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11 1&2 C2 Mock Exam Revision Questions Higher

C2.1&C2.2 Structure and properties


Q1.

This question is about the structure of atoms.


(a)

Choose words from the list to complete the sentences below.


electrons

ions

neutrons

protons

In an atom, the particles with a negative charge are called .....................................


Particles in the nucleus with no charge are called .....................................................
An atom has no overall charge because is has the same number of electrons and
....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Two isotopes of the element carbon are:


12
C
6

14
and

C
6

Complete the table of information for these two isotopes.


ATOMIC
NUMBER

MASS
NUMBER

NUMBER OF
PROTONS

12

Isotope

12
C
6

Isotope

12
C
6

NUMBER OF
NEUTRONS
6

(2)

Q2.

This question is about oxygen atoms. The periodic table on the Data Sheet may help you to
answer this question.
(a)

(i)

Oxygen atoms have 8 electrons. Complete the diagram to represent the arrangement of
electrons in an oxygen atom. Use crosses () to represent the electrons.

(1)

(ii)

Name the part of the oxygen atom that is labelled A on the diagram.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Two isotopes of oxygen are oxygen-16 and oxygen-18.


16

18

oxygen-16

oxygen-18

Explain, in terms of particles, how the nucleus of an oxygen-18 atom is different from the
nucleus of an oxygen-16 atom.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

Q3.

The two carbon atoms represented below are isotopes.


ISOTOPE 1
14

ISOTOPE 2
mass number

C
6
(a)

proton number

12
C
6

Describe two ways in which the isotopes are similar.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Describe as fully as you can one way in which they are different.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

Q4.

The picture shows sodium reacting with chlorine. The reaction forms sodium chloride.

(a)

Use words from the box to answer the questions.


compound

element

hydrocarbon

mixture

Which word best describes:


(i)

sodium .......................................................................
(1)

(ii)

sodium chloride? ........................................................


(1)

(b)

When sodium reacts with chlorine the sodium atoms change into sodium ions.
The diagrams below represent a sodium atom and a sodium ion.

Use the diagrams to help you explain how a sodium atom turns into a sodium ion.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

(i)

The diagram below represents a chlorine atom.

When chlorine reacts with sodium the chlorine forms negative chloride ions.
Complete the diagram below to show the outer electrons in a chloride ion (Cl).

(1)

(ii)

Chloride ions are strongly attracted to sodium ions in sodium chloride.


Explain why.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q5.

Calcium and magnesium are elements. They are found in the Earths crust as compounds, often
carbonates and sulphates. Magnesium is also found as its chloride.
(a)

Calcium and magnesium are in the same Group in the Periodic Table.
State which Group this is.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Use the Data Sheet to help you to answer this question.


(i)

Write the chemical formula of magnesium chloride.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Name the type of bonding in magnesium chloride.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

Q6.

The drawing shows a container of a compound called magnesium chloride.

(i)

How many elements are joined together to form magnesium chloride?


....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Magnesium chloride is an ionic compound. What are the names of its ions?
................................................. ions and ................................................. ions
(1)

(iii)

How many negative ions are there in the formula for magnesium chloride?
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv)

Complete the sentence.


Ions are atoms, or groups of atoms, which have lost or gained
......................................... .
(1)

(v)

Suggest three properties which magnesium chloride has because it is an ionic compound.
Property 1 ...................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Property 2 ..................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Property 3 ..................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

Q7.

Sodium chloride is an ionic compound.

(Total 2 marks)

Q8.

(a) Write a balanced symbol equation for the reaction between magnesium (Mg) and oxygen
(O2) to form magnesium oxide (MgO).
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

The diagram shows the electronic structure of a magnesium atom.


The atomic (proton) number of magnesium is 12.

Magnesium atom

Oxygen atom

Draw a similar diagram to show the electronic structure of an oxygen atom.


The atomic (proton) number of oxygen is 8.
(1)

(c)

Magnesium ions and oxide ions are formed when magnesium reacts with oxygen.
The diagram shows the electronic structure of an oxide ion.

Oxide ion

Magnesium ion

Draw a similar diagram to show the electronic structure of a magnesium ion


(1)

(d)

Magnesium oxide is a white solid with a high melting point.


Explain how the ions are held together in solid magnesium oxide.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(e)

Indigestion tablets can be made from magnesium oxide. The magnesium oxide neutralises
some of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
Complete the word equation for the reaction between magnesium oxide and hydrochloric acid.
hydrochloric acid

magnesium oxide

......................

water.
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q9.

(a)

(i)

The diagram shows part of the ionic lattice of a sodium chloride crystal.

Complete the spaces in the table to give information about both of the ions in this lattice.
Name of ion

Charge

.....................................................

.....................................................

.....................................................

.....................................................
(2)

(ii)

When it is solid, sodium chloride will not conduct electricity. However, molten sodium
chloride will conduct electricity. Explain this difference.
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Complete the sentence.


Sodium chloride conducts electricity when it is molten and when it is
..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

The symbol for a calcium atom can be shown like this:

(i)

What is the mass number of this atom?


..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

What information is given by the mass number?


..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Calcium burns in oxygen with a brick-red flame. The product is a white solid. It is calcium oxide
and its formula is CaO.
(i)

Balance the chemical equation for the reaction.


Ca(s) + O2(g) CaO(s)
(1)

(ii)

Describe, in terms of electrons, what happens to a calcium atom when it becomes a


calcium ion.
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

Q10.
Atoms of calcium, phosphorus and fluorine are represented below, each with its mass number and
proton number.

(a)

Use this information to complete the table.


CALCIUM
Number of protons in the nucleus

20

Number of neutrons in the nucleus

20

PHOSPHOROUS

Number of electrons

FLUORINE
9

16
15

9
(3)

(b)

Calcium and fluorine atoms can combine to form the compound calcium fluoride, CaF2.
The fluoride ion is represented by F.
(i)

Explain how the fluorine atom forms a fluoride ion.


..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

How is the calcium ion represented?


..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Phosphorus and fluorine form a covalent compound, phosphorus trifluoride. Complete the
sentences below which are about this compound.
Phosphorus trifluoride is made up of phosphorus and fluorine ................................
These are joined together by sharing pairs of ............................................... to form
phosphorus trifluoride ........................................................ .
(3)

(d)

(i)

Sodium chloride, an ionic compound, has a high melting point whereas paraffin wax, a
molecular compound, melts easily.
Explain why.
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Molten ionic compounds conduct electricity but molecular compounds are non-conductors,
even when liquid.
Explain why.
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 14 marks)

Q11.

The diagram represents a particle of methane.

(a)

What is the formula of methane? ...............................................................................


(1)

(b)

Choose a word from the box to answer the question.

atom

ion

molecule

Which of the words best describes the methane particle shown in the diagram?
.................................................
(1)

(c)

Choose a word from the box to answer the question.

covalent

ionic

metallic

What is the type of bonding shown in the diagram?


..................................................
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

Q12.

This barbecue burns propane gas.

The diagram represents a propane molecule.

(a)

What is the formula of propane? ........................................................................................


(1)

(b)

(i)

Draw a ring around the name of the particle represented by the symbols and in the
diagram.
electron

neutron

proton
(1)

(ii)

Draw a ring around the type of bonding that holds the atoms together in a propane
molecule.
covalent

ionic

metallic
(1)

(c)

Under high pressure in the cylinder propane is a liquid.


Liquid propane evaporates easily to form a gas when the tap on the cylinder is opened.
Draw a ring around the correct answer in each box to explain why propane evaporates easily.

Propane has a

high
low

boiling point because it consists of

large
small

molecules.

(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q13.

(a)

The diagram represents an atom of nitrogen.

(i)

Use words from the box to label the diagram.

electron

neutron

nucleus

proton

(2)

(ii)

Draw a ring around the mass number of this atom.


5

14

21
(1)

(b)

Nitrogen can react with hydrogen to make ammonia, NH3 .

Which diagram, A, B, C or D, best represents an ammonia molecule?


(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q14.

Diesel oil is obtained from crude oil. It can be used as a fuel for car engines. The diagram below
represents a compound found in diesel oil.

(a)

What is the formula of this compound?


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Each of the lines on the diagram above represents a covalent bond.


What is a covalent bond?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 3 marks)

Q15.

The hydrogen halides (hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide and hydrogen
iodide) are important chemicals.
The diagram below represents a molecule of hydrogen chloride.

(i)

What type of particles are represented by the crosses (X)?


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

What type of chemical bond holds the atoms in this molecule together?
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

Would you expect hydrogen chloride to be a gas, a liquid or a solid, at room temperature and
pressure? Explain your answer.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

Q16.

(i)
Complete the drawing to show the electron structure of a hydrogen fluoride molecule. Draw
electrons as dots or crosses.

(1)

(ii)

Explain why hydrogen fluoride is a gas at room temperature.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 3 marks)

Q17.

This question is about giant structures. Diamond, graphite and silicon dioxide all have giant
structures.
(a)

The diagrams show the structures of these three substances. Draw a line from each structure to
its name.

(2)

(b)

Complete the sentences using words from the box.

(i)

covalent

four

hard

ionic

shiny

soft

three

two

Diamond, graphite and silicon dioxide have high melting points because all the
atoms in their structures are joined by strong ............................................... bonds.
(1)

(ii)

In diamond each atom is joined to ............................................... other atoms.


(1)

(iii)

Diamond can be used to make cutting tools because it has a rigid structure which
makes it very ................................................
(1)

(iv)

In graphite each atom is joined to ............................................... other atoms.


(1)

(v)

Graphite can be used to make pencils because it has a structure which makes it
................................................
(1)

Q18.

The diagram shows the structure of diamond.

(a)

To gain full marks for this question you should write your ideas in good English. Put them into a
sensible order and use the correct scientific words.
Explain, as fully as you can, why diamond has a high melting point.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

The diagram below shows the outer electron shells of five carbon atoms in the giant lattice of
diamond.
Carbon atom C forms bonds with each of the carbon atoms W, X, Y and Z.
Draw the positions of all the electrons in the outer shells of each of carbon atoms C, W, X, Y
and Z.

(3)
(Total 6 marks)

Q19.

The diagram represents the structure of graphite.

Use your knowledge and understanding of the structure of graphite to explain why graphite can be
used:
(a)

in the leads of pencils;


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

(b)

as an electrical conductor.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(Total 5 marks)

Q20.

The diagram shows a model of part of the giant lattice of a metal.

(a)

Name particles X and Y.


X .....................................................
Y .....................................................
(2)

(b)

Explain, in terms of the giant structure above, why is it possible to bend a piece of metal.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks

Q21.

The extract below was taken from a leaflet on the uses of platinum. One of the uses described
was in making electrodes for spark plugs in car engines. The spark plug produces the spark which
ignites the fuel in the engine.
Spark Plugs
The electrodes in a spark plug have to conduct electricity very well. Since they
project into the combustion chamber of the engine, they must also be able to
withstand extremely high temperatures in a very corrosive atmosphere.
Nickel-based plugs have been produced for many years. They only last a fairly
short time. As the electrodes wear, combustion becomes less efficient and the
petrol is not burnt completely.
Platinum and other precious metals can now be used in spark plugs. These last
much longer and are more efficient. This can help to reduce air pollution.

The table below gives some information about platinum and nickel.

(a)

MELTING
POINT
( C)

BOILING
POINT
( C)

POSITION IN
REACTIVITY
SERIES

COST
(/kg)

nickel

1455

2920

Higher than gold

2.5

platinum

1769

4107

below gold

6110

Compare nickel and platinum for use in making the electrodes in spark plugs.
A good answer should give advantages and disadvantages of each metal linking these to the
properties of the metals. Marks will be given for the way in which you organise your answer.
You will need a sheet of lined paper.
(8)

(b)

(i)

Describe the structure and bonding in metals.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Explain why metals such as nickel and platinum are good conductors of electricity.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

Q22.

Metals and their alloys have many uses.


(a)

Dentists use a smart alloy to make braces that gently push teeth into the right position. What is
meant by a smart alloy?
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Pure copper is made up of layers of copper atoms. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc.

Why are the physical properties of brass different from the physical properties of pure copper?
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)

Q23.

The hip joint between the femur and pelvis sometimes has to be replaced. Early hip replacement
joints were made from stainless steel.

Stainless steel is an alloy of iron, chromium and nickel. The diagram below represents the particles in
stainless steel.

(a)

Use the particle diagram to complete the percentages of metals in this stainless steel. The first
one has been done for you.

Element

Percentage (%)

Iron, Fe

72

Chromium, Cr
Nickel, Ni
(2)

(b)

Pure iron is a relatively soft, metallic element.


(i)

Why is iron described as an element?


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Suggest why pure iron would not be suitable for a hip replacement joint.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

Use the particle diagram to help you to explain why stainless steel is harder than pure iron.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

Q24.

This picture shows a sword. The sword is about 3400 years old. It is made of an alloy called
bronze.

Bronze is made from copper and tin. Bronze made better swords than pure copper. This is because
bronze is harder than pure copper. Explain why bronze is harder than pure copper. Your answer
should include details of:
how the atoms are arranged in pure copper and bronze
why pure copper is relatively soft
why bronze is harder.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
(Total 4 marks)

Q25.

This drinks bottle is made of thermosoftening plastic.

a) Explain why a thermosoftening plastic is flexible and melts easily.


.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

(2)

b) Explain why a thermosetting plastic is rigid and does not melt when heated.
................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

(2)
(Total 4 marks)

Q26.

Read the article and then answer the questions.

Nanotennis!
Tennis balls contain air under pressure, which gives them their bounce. Normal tennis balls are changed at
regular intervals during tennis matches because they slowly lose some of the air.

Nanocoated tennis balls have a nanosize layer of butyl rubber. This layer slows down the escape of air
so that the ball does not lose its pressure as quickly.

(a)

What is the meaning of nanosize?


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Suggest why using nanocoated tennis balls would be good for the environment.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 3 marks)

Q27.

Read this passage about metals.

Metals are crystalline materials. The metal crystals are normally about 20 000 nm (nanometres) in diameter.
The atoms inside these crystals are arranged in layers. A new nanoscience process produces nanocrystalline
metals. Nanocrystalline metals are stronger and harder than normal metals. It is hoped that nanocrystalline
metals can be used in hip replacements.

The use of nanocrystalline metals should give people better hip replacements which last longer.

(a)

State why metals can be bent and hammered into different shapes.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

How is the size of the crystals in nanocrystalline metals different from the size of the crystals in
normal metals?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Hip joints are constantly moving when people walk. Suggest and explain why the hip
replacement made of nanocrystalline metal should last longer than one made of normal metals.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

M1.

(a) electrons
neutrons
protons
for 1 mark each
3

(b)

mass number
no. of neutrons
14
8
for 1 mark each
2

[5]

M2.

(a)

(i)

or
1

allow any arrangement of electrons on the shells


accept o, x, - or e as representing electrons
(ii)

nucleus
accept nucleus (protons plus neutrons)
do not accept protons plus neutrons on its own
allow nuclei / nucles / neucleus / phonetic spelling
do not accept neutron
1

(b)

it has 2 more neutrons or converse


accept it has more neutrons or different number of neutrons for 1 mark
2 more protons / electrons + correct number of neutrons = max 1 mark
or
O-16 has 8 neutrons (1 mark)(*)
O-18 has 10 neutrons (1 mark)(*)
(*)if incorrectly calculated but shows more neutrons in 0-18 allow for 1
mark
accept it has more particles
or
it has 2 more particles for 1 mark
ignore any reference to charges
just 2 more without reference to particles = 0 marks
2

[4]

M3.

(a) same number/six electrons;


same number/six protons;
react in same way not same element or both carbon
any two for 1 mark each
2

(b)

different number of neutrons


gains 1 mark
but

or

has two more neutrons


gains 1 mark

different mass number

or
but two mass units bigger
gains 2 marks

has 8 neutrons while


gains 2 marks

has 6 neutrons
2

[4]

M4.

(a)

(i)

element
1

(ii)

compound
1

(b)

an / one electron from the sodium atom


1

is lost / transferred to form a sodium ion


1

(c)

(i)

8 electrons drawn on outer energy level / shell


1

(ii)

because oppositely charged ions attract each other


or
because chloride ions are negative and sodium ions are positive
1

[6]

M5.

(a)

Group 2 / Alkaline Earth Metals


for 1 mark
1

(b)

(i)

MgCl2/Mg2+ (Cl)2
for 1 mark
1

(ii)

ionic / electrovalent

for 1 mark
1

M6.

(i)

two
or 2
1

(ii)

magnesium and chloride


either order
not positive / negative
do not creditchlorine
accept Mg++ and Cldo not credit just Mg and Cl
accept cation(s) and anion(s)
1

(iii)

2
1

(iv)

electrons
accept charges
1

(v)

any three from

(is a) giant structure/lattice structure

crystalline / hard
accept just 'crystals(s)

high melting point / solid

high boiling point

conductor (of electricity) when dissolved in water


or conductor (of electricity) when ions are free to move

conductor (of electricity) when molten

soluble in water
3

[7]

M7.

8 electrons in outer shell


accept anywhere in outer shell
accept dots or crosses
1

negative sign outside bracket


1

[2]

M8.

(a)

2Mg + O2 2MgO
accept correct multiples / fractions
1

(b)

electrons do not need to be paired


accept dots / circles / e instead of crosses
do not allow 2.6 without diagram
1

(c)

electrons do not need to be paired


allow without bracket s/ must have the charge
accept dots / circles / e instead of crosses
ignore extra empty outer shells
ignore nucleus
do not allow [2.8]2+ without diagram
1

(d)

oppositely charged (ions / atoms)


allow positive and negative(ions / atoms)
1

(they) attract
must be in correct context
accept held by electrostatic forces
ignore ionic bonding
maximum 1 if they refer to intermolecular forces / attractions / covalent
bonds
1

(e)

magnesium chloride
accept MgCl2 (if correctly written)
1

[6]

M9.

(a)

(i)

sodium........ positive or +
both required
1

chloride... negative or
both required
do not credit chlorine
1

(ii)

ions not free (to move) in solid crystal / lattice


ions are free to move when sodium chloride is molten
1

or ions are mobile


do not credit when ions are molten
allow 'particles' for ions (1) mark
do not credit electrons etc
1

(iii)

dissolved in water
or in aqueous solution
accept in solution
accept in water
or when a gas/ vapour or solid it will not
1

(b)

(i)

40
1

(ii)

(total) number of protons and neutrons (in the nucleus)


1

(c)

(i)

2Ca + O2 -+ 2CaO
accept any 2n : n : 2n ratio
do not credit if any other change has been made
1

(ii)

any two from


electron(s) is / are lost
from the outer shell / orbit / ring
or from the shell furthest the nucleus
or from the 4th shell
two / both (electrons are lost)
accept two electrons are lost for (2)marks
accept both electrons are lost from the
atom for (1) mark

[10]

M10.

(a)

Calcium
No of protons

Phosphorus
15

No of neutrons
No of electrons

Fluorine

10
20

for 1 mark each


3

(b)

(i)

gain of electron(s)
from (atoms) (of) calcium
for 1 mark
2

(ii)

Ca+
gains 1 mark
but superscript only Ca2+ / Ca ++
gains 2 marks
2

(c)

atoms
electrons
molecule(s)
not compound
each for 1 mark
3

(d)

(i)

ideas that

ionic strong forces between ions

molecular weak forces between molecules


each for 1 mark
2

(ii)

ideas that

ionic ions/charged particles are free to move

molecular -molecules do not carry a charge


each for 1 mark
2

[14]

M11.

(a)

CH4
4 should be below halfway up H / tail of 4 below the dotted line
1

(b)

molecule
1

(c)

covalent
1

[3]

M12.

(a)

C3H8
capital letters for symbols numbers must be halfway or lower down the
element symbol
allow H8C3
do not allow 3:8 or C3 and H8
1

(b)

(i)

electron
1

(ii)

covalent
1

(c)

low and small


both for 1 mark
1

[4]

M13.

(a)

(i)

all three correct 2 marks


one correct 1 mark
2

(ii)

14
1

(b)

A
1

[4]

M14.

(a)

C16 H34
for 1 mark
1

(b)

electron
gains 1 mark
but shared electrons
gains 2 marks
2

M15.

(i)

(ii)

electrons
for 1 mark

covalent

1
for 1 mark

(iii)

made of small molecules:


usually gas or liquid
) dependent on
have low melting points ) having first
have low boiling points ) point above
forces between molecules are weak
any 1 for 1 mark
3

[5]

M16.

(i)

(ii)

weak forces
accept weak bonds
1

between molecules / intermolecular


reject intramolecular
1

[3]

M17.

(a)

all three lines correct gains 2 marks


one or two correct gains 1 mark
if there are more than 3 lines then lose mark for each extra line
2

(b)

(i)

covalent
1

(ii)

four
1

(iii)

hard
1

(iv)

three
1

(v)

soft
1

(c)

carbon
accept C
1

[8]

M18.

(a) Quality of written communication: All scientific words used correctly


(covalent, bonds, atoms)
1

any two from

large numbers of covalent bonds


allow giant lattice / structure

between atoms
do not accept between molecules

(covalent) bonds strong


accept need much energy to break
2

(b)

each carbon has 4 electrons


1

one shared pair


1

four shared pairs


1

[6]

M19.

(a) made of layers


of carbon atoms
weak forces of attraction between layers (owtte) / weak
vertical bonds i.e.
candidate refers to the diagram
layers can slide over each other
layers peel off
each for 1 mark
(b)

because there are electrons


which are free (to move)
reason for free electrons / each carbon atom has 3 covalent bonds
each for 1 mark
to max 5
[5]

M20.

(a)

X (metal) atom / ion


1

Y electron
1

(b)

free electrons or electrons move


1

(allow metal) atoms / ions to slide over each other


OR

bonding non - directional for 2 marks


1

[4]

M21.

(a)

8 marks

Particularly well structured answer with most points mentioned.

7-6 marks Well structured answer. The two metals will have been
compared rather than simply listing advantages/disadvantages. Most
of the advantages and disadvantages of each metal have been mentioned.
5-3 marks Some structure to the answer. An attempt to compare the metals
by giving some advantages and disadvantages.
2-1 marks Little structure or attempt to compare. Marks gained by listing a few advantages or
disadvantages.
Advantages of Nickel:
Relatively low cost which makes the sparking plugs cheaper to produce.
Quite high melting point which is needed because the temperature in the
engine is very high.
Good conductor of electricity needed to carry electricity into combustion
chamber to produce spark.

Disadvantages of Nickel:
Subject to corrosion in engine which means they only last a short time
because nickel is higher in reactivity than platinum.
Idea that this leads to reduced efficiency, unburnt petrol and air pollution.
Advantages of Platinum:
Less susceptible to corrosion (not corroded) because platinum is very low in reactivity.
Idea that this improves efficiency and reduces pollution.Higher melting point than nickel to withstand the high temperatures in the combustion chamber.
Last a lot longer than nickel electrodes due to low reactivity.
(Sensible extension here could be longer service intervals etc.)Good conductor of electricity as for nickel.
Extension here could be linked to the idea that the conductivity
does not deteriorate as quickly as nickel.)
Disadvantages of Platinum:
Cost which will make the sparking plug more expensive.
A good candidate might justify cost by longer life, better fuel consumption and less pollution.
8

(b)

(i)

giant structure/lattice/regular arrangements of atoms


any for 1 mark
of atoms/of ions (provided free electrons mentioned)
either for 1 mark
delocalised or free electrons
for 1 mark
3

(ii)

electrons free/can move


for 1 mark each
2

[13]

M22.

(a)

(an alloy) that can return to its original shape (after being deformed / bent / twisted)
accept (on heating / cooling) it returns to its shape
1

(b)

any two from:

brass / it is a mixture
accept brass / it is not pure

zinc changes structure / disrupts patterns or layers

copper metal atoms / layers able to slide over each other


accept zinc prevents atoms / layers sliding over each other
2

M23.

(a)

(Chromium =) 20
1

in correct order
(Nickel =) 8
accept Chromium = 8 and Nickel = 20 for 1 mark
1

(b)

(i)

(because iron is made up of only) one type of atom


1

(ii)

not strong
ignore soft / corrosive / flexible
accept it rusts / corrodes or that it could wear away
accept could change shape / bend
accept layers / atoms could slide (over each other)
1

(iii)

has different sized atoms / particles


or
structure is different/distorted / disrupted
accept not in layers or not regular
1

so it is difficult for layers / atoms / particles to slip / slide (over each other)
accept layers cannot slip / slide
1

[6]

M24.

in pure copper the atoms are arranged in layers


accept a correct diagram
1

therefore copper is soft because copper atoms can slide over each other
1

in bronze the tin atoms disrupt / distort the structure


accept a correct diagram
1

therefore bronze is harder than copper because the metal atoms


cannot slide over each other
1

[4]

M25.
(a) plastic made of polymer chains that can move easily
1

because plastic / polymer has weak intermolecular forces


1

[2]

M26.

(a)

1-100 nm in size

or
a few (hundred) atoms in size
accept very / really small / tiny
or 109
accept billionth of a metre or any number that implies very small
accept measured in nanometers
if answer very small ignore incorrect numerical values
1

(b)

any two from:

less tennis balls need to be made

tennis balls last longer or dont have to replace as often

less materials / resources / fuel used up / saves resources


accept saving materials

less energy used or making tennis balls uses energy


accept saving energy

less pollution caused


accept named pollutant
accept global warming / greenhouse effect

less waste
eg fewer tennis balls going to landfill
2

[3]

M27.

(a)

any one from:

they are made of layers


do not accept line / rows / lattice

atoms / ions / particles / layers (of atoms) can slide over each other
1

(b)

any one from:

smaller / tiny or very small


do not allow small alone

correct size range 1 to 100 nanometres

a few hundred atoms in size


if they state smaller and give a size outside range ignore size if it is less
than 20,000
1

(c)

harder
1

plus one from:

so does not wear as quickly / erode as quickly


ignore corrode

less vulnerable to damage owtte


harder to wear down = 1 mark

because they have a high surface area to volume ratio

or
stronger (1)
plus one from: (1)

less likely to break / do not break


accept withstand pressure

not as vulnerable to damage owtte


harder and stronger alone gains 1 mark

do not bend out of shape

because they have a high surface area to volume ratio


1

[4]

C2.3 Atomic Structure, Analysis and Quantitative Chemistry - Higher


Q1.

(a)

An atom of aluminium can be represented as shown below.

In this atom of aluminium the number of protons is ............................. and


the number of neutrons is ...............................
(2)

(b)

Which statement in the table below describes the mass of an electron?


Tick ( ) one box.
Statement

Tick ( )

Electrons have a very small mass compared to protons.


Electrons have about the same mass as protons.
Electrons are much heavier than protons.
Electrons have about the same mass as neutrons.
(1)

Q2.

The diagram represents an atom of beryllium.

Use a number from the box to complete each sentence.


4

(a)

The atomic number (proton number) of this atom is

12

.
(1)

(b)

The mass number of this atom is

.
(1)

Q3.

The diagram represents an atom. Choose words from the list to label the diagram.
electron

ion

neutron

nucleus

(Total 3 marks)

Q4.

(a)

Atoms are made of sub-atomic particles. Complete the six spaces in the table.

Name of sub-atomic particle

Relative mass

Relative charge

.................................

......................

Neutron

.....................

.......................

.................................

.......................

(3)

(b)

Complete the spaces in the sentences.


(i)

The atomic number of an atom is the number of ..................................... in its


nucleus and is equal to the number of ..................................................... if the
atom is not charged.
(1)

(ii)

The mass number of an atom is the total number of ................................. and


...................................... in its nucleus.
(1)

(c)

The table gives information about the atoms of three elements.


Number of electrons in:
Name of
element

Chemical
symbol

1st
shell

2nd
shell

3rd
shell

Fluorine

Neon

Ne

Sodium

Na

Two of these elements can react together to form a chemical compound.


(i)

What is the name and the formula of this compound?


Name ................................................... Formula ..........................................
(2)

(ii)

What type of bonding holds this compound together?


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

Explain, in terms of electron transfer, how the bonding occurs in this compound.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

Q5.

Atoms are made up of three main particles called protons, neutrons and electrons.
Use the periodic table on the data sheet to help you to answer these questions.
(a)

Sodium is in Group 1 of the periodic table.


(i)

Why are potassium and sodium in the same Group of the periodic table?
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

How many protons are in an atom of sodium? .....................................


(1)

(iii)

The atomic number of sodium is 11.


How many neutrons are in an atom of sodium with mass number 23?
......................................
(1)

(iv)

Each sodium atom has 11 electrons. Complete the electronic structure of sodium.

(2)

Q6.

Calcium oxide (quicklime) is made by heating calcium carbonate (limestone).


calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
100 g
?
44 g
(a)

44 grams of carbon dioxide is produced when 100 grams of calcium carbonate is heated.
Calculate the mass of calcium oxide produced when 100 grams of calcium carbonate is heated.
....................................................................................................................................
mass ......................... g
(1)

(b)

What mass of carbon dioxide could be made from 100 tonnes of calcium carbonate?
mass ....................... tonnes
(1)
(Total 2 marks)

Q7.

Calculate the percentage of iron in iron sulphate (FeSO4).


(Relative atomic masses: Fe = 56, O = 16, S = 32)
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Percentage of iron in iron sulphate = ..........................%
(Total 3 marks)

Q8.

Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, is made up of nitrogen, hydrogen and chlorine atoms.


(i)

Complete the table to show the number of atoms of each element present in NH4Cl.
Element Number of atoms in NH4Cl
nitrogen

hydrogen
chlorine
(1)

(ii)

Calculate the relative formula mass of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl.


(Relative atomic masses: H = 1, N = 14, Cl = 35.5)
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Relative formula mass = .................................................
(2)
(Total 3 marks)

Q9.

The diagrams show three isotopes of potassium.

(i)

In what way does the atomic structure show you that they are all atoms?
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Explain why these three atoms are called isotopes of potassium.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 4 marks)

Q10.

The formula for the chemical compound magnesium sulphate is MgSO4.


Calculate the relative formula mass (Mr) of this compound. (Show your working.)
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 2 marks)

Q11.

(a) A chemist was asked to identify a nitrogen compound. The chemist carried out an
experiment to find the relative formula mass (Mr) of the compound.
The Mr of the compound was 44.
Relative atomic masses: N = 14, O = 16
Draw a ring around the formula of the compound.
NO

NO2

N2O4

N2O
(1)

(b)

Potassium nitrate is another nitrogen compound. It is used in fertilisers. It has the formula KNO3.
The Mr of potassium nitrate is 101.
Calculate the percentage of nitrogen by mass in potassium nitrate.
Relative atomic mass: N = 14.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Percentage of nitrogen = .............................. %
(2)
(Total 3 marks)

Q12.

Iron is an essential part of the human diet. Iron(II) sulfate is sometimes added to white bread
flour to provide some of the iron in a persons diet.

(a)

The formula of iron(II) sulfate is FeSO4


Calculate the relative formula mass (Mr) of FeSO4
Relative atomic masses: O = 16; S = 32; Fe = 56.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
The relative formula mass (Mr) = ..............................
(2)

(b)

What is the mass of one mole of iron(II) sulfate? Remember to give the unit.
..............................
(1)

(c)

What mass of iron(II) sulfate would be needed to provide 28 grams of iron?


Remember to give the unit.
..............................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q13.

The diagram shows the main parts of an instrumental method called gas chromatography linked
to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).

This method separates a mixture of compounds and then helps to identify each of the compounds in
the mixture.
(a)

In which part of the apparatus:


(i)

is the mixture separated? ...................................................................


(1)

(ii)

is the relative molecular mass of each of the compounds in the mixture measured?
...............................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

(i)

Athletes sometimes take drugs because the drugs improve their performance. One of
these drugs is ephedrine.
Ephedrine has the formula:
C10H15NO
What relative molecular mass (Mr) would be recorded by GC-MS if ephedrine was present
in a blood sample taken from an athlete?
Show clearly how you work out your answer.
Relative atomic masses: H = 1; C = 12; N = 14; O = 16.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
Relative molecular mass = .....................................
(2)

(ii)

Another drug is amphetamine which has the formula:


C9H13N
The relative molecular mass (Mr) of amphetamine is 135.
Calculate the percentage by mass of nitrogen in amphetamine.
Relative atomic mass: N = 14
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
Percentage of nitrogen = ..................................... %
(2)

(c)

Athletes are regularly tested for drugs at international athletics events.


An instrumental method such as GC-MS is better than methods such as titration.
Suggest two reasons why.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

When a blood sample is taken from an athlete the sample is often split into two portions. Each
portion is tested at a different laboratory.
Suggest why.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

Q14.

Perfumes contain a mixture of chemicals.

The main ingredients of perfumes are a solvent and a mixture of fragrances.


(a)

A sample of the solvent used in one perfume contained 0.60 g of carbon, 0.15 g of hydrogen
and 0.40 g of oxygen.
Relative atomic masses: H = l; C = 12; O = 16.
Calculate the empirical (simplest) formula of the solvent.
You must show all of your working to gain full marks for this question.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

Solvent molecules evaporate easily.


Explain why substances made of simple molecules evaporate easily.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Most companies claim that their perfumes have been tested on skin. A study was made of the
tests they used. The study found that each company used different tests. The perfumes were
tested in the companies own laboratories and not by independent scientists. Some companies
did not give any information about the tests that they had used.
(i)

Suggest why companies test their perfumes on skin.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Did the study show that the tests made by the different companies were valid and reliable?
Explain your answer.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

Q15.

Cosmetic powders were widely used in ancient Egypt.

Cosmetic powders that may have been used in face paints have been analysed. These powders contained
compounds that are rare in nature. The compounds must have been made by the ancient Egyptians using
chemical reactions.
One of these compounds is called phosgenite. Analysis of this compound shows that it contains:
76.0% lead (Pb) 13.0% chlorine (Cl)

2.2% carbon (C)

8.8% oxygen (O)

Calculate the empirical formula of this compound.


To gain full marks you must show all your working.
Relative atomic masses: C = 12 ; O = 16 ; Cl = 35.5 ; Pb = 207
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
(Total 4 marks)

Q16.

Liquefied petroleum gases such as propane and butane are used as heating fuels for caravans,
boats and barbecues.

(a)

Propane and butane have no smell, so for safety reasons a very small amount of thioethanol
the smelliest substance known is added, even though it is toxic in large concentrations.
Suggest one safety reason why thioethanol is added to propane and butane.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Suggest how mass spectrometry could be used to distinguish between propane (C3H8) and
butane (C4H10).
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

When 0.4 g of a hydrocarbon gas was completely burned in oxygen, 1.1 g of carbon dioxide and
0.9 g of water were the only products.
Relative formula masses: CO2 = 44; H2O = 18.

Use this information to calculate the number of moles of carbon dioxide and of water produced in this
reaction. Use your answers to calculate the empirical formula of this hydrocarbon.
You must show all your working to gain full marks.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Empirical formula is ..............................
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

Q17.

The balanced symbol equation for the reaction is


H2 (g)

Cl2 (g)

2HCl (g)

Starting with 2 g of hydrogen, what mass of hydrogen chloride would be produced?


(Relative atomic masses: H = 1; Cl = 35.5)
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Mass of hydrogen chloride = ...................................... g
(Total 3 marks)

Q18.

Iron is the most commonly used metal. Iron is extracted in a blast furnace from iron oxide using
carbon monoxide.
Fe2O3
(a)

3CO

Fe

3CO2

A sample of the ore haematite contains 70% iron oxide.


Calculate the amount of iron oxide in 2000 tonnes of haematite.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Amount of iron oxide = ......................................... tonnes
(1)

(b)

Calculate the amount of iron that can be extracted from 2000 tonnes of haematite.
(Relative atomic masses: O = 16; Fe = 56)
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
Amount of iron = .................................................... tonnes
(4)
(Total 5 marks)

Q19. (a) and (b)

(c)

(d), (e) and (f)

Q20. (a) and (b)

M1.

(a)

13
1

14
1

numbers must be in the order shown

(b)

electrons have a very small mass compared to protons


1

(c)

electrolysis of molten aluminium oxide


1

[4]

M2.

(a)

4
1

(b)

9
1

[2]

M3.

electron
nucleus
neutron
each for 1 mark
[3]

M4.

(a)
both correct in each row
electron ... (1)
allow negative
1

1 .......... 0
allow neutral or none
1

proton .....+ (1)


allow positive
1

(b)

(i)

protons...electrons
both correct in correct order
1

(ii)

protons....neutrons
both correct in either order
1

(c)

(i)

sodium fluoride
do not credit sodium fluorine
1

NaF
must be correct in every detail
do not credit NAF and the like
1

(ii)

ionic
accept ion (bonding)
do not credit ironic or iron (bonding)
1

(iii)

electron transferred from sodium to fluorine


accept electron transferred from metal to non-metal
either positive sodium ion and negative fluoride ion
or correctly identified by the symbols Na+ and F- accept positive sodium
ion and negative fluorine ion
1

or attracted because have opposite charge(s)


or (atoms/ions) form an (ionic) lattice or (atoms/ions) form a crystal
e.g.

or both marks may be gained by a suitable dot and cross diagram


1

[10]

M5.

(a)

(i)

both have one / 1 electron in the outer energy level / shell


allow both react in a similar way
1

(ii)

eleven / 11
1

(iii)

twelve / 12
1

(iv)

(2x)
max 1 if candidate changes the number of electrons in the first energy
level / shell
8x (in second energy level / shell)
1

1x (in outer energy level / shell)


1

M6.

(a)

56g
for 1 mark
1

(b)

44 tonnes
for 1 mark
1

[2]

M7.

36.8 / 37
correct answer, no workings = 3 if incorrect, allow 1 mark for rfm FeSO4 =
152
or if incorrect rfm, allow 1 mark for 56/Y 100 where Y is incorrect
formula mass
allow 2 marks for

100
[3]

M8.

(i)

4 and 1
both answers must be correct
1

(ii)

53.5
if incorrect relative formula mass
allow 1 mark for correct working
accept e.c.f. from c(i) for 2 marks
2

[3]

M9.

(i)

same number of protons and electrons


accept equal numbers of protons and electrons
do not accept they are neutral
1

(ii)

same element
accept all atoms are potassium
1

same number of protons


accept same atomic number
accept they all have 19+
1

different number of neutrons


accept different mass numbers
do not accept different atomic masses
1

[4]

M10.

Mg

O4

24 + 32 + 16 (4) or 64 / evidence of all Ars correct [so 24 + 32 + 16 1 mark]


gains 1 mark
but (Mr) = 120

No ECF
gains 2 marks
[2]

M11.

(a)

N2O
1

(b)

13.8 to 14
gains full marks without working
if answer incorrect
13 gains 1 mark
or
14/101 100 gains 1 mark
2

[3]

M12.

(a) 152 correct answer with or without working = 2 marks


56 + 32 + (4 16) gains 1 mark
ignore any units
2

(b)

152g(rams)
ecf from the answer to (a) and g
must have unit g / gram / gramme / grams etc
accept g / mol or g per mole or g mole1 or g/mol or g per mol or g mol1
do not accept g m
do not accept G
1

(c)

76(g)
ecf from their answer to (a) or (b) divided by 2
ignore units
1

[4]

M13.

(a)

(i)

column
1

(ii)

mass spectrometer
1

(b)

(i)

165
if answer is not correct then evidence of correct working gains

one mark.
e.g. (10 12) + 15 + 14 + 16
2

(ii)

10.37%
accept 10 / 10.4 / 10.37...............
if answer is not correct then evidence of correct working gains
one mark.
e.g. minimum evidence would be 14/135
2

(c)

any two from:

faster

more accurate

detects smaller amounts


2

(d)

to avoid bias
accept to check / compare the result
1

to improve reliability
1

[10]

M14.

(a)

C
0.60

H
0.15

O
0.40
1

12

= 0.05

= 0.15

16
= 0.025
1

1
1

C2H6O
1 mark for dividing the correct amount or multiples of correct amount by
Ar
1 mark for proportions
1 mark for whole number ratio accept any multiple
1 mark for correctly written simplest formula
correct formula without working gets only 2 marks
correct formula gains full marks
provided steps 1 and 2 are correct.
ecf can be allowed from step 2 to 3 or step 3 to 4
formula can be in any order eg OH6C2
1

(b)

intermolecular forces / bonds


1

are weak
(covalent) bonds are weak = 0
or
forces between molecules or bonds between molecules (1)
(attractive) forces are weak = 1
are weak (1)
if no marks awarded, allow low boiling point or small Mr for 1 mark
1

(c)

(i)

to check the safety of the perfume (owtte)


accept references to possible harmful / dangerous effects of perfume or
possible reactions on skin
eg to show it does not damage skin / cause cancer etc.
allow to see what it smells like on the skin
allow so the company do not have to test on animals
1

(ii)

any two from:


idea from text linked with an explanation

the company claim to have tested the product:


but we cannot be certain they have or how thorough they
are or how accurately reported

companies did not disclose how they did their tests:


so they could not be checked or so they could not be
shown to be reliable / valid or so they could not be repeated
or converse
eg companies should disclose how they did their tests so that results can
be checked etc.

companies may not have repeated their tests:


so they may not be reliable

companies do their own tests:


so they may be biased or so they may not be truthful about their results or so they
may not be reliable
or converse
eg independent tests should be done so as to ensure there is no bias etc.

the companies are using different tests:


so the results cannot be compared or so results will be different or so results will not
be fair / valid / reliable
or converse
eg companies should do the same tests so that the results will be fair etc.

companies would not give false information because of damage to reputation or it


might lead to litigation
2

[9]

M15.

Pb
76
207

Cl

13
35.5

2.2
8.8
12
16
1 mark for dividing one mass by Ar
allow upside down ratio to lose this mark only
1

= 0.367

0.366
= 0.183 = 0.55
1 mark for one correct proportion accept to one d.p. or rounded up to 1
d.p.
1

1 mark for all four correct proportions correctly rounded


1

or Pb2Cl2CO3
1 mark for correctly written formula
or
correct whole number ratio
correct formula without working gets only 1 mark.
e.c.f. can be allowed from incorrect proportions to formula or ratio
1

[4]

M16.

(a)

(smell) warns of a leak / gas escape


accept leak / gas escape by implication
ignore smell alone
1

(b)

eg (mass spectrometry gives)


different molecular ions / Mr / formula mass or
shows that one has mass 44 and the other 58
mass of butane is more than mass of propane is insufficient
accept different fragmentation / pattern
do not accept Ar / RAM
accept references to butane deflects less or converse
1

(c)

CO2
1.1

44

2 H2O
0.9

18
1

= 0.025

= 0.05
1

1 (mole) CO2

2 (moles) H2O
1

1
or
CH4

or alternative method

Mass of C =

(1)

Mass of H =

(1)

C:H

proportions 0.025 : 0.1 (1)


whole number 1 : 4 (1)
or
CH4
correct formula with no working is only 1 mark
M3 can be awarded from the formula if steps one and two are clear
correct formula from their incorrect ratio gets 1 mark
if fraction is wrong way around e.g. Mr / mass, then lose M1 and M2 but
accept ecf for M3 and M4 max 4
[6]

M17.

73 (seventy three)
if answer is incorrect allow 1 mark for the correct proportion that H2:HCl is
1:2
and 1 mark for 36.5
[3]

M18.

(a)

1400
1

(b)

980
correct answer gains full credit
160 tonnes Fe2O3 produces 112 tonnes Fe
if incorrect allow one mark for relative formula mass iron oxide = 160
allow e.c.f.
1400 tonnes Fe2O3 will produce 1400 / 160 112 tonnes Fe
use of 2000 tonnes Fe2O3 deduct one mark only if
working out is correct
4

[5]

M19.

M20.

C2.4 Rates of reaction revision - Higher


Q1.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contains the same elements as water (H2O).


(a)

Name the hazard symbol shown by using the correct word from the box.

corrosive

flammable

oxidising

toxic

(1)

(b)

Hydrogen peroxide decomposes in the presence of a catalyst.


2H2O2(aq) 2H2O(l) + O2(g)
(i)

Complete the word equation for this chemical reaction.


hydrogen peroxide water + ................................
(1)

(ii)

What does a catalyst do to a chemical reaction?


(1)
(Total 3 marks

Q2.

Marble chips (calcium carbonate) react with dilute hydrochloric acid.


calcium
carbonate

hydrochloric
acid

calcium
chloride

carbon
dioxide

water

A student wanted to find out if the size of the marble chips made a difference to how fast the reaction
took place.

(a)

What readings should she take?


(2)

(b)

She repeated the experiment but this time used the same mass (10g) of large marble chips.
In both experiments there was some marble left in the flask when the reaction stopped.
These are the results of the two experiments.
TIME (minutes)

10

12

Loss in mass (g), using small chips

0.00

0.40

0.72

0.91

1.04

1.04

1.04

Loss in mass (g), using large chips

0.00

0.28

0.52

0.70

0.84

0.94

1.04

(i)

Explain the loss in mass in the two experiments.


(1)

(ii)

What difference does the size of the chips make?


(1)

(c)

A chemical reaction occurs when reacting particles collide with sufficient energy.
The reaction between marble and hydrochloric acid is faster if the acid is at a higher
temperature. Explain why.
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

Q3.

The diagram represents the particles in a piece of reactive metal.

The piece of reactive metal is added to dilute hydrochloric acid.

(a)

(i)

Which particle will probably react first?


Choose from:

a particle inside the piece;


a particle at the centre of a face;
a particle on one of the corners.
(1)

(ii)

Explain the reason for your choice.


(1)

(b)

The reaction can be speeded up by making changes to the hydrochloric acid or the solid.
(i)

State two ways to speed up the reaction by changing the hydrochloric acid. In each case
explain in terms of particles why the reaction is faster.
1. ......................................................................................................................
(2)

2. ......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

What change can you make to the piece of solid to speed up the reaction? Explain in terms
of the particles why the reaction is able to speed up.
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

Q4.

A student does an experiment to examine the rate of reaction between magnesium and dilute
hydrochloric acid. She adds 25 cm of the acid to a weighed amount of the metal. The reaction
produces hydrogen gas.
Magnesium + hydrochloric
acid

magnesium + hydrogen
chloride

She collects the gas and measures the volume collected at one minute intervals. All the metal reacted
but there was some acid left unreacted. Her results are shown on the graph.

(a)

The diagram shows part of the apparatus she used for the experiment.
Complete the diagram to show how the student could collect the hydrogen produced and
measure the volume after each minute.

(2)

(b)

(i)

When is the rate of reaction at its fastest?


(1)

(ii)

State one way in which she could increase the rate of reaction.
..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

(i)

What is the total volume of hydrogen collected in the experiment?


................................................................................................................... cm
(1)

(ii)

State one way in which she could increase the final volume of hydrogen collected.
..........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q5.

Sodium thiosulfate solution reacts with hydrochloric acid. As the reaction takes place the solution
slowly turns cloudy.The diagram shows a method of measuring the rate of this reaction.

A student used this method to investigate how changing the concentration of the sodium thiosulfate
solution affects the rate of this reaction.

The student used different concentrations of sodium thiosulfate solution. All the other variables were
kept the same. The results are shown on the graph below.

(a)

(i)

Draw a line of best fit on the graph.


(1)

(ii)

Suggest two reasons why all of the points do not lie on the line of best fit.
1 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i)

In a conclusion to the investigation the student stated that:


The rate of this reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the sodium
thiosulfate solution.
How does the graph support this conclusion?
(1)

(ii)

Explain, in terms of particles, why the rate of reaction increases when the concentration of
sodium thiosulfate is increased.
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

M1.

(a)

oxidising
1

(b)

(i)

oxygen
ignore any numbers
1

(ii)

(catalyst) speeds up a (chemical reaction)


accept changes the rate (of reaction)
1
[3

M2.

(a)

ideas that

ref to read the balance / read the mass / weight

ref to read the stop clock / read the time

readings taken at the beginning and end / at regular intervals


for 1 mark each
2

(b)

(i)

loss of carbon dioxide (from the flask) }

(ii)

smaller chips give faster reaction / reaction } mark as a whole


finishes quicker /dissolved faster [or reverse] }

smaller chips have a larger surface area }


any 2 for 1 mark each
[Allow converse answers]
2

(c)

ideas that

heating increases the speed / energy / vibration of the (acid)


particles / marble particles

(acid) particles collide (with marble chips / (particles)) more


frequently / more likely to collide

reacting particles collide with greater energy / collide faster

so particles more likely to react [do not accept react faster]

[Accept atoms, molecules or ions instead of particles in this question]


any three for 1 mark each
3
[7

M3.

(a)

(i)

corners
accept an arrow to any corner
1

(ii)

more (surface) exposed


accept can be attacked from more
directions or more space around it
1

(b)

(i)

any two pairs from


more concentrated
answers may be in either order
do not accept more acid
do not accept more powerful or

stronger (but stronger is neutral)


a reference to sulphuric acid is neutral
1
more particles to hit the solid
accept more collisions per second
do not accept more collisions
1

hotter solution or increasing temperature


(faster) particles hit more often
or harder
accept particles have more energy
or are more powerful or
more successful collisions
1

stirring
more surface area exposed or
particles available
accept more collisions per second
do not accept more collisions
1

(ii)

cut it up or increase the surface area


accept grind it up or powder it
or flatten it do not accept make it smaller
or use a smaller piece
1
more particles are exposed or available or can react
accept heat it and there are more
successful collisions for both marks
1
[8]

M4.

(a)

(must be possible for the gas to enter and displace the water) or other suitable apparatus

apparatus to collect the gas correctly assembled


for 1 mark

calibrated collection vessel (award even if diagram is wrong)


for 1 mark
2

(b)

(i)

at the start / in the first 1/2 minutes (or any time within this range)
for 1 mark
1

(ii)

increase the temperature / use smaller pieces of metal /


use more metal / increase the surface area of the metal /
add a catalyst / shake the flask / increase the concentration /
strength of the acid
for 1 mark
1

(c)

(i)

48
for 1 mark
1

(ii)

increase the amount of magnesium used


for 1 mark
(do not allow increase the amount of acid used)
1
[6]

M5.

(a)

(i)

a continuous straight line missing anomalous point


allow a line which does not start at zero / origin
1

(ii)

any two sensible errors eg

timing errors and / or example(*)

measurement errors and / or example(*)

apparatus errors and / or example(*)

human / experimental / random error and / or example


or did not do it right(*)
(*)could be two from same category eg two timing errors watch not started at the same time
plus difficulty in deciding when the cross has disappeared.

temperature fluctuation

anomalous point
accept outlier / wrong result

results not recorded correctly

plotting error

rate calculated incorrectly


ignore not repeated
ignore systematic / zero error / weighing error or error unqualified
2

(b)

(i)

straight line
or
as concentration increases the rate goes up or converse
accept numerical example
accept positive correlation
accept same gradient
ignore most points near / on line of best fit
1

(ii)

more collisions
accept greater chance of collisions
accept collide more successfully
accept alternative versions of collide eg bump / hit
ignore references to energy / speed of particles / surface area
1
more particles (in each volume of solution)(i.e. an attempt at defining concentration)
accept particles are closer together
allow ions / atoms / molecules for particles ignore reactants
accept greater frequency of collisions or greater number of collisions per second for 2 marks
1

C2.5 Exothermic and endothermic reactions Revision Higher


Q1.

Distress flares are used to attract attention in an emergency.

Flares often contain magnesium. Magnesium burns to form magnesium oxide.


(a)

The distress flare burns with a bright flame because the reaction is very exothermic.
Complete the following sentence using the correct words from the box.

gives out heat

stores heat

takes in heat

An exothermic reaction is one which ..........................................................................


(1)

(b)

Indigestion tablets can be made from magnesium oxide. The magnesium oxide neutralises
some of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
Draw a ring around the name of the salt formed when magnesium oxide reacts with hydrochloric
acid.
magnesium chloride

magnesium hydroxide

magnesium sulfate
(1)

Q2.

An indigestion tablet contains sodium hydrogencarbonate and citric acid.


When the tablet is added to cold water a chemical reaction takes place and there is a lot of fizzing.

(a)

The formula of the gas that causes the fizzing is CO2


Name this gas ......................................................................... .
(1)

(b)

This chemical reaction is endothermic.


(i)

Tick ( ) the statement which describes what happens to the temperature of the solution.
Statement

Tick ( )

The temperature of the solution will increase.


The temperature of the solution will decrease.
The temperature of the solution will stay the same.
(1)

(ii)

Tick ( ) the statement which describes what happens to the energy during the reaction.
Statement

Tick ( )

Energy is given out to the surroundings.


Energy is taken in from the surroundings.
No energy is given out to or taken from the surroundings.
(1)

Q3.

Instant cold packs are used to treat sports injuries.

One type of cold pack has a plastic bag containing water. Inside this bag is a smaller bag containing
ammonium nitrate. The outer bag is squeezed so that the inner bag bursts. The pack is shaken and
quickly gets very cold as the ammonium nitrate dissolves in the water.
(a)

One of the statements in the table is correct. Put a tick ( ) next to the correct statement.

Statement

( )

The bag gets cold because heat energy is given out to the surroundings.
The bag gets cold because heat energy is taken in from the surroundings.
The bag gets cold because plastic is a good insulator.

(1)

(b)

Draw a ring around the word that best describes the change when ammonium nitrate dissolves
in water.
electrolysis

endothermic

exothermic
(1)

(c)

Suggest and explain why the pack is shaken after the inner bag has burst.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

Q4.

The diagram shows some magnesium ribbon burning.

(a)

Choose words from the list to complete the sentences below.


electrical
an endothermic

heat
an exothermic

light
a neutralisation

kinetic
a reduction

When magnesium burns, it transfers .........................................................................


and ............................................................................ energy to the surroundings.
We say that it is .................................................................................. reaction.
(3)

(b)

Complete the word equation for the reaction.


magnesium + __________________________

magnesium oxide
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q5.

The diagram shows the apparatus for an experiment. Hydrated copper sulphate crystals were
heated. They became anhydrous copper sulphate.

(a)

Name a suitable piece of equipment to heat tube A.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Use words from the box to complete the two spaces in the table. You may use each word once
or not at all.

black

blue

orange

red

purple

white

Name

Colour

Hydrated copper sulphate crystals

...................................................

Anhydrous copper sulphate

....................................................

(2)

(c)

What is the purpose of the ice and water in the beaker?


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

Drops of a clear, colourless liquid formed on the inside of tube B.


(i)

Name the liquid.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Explain how the liquid came to be inside tube B.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(e)

Anhydrous copper sulphate can be turned into hydrated copper sulphate. What would you need
to add? Apart from the change in colour, what could you observe?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(f)

Copper sulphate can be made from black copper oxide by reacting it with an acid. Name the
acid.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

Q6.

A student did two experiments using ammonium chloride.


(a)

In the first experiment the student heated a small amount of ammonium chloride in a test tube.

Two reactions take place in the test tube.


Reaction 1
Reaction 2

(i)

ammonium chloride ammonia + hydrogen chloride


(colourless gases)
ammonia + hydrogen chloride ammonium chloride

Complete the sentences by crossing out the incorrect word in each box.

Reaction 1 takes place at a

high
low

temperature.

Reaction 2 takes place at a

high
low

temperature.

(1)

(ii)

Draw a ring around the word which best describes reactions 1 and 2.
combustion

displacement

oxidation

reduction

reversible
(1)

(iii)

Suggest a reason for the mineral wool at the top of the test tube.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

In the second experiment the student mixed a small amount of ammonium chloride with some
water in a beaker.
The temperature of the water was measured before and after adding the ammonium chloride.
Temperature before
adding the ammonium
chloride

20C

Temperature after adding


the ammonium chloride

16C

Draw a ring around the word which best describes the process which takes place.
combustion

displacement

endothermic

exothermic

freezing
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

M1.

(a)

gives out (heat)


1

(b)

magnesium chloride
1

[2]

M2.

(a)

carbon dioxide
must be name
do not accept carbon oxide
1

(b)

(i)

the temperature of the solution will decrease


(list principle)
1

(ii)

energy is taken in from the surroundings


(list principle)
1

[3]

M3.

(a)

the bag gets cold because heat energy is taken in from the surroundings
1

(b)

endothermic
1

(c)

any two from:

mix / spread (the ammonium nitrate and water)

dissolve faster(*)

get cold faster or so the whole bag gets cold(*)


(*)allow increase rate or quicker reaction

particles collide more or more collisions


2

[4]

M4.

(a) heat
light
an exothermic
in any order for 1 mark each
3

(b)

oxygen / O2
for 1 mark
1

[4]

M5.

(a)

Bunsen (burner)
accept spirit burner do not credit candle
1

(b)

blue
1

white
credit (1) if both colours correct but answers are reversed
1

to cool the tube (B)


accept answers which anticipate part (d) e.g. to condense the water
vapour or gases or vapours
1

(d)

(i)

water
do not credit condensation
1

(ii)

(Water) vapour from the crystals (from tube A)


accept steam or steam from tube A
1

condenses or cools
accept turns to (liquid) water
1

(e)

add water
gets hot or hotter or warm or warmer turns into solution
dissolves
or the temperature rises or there is an exothermic reaction
accept steams or hisses ignore any reference to colour(s)
2

(f)

sulphuric acid
accept H2S04 only if correct in every
detail
1

[10]

M6.

(a)

(i)

high and low


both needed for mark
1

(ii)

reversible
1

(iii)

to prevent ammonium chloride / solid / particles escaping


idea of a filter
do not accept to prevent gases escaping
1

(b)

endothermic
1

[4]

C2.5 Exothermic and endothermic reactions Revision Higher


Q1.

Distress flares are used to attract attention in an emergency.

Flares often contain magnesium. Magnesium burns to form magnesium oxide.


(a)

The distress flare burns with a bright flame because the reaction is very exothermic.
Complete the following sentence using the correct words from the box.

gives out heat

stores heat

takes in heat

An exothermic reaction is one which ..........................................................................


(1)

(b)

Indigestion tablets can be made from magnesium oxide. The magnesium oxide neutralises
some of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
Draw a ring around the name of the salt formed when magnesium oxide reacts with hydrochloric
acid.
magnesium chloride

magnesium hydroxide

magnesium sulfate
(1)

Q2.

An indigestion tablet contains sodium hydrogencarbonate and citric acid.


When the tablet is added to cold water a chemical reaction takes place and there is a lot of fizzing.

(a)

The formula of the gas that causes the fizzing is CO2


Name this gas ......................................................................... .
(1)

(b)

This chemical reaction is endothermic.


(i)

Tick ( ) the statement which describes what happens to the temperature of the solution.
Statement

Tick ( )

The temperature of the solution will increase.


The temperature of the solution will decrease.
The temperature of the solution will stay the same.
(1)

(ii)

Tick ( ) the statement which describes what happens to the energy during the reaction.
Statement

Tick ( )

Energy is given out to the surroundings.


Energy is taken in from the surroundings.
No energy is given out to or taken from the surroundings.
(1)

Q3.

Instant cold packs are used to treat sports injuries.

One type of cold pack has a plastic bag containing water. Inside this bag is a smaller bag containing
ammonium nitrate. The outer bag is squeezed so that the inner bag bursts. The pack is shaken and
quickly gets very cold as the ammonium nitrate dissolves in the water.
(a)

One of the statements in the table is correct.


Put a tick ( ) next to the correct statement.

Statement
The bag gets cold because heat energy is given out to the surroundings.
The bag gets cold because heat energy is taken in from the surroundings.
The bag gets cold because plastic is a good insulator.

( )

(1)

(b)

Draw a ring around the word that best describes the change when ammonium nitrate dissolves
in water.
electrolysis

endothermic

exothermic
(1)

(c)

Suggest and explain why the pack is shaken after the inner bag has burst.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

Q4.

The diagram shows some magnesium ribbon burning.

(a)

Choose words from the list to complete the sentences below.


electrical
an endothermic

heat
an exothermic

light
a neutralisation

kinetic
a reduction

When magnesium burns, it transfers .........................................................................


and ............................................................................ energy to the surroundings.
We say that it is .................................................................................. reaction.
(3)

(b)

Complete the word equation for the reaction.

magnesium + __________________________

magnesium oxide
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q5.

The diagram shows the apparatus for an experiment. Hydrated copper sulphate crystals were
heated. They became anhydrous copper sulphate.

(a)

Name a suitable piece of equipment to heat tube A.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Use words from the box to complete the two spaces in the table. You may use each word once
or not at all.

black

blue

orange

red

purple

white

Name

Colour

Hydrated copper sulphate crystals

...................................................

Anhydrous copper sulphate

....................................................

(2)

(c)

What is the purpose of the ice and water in the beaker?

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

Drops of a clear, colourless liquid formed on the inside of tube B.


(i)

Name the liquid.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Explain how the liquid came to be inside tube B.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(e)

Anhydrous copper sulphate can be turned into hydrated copper sulphate. What would you need
to add? Apart from the change in colour, what could you observe?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(f)

Copper sulphate can be made from black copper oxide by reacting it with an acid. Name the
acid.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

Q6.

A student did two experiments using ammonium chloride.


(a)

In the first experiment the student heated a small amount of ammonium chloride in a test tube.

Two reactions take place in the test tube.


Reaction 1
Reaction 2

(i)

ammonium chloride ammonia + hydrogen chloride


(colourless gases)
ammonia + hydrogen chloride ammonium chloride

Complete the sentences by crossing out the incorrect word in each box.

Reaction 1 takes place at a

high
low

temperature.

Reaction 2 takes place at a

high
low

temperature.

(1)

(ii)

Draw a ring around the word which best describes reactions 1 and 2.
combustion

displacement

oxidation

reduction

reversible
(1)

(iii)

Suggest a reason for the mineral wool at the top of the test tube.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

In the second experiment the student mixed a small amount of ammonium chloride with some
water in a beaker.
The temperature of the water was measured before and after adding the ammonium chloride.

Temperature before
adding the ammonium
chloride

20C

Temperature after adding


the ammonium chloride

16C

Draw a ring around the word which best describes the process which takes place.
combustion

displacement

endothermic

exothermic

freezing
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

M1.

(a)

gives out (heat)


1

(b)

magnesium chloride
1

[2]

M2.

(a)

carbon dioxide
must be name
do not accept carbon oxide
1

(b)

(i)

the temperature of the solution will decrease


(list principle)
1

(ii)

energy is taken in from the surroundings


(list principle)
1

[3]

M3.

(a)

the bag gets cold because heat energy is taken in from the surroundings
1

(b)

endothermic
1

(c)

any two from:

mix / spread (the ammonium nitrate and water)

dissolve faster(*)

get cold faster or so the whole bag gets cold(*)

(*)allow increase rate or quicker reaction

particles collide more or more collisions


2

[4]

M4.

(a) heat
light
an exothermic
in any order for 1 mark each
3

(b)

oxygen / O2
for 1 mark
1

[4]

M5.

(a)

Bunsen (burner)
accept spirit burner do not credit candle
1

(b)

blue
1

white
credit (1) if both colours correct but answers are reversed
1

to cool the tube (B)


accept answers which anticipate part (d) e.g. to condense the water
vapour or gases or vapours
1

(d)

(i)

water
do not credit condensation
1

(ii)

(Water) vapour from the crystals (from tube A)


accept steam or steam from tube A
1

condenses or cools
accept turns to (liquid) water
1

(e)

add water
gets hot or hotter or warm or warmer turns into solution
dissolves
or the temperature rises or there is an exothermic reaction
accept steams or hisses ignore any reference to colour(s)
2

(f)

sulphuric acid
accept H2S04 only if correct in every
detail
1

[10]

M6.

(a)

(i)

high and low


both needed for mark
1

(ii)

reversible
1

(iii)

to prevent ammonium chloride / solid / particles escaping


idea of a filter
do not accept to prevent gases escaping
1

(b)

endothermic
1

[4]

C2.6 Making salts Revision Higher


Q1.
Use the Formulae of Some Common Ions table on the Data Sheet to help you to answer this
question.
Acids react with alkalis to form salts and water.
Complete the table below by writing in the name and formula of the salt formed in each reaction.
The first one has been done for you.

Acid

Alkali

Salt

Formula of salt

Hydrochloric acid

Sodium hydroxide

Sodium chloride

NaCl

Nitric acid

Sodium hydroxide

Sulphuric acid

Potassium hydroxide

(Total 4 marks)

Q2.
In this question you will get marks on using good English, organising information clearly and using
specialist terms correctly. Copper sulfate crystals can be made from copper oxide powder and dilute sulfuric
acid.

Describe a method to make copper sulfate crystals from copper oxide and dilute sulfuric acid. For the
method you should include:

the names of the pieces of apparatus used


a risk assessment.
(Total 6 marks)

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
Q3.
(a)

Neutralisation reactions can be used to make salts.


Write an ionic equation for a neutralisation reaction, including state symbols.

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Ammonium nitrate is a salt used as a fertiliser.

(i)

Ammonium nitrate is made by mixing two solutions. Name these solutions.

......................................................... and .........................................................


(1)

(ii)

Hazard information about ammonium nitrate states:

it is not itself a fire hazard (does not burn);

it must not be allowed to come into contact with combustible materials such as fuels because it can
cause these to catch fire.
Suggest why ammonium nitrate helps other substances to burn.
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q4.
When a solution of lead nitrate is added to a solution of sodium chloride, a white precipitate of
lead chloride is produced.

(a)

(i)

Why is a precipitate formed?


(1)

(ii)

Complete and balance the equation for this precipitation reaction.

Pb+2(aq) +

Cl(aq)
(3)

(b) Complete the table below by writing in the name and formula of the precipitate formed for each
reaction. If there is no precipitate, write no precipitate.

(5)

Here is a symbol equation, with state symbols, for a chemical reaction between solutions of lead
nitrate and potassium chloride.
Pb (NO3)2 (aq)

2 KCl (aq)

2KNO3 (aq)

PbCl2 (s)

The equation tells you the formulae of the two products of the reaction.
(a)

What are the names of the two products?


(2)

(b)

What else does the equation tell you about these products?
(2)

Q6.
Photographic film often contains silver bromide. Silver bromide is changed by light to form silver
which appears as a black solid. This darkens the photographic film.A photographic film can be made by
coating thin transparent plastic with a gel containing silver bromide.

The main steps in making this photographic film are as follows:


Step 1

Gelatine is dissolved in warm water to make a solution.

Step 2
is

Compound A, a soluble compound which contains bromide ions,


dissolved into this solution.

Step 3

The lights are turned out in the darkroom.

Step 4
is

Compound B, a soluble compound which contains silver ions,


dissolved in water.

Step 5
The solution of compound B is added to the solution
containing
compound A and gelatine. Solid silver bromide is formed.

Step 6

The warm mixture is poured onto thin, transparent plastic film.

Step 7

The mixture sets to form a gel containing solid silver bromide.

(a)

The table below gives information about the solubility of some compounds.

SOLUBLE

INSOLUBLE

All sodium and potassium salts


All nitrates
Most chlorides, bromides and iodides

Silver and lead chlorides, bromides and


iodides

Most sulfates

Lead sulfate and barium sulfate

Sodium, potassium and ammonium


carbonates

Most other carbonates

Use the table to help you to name suitable compounds for A and B.
Compound A ..............................................................................................................
Compound B ..............................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Suggest why the lights are turned out at step 3 in this method of making a photographic film.
(1)

(c)

What type of chemical reaction takes place when the compounds are mixed in step 5?
(1)

(d) The photographic film is placed in a camera and a picture is taken. Where light hits the photographic
film the silver ions (Ag+) are changed into silver metal (Ag).
Explain why this reaction is a reduction.
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

Q7.

(i)

Ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate are used as fertilisers.

Which acid reacts with ammonia to form ammonium nitrate?

....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Which acid reacts with ammonia to form ammonium sulphate?

....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

The reactions in (i) and (ii) are both exothermic. How can you tell that a reaction is exothermic?

....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) The reactions in (i) and (ii) are both examples of acid + base reactions. What is the name of the
chemical change which takes place in every acid + base reaction?
....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q8.

The following passage is about the preparation of lead iodide, an insoluble salt.
An excess of potassium iodide in solution was shaken with
some lead nitrate solution in a test tube.
The lead iodide precipitate was separated from the mixture
and then washed several times with water.
The lead iodide was dried and then placed in a bottle.

(a)

Suggest a reason why excess potassium iodide was used.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

What word used in the passage shows that lead iodide is insoluble?

....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Suggest how lead iodide can be separated from the mixture.

....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

Why was the lead iodide washed with water?

....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(e)

Suggest a method which could be used to dry this lead iodide.

....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(f)

Lead compounds are toxic.


Suggest a suitable safety precaution that should be taken when using toxic substances in laboratories.

....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q9.

The diagrams show what happens when an acid is added to an alkali.

(a)

What is present in the flask at stage 2, besides universal indicator and water?

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Write an ionic equation to show how water is formed in this reaction and state the sources of the ions.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(Total 4 marks)

M1.

sodium nitrate
1
NaNO3

do not credit lower case N or O, upper case A


1

potassium sulphate
1
K2SO4
accept potassium hydrogen sulphate or
do not credit lower case K, S or O
ignore charges on ions

KHSO4

1
[4]

M2.
Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written
Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response.
No relevant content.
0 marks
There is a brief description of the method or a risk assessment.
Level 1 (12 marks)
There is some description of the method that may include a risk
assessment.
Level 2 (34 marks)
There is a clear, balanced and detailed description of the method
and a risk assessment.
Level 3 (56 marks)

examples of the chemistry points made in the response


The underlined words are needed to gain each bullet point.

sulfuric acid is heated in a beaker and copper oxide is added with stirring

until the copper oxide is in excess

the mixture is filtered


or
the mixture is poured through a funnel and filter paper

to remove the excess copper oxide

some of the solution is evaporated


or
heated in an evaporating basin/dish

the solution is allowed to crystallise / cool down

examples of the risk assessment points made in the response

wear safety goggles to protect eyes because sulfuric acid is corrosive / an irritant

care when heating to protect against burns

wash hands after the preparation copper sulfate is harmful

care when handling glass apparatus to protect against cuts


[6]

M3.

(a)

H+(aq) + OH (aq) H2O(l) or

H3O+(aq) + OH(aq) H2O(l)


mark for correct equation
mark for state symbols
any other symbols = 0 marks
accept correct spectator ions e.g.
Na+(aq) + OH (aq) + H+(aq) + Cl (aq) Na+(aq) + Cl (aq)
+ H2O(l)
2

(b) (i)
HNO3

nitric acid and ammonia (solution)


NH3 / NH4OH

mark for both


accept ammonium hydroxide /
NH4OH instead of ammonia
do not accept ammonia hydroxide
do not accept hydrogen nitrate solution
accept correct formulae
1

(ii)

provides oxygen or oxidising (agent) or oxidant

do not accept it contains oxygen alone


or rich in oxygen
1
[4]

M4.

(a)

(i)

lead chloride/product of lead + chloride ions is insoluble (in water)

for 1 mark
1

(ii)

Pb2+ + 2C1 PbC12 *(s)


(allow (Pb)2+ 2 (C1) )

formula
solid state symbol

balancing
for 1 mark each
3

(b)

copper hydroxide Cu(OH)2

each for 1 mark


lead sulphate

PbSO4

each for 1 mark


no precipitate
for 1 mark
Allow 1 mark for correct formula Na2SO4 in (i)
Allow 1 mark for correct formula Mg (NO3)2 in (ii)
0 marks for any formula in (iii)
5
[9]

M5.
(a) lead chloride
potassium nitrate }

} in any order

for 1 mark each


2

(b) lead chloride is solid / a precipitate


potassium nitrate is aqueous / in solution / dissolves in water
NOT liquid
for 1 mark each
2

(Accept ratio of molecular KNO3 : PbC12 is 2:1 for 2 marks)


(do not accept relative number of atoms in each compound)
One is a solid, one is a solution worth 1 mark
[4]

M6.

(a)

Compound A

any one from:


accept correct formulae

sodium bromide

potassium bromide

ammonium bromide

hydrogen bromide

any metal bromide except silver and lead.


1
Compound B
silver nitrate

accept silver sulphate


1

(b)

the silver compound will decompose / silver ions be reduced to silver (owtte)

accept film would darken owtte


accept any idea of light changing silver bromide / silver ions / silver nitrate / silver sulphate
allow forms a black solid / it would turn black
1

(c)

precipitation

accept descriptions of precipitation reactions


accept double decomposition
accept precipitate
do not allow displacement
1

(d)

electrons
1
are gained

the second mark must be linked to electrons


accept it / silver / silver ions gains electrons for both marks
ignore references to oxygen
1
[6]

M7.
(i)
nitric (acid)
accept HN03
1

(ii)
sulphuric (acid)
accept H2SO4
1

(iii) heat given out


or temperature rise

or energy given out


or steam
do not credit just use a thermometer
do not credit just 'change in temperature'
1

(iv) neutralisation
accept neutralise
accept neutral
accept formation of salt or water
do not credit exothermic
1

[4]

M8.
(a) all lead nitrate reacted
or no lead nitrate left
or enough KI to react with lead nitrate
or to remove all the lead ions
or to get maximum amount of I2
ignore comments about speed
do not accept to remove all the lead
1

(b) precipitate
allow phonetic spelling
do not accept ppt
1
1

(c) filter / filtration / centrifuge / decant


do not accept sieve
(d)

any one from:

removes (soluble) impurities

removes (unreacted) KI

removes KNO3

removes (excess) solution

removes nitrates
purifying is insufficient
do not accept removes potassium

do not accept removes iodide


1

(e) answer based on filter paper, desiccator, suitable solvent


(gentle) heat, drying cabinet, oven etc.
Accept any method of heating i.e.
bunsen / hairdryer etc.
Accept leave to evaporate / stand or leave in a warm room
e.g. place between dry filter paper, allow to dry
e.g. use propanone, allow to dry
e.g. leave on sunny window sill
e.g. leave in a draught
the answer leave / evaporate /
draught alone is insufficient
1

(f)
wear gloves / mask
or fume-cupboard
or wash hands afterwards
ignore goggles / labcoat or extractor fan / do not touch etc.
1

[6]

M9.
(a) sodium ions and chloride ions (not chlorine)
allow sodium chloride/salt/common salt
for 1 mark
1

(b) H+ + OH H2O
H+ from (hydrochloric) acid
OH- from alkali/sodium hydroxide
lose 1 mark if no charge shown disregard other ions
each for 1 mark
3

[4]

C2.7 Electrolysis Revision - Higher


Q1.

A student investigated the electrolysis of lead bromide.

Lead bromide was placed in the tube and the circuit was switched on. The light bulb did not light up.
The tube was heated and soon the bulb lit up. The observations are shown in the table.

Positive electrode

Negative electrode

red-brown gas

silver liquid

(a)

What is meant by electrolysis?


....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Why did the lead bromide conduct electricity when the tube was heated?
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Name the substances formed at the:


positive electrode; .....................................................................................................
negative electrode. ....................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Suggest one safety precaution that should be taken during this investigation.
....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q2.

(a)

(i)

Two experiments were set up as shown.

Give two observations which would be seen only in Experiment D.


1 .......................................................................................................................
2 .......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Explain why in Experiment C no changes would be seen.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Another electrolysis experiment used an aqueous solution of copper chloride.

(i)

What does electrolysis mean?


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Name the gas A and the deposit B.


Gas A ................................................................................................................
Deposit B ..........................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Give one industrial use of electrolysis.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

Q3.

An investigation into the electrolyte copper sulphate solution was carried out as shown.

(a)

What does electrolyte mean?


.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

These were the observations.

Negative electrode

solid formed

Positive electrode

gas given off

(i)

Name the solid formed.


..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Name the gas given off.


..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

How could a sample of gas be collected at the positive electrode?


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Suggest why the blue colour of copper sulphate becomes paler during the investigation.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

Q4.

The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution produces useful substances.


(a)

Explain the meaning of electrolysis.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

The diagram shows an apparatus used for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution.

The electrolysis produces two gases, chlorine and Gas A.


Name Gas A ...............................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

The electrodes used in this process can be made of graphite. Explain why graphite conducts
electricity.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

Q5.

Read the information in the box and then answer the question.

Aluminium is made by the electrolysis of aluminium oxide.


Aluminium oxide is an ionic compound containing aluminium ions (Al3+) and oxide ions
(O2).
The diagram below shows the apparatus used to electrolyse aluminium oxide.

(a)

In this question you will get marks on using good English, organising information clearly and
using specialist terms correctly.
Use information in the box and your knowledge and understanding of this process to answer this
question.
Explain, as fully as you can, how aluminium and carbon dioxide are formed in this process.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(6)

(b)

Aluminium is a metal.
Explain why aluminium conducts electricity.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

Q6.

Electrolysis can be used to remove unwanted hair from the skin.

The hair is first coated with a layer of gel containing ions in solution.
The positive electrode is connected by a patch to the skin.
The negative electrode is connected to the hair. Electricity flows through the gel and causes
electrolysis of the body fluid around the hair follicle.
(a)

Metal wires conduct electricity to the electrodes.


Explain how metals conduct electricity.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Explain why the gel containing ions in solution can conduct electricity.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

The body fluid is a solution that contains sodium chloride. The electricity causes the electrolysis
of a small amount of this solution.
This solution contains hydrogen ions that move to the negative electrode.
(i)

The half equation represents the reaction at the negative electrode.


2H+

2e

H2

Explain why this reaction is a reduction.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

As a result of the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution, an alkali forms which kills the hair
follicle.
What is the name of this alkali? .......................................................................
(1)

(iii)

Complete the half equation for the reaction at the positive electrode.
Cl

Cl2
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q7.

The diagram below shows the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution, in the laboratory.

(a)

Which gas forms at the negative electrode? ..............................................................


(1)

(b)

Explain why chlorine gas forms at the positive electrode.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

State one use of chlorine gas.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q8.

Sodium chloride solution is a useful raw material for the manufacture of other substances.

(i)

What is the name of the process shown?


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Chloride ions lose electrons at the positive electrode. What is the name of this type of reaction?
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

The solution formed at X is alkaline. What causes this solution to be alkaline?


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(iv)

Give a balanced ionic equation for the formation of hydrogen gas at the negative electrode.
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

M1.

(a)

breakdown / decomposition / splits into elements /


not ions

separates into elements / produce a chemical reaction


1

using electricity
1

(b)

lead bromide melted / free ions


not electrolyte
1

(c)

(+) bromine
element must be appropriate to electrode
1

() lead
element must be appropriate to electrode
1

(d)

fume cupboard / protective clothing


allow safety glasses
not safety mat
1

[6]

M2.

(a)

(i)

bulb lights up
1

bubbles / fizz / gas or chlorine given off


1

(ii)

in solid, ions
1

are not free to move / (charged) particles cannot move or converse


atoms / electrons cannot move worth 0 marks
1

(b)

(i)

breakdown / decomposition / splitting up


not separation
1

by using electricity
1

(ii)

gas A = chlorine / oxygen


1

deposit B = copper
1

(c)

any one from:

manufacturer of chlorine / sodium hydroxide / hydrogen / sodium

electroplating of steel / reference to plating


not galvanising

extraction of aluminium / metal reactivity series specified

purification of copper
not making copper
1

[9]

M3.

(a)

substance brokendown / separates / splits into elements

by electric current / electricity


ions free to move e.g. when molten / in solution
allow 1 mark for a substance that conducts electricity
max 2

(b)

(i)

copper / Cu
1

(ii)

oxygen /O2
allow CO2
1

(c)

tube over electrode


full of CuSO4(aq) / water
allow sulphuric acid / sensible electrolyte
not any other liquid / using a syringe
2

(d)

Cu2+ ions removed / less Cu2+


not copper sulphate removed
allow 1 mark for copper removed / less copper
2

[8]

M4.

(a)

electric current / electricity


1

plus one from:

is passed through ionic compound / substance / electrolyte

passed through molten/aqueous compound / substance


must be linked to electricity
allow liquid compound / substance
do not allow solution / liquid alone

causing decomposition
accept split up / breakdown / breaking up owtte
ignore separated
accept elements are formed
ignore new substances form
1

(b)

hydrogen
accept H2
do not accept H / H2
1

(c)

one electron from each atom

accept each carbon is bonded to three other carbon atoms leaving one
(unbonded) electron owtte
1

is delocalised / free (to move)


must be linked to electrons
answers of delocalised / free electrons only, gains 1 mark
accept each carbon is bonded to three other carbon atoms leaving
delocalised / free electrons = 2 marks
maximum 1 mark if graphite described as a metal / giant ionic lattice
1

[5]

M5.

(a) Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality
of Written Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the
scientific response.
No relevant content.
0 marks

There is a brief description of the electrolysis of aluminium oxide.


Level 1 (12 marks)

There is some description of the electrolysis of aluminium oxide.


Level 2 (34 marks)

There is a clear, balanced and detailed description of the


electrolysis of aluminium oxide.
Level 3 (56 marks)

examples of the chemistry points made in the response

aluminium oxide is melted / made liquid

aluminium ions are attracted to the negative electrode

at the negative electrode aluminium is formed or


aluminium ions gain electrons

oxide ions are attracted to the positive electrode

oxygen is formed at the positive electrode or oxide


ions lose electrons

the oxygen reacts with carbon to make carbon dioxide or


carbon dioxide formed at positive electrode.

(b)

there are delocalised electrons / free electrons / electrons


which move within the aluminium / metallic structure
1

therefore these electrons are able to carry the current / charge


1

if the candidates use the terms covalent / ionic / molecules /


intermolecular incorrectly in the answer this will limit the mark to a
maximum of 1.
[8]

M6.

(a)

any two from:

outer shell electrons / electrons in


highest energy level (in metals)

electrons are delocalised / sea of electrons

electrons are free or electrons move around


or electrons are free to flow or electrons
attracted to positive terminal

electrons carry charge / current or electrons


form the current / electrons transfer charge / electrons
pass charge
ignore electrons carry electricity
ignore reference to positively charged atoms / ions
if they state electrons have +ve charge = max 1 mark
if they state covalent bonding then max 1 mark
2

(b)

ions can move / are attracted to electrode


accept ions are free
allow they for ions
or
attracted to named electrode
or
ions are charged or ions form / carry
the current or ions form the charge
1

(c)

(i)

electron gain
ignore hydrogen reduces charge
1

(ii)

sodium hydroxide or NaOH or caustic soda


do not allow hydroxide alone
1

(iii)

2Cl 2 e Cl2
or
2Cl Cl2 + 2 e
allow fractions or multiples
allow e or e
do not allow e+
1

[6]

(a)

hydrogen
for 1 mark
1

(b)

chloride ions are negative;


negative ions move to positive electrode
each for 1 mark
2

(c)

any one use of chlorine e.g.


sterilisation;
bleaching;
making plastics
any one for 1 mark
1

[4]

M8.

(i)

electrolysis
1

(ii)

oxidation
1

(iii)

hydroxide ions or OH
accept sodium hydroxide or hydroxide or OH for one mark only
2

(iv)

H+ + e
1

H2
ignore any state symbols
1

2H+ + 2e H2
accept H+ + e- H for one mark only
1

[7]