
170

169

M
LL
T
FU

7.5

8.0

ENDURANCE.............5.4 HRS (5 HRS, 24 MINS)

IN
21

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10,000

11,000

ENDURANCE INCLUDES CRUISE CLIMB &


ALLOWS FOR TAXI, RUNUP, & 45 MINUTES
RESERVE FUEL AT ECONOMY CRUISE POWER

RP
50
0

12,000

NOTE:

FU

13,000

20C LEAN of PEAK EGT

TT

EXAMPLE:

14,000

00
R
23
LE

CRUISE ALTITUDE....11,500 FT
POWER SETTING......FULL THROTTLE 2500 RPM

PM

FU
L

LT

HR
O
LL

MASS............................... 3663 LB BEFORE ENGINE START


FUEL................................ AVIATION GASOLINE
FUEL DENSITY................ 6.0 LB/GAL
ISA
INITIAL FUEL LOAD........ 74 U.S. GAL (444 LB)
TAKE-OFF ALTITUDE...... SEA LEVEL
WIND................................ZERO

TT
L

TL
RO
T

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:

PM

July 2006

0R

Figure 2.5
21
0

HR

CAP 697
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Endurance Profile
The graph at Figure 2.5 provides a rapid method for determination of endurance for
the sample aeroplane. An example is shown on the graph.

PM

Endurance

Page 9

PRESSURE ALTITUDE - FEET

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Section 2 - SEP1

Page 10

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Section 3
1

Multi-Engined Piston Aeroplane (MEP1)

Aeroplane Details
The aeroplane is a monoplane with twin reciprocating engines and twin counterrotating, constant speed propellers. It has a retractable undercarriage.

July 2006

MTOM

4,750 lb

MZFM

4,470 lb

MLM

4,513 lb

Maximum fuel load

123 US gallons

Fuel Density

6 lb per US gallon (unless


otherwise specified)

Section 3 - MEP1

Page 1

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Fuel, Time and Distance to Climb

2.1

Calculation Method
a) Enter the graph (Figure 3.1) at the ambient temperature of the aerodrome (or start
of climb) and travel vertically to intersect the aerodrome (or start of climb) Pressure
Altitude grid-line.
b) From this grid-line move horizontally right to intersect the fuel, time and distance
grid-lines in turn.
c) From each intersection drop vertically to read the appropriate value from the graph.
d) Enter the graph at the ambient temperature at the top of climb and travel vertically
to intersect the top of climb Pressure Altitude grid-line.
e) From this grid-line move horizontally right to intersect the fuel, time and distance
grid-lines in turn.
f) From each intersection drop vertically to read the appropriate value from the graph.
g) Subtract the values determined at c) above from those determined at f) above to
obtain the values of the fuel used to climb, the time taken to climb, and the air
distance travelled in the climb.

2.2

Example
Aerodrome Pressure Altitude
Aerodrome Ambient Temperature
Cruise Pressure Altitude
Cruise Ambient Temperature

2.3

2,000 ft
+21C
16,500 ft
-13C

Solution
Graphical values at the aerodrome altitude = 3.0 min; 2.0 US gal; Dist. 5.0 NAM.
Graphical values at the top of climb altitude = 27.0 min; 15.0 US gal; Dist. 50.0 NAM.
Values for the climb = 24.0 min; 13.0 US gal; 45.0 NAM.

July 2006

Section 3 - MEP1

Page 2

-40

ISA

TEM

Section 3 - MEP1

+20

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATUREC

-20

+40

SEA LEVEL

DEPARTURE

CRUISE

2,000

4,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

00
12,0

00
14,0

000
16,

000
18,

PRESSURE ALTITUDE - FT

CLIMB SPEED 120 kt IAS

40

60
FUEL, TIME, & DISTANCE TO CLIMB

20

80

DEPARTURE AIRPORT ALTITUDE.............2000 ft


DEAPARTURE AIRPORT OAT.....................21C
CRUISE ALTITUDE......................................16,500 ft
CRUISE OAT................................................-13C
FUEL TO CLIMB...........................................15 - 2 = 13 gal
TIME TO CLIMB...........................................27 - 3 = 24 min
DISTANCE TO CLIMB..................................50 - 5 = 45 NM

ST
A

4750 LB GEAR UP
COWL FLAPS CLOSED
2600 RPM & 33 IN. HG. or FULL THROTTLE
MIXTURE FULL RICH

E m
in
TIM

gal
FUEL

EXAMPLE:

DI

July 2006

NM

Figure 3.1
NC
E

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:

CAP 697
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Climb

Page 3

July 2006

Figure 3.2

700

800
900

RANGE - NM
WITH 45 MIN. RESERVE AT 45% POWER

600
1000

700

75%

900
RANGE - NM
WITH NO RESERVE

800

65%

1000

1100

Calculation Method

500

65%

55%

45%

3.1

5000

75%

% POWER, MIXTURE LEANED

Range at Standard Temperatures

10,000

45%

HIGH SPEED 75%


65%
ECONOMY
LONG RANGE 45%

15,000

20,000

55%

RANGE INCREASES APPROX 1 NM FOR EACH C


25,000 ABOVE ISA & DECREASES 1 NM FOR EACH C
BELOW ISA

NOTE:
RANGE INCLUDES CLIMB & DESCENT DISTANCES

CRUISE ALTITUDE.....................16,500 ft
POWER.......................................45%

USABLE FUEL 123 gal 4750 lb


AIRCRAFT CLEAN
COWL FLAPS CLOSED
CLIMB AT MAX. CONTINUOUS POWER
DESCENT AT 1000 fpm & 145 kt IAS, NO WIND
4.2 gal FUEL FOR START, TAXI & TAKE-OFF
RANGE WITH RESERVE............942 NM
RANGE WITH NO RESERVE.....1060 NM

EXAMPLE:

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:

CAP 697
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

a) Enter Figure 3.2 at the left vertical axis with the cruise Pressure Altitude.
b) Travel horizontally right to intersect the grid-line appropriate to the power setting
(with or without reserve).
c) Drop vertically to read the still-air range.
d) To determine the wind effective range, multiply the still-air range by the
groundspeed and divide by the TAS.
e) The TAS can be determined from Figure 3.4 using the cruise Pressure Altitude,
standard temperature and the appropriate power setting.

Range

Section 3 - MEP1

Page 4

ALTITUDE ft

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Cruise Power Setting and Fuel Flow

4.1

Calculation Method

4.1.1

Enter the Power Setting table (Figure 3.3) at the cruise Pressure Altitude and travel
horizontally right to the block appropriate to the power setting. At the top of the block
read the fuel flow in US gallons per hour. In the same block select the column
appropriate to the RPM and at the cruise Pressure Altitude read the manifold
pressure.

4.1.2

These tables are for ISA deviation 0C. To maintain constant power at temperature
deviations other than 0 the manifold pressure must be corrected by adding 1% for
each 6C above the standard temperature or by subtracting 1% for each 6C below
the standard temperature.
The Cruise Manifold Pressure must not exceed 34 inches.

POWER

75%

65%

55%

45%

FUEL
FLOW

29.0 GPH

23.3 GPH

18.7 GPH

16.0 GPH

RPM

2,500 2,600 2,400 2,500 2,600 2,100 2,200 2,300 2,400 2,500 2,600 2,100 2,200 2,300 2,400 2,500 2,600

PRESS ISA
ALT
o
(ft) 0 C

MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (Hg in)


(MAP)

15 34.0 33.0 33.8 32.0 31.0 31.2 30.3 29.4 28.2 27.2 26.3 27.1 26.4 25.5 24.3 23.3 22.5

2,000 11 33.8 32.7 33.2 31.7 30.7 30.5 29.7 28.8

27.8 26.8 26.0 26.4 25.8 24.6 23.7 22.8 22.1

4,000

33.6 32.4 32.8 31.5 30.5 30.0 29.2 28.3

27.4 26.4 25.6 25.8 25.0 24.0 23.2 22.3 21.8

6,000

33.4 32.2 32.5 31.2 30.3 29.7 28.8 28.0

27.0 26.2 25.3 25.3 24.5 23.5 22.8 21.9

21.5

8,000

-1 33.1 32.0 32.3 31.0 30.1 29.4 28.4

27.7

26.8 25.7 25.0 24.8 24.0 23.0 22.4 21.6

21.2
21.0

10,000 -5 33.0 31.9 32.0 30.9 30.0

28.3

27.5

26.5 25.5 24.7 24.4 23.7 22.8 22.0 21.4

12,000 -9 32.5 31.8

28.3

27.2

26.3 25.3 24.6 24.0 23.3 22.5 21.7

21.2 20.9
21.1 20.8

31.8 30.7 29.8

14,000 -13

31.7

30.5 29.7

27.1

26.1 25.2 24.4

16,000 -17

31.6

30.4 29.5

25.9 25.0 24.3

18,000 -21

29.4

20,000 -25

29.3

24.2

22,000 -28

24.1

MAX EGT

1,525F

25.0 24.2

23.0 22.3 21.4


22.0 21.3

21.0 20.6

21.2 20.9 20.5

21.2 20.8 20.4

20.4

1,650F

24,000 -33

20.4

25,000 -34

20.4

Figure 3.3

July 2006

Power Setting Table

Section 3 - MEP1

Page 5

July 2006

-40

ISA

TEM

Section 3 - MEP1

0
+20

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

-20

+40

VE

E
AL
SE

00
2,0

00
4,0

00
6,0

00
8,0

0
,00
10

0
,00
12

0
,00
14

0
,00
16

0
,00
18

0
,00
20

0
,00
22

PRESS. ALT - ft
0
,00
24

120

140

180

200

HIGH SPEED 75%


65%
ECONOMY
LONG RANGE 45%

TRUE AIRSPEED - kt

160

65%
75%

Figure 3.4
100
%

TRUE AIRSPEED..............172 kt

OAT...................................13 C
PRESSURE ALTITUDE....16,500 ft
POWER.............................55%

MIXTURE FULL RICH ABOVE 75% POWER


MIXTURE LEANED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 4.37
COWL FLAPS CLOSED
AIRCRAFT CLEAN
MID CRUISE MASS (4450 lb)

45%

EXAMPLE:

55%

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:

CAP 697
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

True Airspeed

The graph at Figure 3.4 should be used to determine the true airspeed for the various
combinations of ambient temperature, Pressure Altitude and power settings in the cruise
configuration. The example on the graph illustrates the method of use.

Speed v Power

Page 6

Figure 3.5

July 2006










(1'85$1&(KU
:,7+0,15(6(59($732:(5






(1'85$1&(KU
:,7+125(6(59(





Method of Use



6.1



32:(50,;785(/($1('

Endurance





+,*+63((' 

(&2120<
/21*5$1*( 





127(
(1'85$1&(,1&/8'(6
&/,0% '(6&(177,0(6

&58,6($/7,78'(IW
32:(5

86$%/()8(/JDOOE
$,5&5$)7&/($1
&2:/)/$36&/26('
&/,0%$70$;&217,1828632:(5
'(6&(17$7ISP NW,$612:,1'
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(1'85$1&(:,7+5(6(59(KU
(1'85$1&(:,7+125(6(59(KU

(;$03/(

$662&,$7('&21',7,216

CAP 697
CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

a) Enter the left vertical axis of Figure 3.5 at the cruise Pressure Altitude.

b) Move horizontally right to the appropriate power setting grid line either the one
with 45 minutes reserve (the Safe Endurance) or the one with no reserve (the
Maximum Endurance).

c) From the intersection at b) travel vertically down to read the safe endurance in
hours (or maximum endurance).

Endurance

Section 3 - MEP1

Page 7

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Descent

7.1

Calculation Method

FUEL, TIME & DISTANCE TO DESCEND

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
TEM

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE C

+10
0
-10
-40

ISA

-30

-20

SEA LEVEL

+20

+30

+40

DESTINATION
2,000

4,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

CRUISE

16,000

18,000

20,000

22,000

PRESSURE ALTITUDE - ft

CRUISE ALTITUDE..................16,500 ft FUEL TO DESCEND................6 - 1 = 5 gal


TIME TO DESCEND................16 - 3 = 13 min
CRUISE OAT............................-13C
DISTANCE TO DESCEND.......45 - 8 = 37 NM
DESTINATION ALT...................3000 ft
DESTINATION OAT..................22C

FUEL gal

145 kt IAS 1000 FPM DESCENT


AIRCRAFT CLEAN
NO WIND

min

SOLUTION:

TIME

EXAMPLE:

ST
A

DI

July 2006 (corr.)

NM

Figure 3.6

NC
E

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:

a) Enter Figure 3.6 with OAT at cruise altitude and move vertically to intersect the
cruise Pressure Altitude.
b) From this intersection travel horizontally right to intersect the grid-lines in turn,
then drop vertically to read the fuel used, time taken and air distance travelled.
c) The procedure at b) above must be done twice, once for the aerodrome (or end of
descent) data and a second time for the cruising altitude data.
d) Subtract the values for the aerodrome (or end of descent) from the cruising altitude
values to determine the values for the descent.

Fuel, Time and Distance to Descend

Section 3 - MEP1

Page 8

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Section 4

Medium-Range Jet Transport Aeroplane


(MRJT1)

Aeroplane Details

1.1

Aeroplane Data
Monoplane
Twin turbo-jet engines
Retractable undercarriage
Structural Limits:
Maximum Taxi (Ramp) Mass
Maximum Take-off Mass
Maximum Landing Mass
Maximum Zero Fuel Mass

63,060 kg
62,800 kg
54,900 kg
51,300 kg

Maximum Fuel Load


1.2

5,311 US Gallons
= 16,145 kg using 3.04 kg/gal

Constants
Fuel Density (unless otherwise specified):
3.04 kg/US gal
6.7 lb/US gal

Optimum Altitudes

2.1

Optimum Cruise Altitude Calculation Procedure (Figure 4.1)


a) Enter the graph with either the Brake Release Mass or the Cruise Mass on the
appropriate scale. (56,800 kg Cruise Weight in the example).
b) Travel vertically to intersect the cruise profile graph line. (LRC in the example).
c) From this point move horizontally left to read the optimum cruise altitude.
(33,500 ft in the example).
NOTE:

Operating at off-optimum altitude incurs the fuel mileage penalty listed below in
the table.

Off-Optimum
Condition

LRC or Mach 0.74

Mach 0.78

2,000 ft above

-1

-1

Optimum

2,000 ft below

-1

-2

4,000 ft below

-4

-4

8,000 ft below

-10

-11

12,000 ft below

-15

-20

Table 4.1

July 2006

Fuel Mileage Penalty %

Off-Optimum Fuel Penalty

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 1

CAP 697

2.2

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Short Distance Cruise Altitude Calculation Procedure (Figure 4.2)


a) Enter the graph with the trip distance (177 NM in the example)
b) Travel vertically to intersect the appropriate temperature deviation (ISA +20C in
the example).
c) Move horizontally right to the Brake Release Weight reference-line.
d) Parallel the grid-lines to intersect the vertical input at the Brake Release weight
(52,000 kg in the example).
e) From this intersection continue horizontally right to read the cruise Pressure
Altitude (28,000 ft in the example).

0$;23(5$7,1*
$/7,78'(

35(6685($/7,78'(IW



/2

1*

5



$1

*(

&

58

,6



(





R

0

U



$&



0

$&


















&58,6(:(,*+7NJ












%5$.(5(/($6(:(,*+7NJ

Figure 4.1

Optimum Altitude

30

ISA

20

REF LINE

10

100

200

TRIP DISTANCE NM

Figure 4.2

July 2006

300

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 1000 ft

+1
0C
&
ISA
BE
LO
+2
W
0
C

40

70

BRAKE RELEASE WEIGHT 1000 kg

Short Distance Cruise Altitude

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 2

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Simplified Fuel Planning


The Simplified Planning Charts permit the rapid determination the estimated trip time
and the fuel required from the brakes release point. Charts are provided for the
various cruise modes, as follows:
Figure 4.3.1

Long Range Cruise (LRC)

Figure 4.3.2

0.74 Mach Cruise

Figure 4.3.3

0.78 Mach Cruise

Figure 4.3.4

Low-Level 300 KIAS Cruise

Figure 4.3.5

Stepped Climb

Figure 4.3.6

Alternate Planning LRC

These graphs are similar to each other in layout and use.


3.1

Simplified Planning Chart Corrections


a) Cost Index Adjustment
If the flight is planned to operate with the FMS in the ECON mode, adjustments
to the LRC trip fuel and time are necessary in order to account for the different
speed profiles flown. The adjustments are given in the following table:
COST INDEX

FUEL ADJUSTMENT

TIME ADJUSTMENT %

-1

+4

20

+1

+1

40

+2

-1

60

+4

-2

80

+5

-3

100

+7

-4

150

+10

-5

200

+14

-7

b) Ground Operations
APU fuel flow
Taxi fuel

115 kg per hour


11 kg per minute

c) Altitude Selection
Operation off-optimum altitude will result in fuel penalties (see table in paragraph
2.1, page 1).
d) Cruise
i) Increase trip fuel by 1% for operation with A.C. packs at high flow.
ii) Increase trip fuel for operation with anti-ice on as follows:
Engine anti-ice only
Engine and wing anti-ice

July 2006

70 kg/hour
180 kg/hour

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 3

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

e) Descent
Simplified Charts assume a descent at 0.74 M/250 KIAS and a straight-in approach.
i) For every additional minute of flaps down manoeuvre add 75 kg fuel.
ii) For engine anti-ice during descent add 50 kg.
f) Holding Fuel
Determine from the table at Figure 4.4.
3.2

Calculation Method
This example is shown in Figure 4.3.1a.
Given:
Trip Distance

350 NM

Cruise Altitude

29,000 ft

Estimated Landing Weight

30,000 kg

Average Wind Component

50 kt headwind

Temperature Deviation

ISA +20C

a) Enter the graph at the trip distance (350 NM).


b) Travel vertically to the wind component reference-line.
c) Follow the grid-lines to reach the appropriate wind component (50 kt).
d) From this point continue vertically to intercept the appropriate Cruise Pressure
Altitude grid line (29,000 ft).
e) From this intersection travel horizontally right to the Landing Weight grid
reference-line.
f) Interpolate between the trade-lines for the appropriate Cruise Pressure Altitude
and travel along this line from the reference-line to intersect the Landing Weight
input (30,000 kg).
g) Continue horizontally right to the right vertical axis to read the fuel required
(2,300 kg).
h) Return to the intersection at e) above and travel vertically to intersect the second
Pressure Altitude grid at the Cruise Pressure Altitude.
i) Travel left from this intersection to the ISA Deviation reference-line.
j) Parallel the grid-lines to intersect the appropriate temperature deviation (ISA
+20C).
k) Continue horizontally left to read the trip time in hours from the left vertical axis
(approximately 1.05 hr).
l) Apply the corrections in accordance with paragraph 3.1 as necessary.
NOTE: Additional allowances must be made if the climb, cruise or descent
schedules are different from those listed.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 4

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

LONG RANGE CRUISE


2

10

ft

29 &

ABOV

SSU

PRE

1000

4500

REF LINE

TRIP TIME hr

DE

TITU
E AL

BASED ON:
280 / 0.74 CLIMB
0.74 / 250 DESCENT

0
20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C

33

29

22
25

18

14

10

4000

33

UD

10

AL
TIT
SU

RE

FUEL REQUIRED kg

3000

&A

BO

10

00

VE

ft

37

3500

PR

ES

2500
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

REF LINE

2000

40

30

1500
50

60

LANDING WEIGHT
1000 kg

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

50
TAIL 100
100

Figure 4.3.1a

July 2006 (corr.)

200

300
400
TRIP DISTANCE NM

500

600

Simplified Flight Planning Trip Distances 100 NM to 600 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 5

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

LONG RANGE CRUISE


4

BASED ON:
280 / 0.74 CLIMB
0.74 / 250 DESCENT

10
22
3

VE

BO

A
9&

0
10

UD

RE

TIT
AL

SU

S
RE

18

REF LINE

14

10

29

22
25

33

37

20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C

10

00

ft

RE

37

AL
TIT

UD

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

TRIP TIME hr

t
0f

ES

SU

10

PR

4
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

REF LINE

30

40

50

2
60

LANDING WEIGHT
1000 kg

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

0
50

TAIL 100
200

400

600

800

1000

1200

TRIP DISTANCE NM

Figure 4.3.1b

July 2006 (corr.)

Simplified Flight Planning Trip Distances 200 NM to 1,200 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 6

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

LONG RANGE CRUISE


7

10

22

VE

29

&

O
AB

AL
TI
TU

DE

10
00

FT

BASED ON:
280 / 0.74 CLIMB
0.74 / 250 DESCENT

RE
SU
ES
PR

TRIP TIME hr

4
26

REF LINE

3
22

14
18

20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C

22
25

0
10

18

29
33
37

ft

UD

RE

T
TI
AL

14
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

SU

S
RE

37

10

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

10

REF LINE

10

6
30

40

50

60

LANDING WEIGHT
1000 kg

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

50
TAIL 100
1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

TRIP DISTANCE NM

Figure 4.3.1c

July 2006

Simplified Flight Planning Trip Distances 1,000 NM to 3,000 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 7

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

0.74 MACH CRUISE


2

000
DE 1

4500

SUR

20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C

4000

33

21
23
25
27
29
31

21

ft

ITU
E ALT

PRES

REF LINE

TRIP TIME hr

37

BASED ON:
280 / 0.74 CLIMB
0.74 / 250 DESCENT

35

UD

21

AL
TIT
SU

RE

FUEL REQUIRED kg

3000

&A

10

BO

00

VE

ft

35

&

AB

OV
E

3500

PR

ES

2500
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

REF LINE

2000

1500
30

40

50

60

LANDING WEIGHT
1000 kg

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

0
50

TAIL 100
100

Figure 4.3.2a

July 2006

200

300
400
TRIP DISTANCE NAUTICAL NM

500

600

Simplified Flight Planning Trip Distances 100 NM to 600 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 8

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

0.74 MACH CRUISE


3

37

21

BASED ON:
280 / 0.74 CLIMB
0.74 / 250 DESCENT

0 ft

UD

T
LTI
EA

UR

SS

E
PR

100

1
REF LINE

TRIP TIME hr

21

23
27

25

20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C

2
31 9

RE

AL
TI

TU

DE

10

00

PR

ES

37

SU

21
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

ft

37

35 33

REF LINE

30

40

50

2
60

LANDING WEIGHT
1000 kg

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

0
50

TAIL 100
200

400

600

800

1000

1200

TRIP DISTANCE NM

Figure 4.3.2b

July 2006

Simplified Flight Planning Trip Distances 200 NM to 1,200 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 9

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

0.74 MACH CRUISE


29

37

21

BASED ON:
280 / 0.74 CLIMB
0.74 / 250 DESCENT

6
20

U
IT

29
31
33

UR

S
ES

18

25

T
AL

27

23

PR

TRIP TIME hr

DE

ft

0
10

21

&

AB

OV

16

VE

AL
TI

TU

20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C

PR

35

ES

SU

&A

RE

BO

12

21

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

00
10
DE

14

ft

REF LINE

35

10
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

REF LINE

30

40

50

6
60

LANDING WEIGHT
1000 kg

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

50
TAIL 100
1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

TRIP DISTANCE NM

Figure 4.3.2c

July 2006

Simplified Flight Planning Trip Distances 1,000 NM to 3,000 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 10

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

0.78 MACH CRUISE


2

E
ITUD
E ALT

1000

25

ft

4500

SUR

PRES

REF LINE

TRIP TIME hr

37

BASED ON:
280 / 0.74 CLIMB
0.74 / 250 DESCENT

0
4000

OV

25
27
29
33 31

20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C

35

UD

25

AL
TIT
SU

RE

FUEL REQUIRED kg

3000

&A

10

BO

00

ft

VE

35

&

AB

3500

PR

ES

2500
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

REF LINE

2000

1500
30

40

50

60

LANDING WEIGHT
1000 kg

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

0
50

TAIL 100
100

Figure 4.3.3a

July 2006

200

300
400
TRIP DISTANCE NM

500

600

Simplified Flight Planning Trip Distances 100 NM to 600 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 11

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

0.78 MACH CRUISE


3

37

25
0 ft

DE

100

ITU

UR

SS

E
PR

LT
EA

1
REF LINE

TRIP TIME hr

BASED ON:
280 / 0.74 CLIMB
0.74 / 250 DESCENT

27

25

2
31 9

33

10
DE
TU
AL
TI

25

PR

ES

SU

RE

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

&A

00

ft

BO

VE

33

&

AB

VE

20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C

PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

REF LINE

30

40

2
50

60

LANDING WEIGHT
1000 kg

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

0
50

TAIL 100
200

400

600

800

1000

1200

TRIP DISTANCE NM

Figure 4.3.3b

July 2006

Simplified Flight Planning Trip Distances 200 NM to 1,200 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 12

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

0.78 MACH CRUISE


7

37 31

BASED ON:
280 / 0.74 CLIMB
0.74 / 250 DESCENT
22

25
6

TU

RE

TI
AL

AB
OV
E

U
SS

18

&

E
PR

33

10
00
f
AL
TI
SU

RE

14

BO

PR

20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C

VE

ES

TU

REF LINE

DE

33

&A

12

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

16

TRIP TIME hr

20

25

DE

ft

27
29
31

0
10

25
10

PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

REF LINE

30

40

50

6
60

LANDING WEIGHT
1000 kg

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

50
TAIL 100
1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

TRIP DISTANCE NM

Figure 4.3.3c

July 2006

Simplified Flight Planning Trip Distances 1,000 NM to 3,000 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 13

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

300 kt IAS CRUISE


8

00

DE

RE

ft

10

BASED ON:
280 / 0.74 CLIMB
0.74 / 250 DESCENT

20

U
TIT
AL

24

SU

S
RE

REF LINE

00

ft

10

DE

20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C

PR
ES
SU
RE
AL
TIT
U

24

PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

TRIP TIME hr

12
16
18
24

8
10
12
1
164

REF LINE

30

40

50

60

LANDING WEIGHT
1000 kg

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

0
50

TAIL 100
0

200

400

600

800

1000

TRIP DISTANCE NM

Figure 4.3.4

July 2006 (corr.)

Simplified Flight Planning Trip Distances 0 NM to 1,000 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 14

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

3.3

Step Climb Simplified Fuel Planning (Figure 4.3.5)


This chart allows the planner to optimise aeroplane performance by increasing the cruise
altitude in 4000 ft steps in order to allow for the increase in optimum altitude as aeroplane
weight decreases.
The graph is valid for altitudes with Step Climb of 4,000 ft to 2,000 ft above optimum
altitude. The graph provides trip fuel and time, at LRC or 0.74 M, from brake release to
touchdown. The method of use is the same as that for the constant altitude charts except
that the argument of Brake Release Weight is used in place of Cruise Pressure Altitude
- see example on chart.

VALID FOR ALL PRESSURE ALTITUDES WITH 4000 ft


STEP CLIMB TO 2000 ft ABOVE OPTIMUM ALTITUDE

STEPPED CLIMB CRUISE


10
9

HT

SE

IG
WE

EA

KE

L
RE

RA

B
LL

6
25

70

00

kg

65

IG

REF LINE

HT

10

KE

60

EA

L
RE

E
EW

55

BR

20

20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C
15

50

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

TRIP TIME hr

10

45

5
HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

0
50

TAIL

100
1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

TRIP DISTANCE NM

Figure 4.3.5

July 2006

Simplified Flight Planning Trip Distances 1,000 NM to 4,000 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 15

CAP 697

3.4

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Alternate Planning (Figure 4.3.6)


The fuel and time figures extracted from this chart include a missed approach, the
climb to cruise altitude, a descent and straight-in approach.
Method of use is similar to previous Simplified Flight Planning graphs.
For distances greater than 500 NM use the LRC Simplified Flight Planning Charts.

ALTERNATE PLANNING LONG RANGE CRUISE


1.4
S

HT

ING

IG
WE

D
AN

1.0

LL

AL

0.8
0.6
0.4

70

0.2

TE
NA

0
10

T
GH

AT

TE
AL

EI

kg

65

60
55
50
45
40
35

N
DI

LA

ALTERNATE FUEL 1000 kg

TIME TO ALTERNATE hr

1.2

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

0
50

TAIL

100
0

Figure 4.3.6

July 2006 (corr.)

100
200
300
400
DISTANCE TO ALTERNATE NM

500

Simplified Flight Planning Alternate Distances to 500 NM

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 16

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Holding Fuel Planning


The table below provides fuel flow values for various hold entry weights and holding
pressure altitudes to facilitate the calculation of the holding reserve fuel requirements
for flight planning.

4.1

Calculation Procedure
a) Enter Figure 4.4 with the Pressure Altitude at which the hold is planned and the
weight at the start of the hold, interpolating as required.
b) Extract the holding fuel flow in kg per hour.
c) The fuel flow is based on a racetrack pattern at the minimum drag KIAS. The
minimum speed that is permitted to be flown is 210 KIAS.
d) If the hold is to be conducted in straight and level flight, reduce the fuel flow by
5%.
Weight x 1,000 kg

Press
Alt.
ft

66

64

62

60

58

56

54

52

50

48

46

44

42

40

38

FUEL FLOW in kg per hour


37,000

2,740 2,540 2,400 2,260 2,160 2,080 1,980 1,900 1,800 1,740 1,680

35,000

3,020 2,820 2,660 2,520 2,420 2,320 2,220 2,140 2,060 1,960 1,880 1,800 1,720 1,660

30,000 2,840 2,740 2,660 2,560 2,480 2,400 2,300 2,220 2,140 2,060 1,960 1,880 1,800 1,740 1,680
25,000 2,840 2,760 2,660 2,580 2,500 2,420 2,320 2,240 2,160 2,080 2,000 1,920 1,840 1,780 1,720
20,000 2,840 2,760 2,680 2,580 2,500 2,420 2,340 2,260 2,180 2,100 2,020 1,940 1,860 1,800 1,760
15,000 2,880 2,800 2,700 2,620 2,540 2,460 2,380 2,300 2,220 2,140 2,060 1,980 1,920 1,860 1,800
10,000 2,920 2,820 2,740 2,660 2,580 2,500 2,420 2,340 2,260 2,180 2,100 2,020 1,980 1,920 1,880
5,000 2,960 2,860 2,780 2,700 2,620 2,540 2,460 2,380 2,300 2,220 2,140 2,080 2,020 1,960 1,920
1,500 3,000 2,900 2,820 2,740 2,660 2,580 2,520 2,440 2,360 2,280 2,220 2,140 2,080 2,020 1,980

Figure 4.4

July 2006

Holding Fuel Flow Flaps Retracted

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 17

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Detailed Fuel Planning

5.1

En-route Climb (Figures 4.5.1)


a) Tables are provided for a range of temperature deviations from ISA -15C to ISA
+25C.
b) The values for fuel used and time taken shown in the tables are measured from
the brake release point.
c) The values for air distance quoted in the tables are measured from the point at
which a height of 1,500 ft is attained above reference zero.
d) The TAS stated in the tables is the average value for the climb.
e) All of the values given in the tables are based on a climb regime of 280 KIAS/M 0.74
with all engines operating.

5.2

Calculation Procedure
a) Select the table appropriate to the ISA deviation.
b) Enter the left column at the top of climb Pressure Altitude and travel through the
columns to the right to the appropriate brake release weight, extract the values for
time taken, fuel used, distance travelled and TAS from the appropriate column(s),
interpolating if necessary.
c) If the aerodrome has a high elevation, correct the fuel used from the sub-table at
the bottom of the main table.
d) To determine the ground distance travelled in the climb, multiply the air distance
by the groundspeed and divide by the TAS.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 18

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

ISA -6C TO -15C


Press.
Units
Alt.
Min/kg.
ft
NAM/Kt
37000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
36000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
35000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
34000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
33000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
32000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
31000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
30000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
29000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
28000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
27000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
26000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
25000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
24000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
23000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
22000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
21000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
20000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
19000 Time/fuel
Dist/TAS
18000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
17000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
16000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
15000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
14000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
13000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
12000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
11000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
10000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
8000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
6000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
1500 Time/Fuel

BRAKE RELEASE WEIGHT KG


68000

32/2350
195/390
26/2000
152/383
23/1850
133/378
21/1750
120/374
20/1700
110/370
19/1600
101/366
17/1550
92/361
16/1450
84/356
15/1400
77/352
14/1350
71/348
13/1300
65/344
13/1200
60/340
12/1150
55/336
11/1100
50/333
10/1050
46/330
10/1000
42/326
9/950
39/323
9/900
35/320
8/900
32/317
8/850
29/314
7/800
26/312
7/750
24/309
6/700
21/306
6/650
19/304
5/650
17/301
5/600
15/299
4/500
11/294
4/450
7/290
2/250

66000

64000

27/2000
156/385
23/1850
136/381
21/1750
121/376
20/1650
111/373
19/1600
102/369
18/1550
95/365
16/1450
87/360
15/1400
79/356
14/1350
73/351
14/1250
67/347
13/1200
61/343
12/1150
56/340
11/1100
52/336
11/1050
48/333
10/1000
44/329
9/950
40/326
9/950
37/323
8/900
34/320
8/850
31/317
7/800
28/314
7/750
25/312
6/700
23/309
6/700
20/306
6/650
18/304
5/600
16/301
5/550
14/299
4/500
10/294
3/400
7/290
2/250

28/2050
166/388
24/1850
139/383
21/1700
123/379
20/1650
112/375
19/1550
103/372
18/1500
95/368
17/1450
89/1364
16/1400
81/360
15/1300
75/355
14/1250
69/351
13/1200
63/347
12/1150
58/343
11/1100
54/340
11/1050
49/336
10/1000
45/333
10/1000
42/329
9/950
38/326
8/900
35/323
8/850
32/320
8/800
29/317
7/750
27/314
7/750
24/312
6/700
22/309
6/650
19/306
5/600
17/304
5/600
15/301
5/550
13/299
4/500
10/294
3/400
6/290
2/250

Fuel Adjustment for high elevation airports


Effect on time and distance is negligible

Figure 4.5.1

July 2006

62000
30/2100
184/391
24/1800
142/385
22/1700
125/381
20/1600
113/378
19/1550
104/374
17/1500
96/371
17/1400
89/367
16/1350
83/364
15/1300
77/359
14/1250
70/355
13/1200
65/351
12/1150
60/347
12/1100
55/343
11/1050
51/339
10/1000
47/336
10/1000
43/332
9/950
40/329
9/900
36/326
8/850
33/323
8/800
31/320
7/800
28/317
7/750
25/314
6/700
23/311
6/650
21/309
6/650
19/306
5/600
17/304
5/550
15/301
5/550
13/299
4/450
9/294
3/400
6/290
2/250

60000
25/1800
148/387
22/1650
127/383
20/1600
114/380
19/1500
105/376
17/1450
97/373
16/1400
90/370
16/1350
84/367
15/1300
78/363
14/1250
72/359
13/1200
67/355
12/1150
61/350
12/1100
57/347
11/1050
52/343
10/1000
48/339
10/1000
44/336
9/950
41/332
9/900
38/329
8/850
35/326
8/800
32/323
7/800
29/320
7/750
27/317
7/700
24/314
6/700
22/311
6/650
20/309
5/600
18/306
5/600
16/304
5/550
14/301
4/500
12/299
4/450
9/294
3/400
6/290
2/250

Airport Elevation
Fuel Adjustment

58000
22/1650
130/385
20/1550
115/381
19/1500
105/378
17/1400
97/375
16/1350
90/372
16/1300
84/369
15/1300
79/366
14/1250
74/363
13/1200
68/358
13/1150
63/354
12/1100
58/350
11/1050
54/346
11/1000
50/343
10/950
46/339
9 / 950
42/335
9/900
39/332
8/850
36/329
8/800
33/326
7/800
30/323
7/750
28/320
7/700
25/317
6/700
23/314
6/650
21/311
6/600
19/309
5/600
17/306
5/550
15/304
5/500
13/301
4/500
12/299
4/450
9/294
3/350
6/290
2/250

56000
20/1550
117/383
19/1450
106/380
17/1400
97/377
16/1350
90/375
15/1300
84/372
15/1250
79/369
14/1200
74/366
13/1200
70/362
13/1150
64/358
12/1100
59/354
11/1050
55/1350
11/1000
51/346
10/950
47/342
10/950
43/339
9/900
40/335
9/850
37/332
8/800
34/329
8/800
31/326
7/750
29/323
7/700
26/320
6/700
24/317
6/650
22/314
6/650
20/311
5/600
18/309
5/550
16/306
5/550
14/304
4/500
13/301
4/500
11/299
3/400
8/294
3/350
5/290
2/250

52000
17/1350
98/381
16/1300
91/378
15/1250
85/376
14/1200
79/373
14/1150
74/371
13/1150
70/368
13/1100
66/365
12/1050
62/362
11/1050
57/357
11/1000
53/353
10/950
49/349
10/900
46/346
9/900
42/342
9/850
39/339
8/800
36/335
8/800
33/332
7/750
31/329
7/700
28/326
7/700
26/323
6/650
24/320
6/650
22/317
6/600
20/314
5/600
18/311
5/550
16/309
5/500
15/306
4/500
13/304
4/450
12/301
4/450
10/299
3/400
7/294
3/350
5/290
2/200

48000
15/1200
85/379
14/1150
79/377
13/1100
74/375
13/1100
70/372
12/1050
66/370
12/1000
62/367
11/1000
58/364
11/950
55/361
10/950
51/357
10/900
48/353
9/850
44/349
9/850
41/345
8/800
38/342
8 / 750
35/338
7/750
33/335
7/700
30/332
7/700
28/328
6/650
26/325
6/650
24/322
6/600
22/320
5/600
20/317
5/550
18/314
5/550
16/311
5/500
15/309
4/500
13/306
4/450
12/304
4/450
11/301
4/400
9/299
3/350
7/294
3/300
5/290
2/200

44000
13/1050
73/378
13/1100
69/376
12/1000
65/374
11/950
61/371
11/950
58/369
11/900
55/366
10/900
52/364
10/850
49/361
9/850
46/357
9/800
42/353
8/800
39/349
8/750
37/345
8/750
34/342
7/700
32/338
7/700
29/335
6/650
27/332
6/650
25/328
6/600
23/325
6/600
21/322
5/550
19/319
5/550
18/317
5/500
16/314
4/500
15/311
4/450
13/309
4/450
12/306
4/400
11/304
3/400
10/301
3/350
8/299
3/350
6/294
2/300
4/290
2/200

40000
12/950
64/377
11/900
60/375
11/900
57/373
10/850
54/371
10/850
51/368
9/800
48/366
9/800
46/363
9/800
43/360
8/750
41/356
8/750
38/352
8/700
35/348
7/700
33/345
7/650
30/341
6/650
28/338
6/600
26/335
6/600
24/331
6/550
22/328
5/550
21/325
5/500
19/322
5/500
17/319
5/500
16/317
4/450
15/314
4/450
13/311
4/400
12/309
4/400
11/306
3/400
10/304
3/350
9/301
3/350
7/299
3/300
6/294
2/250
4/290
1/150

2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000


-50 -100 -150 -250 -300 -350

En-route Climb 280/.74

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 19

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

ISA -5C TO +5C


Press.
Units
Alt.
Min/kg.
ft
NAM/Kt
37000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
36000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
35000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
34000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
33000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
32000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
31000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
30000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
29000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
28000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
27000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
26000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
25000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
24000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
23000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
22000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
21000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
20000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
19000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
18000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
17000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
16000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
15000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
14000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
13000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
12000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
11000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
10000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
8000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
6000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
1500 Time/Fuel

BRAKE RELEASE WEIGHT KG


68000

33/2450
209/399
27/2150
162/391
24/1950
142/386
22/1850
128/382
21/1800
117/378
19/1700
108/374
18/1600
98/369
17/1550
90/364
16/1450
82/359
15/1400
75/355
14/1350
69/351
13/1300
63/347
12/1200
58/343
11/1150
53/340
11/1100
49/336
10/1050
45/333
10/1000
41/329
9/950
37/326
8/900
34/323
81/850
31/320
7/800
28/318
7/800
25/315
6/7 5 0
22/312
6/700
20/310
6/650
18/307
5/600
15/305
4/500
11/300
4/ 450
7/295
2/250

66000

64000

28/2150
169/394
24/1950
144/389
22/1850
129/385
21/1750
118/381
19/1650
109/377
18/1600
101/373
17/1550
92/368
16/1450
84/363
15/1400
77/359
14/1350
71/355
13/1250
65/351
12/1200
60/347
12/1150
55/343
11 / 1100
51/339
10/1050
46/336
10/1000
42/333
9/950
39/329
9/900
36/326
8/900
32/323
8/850
29/320
7/800
27/318
7/750
24/315
6/700
21/312
6/650
19/310
5/650
17/307
5/600
15/305
4/500
11/300
3/450
7/295
2/250

29/2150
177/397
25/1950
148/391
22/1800
131/387
21/1700
119/383
19/1650
110/380
18/1600
102/376
17/1500
95/372
16/1450
87/367
15/1400
79/363
14/1350
73/358
13/1250
67/354
13/1200
62/350
12/1150
57/346
11/1100
52/343
10/1050
48/339
10/1000
44/336
9/950
40/332
9/950
37/329
8/900
34/326
8/850
31/323
7/800
28/320
7/750
25/317
6/700
23/315
6/700
21/312
6/650
18/310
5/600
16/307
5/550
14/305
4/500
10/300
3/400
7/295
2/250

Fuel Adjustment for high elevation airports


Effect on time and distance is negligible

Figure 4.5.1

July 2006

62000
32/2250
197/400
25/1900
151/393
22/1800
133/389
21/1700
120/386
19/1600
110/382
18/1550
102/379
17/1500
95/375
16/1450
89/372
15/1400
82/367
14/1300
75/362
13/1250
69/358
13/1200
63/354
12/1150
58/350
11/1100
54/346
11/1050
50/343
10/1000
46/339
9/1000
42/336
9/950
39/332
8/900
35/329
8/850
32/326
7/800
29/323
7/750
27/320
7/750
24/317
6/700
22/315
6/650
20/312
5/600
17/309
5/600
15/307
5/550
13/305
4/450
10/300
3/400
7/295
2/250

60000
26/1900
158/396
23/1750
135/391
21/1650
121/388
19/1600
111/385
18/1550
103/381
17/1450
96/378
16/1400
89/375
15/1350
84/371
14/1300
77/367
14/1250
71/362
13/1200
65/358
12/1150
60/354
11/1100
55/350
11/1050
51/346
10/1000
47/342
10/1000
43/339
9/950
40/336
9/900
37/332
8/850
34/329
8/800
31/326
7/800
26/323
7/750
26/320
6/700
23/317
6/650
21/315
6/650
19/312
5/600
17/309
5/550
15/307
4/550
13/305
4/450
9/300
3/400
6/295
2/250

Airport Elevation
Fuel Adjustment

58000
23/1750
138/393
21/1650
122/390
19/1550
112/387
18/1500
103/384
17/1450
96/380
16/1400
90/377
15/1350
84/374
15/1300
79/371
14/1250
73/366
13/1200
67/362
12/1150
62/357
12/1100
57/353
11/1050
53/350
10/1000
48/346
10/950
45/342
9/950
41/339
9/900
38/335
8/850
35/332
8 / 800
32/329
7/800
29/326
7/750
27/323
6/700
24/320
6/700
22/317
6/650
20/315
5/600
18/312
5/550
16/309
5/550
14/307
4/500
12/305
4/450
9/300
3/400
6/295
2/250

56000
21/1600
124/392
19/1550
112/388
18/1450
104/386
17/1400
96/383
16/1350
90/380
15/1300
84/377
14/1300
79/374
14/1250
74/370
13/1200
69/366
12/1150
63/351
12/1100
58/357
11/1050
54/353
10/1000
50/349
10/950
46/346
9/950
42/342
9/900
39/339
8/850
36/335
8/800
33/332
7/800
30/329
7/750
28/326
7/700
26/323
6/700
23/320
6/650
21/317
5/600
19/315
5/600
17/312
5/550
15/309
4/500
13/307
4/500
12/305
4/450
9/300
3/350
6/295
2/250

52000
18/1400
105/389
17/1350
96/386
16/1300
90/384
15/1250
84/381
14/1200
79/379
14/1200
74/376
13/1150
70/373
12/1100
66/369
12/1100
61/365
11/1050
57/361
11/1000
52/357
10/950
48/353
9/900
45/349
9/900
41/345
8/850
38/342
8/800
35/338
8/800
33/335
7/750
30/332
7/700
28/329
6/700
25/326
6/650
23/323
6/650
21/320
5/600
19/317
5/550
17/315
5/550
16/312
4/500
14/309
4/500
12/307
4/450
11/304
3/400
8/300
3/350
5/295
2/200

48000
16/1250
90/388
15/1200
84/385
14/1150
78/383
13/1150
74/380
13/1100
70/378
12/1050
66/375
12/1050
62/372
11/1000
59/369
11/950
55/365
10/950
51/360
10/900
47/356
9/850
43/352
9/850
40/349
8/800
37/345
8/750
34/342
7/750
32/338
7/700
29/335
7/700
27/332
6/650
25/329
6/650
23/326
6/600
21/323
5/600
19/320
5/550
17/317
5/500
16/315
4/500
14/312
4/450
13/309
4/450
11/307
4/400
10/304
3/350
7/300
3/300
5/295
2/200

44000
14/1100
78/386
13/1050
73/384
12/1050
69/382
12/1000
65/379
11/1000
62/377
11/950
58/374
10/950
55/371
10/900
52/368
10/900
49/364
9/850
45/360
9/800
42/356
8/800
39/352
8/750
36/348
7/750
33/345
7/700
31/341
7/700
29/338
6/650
26/335
6/600
24/332
6/600
22/329
5/550
21/326
5/550
19/323
5/550
17/320
5/500
16/317
4/500
14/315
4/450
13/312
4/450
11/309
4/400
10/307
3/400
9/304
3/350
6/300
2/300
4/295
2/200

40000
12/1000
68/385
11/950
64/383
11/950
601381
11/900
57/379
10/900
54/376
10/850
51/374
9/850
49/371
9/800
46/368
9 / 800
43/364
8/750
40/360
8/750
37/356
7/700
35/352
7/700
32/348
7/650
30/345
6/650
28/341
6/600
26/338
6/600
24/335
5/550
22/332
5/550
20/329
5/500
18/326
5/500
17/323
4/500
15/320
4/450
14/317
4/450
13/314
4/400
11/312
3/400
10/309
3/350
9/307
3/350
8/304
3/300
6/300
2/250
4/295
1/150

2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000


-50 -100 -200 -250 -300 -350

En-route Climb 280/.74 (continued)

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 20

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

ISA +6C TO +15C


Press.
Units
Alt.
Min/kg.
ft
NAM/Kt
37000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
36000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
35000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
34000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
33000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
32000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
31000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
30000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
29000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
28000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
27000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
26000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
25000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
24000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
23000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
22000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
21000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
20000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
19000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
18000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
17000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
16000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
15000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
14000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
13000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
12000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
11000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
10000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
8000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
6000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
1500 Time/Fuel

BRAKE RELEASE WEIGHT KG


68000

66000

64000

29/2250
180/402
25/2050
154/397
23/1950
138/393
21/1850
126/389
20/1750
116/385
19/1700
108/381

30/2250
189/405
26/2050
157/399
23/1900
140/395
21/1800
127/391
20/1750
117/388
19/1650
108/384
18/1600
101/380

62000
33/2350
212/409
26/2000
161/402
23/1900
141/397
21/1800
128/394
20/1700
118/390
19/1650
109/387
18/1550
101/383
17/1500
.95/379

60000
27/2000
169/404
23/1650
143/400
21/1750
129/396
20/1650
118/393
19/1600
109/389
18/1550
102/386
17/1500
95/382
16/1450
89/379

58000
24/1850
147/402
21/1700
130/398
20/1650
119/395
19/1550
110/392
18/1500
102/388
17/1450
95/385
16/1400
89/382
15/1350
84/378

56000
22/1700
132/400
20/1600
119/397
19/1550
110/394
18/1500
102/391
17/1450
95/388
16/1400
89/384
15/1350
84/381
14/1300
77/378

52000
18/1500
111/397
17/1400
102/395
16/1350
95/392
16/1300
89/389
15/1300
84/386
14/1250
79/383
13/1200
74/380
13/1150
70/377

48000
16/1300
95/396
15/1250
89/393
14/1200
83/391
14/1200
78/388
13/1150
74/385
13/1100
70/383
12/1100
66/380
12/1050
62/376

44000
14/1150
82/394
13/1100
77/392
13/1100
73/390
12/1050
69/387
12/1050
65/385
11/1000
62/382
11/1000
59/379
10/950
56/376

40000
12/1000
72/393
12/1000
68/391
11/950
64/389
11/950
61/386
10/900
58/384
10/900
55/381
10/900
52/378
9/850
49/375

35/2600
224/407
28/2250
173/400
25/2100
151/394
23/1950
136/390
22/1850
125/386
20/1800
115/382
19/1700
105/376
17/1600
95/371
16/1550
87/366
15/1450
80/362
14/1400
73/356
13/1350
67/354
13/1250
61/350
12/1200
56/346
11/1150
52/343
10/1100
47/339
10/1050
43/336
9/1000
39/332
9/950
36/329
8/900
33/326
8/850
29/323
7/800
26/321
7/750
24/318
6/700
21/315
6/650
19/313
5/600
16/310
4/550
12/305
4/450
8/301
2/250

18/1600
98/376
17/1550
90/371
15/1450
82/366
15/1400
75/362
14/1350
69/357
13/1250
63/353
12/1200
58/350
11/1150
54/346
11/1100
49/342
10/1050
45/339
9/1000
41/336
9/950
38/332
8/900
34/329
8/850
31/326
7/800
28/323
7/800
25/321
6/750
23/318
6/700
20/315
5/650
18/313
5/600
16/310
4/500
11/305
4/450
8/301
2/250

17/1550
92/375
16/1450
84/370
15/1400
77/366
14/1350
71/361
13/1250
65/357
12/1200
60/353
11/1150
55/349
11/1100
51/346
10/1050
47/342
10/1000
43/339
9/950
39/335
8/900
36/332
8/900
33/329
7/850
30/326
7/800
27/323
7/750
24/321
6/700
22/318
6/650
19/315
5/600
17/313
5/600
15/310
4/500
11/305
3/400
7/301
2/250

16/1450
87/374
15/1400
80/370
14/1350
73/365
13/1250
67/361
12/1200
62/'357
12/1150
57/353
11/1100
53/349
10/1050
48/346
10/1000
44/342
9/950
41/339
9/950
37/335
8/900
34/332
8/850
31/329
7/800
28/326
7/750
26/323
6/700
23/320
6/700
21/318
5/650
18/315
5/600
16/313
5/550
14/310
4/500
10/305
3/400
7/301
2/250

15/1400
82/374
14/1300
75/369
13/1250
69/365
13/1200
64/361
12/1150
59/367
11/1100
54/353
10/1050
50/349
10/1000
46/345
9/950
42/342
9/950
39/339
8/900
36/335
8/850
33/332
7/800
30/329
7/750
27/326
6/750
24/323
6/700
22/320
6/650
20/318
5/600
18/315
5/600
16/313
5/550
14/310
4/450
10/305
3/400
7/301
2/250

14/1300
77/374
13/1250
71/369
13/1200
66/365
12/1150
60/360
11/1100
56/356
11/1050
51/353
10/1000
47/349
9/950
44/345
9/950
40/342
8/900
37/338
8/850
34/335
7/800
31/332
7/750
28/329
7/750
26/326
6/700
23/323
6/650
21/320
5/650
19/318
5/600
17/315
5/550
15/312
4/500
13/310
4/450
10/305
3/400
6/301
2/250

14/1250
73/373
13/1200
67/369
12/1150
62/364
11/1100
57/360
11/1050
53/356
10/1000
49/352
10/950
45/349
9/950
42/345
9/900
38/342
8/850
35/338
8/800
32/335
7/800
30/332
7/750
27/329
6/700
25/326
6/650
22/323
6/650
20/320
5/600
18/318
5/550
16/315
5/550
14/312
4/500
12/310
4/450
9/305
3/350
6/301
2/250

12/1150
65/373
12/1100
60/368
11/1050
56/364
10/1000
51/360
10/950
47/356
9/900
44/352
9/900
41/348
8/850
37/345
8/800
35/342
7/800
32/338
7/750
29/335
7/700
27/332
6/700
24/329
6/650
22/326
5/600
20/323
5/600
18/320
5/550
16/318
5/500
15/315
4/500
13/312
4/450
11/310
3/400
8/305
3/350
6/301
2/200

11/1000
58/372
10/1000
54/368
10/950
50/363
9/900
46/359
9/850
43/356
8/850
39/352
8/800
37/348
8/750
34/345
7/750
31/341
7/700
29/338
6/700
26/335
6/650
24/332
6/600
22/329
5/600
20/326
5/550
18/323
5/550
17/320
4/500
15/318
4/500
13/315
4/450
12/312
4/450
10/310
3/350
8/305
3/300
5/301
2/200

10/900
52/372
9/900
48/367
9/850
44/363
8/800
41/359
8/800
38/355
8/750
35/352
7/750
33/348
7/700
30/345
6/700
28/341
6/650
26/338
6/600
24/335
6/600
22/332
5/550
20/329
5/550
18/326
5/500
16/323
4/500
15/320
4/450
13/318
4/450
12/315
4/400
11/312
3/400
9/310
3/350
7/305
2/300
5/301
2/200

9/850
46/371
8/800
42/367
8/750
39/363
8/750
37/359
7/700
34/355
7/700
32/351
7/650
29/348
6/650
27/344
6/600
25/341
6/600
23/338
5/550
21/335
5/550
19/332
5/500
18/329
4/500
16/326
4/450
15/323
4/450
13/320
4/450
12/318
4/400
11/315
3/400
9/312
3/350
8/310
3/300
6/305
2/250
4/301
1/150

Fuel Adjustment for high elevation airports


Effect on time and distance is negligible

Figure 4.5.1

July 2006

Airport Elevation
Fuel Adjustment

2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000


-50 -100 -200 -250 -300 -400

En-route Climb 280/.74 (continued)

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 21

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

ISA +16C TO +25C


Press.
Units
Alt.
Min/kg.
ft
NAM/Kt
37000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
36000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
35000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
34000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
33000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
32000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
31000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
30000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
29000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
28000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
27000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
26000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
25000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
24000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
23000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
22000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
21000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
20000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
19000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
18000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
17000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
16000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
15000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
14000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
13000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
12000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
11000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
10000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
8000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
6000 Time/Fuel
Dist/TAS
1500 Time/Fuel

BRAKE RELEASE WEIGHT KG


68000

40/2850
260/414
33/2500
210/407
30/2350
185/401
27/2200
166/396
25/2100
152/392
23/1950
136/386
21/1850
123/380
20/1750
111/375
18/1650
101/370
17/1550
92/365
16/1500
84/361
15/1400
77/357
14/1350
70/353
13/1300
64/349
12/1200
58/345
11/1150
53/342
11/1100
48/339
10/1050
44/335
9/1000
40/332
9/950
36/329
8/850
32/326
7/800
29/323
7/750
26/321
6/700
23/318
6/650
20/315
5/550
14/310
4/450
10/306
2/250

66000

64000

62000

34/2500
220/412
30/2250
188/406
27/2100
168/402
25/2000
153/398
23/1900
141/394
22/1850
130/389
20/1750
118/384
19/1650
107/379
18/1550
98/374
16/1500
89/369
15/1400
81/365
14/1350
75/360
13/1300
68/356
13/1250
63/352
12/1150
57/349
11/1100
52/345
10/1050
48/342
10/1000
44/338

35/2450
227/414
30/2200
190/409
27/2100
169/404
25/1950
153/400
23/1900
141/396
22/1800
130/393
21/1750
121/389
19/1650
110/383
18/1550
100/378
17/1500
92/373
16/1400
84/369
15/1350
77/364
14/1300
70/360
13/1250
65/356
12/1150
59/352
11/1100
54/349
11/1050
50/345
10/1000
45/342
9/950
42/338

60000
37/2550
246/417
30/2200
192/411
27/2050
169/406
25/1950
153/403
23/1850
141/399
22/1750
130/395
20/1700
121/392
19/1650
113/388
18/1550
106/383
17/1500
94/378
16/1400
86/373
15/1350
79/368
14/1300
73/364
13/1200
67/360
12/1150
61/356
11/1100
56/352
11/1050
52/348
10/1000
47/345
9/950
43/342
9/900
39/338

58000
31/2150
198/413
27/2000
170/408
25/1900
153/405
23/1800
141/401
21/1700
130/398
20/1650
121/394
19/1600
113/391
18/1550
106/387
17/1450
97/382
16/1400
89/377
15/1350
81/372
14/1300
75/368
13/1200
69/364
12/1150
63/360
12/1100
58/356
11/1050
53/352
10/1000
49/348
10/950
45/345
9/900
41/341
9/900
38/338

56000
27/1950
172/410
24/1850
153/406
23/1750
140/403
21/1700
130/400
20/1600
121/397
19/1550
113/394
18/1500
106/390
17/1450
99/387
16/1400
91/382
15/1350
83/377
14/1250
77/372
13/1200
70/368
13/1150
65/363
12/1100
60/359
11/1050
55/356
10/1000
50/352
10/950
46/348
9/950
43/345
9/900
39/341
8/850
36/338

52000
22/1650
140/407
21/1600
128/404
20/1550
119/401
19/1500
112/398
18/1450
105/395
17/1400
98/392
16/1350
93/389
15/1300
87/385
14/1250
80/381
14/1200
74/376
13/1150
68/371
12/1100
63/367
11/1050
58/363
11/1000
53/359
10/950
49/355
9/900
45/351
9/900
42/348
8/850
38/344
8/800
35/341
7/750
32/338

48000
19/1450
118/405
18/1400
110/402
17/1350
103/399
16/1300
97/397
16/1300
92/394
15/1250
86/391
14/1200
82/388
14/1150
77/385
13/1100
71/380
12/1100
66/375
11/1050
61/371
11/1000
56/367
10/950
52/363
10/900
48/359
9/900
44/355
9/850
41/351
8/800
37/348
8/750
34/344
7/750
32/341
7/700
29/338

44000
17/1300
101/403
16/1250
95/400
15/1200
90/398
14/1150
85/396
14/1150
80/393
13/1100
76/390
13/1100
72/387
12/1050
68/384
12/1000
63/379
11/950
58/375
10/950
54/371
10/900
50/366
9/850
46/362
9/850
43/358
8/800
39/355
8/750
36/351
7/750
34/348
7/700
31/344
7/650
28/341
6/650
26/338

40000
15/1150
88/402
14/1100
82/399
13/1050
78/397
13/1050
74/395
12/1000
70/392
12/1000
67/389
11/950
63/387
11/950
60/383
10/900
56/379
10/850
52/375
9/850
48/370
9/800
44/366
8/750
41/362
8/750
38/358
7/700
35/355
7/700
32/351
7/650
30/347
6/650
28/344
6/600
25/341
6/600
23/338

42/2950
281/418
34/2500
215/409
30/2300
186/404
27/2150
167/399
25/2050
152/395
24/1950
140/391
22/1850
126/385
20/1750
114/379
19/1650
104/374
17/1550
95/370
16/1500
86/365
15/1400
79/361
14/1350
72/357
13/1300
66/353
12/1200
60/349
12/1150
55/345
11/1100
50/342
10/1050
46/339
10/1000
42/335
9/950
38/332
8/900
34/329
8/650
31/326
7/800
28/323
7/750
25/321
6/700
22/318
6/650
19/315
5/550
14/310
4/450
9/306
2/250

9/950
40/335
9/900
36/332
8/850
33/329
7/800
29/326
7/750
26/323
6/700
23/321
6/650
21/318
5/600
18/315
5/550
13/310
4/450
9/306
2/250

9/900
38/335
8/850
34/332
8/800
31/329
7/750
28/326
7/750
25/323
6/700
22/321
6/650
20/318
5/600
17/315
4/500
13/310
4/450
8/306
2/250

8/850
36/335
8/850
33/332
7/800
30/329
7/750
27/326
6/700
24/323
6/650
21/321
5/600
19/318
5/550
16/315
4/500
12/310
3/400
8/306
2/250

8/850
34/335
7/800
31/332
7/750
28/329
7/700
25/326
6/650
23/323
6/650
20/321
5/600
18/318
5/550
16/315
4/500
11/310
3/400
8/306
2/250

8/800
33/335
7/750
30/332
7/700
27/329
6/700
24/326
6/650
22/323
5/600
19/321
5/550
17/318
5/550
15/315
4/450
11/310
3/400
7/306
2/250

7/750
29/335
7/700
27/332
6/650
24/329
6/650
22/326
5/600
20/323
5/550
18/321
5/500
16/318
4/500
14/315
4/400
10/310
3/350
7/306
2/200

6/650
27/335
6/650
24/332
6/600
22/329
5/550
20/326
5/550
18/323
5/500
16/320
4/500
14/318
4/450
12/315
3/400
9/310
3/350
6/306
2/200

6/600
24/335
5/600
22/332
5/550
20/329
5/500
18/326
5/500
16/323
4/450
14/320
4/450
13/318
4/400
11/315
3/350
8/310
3/300
5/306
2/200

5/550
21/335
5/550
19/332
5/500
18/329
4/500
16/326
4/450
14/323
4/450
13/320
4/400
11/318
3/400
10/315
3/350
7/310
2/300
5/306
1/150

Fuel Adjustment for high elevation airports


Effect on time and distance is negligible

Figure 4.5.1

July 2006

Airport Elevation
Fuel Adjustment

2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000


-50 -150 -200 -300 -350 -400

En-route Climb 280/.74 (continued)

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 22

CAP 697

5.3

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Wind Range Correction (Figure 4.5.2)


This graph is used for conversion of nautical ground miles to nautical air miles. (This
is intended for use in conjunction with the integrated range tables.)
a) Enter the graph with the average TAS. Travel horizontally left to intersect the wind
component.
b) From this point travel vertically up to intersect the appropriate ground distance grid
line.
c) Travel horizontally right to read the air distance.
d) For longer distances than shown on the graph, apply a factor of 10 to the tabulated
values.

800

0
80

0
70

50
0

0
60

700

40
0

600

35
0

500
30
0

400

250

200

AIR DISTANCE NAM

45
0

300

150

200

100

GROUND D
ISTANCE N
M

100

50

0
HEADWIND TAILWIND

ND
WI

VE

CI
LO

TY

kt

500

0
20

400

50

200

150

100

50

10
0

0
15

AVERAGE CRUISE TAS kt

600

300

Figure 4.5.2

July 2006

Wind Range Correction Graph

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 23

CAP 697

5.4

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Integrated Range
This section allows for detailed flight planning for the cruise.
Tables are given as follows:
Figures 4.5.3.1
Figures 4.5.3.2
Figures 4.5.3.3

Figures 4.5.3.4

Long Range Cruise


FL 270 to FL 370

(pages 25- 35)

0.74 Mach Cruise


FL 210 to FL 370

(pages 36- 52)

0.78 Mach Cruise


FL 290, 300, 310,
330, 350, 370.
Low level (300 KIAS) Cruise
FL 140 to FL 210.

(pages 53- 58)

(pages 59 -66)

The tables in this section are identical in use.


The tables are based on a differences principle, the difference between two gross
weights representing a weight of fuel used. The corresponding difference in
tabulated distance represents the still air (zero wind) distance available for that weight
of fuel used.
5.4.1

Example
An aircraft commences a cruise at 0.74 Mach at FL 330 where the temperature is ISA.
The following gives the relevant data for the first two sectors:

A-B
B-C

NGM

W.C (kt)

240
370

-20
-30

Weight at beginning of first sector is 53,500 kg.


5.4.2

Method
Using the TAS given for cruise (430 kt):
Obtain NAM for each leg.

A-B
B-C

252
398

Select table for 0.74 Mach


Enter with gross weight
Extract value for cruise equivalent air distance
Subtract first leg NAM
Obtain new cruise equivalent air distance value
Enter table to find corresponding weight
Subtract from start weight to obtain leg fuel used

P. Alt. 33,000 ft.


= 53,500 kg
= 3,796
= 252
= 3,544
= 52,100 kg
= 1,400 kg

Repeat process
Subtract second leg NAM
Obtain new cruise equivalent air distance value
Enter table to find weight
Subtract from start weight to obtain leg fuel used

398
3,146
50,000 kg
2,100 kg

N.B. These tables are based on ISA conditions


If conditions are non-standard use the corrections given below the appropriate table.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 24

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE
GROSS
WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

100

TAS
371
375
379
383
387
391
394
398
401
405
408
411
414
417
420
423
426
428
431
433
435
437
438
440
441
442
443
444
444
444
444
444
444

27,000 ft
200

300

A/C Auto

LONG RANGE CRUISE


400

500

600

700

800

900

163
365
565
763
958
1151
1342
1531
1718
1903
2086
2267
2446
2624
2799
2972
3144
3314
3483
3650
3815
3978
4140
4300
4459
4616
4771
4925
5078
5229
5378
5526
5673

183
385
585
782
978
1171
1361
1550
1737
1922
2104
2285
2464
2641
2816
2990
3161
3331
3500
3666
3831
3995
4156
4316
4475
4632
4787
4941
5093
5244
5393
5541
5687

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
204
405
605
802
997
1190
1381
1569
1756
1940
2123
2303
2482
2659
2834
3007
3179
3348
3516
3683
3848
4011
4172
4332
4491
4647
4802
4956
5108
5259
5408
5556

20
224
425
625
822
1016
1209
1399
1588
1774
1958
2141
2321
2500
2676
2851
3024
3196
3365
3533
3699
3864
4027
4188
4348
4506
4663
4818
4971
5123
5274
5423
5570

40
244
445
644
841
1036
1228
1418
1606
1793
1977
2159
2339
2517
2694
2869
3041
3213
3382
3550
3716
3880
4043
4204
4364
4522
4678
4833
4986
5138
5289
5437
5585

61
264
465
664
861
1055
1247
1437
1625
1811
1995
2177
2357
2535
2711
2886
3059
3229
3399
3566
3732
3897
4059
4220
4380
4538
4694
4849
5002
5153
5304
5452
5599

81
284
485
684
880
1074
1266
1456
1644
1829
2013
2195
2375
2553
2729
2903
3076
3246
3416
3583
3749
3913
4075
4236
4396
4553
4709
4864
5017
5168
5318
5467
5614

102
305
505
704
900
1093
1285
1475
1662
1848
2031
2213
2393
2570
2746
2921
3093
3263
3432
3600
3765
3929
4092
4252
4411
4569
4725
4879
5032
5183
5333
5482
5629

122
325
525
723
919
1113
1304
1494
1681
1866
2050
2231
2411
2588
2764
2938
3110
3280
3449
3616
3782
3946
4108
4268
4427
4585
4740
4895
5047
5199
5348
5497
5643

142
345
545
743
939
1132
1323
1513
1700
1885
2068
2249
2428
2606
2781
2955
3127
3297
3466
3633
3798
3962
4124
4284
4443
4600
4756
4910
5063
5214
5363
5511
5658

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2:

ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES


A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.1

July 2006

Long Range Cruise Pressure Altitude 27,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 25

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE
GROSS
WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

100

TAS
376
380
384
388
392
396
399
403
406
409
413
416
419
422
425
427
429
432
434
436
437
439
440
441
442
442
442
442
443
443
443
443
443

A/C Auto

28,000 ft

LONG RANGE CRUISE

200

400

300

500

600

700

800

900

166
373
577
779
978
1175
1370
1563
1753
1942
2128
2312
2495
2675
2853
3030
3205
3378
3549
3719
3887
4053
4217
4380
4541
4700
4858
5014
5168
5321
5472
5622
5770

187
393
597
799
998
1195
1389
1582
1772
1960
2147
2331
2513
2693
2871
3048
3222
3395
3567
3736
3904
4069
4234
4396
4557
4716
4873
5029
5184
5336
5487
5637
5784

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
208
414
618
819
1018
1214
1409
1601
1791
1979
2165
2349
2531
2711
2889
3065
3240
3413
3584
3753
3920
4086
4250
4412
4573
4732
4889
5045
5199
5351
5502
5652

20
229
434
638
839
1037
1234
1428
1620
1810
1998
2184
2367
2549
2729
2907
3083
3257
3430
3601
3770
3937
4102
4266
4428
4589
4747
4905
5060
5214
5367
5517
5666

41
249
455
658
859
1057
1253
1447
1639
1829
2016
2202
2385
2567
2747
2924
3100
3274
3447
3617
3786
3953
4119
4282
4444
4605
4763
4920
5076
5229
5382
5532
5681

62
270
475
678
879
1077
1273
1466
1658
1848
2035
2220
2404
2585
2764
2942
3118
3292
3464
3634
3803
3970
4135
4299
4460
4620
4779
4936
5091
5245
5397
5547
5696

83
290
495
698
898
1096
1292
1486
1677
1866
2054
2239
2422
2603
2782
2960
3135
3309
3481
3651
3820
3987
4152
4315
4476
4636
4795
4951
5106
5260
5412
5562
5711

104
311
516
718
918
1116
1312
1505
1696
1885
2072
2257
2440
2621
2800
2977
3153
3326
3498
3668
3837
4003
4168
4331
4492
4652
4810
4967
5122
5275
5427
5577
5725

125
332
536
738
938
1136
1331
1524
1715
1904
2091
2275
2458
2639
2818
2995
3170
3344
3515
3685
3853
4020
4184
4347
4509
4668
4826
4983
5137
5290
5442
5592
5740

145
352
557
759
958
1155
1350
1543
1734
1923
2109
2294
2476
2657
2836
3013
3188
3361
3532
3702
3870
4036
4201
4364
4525
4684
4842
4998
5153
5306
5457
5607
5755

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.1

July 2006

Long Range Cruise Pressure Altitude 28,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 26

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE
GROSS
WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

100

TAS
381
385
389
393
397
400
404
407
411
414
417
420
423
426
428
431
433
435
436
438
439
440
440
440
441
441
441
441
441
441
441
441
441

A/C Auto

29,000 ft

LONG RANGE CRUISE

200

400

300

500

600

700

800

900

170
380
589
794
998
1198
1397
1593
1787
1979
2169
2357
2542
2726
2908
3088
3265
3441
3616
3788
3958
4126
4293
4458
4621
4783
4942
5100
5257
5411
5564
5714
5863

191
401
609
815
1018
1218
1417
1613
1807
1998
2188
2375
2561
2744
2926
3105
3283
3459
3633
3805
3975
4143
4310
4475
4638
4799
4958
5116
5272
5426
5579
5729
5878

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
212
422
630
835
1038
1238
1437
1632
1826
2018
2207
2394
2579
2763
2944
3123
3301
3477
3650
3822
3992
4160
4326
4491
4654
4815
4974
5132
5288
5442
5594
5745

21
233
443
651
856
1058
1258
1456
1652
1845
2037
2226
2413
2598
2781
2962
3141
3319
3494
3667
3839
4009
4177
4343
4507
4670
4831
4990
5147
5303
5457
5609
5759

42
254
464
671
876
1078
1278
1476
1671
1864
2055
2244
2431
2616
2799
2980
3159
3336
3511
3685
3856
4026
4193
4359
4524
4686
4847
5006
5163
5319
5472
5624
5774

63
275
485
692
896
1098
1298
1495
1691
1884
2074
2263
2450
2634
2817
2998
3177
3354
3529
3702
3873
4042
4210
4376
4540
4702
4863
5022
5179
5334
5487
5639
5789

85
296
506
712
916
1118
1318
1515
1710
1903
2093
2282
2468
2653
2835
3016
3194
3371
3546
3719
3890
4059
4227
4392
4556
4718
4879
5037
5194
5349
5503
5654
5804

106
317
526
733
937
1138
1338
1535
1729
1922
2112
2301
2487
2671
2853
3034
3212
3389
3563
3736
3907
4076
4243
4409
4572
4734
4895
5053
5210
5365
5518
5669
5819

127
338
547
753
957
1158
1357
1554
1749
1941
2131
2319
2505
2689
2871
3052
3230
3406
3581
3753
3924
4093
4260
4425
4589
4751
4911
5069
5225
5380
5533
5684
5834

148
359
568
774
977
1178
1377
1574
1768
1960
2150
2338
2524
2708
2890
3070
3248
3424
3598
3771
3941
4110
4277
4442
4605
4767
4927
5085
5241
5396
5548
5699
5849

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.1

July 2006

Long Range Cruise Pressure Altitude 29,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 27

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE
GROSS
WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

100

TAS
386
390
394
398
402
405
409
412
416
419
422
424
427
429
431
433
435
436
437
438
438
439
439
439
439
439
439
439
439
439
439
439
439

A/C Auto

30,000 ft

LONG RANGE CRUISE

200

400

300

500

600

700

800

900

173
388
600
810
1017
1222
1424
1624
1822
2017
2210
2401
2590
2777
2962
3145
3326
3505
3681
3856
4029
4200
4369
4536
4701
4865
5026
5185
5343
5498
5652
5804
5953

195
409
621
831
1037
1242
1444
1644
1841
2037
2230
2421
2609
2796
2981
3163
3344
3522
3699
3873
4046
4217
4386
4553
4718
4881
5042
5201
5359
5514
5667
5819
5968

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
216
431
642
851
1058
1262
1464
1664
1861
2056
2249
2440
2628
2815
2999
3182
3362
3540
3717
3891
4063
4234
4403
4569
4734
4897
5058
5217
5374
5529
5683
5834

21
238
452
663
872
1079
1283
1484
1684
1881
2075
2268
2458
2647
2833
3017
3200
3380
3558
3734
3908
4080
4251
4419
4586
4750
4913
5074
5233
5390
5545
5698
5849

43
259
473
684
893
1099
1303
1504
1703
1900
2095
2287
2477
2666
2852
3036
3218
3398
3576
3751
3925
4097
4268
4436
4602
4767
4929
5090
5249
5405
5560
5713
5864

65
281
494
705
913
1119
1323
1524
1723
1920
2114
2306
2496
2684
2870
3054
3236
3416
3593
3769
3943
4115
4285
4453
4619
4783
4945
5106
5264
5421
5575
5728
5879

86
302
515
726
934
1140
1343
1544
1743
1939
2133
2325
2515
2703
2889
3072
3254
3433
3611
3786
3960
4132
4301
4469
4635
4799
4961
5122
5280
5436
5591
5743
5893

108
324
536
747
955
1160
1363
1564
1762
1959
2152
2344
2534
2721
2907
3090
3272
3451
3628
3804
3977
4149
4318
4486
4652
4816
4978
5138
5296
5452
5606
5758
5908

130
345
558
768
975
1181
1384
1584
1782
1978
2172
2363
2553
2740
2925
3109
3290
3469
3646
3821
3994
4166
4335
4503
4668
4832
4994
5154
5311
5467
5621
5773
5923

151
366
579
789
996
1201
1404
1604
1802
1998
2191
2382
2572
2759
2944
3127
3308
3487
3664
3839
4012
4183
4352
4519
4685
4848
5010
5169
5327
5483
5637
5788
5938

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 66,600 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.1

July 2006

Long Range Cruise Pressure Altitude 30,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 28

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE
GROSS
WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
.45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

100

TAS
391
395
399
403
406
410
414
417
420
423
425
428
430
432
433
435
436
437
437
437
437
437
437
437
437
437
437
437
437
437
437
437
437

A/C Auto

31,000 ft

LONG RANGE CRUISE

200

400

300

500

600

700

800

900

176
395
612
825
1037
1245
1452
1655
1857
2056
2252
2447
2639
2829
3017
3203
3386
3568
3747
3924
4099
4272
4443
4612
4779
4944
5107
5267
5425
5582
5736
5888
6037

199
417
633
847
1058
1266
1472
1676
1877
2076
2272
2466
2658
2848
3036
3221
3405
3586
3765
3942
4117
4290
4461
4629
4796
4960
5123
5283
5441
5597
5751
5903
6052

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
221
439
655
868
1079
1287
1493
1696
1897
2095
2292
2486
2678
2867
3055
3240
3423
3604
3783
3959
4134
4307
4478
4646
4813
4977
5139
5299
5457
5613
5766
5981

22
242
461
676
889
1100
1308
1513
1716
1917
2115
2311
2505
2697
2886
3073
3258
3441
3622
3800
3977
4152
4324
4494
4663
4829
4993
5155
5315
5473
5628
5782
5933

44
264
482
698
910
1120
1328
1533
1736
1936
2135
2331
2524
2716
2905
3092
3276
3459
3640
3818
3994
4169
4341
4511
4679
4845
5009
.5171
5331
5488
5643
5797
5948

66
286
504
719
931
1141
1349
1554
1756
1956
2154
2350
2543
2735
2924
3110
3295
3477
3657
3836
4012
4186
4358
4528
4696
4862
5025
5187
5346
5504
5659
5812
5963

88
308
525
740
952
1162
1369
1574
1776
1976
2174
2369
2563
2754
2942
3129
3313
3495
3675
3853
4029
4203
4375
4545
4713
4878
5042
5203
5362
5519
5674
5827
5978

110
330
547
762
973
1183
1390
1594
1796
1996
2194
2389
2582
2772
2961
3147
3331
3513
3693
3871
4047
4221
4392
4562
4729
4895
5058
5219
5378
5535
5690
5842
5993

132
352
569
783
995
1204
1410
1615
1816
2016
2213
2408
2601
2791
2980
3166
3350
3531
3711
3889
4064
4238
4409
4579
4746
4911
5074
5235
5394
5550
5705
5857
6008

154
374
590
804
1016
1225
1431
1635
1837
2036
2233
2428
2620
2810
2998
3184
3368
3550
3729
3906
4082
4255
4426
4596
4763
4928
5090
5251
5410
5566
5720
5873
6023

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 63,500 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.1

July 2006

Long Range Cruise Pressure Altitude 31,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 29

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE
GROSS
WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

100

TAS
396
400
404
407
411
415
418
421
423
426
428
430
432
433
434
435
435
435
435
435
435
435
435
435
435
435
435
435
435
435
435
435
435

A/C Auto

32,000 ft

LONG RANGE CRUISE

200

400

300

500

600

700

800

900

180
403
624
842
1057
1270
1480
1687
1892
2095
2295
2493
2688
2881
3072
3260
3446
3630
3812
3991
4169
4343
4516
4686
4854
5020
5183
5344
5503
5659
5813
5965
6114

203
426
646
864
1079
1291
1501
1708
1913
2115
2315
2513
2708
2900
3091
3279
3465
3649
3830
4009
4186
4361
4533
4703
4871
5036
5200
5360
5519
5675
5829
5980
6129

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
225
448
668
885
1100
1312
1522
1729
1933
2135
2335
2532
2727
2920
3110
3298
3483
3667
3848
4027
4204
4378
4550
4720
4888
5053
5216
5377
5535
5691
5844
5995

22
247
470
690
907
1121
1333
1542
1749
1953
2155
2355
2552
2746
2939
3129
3316
3502
3685
3866
4045
4221
4396
4567
4737
4904
5069
5232
5392
5550
5706
5859
6010

45
270
492
712
928
1142
1354
1563
1770
1974
2175
2375
2571
2766
2958
3147
3335
3520
3703
3884
4063
4239
4413
4584
4754
4921
5086
5248
5408
5566
5721
5874
6025

67
292
514
733
950
1164
1375
1584
1790
1994
2195
2394
2591
2785
2977
3166
3353
3539
3721
3902
4080
4256
4430
4601
4771
4937
5102
5264
5424
5582
5737
5889
6040

90
314
536
755
971
1185
1396
1604
1810
2014
2215
2414
2610
2804
2996
3185
3372
3557
3739
3920
4098
4274
4447
4618
4787
4954
5118
5280
5440
5597
5752
5904
6054

112
337
558
777
993
1206
1417
1625
1831
2034
2235
2434
2630
2823
3015
3204
3391
3575
3758
3938
4116
4291
4464
4635
4804
4970
5134
5296
5456
5613
5767
5920
6069

135
359
580
798
1014
1227
1438
1646
1851
2054
2255
2453
2649
2843
3034
3223
3409
3594
3776
3956
4133
4309
4482
4652
4821
4987
5151
5312
5471
5628
5783
5935
6084

157
381
602
820
1036
1249
1459
1667
1872
2075
2275
2473
2669
2862
3053
3241
3428
3612
3794
3973
4151
4326
4499
4669
4838
5003
5167
5328
5487
5644
5798
5950
6099

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 60,700 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.1

July 2006

Long Range Cruise Pressure Altitude 32,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 30

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE
GROSS
WT. kg

100

TAS

A/C Auto

33,000 ft

LONG RANGE CRUISE

200

400

300

500

600

700

800

900

184
411
636
858
1077
1294
1508
1719
1928
2134
2337
2538
2736
2932
3125
3316
3505
3691
3874
4056
4234
4410
4584
4755
4924
5090
5253
5414
5572

207
434
659
880
1099
1315
1529
1740
1948
2154
2357
2558
2756
2951
3144
3335
3523
3709
3893
4074
4252
4428
4601
4772
4940
5106
5270
5430
5588
5743

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES

35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000

400
405
408
412
415
419
421
424
426
428
430
432
433
433
433
433
433
433
433
433
433
433
433
433
433
433
433
433
433
433

0
230
457
681
902
1121
1337
1550
1761
1969
2175
2377
2578
2775
2971
3164
3354
3542
3728
3911
4092
4270
4445
4619
4789
4957
5123
5286
5446
5604

23
252
479
703
924
1143
1358
1571
1782
1990
2195
2397
2597
2795
2990
3183
3373
3561
3746
3929
4110
4287
4463
4636
4806
4974
5139
5302
5462
5619

46
275
502
725
946
1164
1380
1593
1803
2010
2215
2417
2617
2814
3009
3202
3392
3579
3765
3947
4127
4305
4480
4653
4823
4990
5155
5318
5478
5635

69
298
524
747
968
1186
1401
1614
1823
2031
2235
2437
2637
2834
3029
3221
3411
3598
3783
3965
4145
4323
4497
4670
4840
5007
5172
5334
5493
5650

92
320
547
770
990
1207
1422
1635
1844
2051
2256
2458
2657
2854
3048
3240
3429
3617
3801
3983
4163
4340
4515
4687
4856
5024
5188
5350
5509
5666

115
343
569
792
1012
1229
1444
1656
1865
2072
2276
2478
2677
2873
3067
3259
3448
3635
3819
4001
4181
4358
4532
4704
4873
5040
5204
5366
5525
5681

138
366
591
814
1034
1251
1465
1677
1886
2092
2296
2498
2696
2893
3087
3278
3467
3654
3838
4019
4199
4375
4549
4721
4890
5057
5221
5382
5541
5697

161
389
614
836
1055
1272
1486
1698
1907
2113
2317
2518
2716
2912
3106
3297
3486
3672
3856
4038
4216
4393
4567
4738
4907
5073
5237
5398
5557
5712

65000
66000
67000

433
433
433

5759
5911
6060

5774
5926
6075

5789
5941
6089

5804
5956
6104

5820
5970
6118

5835
5985
6133

5850
6000
6148

5865
6015
6162

57,28
5880
6030
6177

5896
6045
6191

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 58,200 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 66,400 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.1

July 2006

Long Range Cruise Pressure Altitude 33,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 31

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE
GROSS
WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

100

TAS
405
409
413
416
419
422
424
427
428
430
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
430
430
430

A/C Auto

34,000 ft

LONG RANGE CRUISE

200

400

300

500

600

700

800

900

187
419
648
874
1097
1317
1535
1750
1961
2171
2377
2581
2782
2980
3176
3369
3560
3747
3932
4115
4294
4471
4645
4816
4985
5150
5313
5472
5629
5782
5931
6077
6219

210
442
671
896
1119
1339
1557
1771
1983
2191
2398
2601
2802
3000
3196
3389
3579
3766
3951
4133
4312
4489
4662
4833
5002
5167
5329
5488
5644
5797
5946
6091
6233

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
234
465
694
919
1142
1361
1578
1792
2004
2212
2418
2621
2822
3020
3215
3408
3598
3785
3969
4151
4330
4506
4680
4851
5018
5183
5345
5504
5660
5812
5961
6106

23
257
488
716
941
1164
1383
1600
1814
2025
2233
2438
2641
2842
3039
3234
3427
3616
3803
3987
4169
4348
4524
4697
4867
5035
5200
5361
5520
5675
5827
5975
6120

46
280
511
739
963
1186
1405
1621
1835
2045
2253
2459
2661
2862
3059
3254
3446
3635
3822
4006
4187
4365
4541
4714
4884
5051
5216
5377
5535
5690
5842
5990
6134

70
303
534
761
986
1207
1426
1643
1856
2066
2274
2479
2682
2881
3078
3273
3465
3654
3840
4024
4205
4383
4558
4731
4901
5068
5232
5393
5551
5706
5857
6004
6148

93
326
557
784
1008
1229
1448
1664
1877
2087
2295
2499
2702
2901
3098
3292
3484
3673
3859
4042
4223
4400
4576
4748
4918
5084
5248
5409
5566
5721
5872
6019
6162

117
350
579
806
1030
1251
1470
1685
1898
2108
2315
2520
2722
2921
3118
3311
3503
3691
3877
4060
4240
4418
4593
4765
4934
5101
5264
5425
5582
5736
5886
6033
6176

140
373
602
829
1053
1273
1492
1707
1919
2129
2336
2540
2742
2941
3137
3331
3522
3710
3896
4078
4258
4436
4610
4782
4951
5117
5281
5441
5598
5751
5901
6048
6190

164
396
625
851
1075
1295
1513
1728
1940
2150
2356
2560
2762
2960
3157
3350
3541
3729
3914
4096
4276
4453
4628
4799
4968
5134
5297
5457
5613
5766
5916
6062
6204

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 55,500 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER IS 67,100 kg
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 IS 65,700 kg
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 64,000 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.1

July 2006

Long Range Cruise Pressure Altitude 34,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 32

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE
GROSS
WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000

100

TAS
410
414
417
420
422
425
426
428
429
429
429
429
429
429
429
429
429
429
429
429
430
430
430
429
429
429
429
429
428
428
427

A/C Auto

35,000 ft

LONG RANGE CRUISE

200

400

300

500

600

700

800

900

191
427
660
890
1117
1342
1563
1781
1996
2208
2417
2624
2827
3028
3226
3420
3612
3801
3987
4170
4349
4526
4700
4870
5037
5201
5361
5517
5669
5817
5960

214
450
683
913
1140
1364
1585
1802
2017
2229
2438
2644
2848
3048
3245
3440
3631
3820
4005
4188
4367
4544
4717
4887
5054
5217
5377
5532
5684
5831
5974

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
238
474
707
936
1163
1386
1607
1824
2039
2250
2459
2665
2868
3068
3265
3459
3650
3838
4024
4206
4385
4561
4734
4904
5070
5233
5393
5548
5699
5846

23
262
497
730
959
1185
1408
1628
1845
2060
2271
2480
2685
2888
3088
3284
3478
3669
3857
4042
4224
4403
4579
4751
4921
5087
5249
5408
5563
5714
5860

47
285
521
753
982
1207
1430
1650
1867
2081
2292
2500
2705
2908
3107
3304
3497
3688
3875
4060
4242
4420
4596
4768
4937
5103
5265
5424
5578
5728
5874

71
309
544
776
1004
1230
1452
1672
1888
2102
2313
2521
2726
2928
3127
3323
3516
3707
3894
4078
4260
4438
4613
4785
4954
5119
5281
5439
5593
5743
5889

95
333
567
798
1027
1252
1474
1694
1910
2123
2334
2541
2746
2948
3147
3343
3536
3726
3913
4097
4278
4456
4631
4802
4971
5136
5297
5455
5608
5758
5903

119
356
590
821
1050
1275
1496
1715
1931
2144
2355
2562
2766
2968
3166
3362
3555
3744
3931
4115
4296
4473
4648
4819
4987
5152
5313
5470
5623
5772
5917

143
380
614
844
1072
1297
1519
1737
1953
2165
2375
2582
2787
2988
3186
3381
3574
3763
3950
4133
4314
4491
4665
4836
5004
5168
5329
5486
5638
5787
5932

167
403
637
867
1095
1319
1541
1759
1974
2187
2396
2603
2807
3008
3206
3401
3593
3782
3968
4151
4331
4509
4682
4853
5021
5184
5345
5501
5654
5802
5946

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 53,000 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER IS 64,500 kg
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 IS 63,100 kg
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 61,600 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.1

July 2006

Long Range Cruise Pressure Altitude 35,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 33

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE
GROSS
WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000

100

TAS
414
417
420
422
424
426
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
428
428
428
428
427
427
427
427
426
426
425

A/C Auto

36,000 ft

LONG RANGE CRUISE

200

400

300

500

600

700

800

900

194
435
673
907
1138
1365
1590
1811
2029
2244
2456
2665
2870
3072
3271
3467
3660
3849
4035
4217
4397
4572
4744
4911
5075
5234
5389
5538

219
459
696
930
1161
1388
1612
1833
2051
2266
2477
2686
2891
3093
3291
3487
3679
3868
4054
4236
4414
4589
4761
4928
5091
5250
5404
5553

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
243
483
720
954
1184
1411
1634
1855
2073
2287
2498
2706
2911
3113
3311
3506
3698
3887
4072
4254
4432
4607
4778
4945
5107
5266
5419

24
267
507
743
977
1207
1433
1657
1877
2094
2308
2519
2727
2931
3133
3331
3525
3717
3905
4090
4272
4450
4624
4795
4961
5123
5281
5434

48
291
531
767
1000
1229
1455
1679
1899
2116
2329
2540
2747
2951
3152
3350
3545
3736
3924
4108
4290
4467
4641
4811
4977
5139
5296
5449

73
315
554
790
1023
1252
1478
1701
1920
2137
2350
2561
2768
2972
3172
3370
'3564
3755
3942
4127
4307
4485
4658
4828
4994
5155
5312
5464

97
339
578
814
1046
1275
1500
1723
1942
2158
2372
2582
2788
2992
3192
3389
3583
3774
3961
4145
4325
4502
4675
4845
5010
5171
5327
.5479

121
363
602
837
1069
1297
1523
1745
1964
2180
2393
2602
2809
3012
3212
3409
3602
3792
3979
4163
4343
4520
4692
4861
5026
5187
5342
5494

146
387
625
860
1092
1320
1545
1767
1986
2201
2414
2623
2829
3032
3232
3428
3621
3811
3998
4181
4361
4537
4709
4878
5042
5202
5358
5509

170
411
649
884
1115
1343
1567
1789
2007
2223
2435
2644
2850
3052
3252
3448
3641
3830
4016
4199
4379
4554
4727
4895
5059
5218
5373
5523

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 50,500 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER IS 61,800 kg
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 IS 60,500 kg
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 59,200 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.1

July 2006

Long Range Cruise Pressure Altitude 36,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 34

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE
GROSS
WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000

100

TAS
419
422
424
426
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
427
426
426
425

37,000 ft
200

300

A/C Auto

LONG RANGE CRUISE


400

500

600

700

800

900

198
442
683
921
1155
1386
1613
1837
2058
2275
2488
2698
2905
3108
3307
3503
3696
3884
4069
4249
4425
4597
4764
4926
5083

222
467
707
945
1178
1409
1636
1859
2080
2296
2510
2719
2925
3128
3327
3523
3715
3903
4087
4267
4443
4614
4781
4942
5099

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
247
491
731
968
1202
1432
1659
1882
2102
2318
2531
2740
2946
3148
3347
3542
3734
3922
4105
4285
4461
4631
4797
4958

24
271
515
755
992
1225
1454
1681
1904
2123
2339
2552
2761
2966
3168
3367
3562
3753
3940
4123
4303
4479
4648
4813
4974

49
296
539
779
1015
1248
1477
1703
1926
2145
2361
2573
2781
2986
3188
3386
3581
3771
3958
4141
4320
4495
4665
4830
4990

74
320
563
803
1038
1271
1500
1725
1948
2167
2382
2594
2802
3007
3208
3406
3600
3790
3977
4159
4338
4512
4681
4845
5005

99
345
587
826
1062
1294
1522
1748
1970
2188
2403
2615
2822
3027
3228
3425
3619
3809
3995
4177
4385
4529
4698
4862
5021

123
369
611
850
1085
1317
1545
1770
1992
2210
2424
2635
2843
3047
3248
3445
3638
3828
4013
4195
4373
4546
4714
4878
5036

148
393
635
874
1108
1340
1568
1792
2014
2231
2446
2656
2864
3067
3268
3464
3657
3846
4032
4213
4390
4563
4731
4894
5052

173
418
659
897
1132
1363
1590
1815
2036
2253
2467
2677
2884
3088
3288
3484
3676
3865
4050
4231
4408
4580
4748
4910
5067

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 48,000 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER IS 58,700 kgG
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 IS 57,500 kg
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 56,300 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.1

July 2006

Long Range Cruise Pressure Altitude 37,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 35

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 36

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 21,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 453 kt

700

800

900

119
268
417
565
714
861
1009
1156
1303
1450
1596
1741
1887
2031
2175
2319
2462
2605
2747
2888
3029
3169
3308
3447
3585
3722
3859
3995
4130
4264
4398
4531
4663

134
283
432
580
728
876
1024
1171
1318
1464
1610
1756
1901
2046
2190
2333
2476
2619
2761
2902
3043
3183
3322
3461
3599
3736
3873
4008
4144
4278
4411
4544
4676

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
149
298
447
595
743
891
1039
1186
1332
1479
1625
1770
1916
2060
2204
2348
2491
2633
2775
2916
3057
3197
3336
3475
3613
3750
3886
4022
4157
4291
4425
4558

14
164
313
461
610
758
906
1053
1200
1347
1493
1639
1785
1930
2075
2219
2362
2505
2647
2789
2930
3071
3211
3350
3489
3626
3764
3900
4036
4170
4305
4438
4571

29
179
328
476
625
773
921
1068
1215
1362
1508
1654
1799
1944
2089
2233
2376
2519
2662
2803
2944
3085
3225
3364
3502
3640
3777
3913
4049
4184
4318
4451
4584

44
193
342
491
639
788
935
1083
1230
1376
1523
1669
1814
1959
2103
2247
2391
2534
2676
2817
2958
3099
3239
3378
3516
3654
3791
3927
4063
4197
4331
4465
4597

59
208
357
506
654
802
950
1097
1244
1391
1537
1683
1828
1973
2118
2262
2405
2548
2690
2832
2973
3113
3253
3392
3530
3668
3804
3941
4076
4211
4345
4478
4610

74
223
372
521
669
817
965
1112
1259
1406
1552
1698
1843
1988
2132
2276
2419
2562
2704
2846
2987
3127
3267
3405
3544
3681
3818
3954
4090
4224
4358
4491
4623

89
238
387
536
684
832
980
1127
1274
1420
1566
1712
1857
2002
2147
2290
2434
2576
2718
2860
3001
3141
3280
3419
3558
3695
3832
3968
4103
4238
4371
4504
4637

104
253
402
550
699
847
994
1142
1288
1435
1581
1727
1872
2017
2161
2305
2448
2590
2733
2874
3015
3155
3294
3433
3571
3709
3845
3981
4117
4251
4385
4518
4650

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 21,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 37

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 22,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 451 kt

700

800

900

123
278
432
586
740
893
1046
1198
1350
1502
1653
1804
1954
2103
2252
2400
2548
2695
2841
2986
3131
3275
3418
3561
3703
3844
3984
4123
4262
4399
4536
4672
4807

139
293
448
602
755
908
1061
1214
1366
1517
1668
1819
1969
2118
2267
2415
2562
2709
2855
3001
3146
3290
3433
3575
3717
3858
3998
4137
4276
4413
4550
4686
4821

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
154
309
463
617
771
924
1077
1229
1381
1532
1683
1834
1984
2133
2282
2430
2577
2724
2870
3015
3160
3304
3447
3589
3731
3872
4012
4151
4289
4427
4564
4699

15
170
324
479
632
786
939
1092
1244
1396
1547
1698
1849
1998
2148
2296
2444
2592
2738
2885
3030
3174
3318
3461
3604
3745
3886
4026
4165
4303
4441
4577
4713

30
185
340
494
648
801
954
1107
1259
1411
1562
1713
1864
2013
2163
2311
2459
2606
2753
2899
3044
3189
3333
3476
3618
3759
3900
4040
4179
4317
4454
4591
4726

46
201
355
509
663
817
970
1122
1274
1426
1578
1728
1879
2028
2177
2326
2474
2621
2768
2914
3059
3203
3347
3490
3632
3773
3914
4054
4193
4331
4468
4604
4740

61
216
371
525
678
832
985
1137
1290
1441
1593
1743
1894
2043
2192
2341
2489
2636
2782
2928
3073
3218
3361
3504
3646
3787
3928
4068
4206
4344
4482
4618
4753

77
232
386
540
694
847
1000
1153
1305
1457
1608
1758
1909
2058
2207
2356
2503
2650
2797
2943
3088
3232
3376
3518
3660
3801
3942
4081
4220
4358
4495
4632
4767

92
247
401
555
709
862
1015
1168
1320
1472
1623
1773
1924
2073
2222
2370
2518
2665
2812
2957
3102
3246
3390
3533
3674
3816
3956
4095
4234
4372
4509
4645
4780

108
263
417
571
725
878
1031
1183
1335
1487
1638
1789
1939
2088
2237
2385
2533
2680
2826
2972
3117
3261
3404
3547
3689
3830
3970
4109
4248
4386
4523
4659
4794

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 22,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 38

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 23,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 449 kt

700

800

900

128
288
448
608
767
926
1084
1242
1399
1555
1712
1867
2022
2176
2329
2482
2634
2786
2936
3086
3234
3382
3530
3676
3821
3966
4109
4252
4394
4535
4675
4814
4952

144
304
464
624
783
941
1100
1257
1415
1571
1727
1883
2037
2191
2345
2497
2649
2801
2951
3101
3249
3397
3544
3690
3836
3980
4124
4266
4408
4549
4689
4827
4965

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
160
320
480
640
799
957
1115
1273
1430
1587
1743
1898
2053
2207
2360
2513
2665
2816
2966
3116
3264
3412
3559
3705
3850
3995
4138
4281
4422
4563
4703
4841

16
176
336
496
656
815
973
1131
1289
1446
1602
1758
1914
2068
2222
2375
2528
2680
2831
2981
3130
3279
3427
3574
3720
3865
4009
4152
4295
4436
4577
4716
4855

32
192
352
512
671
830
989
1147
1305
1462
1618
1774
1929
2084
2237
2391
2543
2695
2846
2996
3145
3294
3441
3588
3734
3879
4023
4167
4309
4450
4591
4730
4869

48
208
368
528
687
846
1005
1163
1320
1477
1634
1789
1945
2099
2253
2406
2558
2710
2861
3011
3160
3309
3456
3603
3749
3894
4038
4181
4323
4464
4605
4744
4883

64
224
384
544
703
862
1021
1179
1336
1493
1649
1805
1960
2114
2268
2421
2574
2725
2876
3026
3175
3323
3471
3617
3763
3908
4052
4195
4337
4479
4619
4758
4896

80
240
400
560
719
878
1036
1194
1352
1509
1665
1820
1975
2130
2283
2436
2589
2740
2891
3041
3190
3338
3486
3632
3778
3923
4066
4209
4351
4493
4633
4772
4910

96
256
416
576
735
894
1052
1210
1367
1524
1680
1836
1991
2145
2299
2452
2604
2755
2906
3056
3205
3353
3500
3647
3792
3937
4081
4224
4366
4507
4647
4786
4924

112
272
432
592
751
910
1068
1226
1383
1540
1696
1851
2006
2161
2314
2467
2619
2770
2921
3071
3220
3368
3515
3661
3807
3951
4095
4238
4380
4521
4661
4800
4938

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 23,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 39

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 24,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 447 kt

700

800

900

133
299
465
630
795
959
1123
1286
1448
1610
1771
1932
2091
2250
2408
2565
2722
2877
3032
3186
3338
3490
3641
3791
3940
4088
4235
4381
4526
4670
4813
4954
5095

149
315
481
646
811
975
1139
1302
1464
1626
1787
1948
2107
2266
2424
2581
2737
2893
3047
3201
3354
3506
3656
3806
3995
4103
4250
4396
4540
4684
4827
4968
5109

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
166
332
498
663
828
992
1155
1318
1481
1642
1803
1964
2123
2282
2440
2597
2753
2908
3063
3216
3369
3521
3671
3821
3970
4118
4264
4410
4555
4698
4841
4983

16
183
349
514
679
844
1008
1172
1335
1497
1658
1819
1980
2139
2298
2455
2612
2769
2924
3078
3232
3384
3536
3686
3836
3985
4132
4279
4425
4569
4713
4855
4997

33
199
365
531
696
860
1024
1188
1351
1513
1675
1835
1995
2155
2313
2471
2628
2784
2939
3094
3247
3399
3551
3701
3851
4000
4147
4294
4439
4584
4727
4869
5011

49
216
382
547
712
877
1041
1204
1367
1529
1691
1851
2011
2171
2329
2487
2644
2800
2955
3109
3262
3414
3566
3716
3866
4014
4162
4308
4454
4598
4741
4884
5025

66
232
398
564
729
893
1057
1221
1383
1545
1707
1867
2027
2187
2345
2503
2659
2815
2970
3124
3277
3430
3581
3731
3881
4029
4176
4323
4468
4612
4756
4898
5039

83
249
415
580
745
910
1074
1237
1399
1561
1723
1883
2043
2202
2361
2518
2675
2831
2986
3140
3293
3445
3596
3746
3896
4044
4191
4337
4483
4627
4770
4912
5053

99
266
431
597
762
926
1090
1253
1416
1578
1739
1899
2059
2218
2377
2534
2691
2846
3001
3155
3308
3460
3611
3761
3910
4059
4206
4352
4497
4641
4784
4926
5067

116
282
448
613
778
942
1106
1269
1432
1594
1755
1915
2075
2234
2392
2550
2706
2862
3017
3170
3323
3475
3626
3776
3925
4073
4220
4366
4511
4655
4798
4940
5081

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.4

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 24,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 40

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 25,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 445 kt

700

800

900

138
310
481
652
823
993
1162
1331
1498
1665
1831
1997
2161
2325
2487
2649
2810
2970
3128
3286
3443
3598
3753
3906
4059
4210
4360
4509
4657
4804
4949
5094
5237

155
327
499
670
840
1010
1179
1347
1515
1682
1848
2013
2178
2341
2504
2665
2826
2986
3144
3302
3458
3614
3768
3922
4074
4225
4375
4524
4672
4818
4964
5108
5251

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
172
344
516
687
857
1027
1196
1364
1532
1699
1865
2030
2194
2358
2520
2681
2842
3002
3160
3318
3474
3630
3784
3937
4089
4240
4390
4539
4687
4833
4978
5122

17
189
361
533
704
874
1044
1213
1381
1548
1715
1881
2046
2210
2374
2536
2698
2858
3017
3176
3333
3490
3645
3799
3952
4104
4255
4405
4554
4701
4848
4993
5137

34
206
378
550
721
891
1061
1230
1398
1565
1732
1898
2063
2227
2390
2552
2714
2874
3033
3192
3349
3505
3660
3815
3968
4119
4270
4420
4568
4716
4862
5007
5151

51
224
396
567
738
908
1076
1246
1414
1582
1748
1914
2079
2243
2406
2568
2730
2890
3049
3207
3365
3521
3676
3830
3983
4135
4285
4435
4583
4731
4877
5022
5165

69
241
413
584
755
925
1094
1263
1431
1599
1765
1931
2096
2259
2422
2585
2746
2906
3065
3223
3380
3536
3691
3845
3998
4150
4300
4450
4598
4745
4891
5036
5180

86
258
430
601
772
942
1111
1280
1448
1615
1782
1947
2112
2276
2439
2601
2762
2922
3081
3239
3396
3552
3707
3861
4013
4165
4315
4465
4613
4760
4906
5050
5194

103
275
447
618
789
959
1128
1297
1465
1632
1798
1964
2128
2292
2455
2617
2778
2938
3097
3255
3411
3567
3722
3876
4028
4180
4330
4479
4628
4774
4920
5065
5208

120
293
464
635
806
976
1145
1314
1482
1649
1815
1980
2145
2308
2471
2633
2794
2954
3113
3270
3427
3583
3738
3891
4044
4195
4345
4494
4642
4789
4935
5079
5222

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 25,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 41

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 26,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 443 kt

700

800

900

143
321
498
675
852
1027
1202
1376
1549
1721
1892
2062
2232
2400
2567
2733
2898
3062
3225
3386
3547
3706
3864
4021
4176
4331
4484
4636
4786
4936
5083
5230
5375

160
339
516
693
869
1045
1219
1393
1566
1738
1909
2080
2249
2417
2584
2750
2915
3078
3241
3402
3563
3722
3880
4036
4192
4346
4499
4651
4801
4950
5098
5245
5390

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
178
356
534
711
887
1062
1237
1411
1584
1755
1926
2097
2266
2433
2600
2766
2931
3095
3257
3419
3579
3738
3896
4052
4207
4362
4514
4666
4816
4965
5113
5259

17
196
374
552
728
905
1080
1254
1428
1601
1773
1943
2113
2282
2450
2617
2783
2947
3111
3273
3435
3595
3754
3911
4068
4223
4377
4530
4681
4831
4980
5128
5274

35
214
392
569
746
922
1097
1272
1445
1618
1790
1960
2130
2299
2467
2634
2799
2964
3127
3289
3451
3611
3769
3927
4083
4238
4392
4545
4696
4846
4995
5142
5288

53
232
410
587
764
940
1115
1289
1463
1635
1807
1977
2147
2316
2484
2650
2816
2980
3143
3306
3467
3626
3785
3943
4099
4254
4407
4560
4711
4861
5010
5157
5303

71
250
427
605
781
957
1132
1306
1480
1652
1824
1994
2164
2333
2500
2667
2832
2996
3160
3322
3483
3642
3801
3958
4114
4269
4423
4575
4726
4876
5024
5172
5317

89
267
445
622
799
975
1150
1324
1497
1669
1841
2011
2181
2350
2517
2683
2849
3013
3176
3338
3499
3658
3817
3974
4130
4285
4438
4590
4741
4891
5039
5186
5332

107
285
463
640
817
992
1167
1341
1514
1687
1858
2028
2198
2366
2534
2700
2865
3029
3192
3354
3515
3674
3832
3990
4145
4300
4453
4605
4756
4906
5054
5201
5346

125
303
481
658
834
1010
1185
1359
1532
1704
1875
2045
2215
2383
2550
2716
2882
3046
3208
3370
3531
3690
3848
4005
4161
4315
4469
4621
4771
4921
5069
5215
5361

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 26,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 42

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 27,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 442 kt

700

800

900

148
332
516
699
881
1062
1242
1422
1600
1777
1953
2128
2302
2475
2646
2817
2986
3154
3320
3486
3650
3812
3974
4134
4292
4450
4606
4760
4913
5064
5214
5363
5510

166
351
534
717
899
1080
1260
1440
1618
1795
1971
2146
2320
2492
2664
2834
3003
3171
3337
3502
3666
3829
3990
4150
4308
4465
4621
4775
4928
5080
5229
5378
5525

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
185
369
553
735
917
1098
1278
1457
1636
1813
1988
2163
2337
2509
2681
2851
3020
3187
3354
3519
3683
3845
4006
4166
4324
4481
4637
4791
4943
5095
5244
5393

18
203
387
571
754
935
1116
1296
1475
1653
1830
2006
2181
2354
2527
2698
2868
3036
3204
3370
3535
3699
3861
4022
4182
4340
4497
4652
4806
4959
5110
5259
5407

37
221
406
589
772
953
1134
1314
1493
1671
1848
2023
2198
2371
2544
2715
2885
3053
3221
3387
3552
3715
3877
4038
4197
4356
4512
4668
4821
4974
5125
5274
5422

55
240
424
607
790
972
1152
1332
1511
1689
1865
2041
2215
2389
2561
2732
2902
3070
3237
3403
3568
3731
3893
4054
4213
4371
4528
4683
4837
4989
5140
5289
5437

74
258
442
626
808
990
1170
1350
1529
1706
1883
2058
2233
2406
2578
2749
2918
3087
3254
3420
3584
3747
3909
4070
4229
4387
4543
4698
4852
5004
5155
5304
5451

92
277
461
644
826
1008
1188
1368
1546
1724
1900
2076
2250
2423
2595
2766
2935
3104
3271
3436
3601
3764
3925
4086
4245
4403
4559
4714
4867
5019
5170
5319
5466

111
295
479
662
844
1026
1206
1386
1564
1742
1918
2093
2267
2440
2612
2783
2952
3120
3287
3453
3617
3780
3942
4102
4261
4418
4574
4729
4882
5034
5185
5333
5481

129
314
497
680
863
1044
1224
1404
1582
1759
1936
2111
2285
2458
2629
2800
2969
3137
3304
3469
3633
3796
3958
4118
4277
4434
4590
4745
4898
5049
5200
5348
5495

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 27,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 43

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 28,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 440 kt

700

800

900

153
343
533
722
910
1097
1283
1467
1651
1833
2014
2194
2372
2550
2726
2900
3073
3245
3415
3584
3751
3917
4082
4245
4406
4566
4724
4881
5036
5190
5341
5492
5640

172
362
552
741
929
1116
1301
1486
1669
1851
2032
2212
2390
2567
2743
2917
3090
3262
3432
3601
3768
3934
4098
4261
4422
4582
4740
4897
5052
5205
5357
5507
5655

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
191
382
571
760
948
1134
1320
1504
1688
1870
2050
2230
2408
2585
2761
2935
3108
3279
3449
3618
3785
3951
4115
4277
4438
4598
4756
4912
5067
5220
5372
5522

19
210
401
590
779
966
1153
1338
1523
1706
1888
2068
2248
2426
2603
2778
2952
3125
3296
3466
3634
3801
3967
4131
4293
4454
4614
4772
4928
5082
5235
5387
5536

38
229
419
609
797
985
1171
1357
1541
1724
1906
2086
2265
2443
2620
2795
2969
3142
3313
3483
3651
3818
3983
4147
4310
4470
4630
4787
4943
5098
5250
5402
5551

57
248
438
628
816
1004
1190
1375
1559
1742
1924
2104
2283
2461
2638
2813
2987
3159
3330
3500
3668
3835
4000
4164
4326
4486
4645
4803
4959
5113
5266
5417
5566

76
267
457
647
835
1022
1209
1394
1578
1760
1942
2122
2301
2479
2655
2830
3004
3176
3347
3517
3685
3851
4016
4180
4324
4502
4661
4818
4974
5128
5281
5432
5581

95
286
476
666
854
1041
1227
1412
1596
1779
1960
2140
2319
2497
2673
2848
3021
3193
3364
3533
3701
3868
4033
4196
4358
4518
4677
4834
4990
5144
5296
5447
5596

114
305
495
684
873
1060
1246
1431
1614
1797
1978
2158
2337
2514
2690
2865
3039
3211
3381
3550
3718
3884
4049
4212
4374
4534
4693
4850
5005
5159
5311
5462
5611

134
324
514
703
891
1078
1264
1449
1633
1815
1996
2176
2355
2532
2708
2883
3056
3228
3398
3567
3735
3901
4065
4229
4390
4550
4709
4865
5021
5174
5326
5477
5625

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 28,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 44

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 29,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 438 kt

700

800

900

158
355
551
746
939
1132
1323
1513
1702
1889
2075
2259
2442
2624
2804
2982
3159
3335
3508
3681
3851
4020
4187
4353
4517
4679
4839
4998
5155
5310
5463
5615
5765

178
375
570
765
959
1151
1342
1532
1721
1908
2093
2278
2461
2642
2822
3000
3177
3352
3526
3698
3868
4037
4204
4370
4533
4695
4855
5014
5170
5325
5479
5630
5780

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
197
394
590
785
978
1170
1361
1551
1739
1926
2112
2296
2479
2660
2840
3018
3195
3370
3543
3715
3885
4054
4221
4386
4550
4711
4871
5030
5186
5341
5494
5645

19
217
414
609
804
997
1189
1380
1570
1758
1945
2130
2314
2497
2678
2858
3036
3212
3387
3560
3732
3902
4071
4237
4402
4566
4727
4887
5045
5202
5356
5509
5660

39
237
433
629
823
1017
1209
1399
1589
1777
1963
2149
2333
2515
2696
2875
3053
3230
3404
3578
3749
3919
4087
4254
4419
4582
4743
4903
5061
5217
5371
5524
5675

59
256
453
648
843
1036
1228
1418
1608
1795
1982
2167
2351
2533
2714
2893
3071
3247
3422
3595
3766
3936
4104
4270
4435
4598
4759
4919
5077
5233
5387
5539
5690

79
276
473
668
862
1055
1247
1437
1626
1814
2001
2186
2369
2551
2732
2911
3089
3265
3439
3612
3783
3953
4121
4287
4451
4614
4775
4935
5092
5248
5402
5554
5705

98
296
492
687
881
1074
1266
1456
1645
1833
2019
2204
2387
2569
2750
2929
3106
3282
3456
3629
3800
3970
4137
4303
4468
4630
4791
4950
5108
5263
5417
5569
5720

118
315
512
707
901
1093
1285
1475
1664
1852
2038
2222
2406
2588
2768
2947
3124
3300
3474
3646
3817
3987
4154
4320
4484
4647
4807
4966
5123
5279
5433
5585
5735

138
335
531
726
920
1113
1304
1494
1683
1870
2056
2241
2424
2606
2786
2964
3142
3317
3491
3664
3834
4003
4171
4337
4501
4663
4823
4982
5139
5294
5448
5600
5750

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 29,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 45

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 30,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 436 kt

700

800

900

163
366
568
769
969
1167
1363
1559
1752
1944
2135
2324
2511
2697
2881
3063
3244
3423
3600
3775
3949
4120
4290
4458
4624
4788
4950
5110
5268
5425
5579
5731
5882

183
387
589
789
989
1187
1383
1578
1772
1964
2154
2343
2530
2716
2899
3082
3262
3441
3618
3793
3966
4137
4307
4475
4640
4804
4966
5126
5284
5440
5594
5747
5897

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
204
407
609
809
1009
1206
1403
1598
1791
1983
2173
2362
2549
2734
2918
3100
3280
3459
3635
3810
3983
4155
4324
4491
4657
4820
4982
5142
5300
5456
5610
5762

20
224
427
629
829
1028
1226
1422
1617
1810
2002
2192
2380
2567
2753
2936
3118
3298
3476
3653
3828
4000
4171
4341
4508
4673
4837
4998
5158
5316
5471
5625
5777

40
244
447
649
849
1048
1246
1442
1636
1829
2021
2211
2399
2586
2771
2954
3136
3316
3494
3670
3845
4018
4188
4357
4524
4690
4853
5014
5174
5331
5487
5640
5792

61
265
468
669
869
1068
1265
1461
1656
1849
2040
2230
2418
2604
2789
2972
3154
3334
3512
3688
3862
4035
4205
4374
4541
4706
4869
5030
5189
5347
5502
5655
5807

81
285
488
689
889
1088
1285
1481
1675
1868
2059
2249
2437
2623
2808
2991
3172
3352
3529
3705
3879
4052
4222
4391
4558
4722
4885
5046
5205
5362
5517
5671
5822

102
305
508
709
909
1108
1305
1500
1694
1887
2078
2267
2455
2641
2826
3009
3190
3369
3547
3723
3897
4069
4239
4408
4574
4739
4901
5062
5221
5378
5533
5686
5837

122
326
528
729
929
1127
1324
1520
1714
1906
2097
2286
2474
2660
2844
3027
3208
3387
3565
3740
3914
4086
4256
4424
4591
4755
4918
5078
5237
5393
5548
5701
5852

143
346
548
749
949
1147
1344
1539
1733
1925
2116
2305
2493
2679
2863
3045
3226
3405
3582
3758
3931
4103
4273
4441
4607
4771
4934
5094
5253
5409
5564
5716
5867

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 66,600 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 30,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 46

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 31,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 434 kt

700

800

900

168
378
586
793
998
1201
1403
1604
1802
1999
2194
2388
2579
2769
2956
3142
3326
3508
3688
3866
4042
4216
4388
4557
4725
4890
5054
5215
5374
5531
5686
5839
5990

189
399
607
813
1018
1222
1423
1624
1822
2019
2214
2407
2598
2788
2975
3161
3345
3526
3706
3884
4060
4233
4405
4574
4742
4907
5070
5231
5390
5547
5702
5854
6005

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
210
420
628
834
1039
1242
1444
1644
1842
2038
2233
2426
2617
2807
2994
3179
3363
3545
3724
3902
4077
4251
4422
4591
4758
4923
5086
5247
5406
5563
5717
5870

21
231
440
648
854
1059
1262
1464
1663
1862
2058
2252
2445
2636
2825
3013
3198
3381
3563
3742
3919
4094
4268
4439
4608
4775
4940
5103
5263
5422
5578
5732
5885

42
252
461
669
875
1079
1282
1484
1683
1881
2077
2272
2464
2655
2844
3031
3216
3399
3580
3760
3937
4112
4285
4456
4625
4791
4956
5119
5279
5437
5594
5748
5900

63
273
482
689
895
1100
1303
1504
1703
1901
2097
2291
2483
2674
2863
3050
3235
3417
3598
3777
3954
4129
4302
4473
4641
4808
4972
5135
5295
5453
5609
5763
5915

84
294
503
710
916
1120
1323
1524
1723
1921
2116
2310
2503
2693
2882
3068
3253
3436
3616
3795
3972
4146
4319
4490
4658
4824
4989
5151
5311
5469
5624
5778
5930

105
315
524
731
936
1140
1343
1544
1743
1940
2136
2330
2522
2712
2900
3087
3271
3454
3634
3813
3989
4164
4336
4507
4675
4841
5005
5167
5327
5484
5640
5793
5945

126
336
544
751
957
1161
1363
1564
1763
1960
2155
2349
2541
2731
2919
3105
3290
3472
3652
3831
4007
4181
4353
4523
4691
4857
5021
5183
5343
5500
5655
5809
5960

147
357
565
772
977
1181
1383
1584
1782
1979
2175
2368
2560
2750
2938
3124
3308
3490
3670
3848
4024
4198
4370
4540
4708
4874
5038
5199
5358
5516
5671
5824
5975

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 63,500 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 31,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 47

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 32,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 432 kt

700

800

900

173
389
603
816
1027
1236
1443
1648
1851
2053
2252
2450
2645
2838
3029
3218
3405
3590
3772
3952
4130
4306
4480
4651
4819
4986
5150
5312
5472
5629
5784
5937
6087

195
411
625
837
1048
1256
1463
1668
1872
2073
2272
2469
2664
2857
3048
3237
3424
3608
3790
3970
4148
4324
4497
4668
4836
5003
5167
5328
5488
5645
5799
5952
6101

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
217
432
646
858
1069
1277
1484
1689
1892
2093
2292
2489
2684
2877
3068
3256
3442
3627
3809
3988
4166
4341
4514
4685
4853
5019
5183
5344
5504
5660
5815
5967

21
238
454
667
879
1089
1298
1505
1709
1912
2113
2312
2508
2703
2896
3086
3275
3461
3645
3827
4006
4183
4358
4531
4702
4870
5036
5199
5360
5519
5676
5830
5982

43
260
475
689
900
1110
1319
1525
1730
1932
2133
2331
2528
2722
2915
3105
3293
3479
3663
3845
4024
4201
4376
4548
4718
4886
5052
5215
5376
5535
5691
5845
5997

65
281
496
710
921
1131
1339
1546
1750
1952
2153
2351
2547
2742
2934
3124
3312
3498
3681
3863
4042
4218
4393
4565
4735
4903
5068
5231
5392
5551
5707
5861
6012

86
303
518
731
942
1152
1360
1566
1770
1972
2172
2371
2567
2761
2953
3143
3331
3516
3699
3881
4059
4236
4410
4582
4752
4920
5085
5248
5408
5566
5722
5876
6027

108
324
539
752
963
1173
1381
1586
1790
1992
2192
2390
2586
2780
2972
3162
3349
3535
3718
3899
4077
4254
4428
4599
4769
4936
5101
5264
5424
5582
5738
5891
6042

130
346
561
773
984
1194
1401
1607
1811
2012
2212
2410
2606
2800
2991
3181
3368
3553
3736
3916
4095
4271
4445
4617
4786
4953
5117
5280
5440
5598
5753
5906
6057

152
368
582
795
1005
1215
1422
1627
1831
2033
2232
2430
2625
2819
3010
3200
3387
3571
3754
3934
4113
4289
4462
4634
4803
4969
5134
5296
5456
5613
5769
5921
6072

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 60,700 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 32,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 48

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 33,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 430 kt

700

800

900

178
400
620
838
1055
1269
1481
1691
1899
2104
2308
2509
2708
2904
3098
3290
3479
3666
3851
4033
4212
4389
4564
4736
4905
5072
5237
5399
5558
5714
5868
6019
6166

201
422
642
860
1076
1290
1502
1712
1919
2125
2328
2529
2728
2924
3118
3309
3498
3685
3869
4051
4230
4407
4581
4753
4922
5089
5253
5415
5574
5730
5883
6034
6181

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
223
444
664
882
1098
1312
1523
1733
1940
2145
2348
2549
2747
2943
3137
3328
3517
3704
3888
4069
4248
4425
4599
4770
4939
5106
5270
5431
5590
5746
5899
6049

22
245
466
686
904
1119
1333
1544
1753
1961
2166
2368
2569
2767
2963
3156
3347
3536
3722
3906
4087
4266
4442
4616
4787
4956
5122
5286
5447
5605
5761
5914
6063

44
267
488
708
925
1141
1354
1565
1774
1981
2186
2388
2589
2787
2982
3175
3366
3554
3740
3924
4105
4283
4459
4633
4804
4972
5138
5302
5463
5621
5776
5929
6078

67
289
510
730
947
1162
1375
1586
1795
2002
2206
2409
2609
2806
3002
3194
3385
3573
3759
3942
4123
4301
4477
4650
4821
4989
5155
5318
5479
5636
5791
5944
6093

89
312
532
751
968
1183
1396
1607
1816
2022
2227
2429
2628
2826
3021
3214
3404
3592
3777
3960
4141
4319
4494
4667
4838
5006
5171
5334
5494
5652
5807
5959
6107

111
334
554
773
990
1205
1417
1628
1836
2043
2247
2449
2648
2845
3040
3233
3423
3610
3796
3978
4159
4336
4512
4684
4855
5022
5188
5350
5510
5668
5822
5974
6122

134
356
576
795
1011
1226
1439
1649
1857
2063
2267
2469
2668
2865
3060
3252
3442
3629
3814
3996
4176
4354
4529
4701
4871
5039
5204
5366
5526
5683
5837
5989
6137

156
378
598
817
1033
1247
1460
1670
1878
2084
2287
2489
2688
2885
3079
3271
3461
3648
3832
4015
4194
4372
4546
4719
4888
5056
5220
5383
5542
5699
5853
6004
6151

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 58,200 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 66,400 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 33,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 49

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 34,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 428 kt

700

800

900

183
411
637
860
1082
1301
1517
1732
1944
2153
2360
2565
2767
2966
3163
3356
3548
3736
3922
4105
4286
4464
4639
4811
4980
5147
5311
5471
5828
5782
5932
6078
6220

206
434
659
883
1104
1323
1539
1753
1965
2174
2361
2585
2787
2986
3182
3376
3567
3755
3941
4124
4304
4481
4656
4828
4997
5164
5327
5487
5644
5797
5947
6093
6234

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
229
456
682
905
1126
1344
1561
1775
1986
2195
2402
2606
2807
3006
3202
3395
3586
3774
3959
4142
4322
4499
4673
4845
5014
5180
5343
5503
5660
5812
5962
6107

22
252
479
704
927
1148
1366
1582
1796
2007
2216
2422
2626
2827
3025
3221
3414
3605
3792
3978
4160
4339
4516
4691
4862
5031
5196
5359
5519
5675
5827
5976
6121

45
275
502
726
949
1170
1388
1603
1817
2028
2236
2442
2646
2847
3045
3240
3433
3624
3811
3996
4178
4357
4534
4708
4879
5047
5213
5375
5534
5690
5842
5991
6135

68
297
524
749
971
1191
1409
1625
1838
2049
2257
2463
2666
2867
3064
3260
3452
3642
3830
4014
4196
4375
4551
4725
4896
5064
5229
5391
5550
5705
5857
6005
6150

91
320
547
771
993
1213
1431
1646
1859
2070
2278
2483
2686
2886
3084
3279
3471
3661
3848
4032
4214
4393
4569
4742
4913
5081
5245
5407
5566
5721
5872
6020
6164

114
343
569
793
1015
1235
1453
1668
1880
2091
2298
2504
2706
2906
3104
3298
3491
3680
3867
4051
4232
4410
4586
4759
4930
5097
5262
5423
5581
5736
5887
6034
6178

137
365
592
816
1037
1257
1474
1689
1902
2112
2319
2524
2726
2926
3123
3318
3510
3699
3885
4069
4250
4428
4604
4777
4947
5114
5278
5439
5597
5751
5902
6049
6192

160
388
614
838
1060
1279
1496
1710
1923
2132
2340
2544
2747
2946
3143
3337
3529
3718
3904
4087
4268
4446
4621
4794
4963
5130
5294
5455
5613
5767
5917
6063
6206

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 55,500 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER IS 67,100 kg
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 IS 65,700 kg
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 64,000 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 34,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 50

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 35,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 426 kt

700

800

900

188
422
653
882
1108
1332
1553
1771
1987
2200
2410
2617
2822
3023
3222
3417
3610
3800
3987
4170
4351
4529
4704
4875
5043
5208
5369
5525
5678
5826
5969

212
445
676
904
1131
1354
1575
1793
2009
2221
2431
2638
2842
3043
3242
3437
3629
3819
4005
4189
4369
4547
4721
4892
5060
5224
5385
5541
5693
5841
5984

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
235
468
699
927
1153
1376
1597
1815
2030
2242
2452
2659
2862
3063
3261
3456
3648
3838
4024
4207
4387
4565
4739
4910
5077
5241
5401
5556
5708
5855

23
258
491
722
950
1175
1398
1619
1836
2051
2263
2473
2679
2883
3083
3281
3476
3667
3856
4042
4225
4405
4582
4756
4926
5093
5257
5416
5572
5723
5870

47
282
514
745
972
1198
1420
1641
1858
2073
2284
2493
2699
2903
3103
3300
3495
3686
3875
4060
4243
4423
4599
4773
4943
5110
5273
5432
5587
5738
5884

70
305
537
768
995
1220
1443
1662
1879
2094
2305
2514
2720
2923
3123
3320
3514
3705
3893
4079
4261
4441
4617
4790
4960
5126
5289
5447
5602
5752
5898

94
328
561
790
1018
1242
1465
1684
1901
2115
2326
2535
2740
2943
3143
3339
3533
3724
3912
4097
4279
4458
4634
4807
4976
5142
5305
5463
5617
5767
5912

117
352
584
813
1040
1265
1487
1706
1922
2136
2347
2555
2761
2963
3162
3359
3552
3743
3931
4115
4297
4476
4652
4824
4993
5159
5321
5479
5632
5782
5927

141
375
607
836
1063
1287
1509
1728
1944
2157
2368
2576
2781
2983
3182
3378
3572
3762
3949
4134
4315
4494
4669
4841
5010
5175
5337
5494
5647
5796
5941

164
398
630
859
1085
1309
1531
1749
1965
2179
2389
2597
2801
3003
3202
3398
3591
3781
3968
4152
4333
4511
4686
4858
5027
5192
5353
5510
5663
5811
5955

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 53,000 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER IS 64,500 kg
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 IS 63,100 kg
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 61,600 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 35,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 51

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 36,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 425 kt

700

800

900

193
432
668
902
1133
1361
1586
1808
2027
2243
2456
2665
2872
3075
3275
3472
3665
3856
4043
4226
4406
4583
4756
4924
5088
5248
5403
5553

217
456
692
925
1156
1384
1609
1830
2049
2265
2477
2686
2892
3095
3295
3491
3684
3874
4061
4245
4424
4601
4773
4941
5105
5264
5418
5568

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
241
480
716
949
1179
1407
1631
1852
2071
2286
2498
2707
2913
3115
3315
3511
3704
3893
4080
4263
4442
4618
4790
4958
5121
5280
5434

24
265
503
739
927
1202
1429
1653
1874
2092
2307
2519
2728
2933
3135
3334
3530
3723
3912
4098
4281
4460
4635
4807
4974
5137
5295
5448

48
289
527
762
995
1225
1451
1675
1896
2114
2329
2540
2748
2953
3155
3354
3549
3742
3931
4116
4299
4478
4653
4824
4990
5153
5310
5463

72
312
550
786
1018
1247
1474
1697
1918
2135
2350
2561
2769
2974
3175
3374
3569
3761
3949
4135
4317
4495
4670
4840
5007
5169
5326
5478

96
336
574
809
1041
1270
1496
1720
1940
2157
2371
2582
2789
2994
3195
3393
3588
3780
3968
4153
4335
4513
4687
4857
5023
5185
5341
5493

120
360
598
832
1064
1293
1519
1742
1962
2178
2392
2603
2810
3014
3215
3413
3607
3799
3987
4171
4353
4530
4704
4874
5039
5200
5357
5508

144
384
621
855
1087
1316
1541
1764
1984
2200
2413
2624
2831
3034
3235
3432
3627
3818
4005
4190
4371
4548
4721
4891
5056
5216
5372
5523

168
408
645
879
1110
1338
1564
1786
2005
2222
2435
2644
2851
3055
3255
3452
3646
3837
4024
4208
4389
4565
4738
4907
5072
5232
5387
5538

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 50,500 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER IS 61,800 kg
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 IS 60,500 kg
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 59,200 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 36,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 52

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 37,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.74 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 424 kt

700

800

900

197
441
682
920
1155
1386
1615
1839
2061
2279
2493
2704
2912
3116
3317
3514
3707
3897
4082
4264
4441
4614
4781
4944
5101

221
465
706
944
1178
1409
1637
1862
2083
2301
2515
2725
2932
3136
3336
3533
3726
3916
4101
4282
4459
4631
4798
4960
5116

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
246
490
730
968
1202
1433
1660
1884
2105
2322
2536
2746
2953
3157
3356
3553
3746
3934
4119
4300
4477
4648
4815
4976

24
270
514
754
991
1225
1455
1682
1906
2127
2344
2557
2767
2973
3177
3376
3572
3764
3953
4138
4318
4494
4665
4831
4991

49
295
538
778
1014
1248
1478
1705
1928
2148
2365
2578
2788
2994
3197
3396
3591
3783
3971
4156
4335
4511
4681
4847
5007

73
319
562
801
1038
1271
1501
1727
1950
2170
2386
2599
2808
3014
3217
3415
3611
3802
3990
4174
4353
4528
4698
4863
5023

98
344
586
825
1061
1294
1524
1750
1973
2192
2408
2620
2829
3035
3237
3435
3630
3821
4008
4192
4371
4545
4715
4879
5038

123
368
610
849
1085
1317
1546
1772
1995
2214
2429
2641
2850
3055
3257
3455
3649
3840
4027
4210
4388
4562
4731
4895
5054

147
392
634
873
1108
1340
1569
1795
2017
2235
2451
2662
2870
3075
3277
3474
3668
3859
4045
4228
4406
4579
4748
4911
5069

172
417
658
896
1131
1363
1592
1817
2039
2257
2472
2683
2891
3096
3297
3494
3688
3878
4064
4246
4424
4597
4765
4927
5085

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 48,000 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER IS 58,700 kg
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 IS 57,500 kg
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 56,300 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.2

July 2006

Mach 0.74 Cruise Pressure Altitude 37,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 53

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 54

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 29,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.78 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 462 kt

700

800

900

149
335
520
704
888
1070
1251
1432
1611
1788
1965
2140
2314
2486
2656
2825
2993
3158
3322
3484
3644
3802
3958
4113
4265
4416
4564
4711
4856
4999
5140
5279
5416

167
353
538
723
906
1088
1269
1450
1628
1806
1982
2157
2331
2503
2673
2842
3009
3175
3338
3500
3660
3818
3974
4128
4280
4431
4579
4726
4870
5013
5154
5293
5430

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
186
372
557
741
924
1106
1288
1468
1646
1824
2000
2175
2348
2520
2690
2859
3026
3191
3354
3516
3676
3834
3989
4143
4296
4446
4594
4740
4885
5027
5168
5307

18
205
390
575
759
943
1125
1308
1485
1664
1842
2018
2192
2365
2537
2707
2876
3042
3207
3371
3532
3691
3849
4005
4159
4311
4460
4608
4755
4899
5041
5182
5320

37
223
409
594
778
961
1143
1324
1503
1682
1859
2035
2210
2383
2554
2724
2892
3059
3224
3387
3548
3707
3865
4020
4174
4326
4475
4623
4769
4913
5055
5196
5334

55
242
427
612
796
979
1161
1342
1521
1700
1877
2053
2227
2400
2571
2741
2909
3075
3240
3403
3564
3723
3880
4036
4189
4341
4490
4638
4783
4927
5069
5210
5348

74
260
446
631
814
997
1179
1360
1539
1717
1894
2070
2244
2417
2588
2758
2926
3092
3256
3419
3580
3739
3896
4051
4204
4356
4505
4652
4798
4942
5083
5223
5361

93
279
464
649
833
1015
1197
1378
1557
1735
1912
2087
2262
2434
2605
2775
2942
3108
3273
3435
3596
3755
3912
4066
4220
4371
4520
4667
4812
4956
5098
5237
5375

111
298
483
667
851
1034
1215
1396
1575
1753
1930
2105
2279
2451
2622
2792
2959
3125
3289
3451
3612
3770
3927
4082
4235
4386
4535
4682
4827
4970
5112
5251
5389

130
316
501
686
869
1052
1233
1414
1593
1771
1947
2122
2296
2469
2639
2808
2976
3141
3305
3467
3628
3786
3943
4097
4250
4401
4549
4696
4841
4984
5126
5265
5402

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 67,000 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.3

July 2006

Mach 0.78 Cruise Pressure Altitude 29,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 55

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 30,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.78 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 460 kt

700

800

900

154
346
538
728
917
1105
1292
1477
1661
1844
2024
2204
2381
2557
2731
2903
3073
3241
3407
3571
3733
3893
4050
4206
4360
4511
4661
4808
4954
5097
5238
5377
5514

173
366
557
747
936
1124
1311
1496
1679
1862
2042
2222
2399
2574
2748
2920
3090
3258
3423
3587
3749
3909
4066
4222
4375
4526
4676
4823
4968
5111
5252
5391
5528

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
193
385
576
766
955
1143
1329
1514
1698
1880
2061
2239
2417
2592
2765
2937
3107
3274
3440
3604
3765
3925
4082
4237
4390
4541
4691
4838
4983
5125
5266
5405

19
212
404
595
785
974
1161
1348
1533
1716
1898
2078
2257
2434
2609
2783
2954
3123
3291
3456
3626
3781
3940
4097
4252
4405
4556
4705
4852
4997
5140
5280
5418

38
231
423
614
804
993
1180
1366
1551
1734
1916
2096
2275
2452
2627
2800
2971
3140
3308
3473
3636
3797
3956
4113
4268
4421
4571
4720
4867
5011
5154
5294
5432

57
250
442
633
823
1011
1199
1385
1569
1752
1934
2114
2293
2469
2644
2817
2988
3157
3324
3489
3652
3813
3972
4128
4283
4436
4586
4735
4881
5025
5168
5308
5446

77
269
461
652
842
1030
1217
1403
1588
1771
1952
2132
2310
2487
2661
2834
3005
3174
3341
3506
3668
3829
3988
4144
4298
4451
4601
4749
4896
5040
5182
5322
5459

96
289
480
671
860
1049
1236
1422
1606
1789
1970
2150
2328
2504
2679
2851
3022
3191
3357
3522
3684
3845
4003
4160
4314
4466
4616
4764
4910
5054
5196
5335
5473

115
308
499
690
879
1068
1255
1440
1624
1807
1988
2168
2346
2522
2696
2868
3039
3207
3374
3538
3701
3861
4019
4175
4329
4481
4631
4779
4925
5068
5210
5349
5487

135
327
519
709
898
1086
1273
1459
1643
1825
2006
2186
2363
2539
2713
2886
3056
3224
3390
3555
3717
3877
4035
4191
4344
4496
4646
4794
4939
5083
5224
5363
5500

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 64,200 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.3

July 2006

Mach 0.78 Cruise Pressure Altitude 30,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 56

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 31,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.78 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 458 kt

700

800

900

159
358
555
752
946
1140
1332
1522
1711
1897
2082
2265
2446
2625
2802
2976
3149
3319
3487
3652
3816
3977
4136
4292
4447
4599
4749
4896
5042
5184
5325
5463
5599

179
378
575
771
966
1159
1351
1541
1729
1916
2101
2283
2464
2643
2819
2994
3166
3336
3504
3669
3832
3993
4152
4308
4462
4614
4764
4911
5056
5199
5339
5477
5612

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
199
398
595
791
985
1178
1370
1560
1748
1935
2119
2302
2482
2661
2837
3011
3183
3353
3520
3685
3848
4009
4167
4324
4478
4629
4779
4926
5071
5213
5353
5491

19
219
417
614
810
1005
1198
1389
1579
1767
1953
2137
2320
2500
2678
2854
3028
3200
3370
3537
3702
3864
4025
4183
4339
4493
4644
4793
4940
5085
5227
5367
5504

39
239
437
634
830
1024
1217
1408
1598
1785
1971
2156
2338
2518
2696
2872
3046
3217
3386
3553
3718
3880
4041
4199
4354
4508
4659
4808
4955
5099
5241
5381
5518

59
259
457
654
849
1043
1236
1427
1616
1804
1990
2174
2356
2536
2713
2889
3063
3234
3403
3570
3734
3896
4056
4214
4370
4523
4674
4823
4969
5113
5255
5394
5531

79
278
476
673
869
1063
1255
1446
1635
1823
2008
2192
2374
2554
2731
2907
3080
3251
3420
3586
3751
3913
4072
4230
4385
4538
4689
4838
4984
5128
5269
5408
5545

99
298
496
693
888
1082
1274
1465
1654
1841
2027
2210
2392
2571
2749
2924
3097
3268
3437
3603
3767
3929
4088
4245
4401
4553
4704
4852
4998
5142
5283
5422
5558

119
318
516
712
908
1101
1293
1484
1673
1860
2045
2229
2410
2589
2766
2941
3114
3285
3453
3619
3783
3945
4104
4261
4416
4569
4719
4867
5013
5156
5297
5436
5572

139
338
536
732
927
1121
1313
1503
1692
1879
2064
2247
2428
2607
2784
2959
3131
3302
3470
3636
3799
3961
4120
4277
4431
4584
4734
4882
5027
5170
5311
5449
5585

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 61,300 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 63,500 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.3

July 2006

Mach 0.78 Cruise Pressure Altitude 31,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 57

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 33,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.78 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 454 kt

700

800

900

169
381
590
797
1003
1206
1407
1606
1803
1997
2189
2378
2564
2748
2929
3107
3283
3456
3626
3794
3959
4121
4281
4437
4591
4742
4891
5036
5178
5317

191
402
611
818
1023
1227
1428
1626
1822
2016
2208
2396
2582
2766
2947
3125
3300
3473
3643
3810
3975
4137
4296
4453
4607
4757
4905
5050
5192
5331

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
212
423
632
839
1044
1247
1448
1646
1842
2036
2227
2415
2601
2784
2965
3142
3318
3490
3660
3827
3992
4153
4312
4469
4622
4772
4920
5065
5206

21
233
444
652
859
1064
1267
1467
1666
1861
2055
2246
2434
2619
2802
2982
3160
3335
3507
3677
3844
4008
4169
4328
4484
4637
4787
4935
5079
5220

42
254
465
673
880
1084
1287
1487
1685
1881
2074
2264
2452
2638
2820
3000
3177
3352
3524
3693
3860
4024
4185
4344
4499
4652
4802
4949
5093
5234

63
275
485
694
900
1105
1307
1507
1705
1900
2093
2283
2471
2656
2838
3018
3195
3369
3541
3710
3877
4040
4201
4359
4515
4667
4817
4963
5107
5248

84
296
506
715
921
1125
1327
1527
1724
1920
2112
2302
2490
2674
2856
3036
3212
3387
3558
3727
3893
4056
4217
4375
4530
4682
4832
4978
5121
5262

106
317
527
735
941
1145
1347
1547
1744
1939
2131
2321
2508
2593
2874
3054
3230
3404
3575
3744
3909
4073
4233
4390
4545
4697
4846
4992
5136
5275

127
338
548
756
962
1166
1367
1567
1764
1958
2150
2340
2527
2711
2893
3071
3248
3421
3592
3760
3926
4089
4249
4406
4561
4712
4861
5007
5150
5289

148
359
569
777
982
1186
1387
1587
1783
1978
2169
2359
2545
2729
2911
3089
3265
3438
3609
3777
3942
4105
4265
4422
4576
4727
4876
5021
5164
5303

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 56,000 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER IS 63,700 kg
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 IS 61,600 kg
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 59,500 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.3

July 2006

Mach 0.78 Cruise Pressure Altitude 33,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 58

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 35,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.78 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 449 kt

700

800

900

179
401
621
838
1053
1264
1472
1678
1880
2079
2275
2468
2658
2844
3028
3208
3385
3558
3729
3895
4059
4219
4375
4528
4677

201
423
643
860
1074
1285
1493
1698
1900
2099
2295
2487
2677
2863
3046
3226
3402
3576
3745
3912
4075
4235
4391
4543
4692

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
224
446
665
882
1095
1306
1514
1719
1920
2119
2314
2506
2695
2881
3064
3244
3420
3593
3762
3929
4092
4251
4406
4558

22
246
468
687
903
1116
1327
1534
1739
1940
2138
2333
2525
2714
2900
3082
3261
3437
3610
3779
3945
4107
4266
4422
4573

44
268
490
708
924
1137
1348
1555
1759
1960
2158
2353
2544
2733
2918
3100
3279
3454
3627
3796
3961
4123
4282
4437
4588

67
290
511
730
946
1159
1368
1575
1779
1980
2178
2372
2563
2751
2936
3118
3297
3472
3644
3812
3978
4139
4297
4452
4603

89
313
533
752
967
1180
1389
1596
1799
2000
2197
2391
2582
2770
2954
3136
3314
3489
3661
3829
3994
4155
4313
4467
4618

112
335
555
773
988
1201
1410
1616
1820
2020
2217
2410
2601
2788
2973
3154
3332
3506
3678
3846
4010
4171
4329
4482
4632

134
357
577
795
1010
1222
1431
1637
1840
2040
2236
2430
2620
2807
2991
3172
3349
3524
3695
3862
4026
4187
4344
4498
4647

156
379
599
817
1031
1243
1452
1657
1860
2059
2256
2449
2639
2826
3009
3190
3367
3541
3712
3879
4043
4203
4360
4513
4662

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 51,100 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER IS 58,800 kg
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 IS 57,200 kg
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 55,500 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.3

July 2006

Mach 0.78 Cruise Pressure Altitude 35,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 59

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 37,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000

200

300

A/C Auto

MACH 0.78 CRUISE


400

500

600

TAS 447 kt

700

800

900

187
418
645
870
1090
1307
1519
1729
1934
2136
2334
2528
2718
2905
3087
3265
3439
3608
3774
3934

210
441
668
892
1112
1328
1541
1750
1955
2156
2354
2547
2737
2923
3105
3283
3456
3625
3790
3950

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
233
464
691
914
1134
1350
1562
1770
1975
2176
2373
2567
2756
2942
3123
3300
3474
3642
3806

23
256
487
713
936
1156
1371
1583
1791
1995
2196
2393
2586
2775
2960
3141
3318
3490
3659
3822

46
279
509
736
958
1177
1392
1604
1811
2015
2216
2412
2605
2793
2978
3159
3335
3507
3675
3838

70
303
532
758
980
1199
1413
1624
1832
2035
2235
2431
2624
2812
2996
3176
3352
3524
3691
3854

93
326
555
780
1002
1220
1435
1645
1852
2056
2255
2451
2642
2830
3014
3194
3370
3541
3708
3870

116
349
577
803
1024
1242
1456
1666
1873
2076
2275
2470
2661
2849
3032
3212
3387
3558
3724
3886

140
372
600
825
1046
1263
1477
1687
1893
2096
2295
2489
2680
2867
3050
3229
3404
3575
3741
3902

163
395
623
847
1068
1285
1498
1708
1914
2116
2314
2509
2699
2886
3069
3247
3422
3592
3757
3918

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE IS 46,500 kg


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER IS 53,700 kg
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 IS 52,300 kg
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 IS 50,900 kg
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.6 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.3

July 2006

Mach 0.78 Cruise Pressure Altitude 37,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 60

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 14,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

LOW-LEVEL CRUISE
400

500

600

700

TAS 366 kt
800

900

114
258
401
543
685
826
967
1107
1247
1386
1524
1662
1798
1934
2070
2204
2338
2471
2603
2735
2865
2995
3124
3252
3380
3506
3631
3756
3880
4002
4124
4245
4365

129
272
415
557
699
841
981
1121
1261
1400
1538
1675
1812
1948
2083
2218
2352
2484
2617
2748
2879
3008
3137
3265
3392
3519
3644
3768
3892
4015
4136
4257
4377

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
143
286
429
572
713
855
995
1135
1275
1414
1552
1689
1826
1962
2097
2231
2365
2498
2630
2761
2892
3021
3150
3278
3405
3531
3656
3781
3904
4027
4149
4269

14
158
301
444
586
728
869
1009
1149
1289
1427
1565
1703
1839
1975
2110
2245
2378
2511
2643
2774
2905
3034
3163
3291
3418
3544
3669
3793
3917
4039
4161
4281

28
172
315
458
600
742
883
1023
1163
1303
1441
1579
1716
1853
1989
2124
2258
2391
2524
2656
2787
2917
3047
3176
3303
3430
3556
3681
3806
3929
4051
4173
4293

43
186
329
472
614
756
897
1037
1177
1317
1455
1593
1730
1866
2002
2137
2271
2405
2537
2669
2800
2930
3060
3188
3316
3443
3569
3694
3818
3941
4063
4185
4305

57
200
344
486
628
770
911
1051
1191
1330
1469
1607
1744
1880
2016
2151
2285
2418
2551
2682
2813
2943
3073
3201
3329
3455
3581
3706
3830
3953
4076
4197
4317

71
215
358
500
643
784
925
1065
1205
1344
1483
1620
1757
1894
2029
2164
2298
2431
2564
2695
2826
2956
3086
3214
3341
3468
3594
3719
3843
3966
4088
4209
4329

86
229
372
515
657
798
939
1079
1219
1358
1496
1634
1771
1907
2043
2177
2311
2445
2577
2709
2839
2969
3098
3227
3354
3481
3606
3731
3855
3978
4100
4221
4341

100
243
386
529
671
812
953
1093
1233
1372
1510
1648
1785
1921
2056
2191
2325
2458
2590
2722
2852
2982
3111
3240
3367
3493
3619
3744
3867
3990
4112
4233
4353

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.4

July 2006

Low-Level Cruise Pressure Altitude 14,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 61

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 15,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

LOW-LEVEL CRUISE
400

500

600

700

TAS 371 kt
800

900

117
263
409
554
699
843
987
1129
1272
1413
1554
1694
1834
1972
2110
2247
2384
2519
2654
2788
2921
3053
3185
3315
3445
3573
3701
3828
3954
4079
4203
4326
4448

131
278
423
569
713
857
1001
1144
1286
1427
1568
1708
1848
1986
2124
2261
2397
2533
2668
2801
2934
3066
3198
3328
3458
3586
3714
3841
3966
4091
4215
4338
4460

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
146
292
438
583
728
872
1015
1158
1300
1442
1582
1722
1862
2000
2138
2275
2411
2546
2681
2815
2948
3080
3211
3341
3470
3599
3727
3853
3979
4104
4228
4351

14
161
307
452
598
742
886
1029
1172
1314
1456
1596
1736
1875
2014
2152
2288
2425
2560
2694
2828
2961
3093
3224
3354
3483
3612
3739
3866
3991
4116
4240
4363

29
175
321
467
612
757
900
1044
1186
1328
1470
1610
1750
1889
2028
2165
2302
2438
2573
2708
2841
2974
3106
3237
3367
3496
3624
3752
3878
4004
4129
4252
4375

43
190
336
481
626
771
915
1058
1201
1343
1484
1624
1764
1903
2041
2179
2316
2452
2587
2721
2855
2987
3119
3250
3380
3509
3637
3765
3891
4016
4141
4264
4387

58
205
350
496
641
785
929
1072
1215
1357
1498
1638
1778
1917
2055
2193
2329
2465
2600
2734
2868
3000
3132
3263
3393
3522
3650
3777
3903
4029
4153
4277
4399

73
219
365
510
655
800
943
1087
1229
1371
1512
1652
1792
1931
2069
2206
2343
2479
2614
2748
2881
3014
3145
3276
3406
3535
3663
3790
3916
4041
4166
4289
4411

87
234
380
525
670
814
958
1101
1243
1385
1526
1666
1806
1945
2083
2220
2357
2492
2627
2761
2894
3027
3158
3289
3419
3548
3675
3803
3929
4054
4178
4301
4424

102
248
394
540
684
829
972
1115
1257
1399
1540
1680
1820
1959
2097
2234
2370
2506
2641
2775
2908
3040
3171
3302
3432
3560
3688
3815
3941
4066
4190
4314
4436

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.4

July 2006

Low-Level Cruise Pressure Altitude 15,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 62

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 16,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

LOW-LEVEL CRUISE
400

500

600

700

TAS 377 kt
800

900

119
269
418
566
714
861
1008
1154
1299
1444
1588
1731
1873
2015
2155
2295
2435
2573
2710
2847
2983
3118
3252
3385
3517
3648
3778
3908
4036
4163
4290
4415
4540

134
284
433
581
729
876
1023
1168
1314
1458
1602
1745
1887
2029
2169
2309
2448
2587
2724
2861
2996
3131
3265
3398
3530
3661
3791
3920
4049
4176
4302
4428
4552

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
149
299
447
596
744
891
1037
1183
1328
1473
1616
1759
1901
2043
2183
2323
2462
2600
2738
2874
3010
3145
3278
3411
3543
3674
3804
3933
4062
4189
4315
4440

14
164
313
462
611
758
905
1052
1198
1343
1487
1631
1773
1916
2057
2197
2337
2476
2614
2751
2888
3023
3158
3292
3424
3556
3687
3817
3946
4074
4201
4328
4453

29
179
328
477
625
773
920
1066
1212
1357
1501
1645
1788
1930
2071
2211
2351
2490
2628
2765
2901
3037
3171
3305
3438
3569
3700
3830
3959
4087
4214
4340
4465

44
194
343
492
640
788
935
1081
1227
1371
1516
1659
1802
1944
2085
2225
2365
2504
2642
2779
2915
3050
3185
3318
3451
3582
3713
3843
3972
4100
4227
4353
4478

59
209
358
507
655
802
949
1096
1241
1386
1530
1673
1816
1958
2099
2239
2379
2518
2655
2792
2928
3064
3198
3331
3464
3596
3726
3856
3985
4112
4239
4365
4490

74
224
373
522
670
817
964
1110
1256
1400
1544
1688
1830
1972
2113
2253
2393
2531
2669
2806
2942
3077
3211
3345
3477
3609
3739
3869
3997
4125
4252
4378
4503

89
239
388
536
684
832
979
1125
1270
1415
1559
1702
1845
1986
2127
2267
2407
2545
2683
2820
2956
3091
3225
3358
3490
3622
3752
3882
4010
4138
4265
4390
4515

104
254
403
551
699
847
993
1139
1285
1429
1573
1716
1859
2000
2141
2281
2421
2559
2697
2833
2969
3104
3238
3371
3504
3635
3765
3895
4023
4151
4277
4403
4527

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.4

July 2006

Low-Level Cruise Pressure Altitude 16,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 63

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 17,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

LOW-LEVEL CRUISE
400

500

600

700

TAS 382 kt
800

900

122
274
427
578
729
879
1029
1178
1326
1474
1621
1767
1912
2057
2200
2343
2485
2626
2766
2906
3044
3182
3318
3454
3588
3722
3855
3987
4117
4247
4376
4504
4631

137
290
442
593
744
894
1044
1193
1341
1489
1635
1781
1927
2071
2215
2357
2499
2640
2780
2920
3058
3195
3332
3467
3602
3735
3868
4000
4130
4260
4389
4517
4643

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
152
305
457
608
759
910
1059
1208
1356
1504
1650
1796
1941
2085
2229
2372
2513
2654
2794
2933
3072
3209
3345
3481
3615
3749
3881
4013
4143
4273
4402
4529

15
168
320
472
624
774
924
1074
1223
1371
1518
1665
1811
1956
2100
2243
2386
2527
2668
2808
2947
3085
3223
3359
3494
3629
3762
3894
4026
4156
4286
4415
4542

30
183
335
487
639
789
939
1089
1238
1386
1533
1679
1825
1970
2114
2257
2400
2542
2682
2822
2961
3099
3236
3372
3508
3642
3775
3908
4039
4169
4299
4427
4555

45
198
351
502
654
804
954
1104
1252
1400
1547
1694
1840
1984
2128
2272
2414
2556
2696
2836
2975
3113
3250
3386
3521
3655
3789
3921
4052
4182
4312
4440
4567

61
213
366
518
669
819
969
1119
1267
1415
1562
1709
1854
1999
2143
2286
2428
2570
2710
2850
2989
3127
3264
3400
3535
3669
3802
3934
4065
4195
4325
4453
4580

76
229
381
533
684
834
984
1134
1282
1430
1577
1723
1869
2013
2157
2300
2442
2584
2724
2864
3003
3140
3277
3413
3548
3682
3815
3947
4078
4208
4337
4466
4593

91
244
396
548
699
849
999
1148
1297
1445
1591
1738
1883
2028
2172
2315
2457
2598
2738
2878
3016
3154
3291
3427
3561
3695
3828
3960
4091
4221
4350
4478
4605

107
259
411
563
714
864
1014
1163
1312
1459
1606
1752
1898
2042
2186
2329
2471
2612
2752
2892
3030
3168
3304
3440
3575
3709
3842
3973
4104
4234
4363
4491
4618

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.4

July 2006

Low-Level Cruise Pressure Altitude 17,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 64

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 18,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

LOW-LEVEL CRUISE
400

500

600

700

TAS 388 kt
800

900

124
280
435
590
744
898
1050
1202
1354
1504
1654
1803
1951
2098
2245
2391
2535
2679
2822
2964
3105
3245
3385
3523
3660
3796
3931
4066
4199
4331
4462
4592
4721

140
296
451
606
760
913
1066
1218
1369
1519
1669
1818
1966
2113
2260
2405
2550
2694
2836
2978
3119
3259
3398
3537
3674
3810
3945
4079
4212
4344
4475
4605
4734

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
156
311
466
621
775
928
1081
1233
1384
1534
1684
1833
1981
2128
2274
2420
2564
2708
2851
2993
3133
3273
3412
3550
3687
3823
3958
4092
4225
4357
4488
4618

15
171
327
482
636
790
944
1096
1248
1399
1549
1699
1848
1995
2143
2289
2434
2579
2722
2865
3007
3147
3287
3426
3564
3701
3837
3972
4106
4239
4371
4501
4631

31
187
342
497
652
806
959
1111
1263
1414
1564
1714
1862
2010
2157
2303
2449
2593
2737
2879
3021
3161
3301
3440
3578
3715
3850
3985
4119
4252
4384
4514
4644

46
202
358
513
667
821
974
1127
1278
1429
1579
1729
1877
2025
2172
2318
2463
2607
2751
2893
3035
3175
3315
3454
3591
3728
3864
3999
4132
4265
4397
4527
4657

62
218
373
528
683
836
989
1142
1293
1444
1594
1743
1892
2040
2186
2332
2478
2622
2765
2907
3049
3189
3329
3468
3605
3742
3877
4012
4146
4278
4410
4540
4670

78
234
389
544
698
852
1005
1157
1308
1459
1609
1758
1907
2054
2201
2347
2492
2636
2779
2922
3063
3203
3343
3481
3619
3755
3891
4025
4159
4291
4423
4553
4683

93
249
404
559
713
867
1020
1172
1324
1474
1624
1773
1922
2069
2216
2362
2506
2650
2794
2936
3077
3217
3357
3495
3633
3769
3904
4039
4172
4305
4436
4566
4696

109
265
420
575
729
882
1035
1187
1339
1489
1639
1788
1936
2084
2230
2376
2521
2665
2808
2950
3091
3231
3371
3509
3646
3783
3918
4052
4186
4318
4449
4579
4708

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.4

July 2006

Low-Level Cruise Pressure Altitude 18,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 65

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 19,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

LOW-LEVEL CRUISE
400

500

600

700

TAS 394 kt
800

900

127
286
444
602
759
916
1072
1227
1381
1534
1687
1839
1990
2140
2290
2438
2586
2732
2878
3023
3166
3309
3451
3592
3732
3870
4008
4145
4280
4415
4548
4681
4812

143
302
460
618
775
931
1087
1242
1396
1550
1702
1854
2005
2155
2305
2453
2600
2747
2892
3037
3181
3323
3465
3606
3746
3884
4022
4158
4294
4428
4562
4694
4825

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
159
318
476
634
791
947
1103
1258
1412
1565
1718
1869
2020
2170
2319
2468
2615
2762
2907
3051
3195
3338
3479
3620
3759
3898
4035
4172
4307
4442
4575
4707

15
175
334
492
649
806
963
1118
1273
1427
1580
1733
1884
2035
2185
2334
2482
2630
2776
2921
3066
3209
3352
3493
3634
3773
3912
4049
4185
4321
4455
4588
4720

31
191
349
508
665
822
978
1134
1288
1442
1596
1748
1900
2050
2200
2349
2497
2644
2791
2936
3080
3224
3366
3507
3648
3787
3926
4063
4199
4334
4468
4601
4733

47
207
365
523
681
838
994
1149
1304
1458
1611
1763
1915
2065
2215
2364
2512
2659
2805
2950
3095
3238
3380
3521
3662
3801
3939
4076
4212
4348
4482
4615
4746

63
222
381
539
697
853
1009
1165
1319
1473
1626
1778
1930
2080
2230
2379
2527
2674
2820
2965
3109
3252
3394
3535
3676
3815
3953
4090
4226
4361
4495
4628
4760

79
238
397
555
712
869
1025
1180
1335
1488
1641
1793
1945
2095
2245
2394
2541
2688
2834
2979
3123
3266
3408
3550
3690
3829
3967
4104
4240
4374
4508
4641
4773

95
254
413
571
728
885
1041
1196
1350
1504
1657
1809
1960
2110
2260
2408
2556
2703
2849
2994
3138
3281
3423
3564
3704
3843
3980
4117
4253
4388
4522
4654
4786

111
270
429
586
744
900
1056
1211
1366
1519
1672
1824
1975
2125
2275
2423
2571
2718
2863
3008
3152
3295
3437
3578
3718
3856
3994
4131
4267
4401
4535
4667
4799

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.4

July 2006

Low-Level Cruise Pressure Altitude 19,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 66

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 20,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

LOW-LEVEL CRUISE
400

500

600

700

TAS 400 kt
800

900

130
292
453
614
774
934
1093
1251
1408
1564
1720
1875
2029
2182
2334
2485
2636
2785
2933
3081
3227
3372
3517
3660
3803
3944
4084
4223
4361
4498
4634
4769
4902

146
308
469
630
790
950
1109
1267
1424
1580
1736
1890
2044
2197
2349
2500
2651
2800
2948
3095
3242
3387
3531
3674
3817
3958
4098
4237
4375
4512
4647
4782
4915

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
162
324
485
646
806
966
1124
1282
1439
1596
1751
1906
2060
2213
2365
2516
2666
2815
2963
3110
3256
3401
3546
3689
3831
3972
4112
4251
4389
4525
4661
4795

16
178
340
502
662
822
982
1140
1298
1455
1611
1767
1921
2075
2228
2380
2531
2681
2830
2978
3125
3271
3416
3560
3703
3845
3986
4126
4264
4402
4539
4674
4809

32
194
356
518
678
838
998
1156
1314
1471
1627
1782
1937
2090
2243
2395
2546
2696
2844
2992
3139
3285
3430
3574
3717
3859
4000
4140
4278
4416
4552
4688
4822

48
211
372
534
694
854
1013
1172
1329
1486
1642
1798
1952
2105
2258
2410
2561
2710
2859
3007
3154
3300
3445
3589
3731
3873
4014
4153
4292
4430
4566
4701
4835

65
227
389
550
710
870
1029
1188
1345
.1502
1658
1813
1967
2121
2273
2425
2576
2725
2874
3022
3169
3314
3459
3603
3746
3887
4028
4167
4306
4443
4580
4715
4849

81
243
405
566
726
886
1045
1203
1361
1518
1673
1829
1983
2136
2289
2440
2591
2740
2889
3036
3183
3329
3474
3617
3760
3901
4042
4181
4320
4457
4593
4728
4862

97
259
421
582
742
902
1061
1219
1377
1533
1689
1844
1998
2151
2304
2455
2606
2755
2904
3051
3198
3343
3488
3632
3774
3916
4056
4195
4333
4471
4607
4742
4875

113
275
437
598
758
918
1077
1235
1392
1549
1705
1859
2013
2167
2319
2470
2621
2770
2918
3066
3212
3358
3502
3646
3788
3930
4070
4209
4347
4484
4620
4755
4889

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.4

July 2006

Low-Level Cruise Pressure Altitude 20,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 67

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

All Engines

Maximum Cruise Thrust Limits

PRESSURE ALTITUDE 21,000 ft


GROSS

100

WT. kg
35000
36000
37000
38000
39000
40000
41000
42000
43000
44000
45000
46000
47000
48000
49000
50000
51000
52000
53000
54000
55000
56000
57000
58000
59000
60000
61000
62000
63000
64000
65000
66000
67000

200

300

A/C Auto

LOW-LEVEL CRUISE
400

500

600

700

TAS 406 kt
800

900

132
297
461
625
788
951
1112
1273
1433
1593
1751
1909
2065
2221
2376
2530
2682
2834
2985
3135
3284
3432
3578
3724
3869
4012
4155
4296
4437
4576
4714
4851
4987

148
313
478
642
805
967
1129
1289
1449
1609
1767
1924
2081
2236
2391
2545
2698
2849
3000
3150
3299
3446
3593
3739
3883
4027
4169
4310
4451
4590
4728
4864
5000

CRUISE DISTANCE NAUTICAL AIR MILES


0
165
330
494
658
821
983
1145
1305
1465
1624
1783
1940
2096
2252
2407
2560
2713
2865
3015
3165
3313
3461
3608
3753
3898
4041
4183
4324
4465
4604
4741
4878

16
181
346
511
674
837
999
1161
1321
1481
1640
1798
1956
2112
2267
2422
2576
2728
2880
3030
3180
3328
3476
3622
3768
3912
4055
4197
4338
4478
4617
4755
4892

33
198
363
527
691
853
1016
1177
1337
1497
1656
1814
1971
2128
2283
2437
2591
2743
2895
3045
3195
3343
3490
3637
3782
3926
4070
4212
4352
4492
4631
4769
4905

49
214
379
543
707
870
1032
1193
1353
1513
1672
1830
1987
2143
2298
2453
2606
2758
2910
3060
3209
3358
3505
3651
3797
3941
4084
4226
4366
4506
4645
4782
4919

66
231
396
560
723
886
1048
1209
1369
1529
1688
1846
2003
2159
2314
2468
2621
2774
2925
3075
3224
3373
3520
3666
3811
3955
4098
4240
4381
4520
4659
4796
4932

82
247
412
576
739
902
1064
1225
1385
1545
1704
1861
2018
2174
2329
2483
2637
2789
2940
3090
3239
3387
3534
3681
3826
3969
4112
4254
4395
4534
4672
4810
4946

99
264
429
592
756
918
1080
1241
1401
1561
1719
1877
2034
2190
2345
2499
2652
2804
2955
3105
3254
3402
3549
3695
3840
3984
4126
4268
4409
4548
4686
4823
4959

115
280
445
609
772
935
1096
1257
1417
1577
1735
1893
2050
2205
2360
2514
2667
2819
2970
3120
3269
3417
3564
3710
3854
3998
4141
4282
4423
4562
4700
4837
4973

NOTE 1: OPTIMUM WEIGHT FOR PRESSURE ALTITUDE EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT


A) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +10 AND COLDER EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
B) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +15 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
C) THRUST LIMITED WEIGHT FOR ISA +20 EXCEEDS STRUCTURAL LIMIT
NOTE 2: ADJUSTMENTS FOR OPERATION AT NON-STANDARD TEMPERATURES
A) INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C ABOVE ISA
B) DECREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5 PERCENT PER 10 DEGREES C BELOW ISA
C) INCREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C ABOVE ISA
D) DECREASE TAS BY 1 KNOT PER DEGREE C BELOW ISA

Figure 4.5.3.4

July 2006

Low-Level Cruise Pressure Altitude 21,000 ft

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 68

CAP 697

5.5

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Descent
The following tables in Figure 4.5.4a and Figure 4.5.4b tabulate the time taken, fuel
used and air distance travelled for a flight idle thrust descent. An allowance for
approach and landing of 2 minutes of time and 100 kg of fuel has been included in the
values listed.
0.74 M/250 KIAS (Economy) Descent
AIR DISTANCE TRAVELLED NM
PRESS.
ALT.
ft

FUEL
kg

LANDING WEIGHT kg
35,000

45,000

55,000

65,000

75,000

37,000

23

295

98

109

114

114

110

35,000

22

290

94

105

110

110

106

33,000

21

285

89

99

103

103

101

31,000

20

280

83

93

97

98

95

29,000

19

275

78

87

91

91

89

27,000

19

270

73

81

85

85

83

25,000

18

260

68

75

79

79

77

23,000

16

255

63

69

72

73

71

21,000

15

245

58

64

66

67

66

19,000

14

235

53

58

60

61

60

17,000

13

225

48

52

54

55

54

15,000

12

215

43

46

48

49

48

10,000

185

30

32

33

34

33

5,000

140

18

18

18

18

18

3,700

130

14

14

14

14

14

Figure 4.5.4a

July 2006

TIME
min

Economy Descent

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 69

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

0.70 M/280/250 KIAS (Turbulence Penetration) Descent


AIR DISTANCE TRAVELLED NM
PRESS.
ALT.
ft

FUEL
kg

LANDING WEIGHT kg
35,000

45,000

55,000

65,000

75,000

37,000

21

280

88

100

107

110

109

35,000

20

275

84

96

102

105

105

33,000

20

275

80

91

98

101

101

31,000

19

270

76

86

93

96

96

29,000

18

265

72

82

88

91

92

27,000

17

260

69

78

84

87

87

25,000

17

255

64

73

78

80

81

23,000

16

250

60

67

72

74

74

21,000

15

240

55

62

66

68

68

19,000

14

230

51

57

60

62

62

17,000

13

225

46

52

55

56

56

15,000

12

215

42

46

49

50

50

10,000

185

30

32

33

34

33

5,000

140

18

18

18

18

18

3,700

130

14

14

14

14

14

Figure 4.5.4b

July 2006

TIME
min

Turbulence Penetration Descent

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 70

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Non-Normal Operation
Simplified Flight Planning
Gear Down
220 KIAS (Fig.4.6.1)
This graph is similar in use to the normal Simplified Planning Graphs in paragraph 3,
giving fuel and time required for a flight with gear down.
Climb and descent are included.
8 10 2
1
14
16
20
24
28

3
10

16 14 12 10 8

14

TU

E
UR

TI
AL

ES

15

ft

PR

13
12

20

TRIP TIME hr

00

DE

BASED ON:
220 KIAS CLIMB
220 KIAS DESCENT

1
REF LINE

28 24

11

ft
10

20 10 0 -10

DE

ISA DEV C
AL
TI

TU

ES

SU

RE

PR

6
5

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

00

10

28
8

PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

REF LINE

30

40

50

0
60

LANDING WEIGHT
1000 kg

HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

0
50

TAIL 100
0

200

400

600

800

1000

TRIP DISTANCE NM

Figure 4.6.1

July 2006

Non-Normal Operation Gear Down Ferry Flight

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 71

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Extended Range Operations (EROPS)


This paragraph provides planning information necessary for the conduct of EROPS.

7.1

Critical Fuel Reserve (Figs. 4.7.1a and 4.7.1b)


These graphs are for the determination of the minimum fuel reserve at the critical
point. If this fuel reserve exceeds the predicted (planned) fuel remaining at that point,
the fuel load must be adjusted accordingly. Determine the fuel required from each
graph in the following manner:
a) Enter the graph at the distance from the critical point to the diversion aerodrome
and travel vertically to the wind component reference line.
b) Parallel the grid-lines to apply the appropriate wind component. Then continue
vertically to intercept the grid-line appropriate to the weight at the critical point.
c) From this point travel horizontally right to read the fuel required.
d) Compare the result obtained from Fig. 4.7.1a with that obtained from Fig. 4.7.1b;
the higher of the two is the fuel required.

7.2

Area of Operation Diversion Distance (Fig. 4.7.2)


The area of operation is defined as the region within which the operator is authorised
to conduct extended range operations. The distance to the diversion airport from any
point along the route must be covered within the approved time using the single
engine cruise speed and assuming still air and ISA conditions. The maximum
diversion distance used to establish the area of operation may be obtained from this
chart.
a) Enter the chart for the appropriate speed with the weight at the point of diversion.
b) Select the appropriate time and read off the maximum diversion distance.

7.3

In-Flight Diversion (LRC) (Fig. 4.7.3)


Figure 4.7.3 is a simplified flight planning method of determining the fuel required and
time for a flight from the point of diversion to a selected alternate.
The graph is similar in layout and use to the normal Simplified Flight Planning graphs
in paragraph 3.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 72

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE


15
Emergency descent to 10,000 ft
Level cruise at 10,000 ft
250 KIAS descent to 1,500 ft
15 minutes hold at 1,500 ft
One missed approach; approach & land
5% allowance for wind errors
Includes APU fuel burn

14

70
65

13

60
55
50
45
40

11
10

kg

10

IN

L
CA

PO

TI

HT

AT

I
CR

EI

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

00

12

5
4
3
2
1
0
HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

0
50

TAIL 100
0

400
800
1000
600
1200
200
DISTANCE TO DIVERSION AIRPORT FROM CRITICAL POINT NM

1400

INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5% FOR EACH 10C HOTTER THAN ISA CONDITIONS.
IF ICING CONDITIONS EXIST, INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 20% TO ACCOUNT FOR
ENGINE & WING A.I. ON & ICE ACCUMULATION ON UNHEATED SURFACES.
ALLOWANCE FOR PERFORMANCE DETERIORATION NOT INCLUDED.
COMPARE THE FUEL REQUIRED FROM THIS CHART WITH CRITICAL FUEL RESERVES
FOR TWO ENGINES OPERATIVE. USE THE HIGHER OF THE TWO.

Figure 4.7.1a

July 2006

Critical Fuel Reserve One Engine Inoperative

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 73

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

ALL ENGINES OPERATIVE


15

00

NT

kg

70
65
60
55
50
45
40

10

14
13
12
11
10

AL

PO

IC

IT

HT

AT

CR

EI

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

Emergency descent to 10,000 ft


Level cruise at 10,000 ft
250 KIAS descent to 1,500 ft
15 minutes hold at 1,500 ft
One missed approach; approach & land
5% allowance for wind errors

5
4
3
2
1
0
HEAD 100
50
WIND
kt

REF LINE

0
50

TAIL 100
0

400
800
1000
600
1200
200
DISTANCE TO DIVERSION AIRPORT FROM CRITICAL POINT NM

1400

INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 0.5% FOR EACH 10C HOTTER THAN ISA CONDITIONS.
IF ICING CONDITIONS EXIST, INCREASE FUEL REQUIRED BY 18% TO ACCOUNT FOR
ENGINE & WING A.I. ON & ICE ACCUMULATION ON UNHEATED SURFACES.
ALLOWANCE FOR PERFORMANCE DETERIORATION NOT INCLUDED.
COMPARE THE FUEL REQUIRED FROM THIS CHART WITH CRITICAL FUEL RESERVES
FOR ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE. USE THE HIGHER OF THE TWO.

Figure 4.7.1b

July 2006 (corr.)

Critical Fuel Reserve All Engines Operating

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 74

CAP 697

Speed
M/KIAS

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

TIME M I N U T E S

Div. Wt
1000 kg

60

70

35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70

406
402
397
392
385
377
369
363
412
409
404
400
393
386
378
372
415
413
410
407
402
397
391
385
416
415
414
412
408
404
399
395
368
372
376
379
380
381
381
383

472 539 605


467 533 598
462 526 590
454 517 580
446 507 568
437 497 557
427 486 544
419 476 532
478 545 612
474 540 606
469 533 598
463 526 590
455 517 579
447 508 568
437 497 556
430 488 546
482 548 615
479 545 611
476 541 607
472 536 601
466 529 592
459 521 583
452 513 574
445 505 565
482 548 614
481 547 613
480 545 610
477 542 607
472 536 600
467 530 593
461 523 586
457 518 579
428 488 548
433 493 554
437 497 558
440 501 561
441 502 562
442 503 563
442 503 563
444 504 564

.70/280

.74/290

.74/310

.74/330

LRC

80

90

100

110

672 738
663 729
654 718
642 705
630 691
616 676
602 660
589 645
678 745
672 737
663 727
653 717
641 704
629 690
615 675
603 661
681 748
677 743
672 737
665 730
656 719
646 708
635 696
625 685
680 746
678 744
676 741
671 736
664 728
656 719
648 710
640 701
608 668
614 674
619 679
622 682
623 683
624 684
623 683
623 683

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

805 871 938 1004 1071 1137 1204 1271 1337


794 860 925 990 1056 1121 1187 1252 1318
782 846 910 975 1039 1103 1167 1231 1295
768 830 893 956 1018 1081 1144 1207 1269
752 813 875 936 997 1058 1119 1181 1242
736 796 855 915 975 1035 1094 1154 1214
718 776 835 893 951 1009 1067 1125 1183
702 758 815 871 928 985 1041 1098 1154
811 878 945 1011 1078 1145 1211 1278 1345
803 869 935 1000 1066 1132 1198 1263 1329
792 856 921 986 1050 1115 1180 1244 1309
780 844 907 970 1034 1097 1161 1224 1288
766 828 890 952 1014 1077 1139 1201 1263
751 812 872 933 994 1055 1116 1176 1237
734 793 853 912 971 1031 1090 1149 1209
719 777 835 893 950 1008 1066 1124 1182
814 881 948 1014 1081 1147 1214 1280 1347
810 876 942 1008 1074 1140 1206 1272 1338
803 868 933 999 1064 1130 1195 1260 1326
794 859 923 988 1052 1116 1181 1245 1310
783 846 908 973 1036 1100 1163 1226 1290
770 833 895 957 1019 1082 1144 1206 1269
757 818 879 940 1002 1063 1124 1185 1246
744 804 864 924 984 1044 1103 1163 1223
811 877 943 1009 1075 1141 1207 1273 1339
810 875 941 1007 1072 1138 1204 1270 1335
806 871 937 1002 1067 1133 1198 1263 1328
801 865 930 995 1059 1124 1189 1254 1318
792 856 920 984 1048 1112 1176 1240 1304
783 846 909 972 1035 1098 1161 1224 1287
772 834 896 958 1020 1082 1144 1207 1269
762 823 884 945 1006 1067 1128 1190 1251
728 787 847 906 965 1024 1083 1141 1200
735 794 854 914 973 1032 1092 1151 1209
739 799 859 919 979 1038 1097 1157 1216
742 803 862 922 982 1041 1101 1160 1219
743 803 863 922 982 1041 1100 1159 1218
744 804 863 923 982 1041 1100 1159 1218
742 802 861 921 980 1038 1097 1156 1214
742 802 860 919 978 1036 1094 1152 1210

ISA
BASED ON DRIFTDOWN STARTING AT OR NEAR OPTIMUM ALTITUDE

Figure 4.7.2

July 2006

Area of Operation Diversion Distance One Engine Inoperative

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 75

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

6
10
18 14

ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE


5

22
26

BASED ON
0.74 / 250 DESCENT

00
10

12

ES

10

SU

RE

AL
TI

TU

DE

14

PR

DIVERSION TIME hr

ft

14

26

SU
ES

20 10 0 -10
ISA DEV C

RE

AL
TI

TU

22

PR

DE

REF LINE

10

PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
1000 ft

FUEL REQUIRED 1000 kg

00

ft

18

10

26
4

REF LINE

30
HEAD 100

50
40
60
70
WEIGHT AT POINT OF
DIVERSION 1000 kg

50
WIND
kt

REF LINE
INCLUDES
APU FUEL BURN

50
TAIL 100
0
400
1200
1600
800
DISTANCE FROM POINT OF DIVERSION TO ALTERNATE NM

Figure 4.7.3

July 2006

In-Flight Diversion (LRC) One Engine Inoperative

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 76

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

Fuel Tankering
Because of fuel cost differentials between those at departure airport and those at
destination airport, economic benefit can sometimes be gained from carrying excess
fuel (i.e. a fuel load greater than that required for the flight). The following graphs
provide a ready means of determining whether such an action is beneficial.
Fig. 4.8.1 Fuel Tankering (LRC and M 0.74)
These graphs show the surplus fuel burn required for carriage of extra fuel. In the
example shown on the Long Range Cruise graph of Fig. 4.8.1, a trip has a distance
of 1600 NAM and is to be conducted at FL 330.
If excess fuel is carried, 13.2% of that excess will be consumed as a fuel penalty.
Fig. 4.8.2 Fuel Price Differential
Using the percentage value for the surplus fuel burn (as obtained from Fig. 4.8.1)
and fuel price at the departure airport, the break-even price at the destination
airport can be determined.

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 77

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

3000

29
t
0f

33

35

37

00

2000

IT
LT
EA

SU

TRIP DISTANCE NM

1
DE

S
RE

P
1000

LANDING WEIGHT
(WITHOUT TANKERED FUEL)

LONG RANGE CRUISE

1000
lb kg
75 35

REF LINE

85 40

95

10

15

20

25

45
105
50
115

SURPLUS FUEL BURN %

0.74 MACH
3000

LANDING WEIGHT
(WITHOUT TANKERED FUEL)

29
33

UD

TRIP DISTANCE NM

35
37

0f

2000

UR

S
ES

1000

T
TI
AL

0
10

PR

1000
lb kg
75 35

REF LINE

85 40

95

10

15

20

25

45
105
50
115

SURPLUS FUEL BURN %

Figure 4.8.1

July 2006

Fuel Tankering (LRC and 0.74 M)

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 78

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

200

175

BREAK-EVEN FUEL PRICE DESTINATION AIRPORT


CENTS / GALLON

175

150

150

125

FU

125

A
URE
ART N
P
E
O
D
ALL
E AT
RIC ENTS/G
P
L
E
C

T
OR
IRP

100

100

75

75

50
50

10

15

20

25

30

SURPLUS FUEL BURNOFF %

Figure 4.8.2

July 2006

Fuel Price Differential

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 79

CAP 697

CAA JAR-FCL Examinations - Flight Planning Manual

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

July 2006

Section 4 - MRJT1

Page 80