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The American Revolution


1.

Enlightenment thought was a major part of the American Revolution.


The main slogan if the revolution was no taxation without
representation.
This expressed John Lockes ideas of natural rights because he said
everyone has the right to life, liberty, and property. The increasing
taxes in America was not giving people liberty. John Locke also stated
that the citizens had the right to overthrow an unjust government and
that the government got its power from the people. In the American
Revolution, at first, King George III kept increasing the taxes without
letting the people decide what was best. So, the people revolted to
throw down the unjust government.
Natural rights, representation, and the right to overthrow an unjust
government were the Enlightenment ideals shown in the American
Revolution.

2.

The colonies of America revolted.


The colonists were all people who had immigrated from Europe to
escape religious persecution and to gain freedom. They all felt that
when King George III taxed them because of the French and Indian War
debt, that he was being unfair.

The colonists revolted because they felt that their rights were being
infringed. King George III hadn't consulted with the colonies about
increasing the taxes. He had just increased them on his own.
The colonists wanted to have a voice and have representation. Like
John Locke had said, the colonists (the people) should have the power,
not the government.
The colonists felt that the Revolution was the only way to get
representation because the King and Parliament were not paying
attention to the colonists. The colonists felt that the only way to get
freedom and a voice was to show the government that they can
overthrow it. The only way to start a revolution is to get rid of the
King.

3.

4.

The Patriots were the ones who started to gather up followers to fight
against the British. Each colony supporting war took their strongest
leaders to form a congress of their own that would organize the war.
They organized the mechanism and machinery used in the war. The
Continental Congress also organized the revolt against the high taxes
and Britain.

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The Revolution planning wasn't too long as the unjust taxation started
right after the war. There wasn't any pre-taxation before, so the
planning wasn't building up. But after the taxation got to a point where
the colonists had no representation, they decided to revolt. The
planning wasn't long or spontaneous.
People found out about the Revolution through the Patriots. When the
Patriots found out about the taxation, they gathered up many people
who wanted to revolt. They put out propaganda and created groups
such as the Sons and Daughters of Liberty. These groups spread
information and boycotted taxes, leading to Revolution knowledge
spreading. As the knowledge spread, it influenced many people to join
the revolt.
Leaders who organized the American Revolution were George
Washington, Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Paul Revere, John
Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock,
Gouverneur Morris, and Patrick Henry.

5.

The colonists overthrew the government by participating in political


groups and boycotting taxes, spreading propaganda, and engaging in
war with Britain. Colonists boycotted every tax that Britain placed.
Along with that, on September 16, 1773, Samuel Adams and the Sons
of Liberty dumped 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor in what is
know as the Boston Tea Party. Paul Revere drew a picture depicting the
Boston Massacre in 1770. He made sure to depict it in a way that
makes the British look bad so that more people would join in the revolt.
America had the support of the French. France secretly aided America
by giving America military loans and arrangements (weapons, clothes,
food, tactics). The French majorly helped America in gaining
independence.
America did fight with Britain. They fought in the Battle of Lexington
and Concord and many other battles. France helped the Americans
capture the British in Yorkstown, Virginia. America had won their
independence.

6.

7.

The government called war upon the American colonies.


They fought, with France siding with America. The British did not want
the monarchy to end.
Finally in 1781, America defeated Britain with the help of France.
The government changed to a representative democracy following the
Revolution. People had a voice. The Declaration of Independence was
signed on July 4, 1776. Now, colonists had become citizens. They had
their natural rights (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness).

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Bibliography
"AMERICAN REVOLUTION." AMERICAN REVOLUTION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov.
2015.
"Background, History, And The Beginning Of The Revolution." N.p., n.d. Web.
16 Nov. 2015.
"Boston Tea Party." History.com. Ed. Eric Foner and John A. Garraty. A&E
Television Networks, 1991. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.
"American Revolution." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 16
Nov. 2015
"France Allied with American Colonies." France Allied with American Colonies.
N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.

The French Revolution

1.

Enlightenment thought was a big part of the French Revolution. The


Revolution was driven by anger from the common people. They wanted
a voice.
John Lockes thoughts are the most present in the French Revolution
because he said that all people are born equal no matter caste and
that people have the right to choose their own government. The caste
system of France didn't allow 97% of the population to have a say in
the fate of their lives. They were treated unfairly and did work their
entire lives without anything in return. The French people wanted to be
able to be treated fairly no matter the wealth of a person. This was
similar to John Lockes idea of a clean slate. France also wanted a fair
government where everyone had a voice. The monarchy and feudal
system did not allow for that. John Locke stated that an unjust
government could be overthrown and that people choose their
government. The French Revolution was happening because they
wanted a change in government ideals.
Enlightenment principles in the French Revolution were freedom of
speech, a clean slate, the right of people to choose their government,
and the right of people to overthrow an unjust government.

2.

The peasants of France revolted against the nobles and higher class of
France.

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All the peasants had no say in the government. They were barely
making enough money and many couldn't feed their family. They all
had the same stance in the caste.

The peasants revolted in the hopes of gaining a say in the government


and having opportunities to succeed in life without being held back
because of their caste/poverty.
The peasants werent happy with their government because they didn't
have the power. John Locke said the power should come from the
people, but in France, this was not the case, as 97% of the population
had absolutely no power.
They believed the Revolution was the only way to be heard because
the feudal system was a huge part of family life in France. Unless there
was a revolt, the feudal system would be too strong to be diminished.
If all of the peasants rally up together, than the peasants thought that
the system could be gone for good.

3.

4.

The peasants didn't organize the revolt much. The Revolution was very
spontaneous. The French peasants were angry because they had no
say, and their anger slowly built up until they couldn't handle the
unjust government anymore. They decided to overthrow the
government, hoping that they would soon be equal.
People found out about the Revolution through the peasants. The
peasants did not have any rallies like the American Revolution had.
Instead, they gathered up many people who felt that the government
had to be overthrown, and they stormed down the Bastille together.
This showed that the peasants were serious about wanting a voice.
Leaders who organized the French Revolution were Napolean
Bonaparte, Jacques-Pierre Brissot, and Emanuel-Joseph Sieys

5.

The peasants overthrew the government by assassinating leaders,


storming down buildings, and engaging in war. The peasants gathered
together and stormed down the Bastille (prison). Then, q constitutional
monarchy took its place. Some leaders wanted to take King Louis to
trial. Eventually, many leaders including King Louis XVI (16) were taken
to trial and killed. This was the first time a King was taken to trial and
executed. This showed that the people had a voice. Another leader
who was assassinated was Robespierre. He was among the many
people assassinated during the French Revolution. Finally, the peasants
and lower class of Europe engaged in war with the rest of Europe.

Now that the peasants had rebelled, a constitutional monarchy had


taken its place, but some leaders, such as Robespierre and Danton,
wanted a republic. France went to war with Austria and Prussia, hoping
to spread their enlightenment ideals across a monarchy based

6.

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continent. Robespierre issued a reign of terror on France, and over
200,000 people were beheaded. He killed whoever he suspected was a
part of the French Revolution. People started revolting against
Robespierre. Napolean Bonaparte rose to power and made a Directory,
which was a group of 5 people appointed by the Parliament. The
directory ruled for 4 years in corruption, greed, and inefficiency. Finally,
on November 9, 1799, Bonaparte abolished the Directory and made
himself the first consul of France.
7.

The government became a Republic after the French Revolution.


The government became more fair. Everyone had a voice, no matter
the caste. The people held the power, not the government. The French
Revolution ended as the Napoleonic Era came, in which France became
the dominating republic in Europe.

Bibliography
"The French Revolution." The French Revolution. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov.
2015.
"The French Revolution." SparkNotes. SparkNotes, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.
Lewis, Jeffrey. "French Revolution." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d.
Web. 16 Nov. 2015.

Latin American Revolution


1.

The Latin American Revolution showed many Enlightenment ideas. The


main reason for the start of the Revolution was people wanted Liberty
(freedom). This represents John Lockes idea of natural rights because
one of the natural rights is Liberty. Also, the society wanted to be
independent so that they could benefit better than with a monarchy.
They didn't want to follow certain rules, but rather live like noble
savages. This idea was proposed by Jean Jacques Rousseau. He said
that people should live live free and away from society's rules. The
Spanish colonies wanted to be free and not follow others rules.

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Enlightenment principles that caused the Revolution were natural


rights (Liberty mainly) and noble savages.

The Spanish colonies revolted.


All the Spanish colonies were common because they all wanted the
same goal, to be independent. They were tired of the monarchy and
Spanish rule and they wanted to be their own country (city, place,
etc.).

The Spanish colonies revolted because they didn't want to be ruled by


Spain and they didn't want to be under a monarchy. They wanted
independence. Also, the lower class of the colonies didn't have any
freedom. They received nothing in return for work. The colonies and
the lower class revolted to gain freedom for he selves and for the
colony as a whole.
People were unhappy with their government because they didn't like
the economic policies of the government (slavery, poverty, freedom for
the lower class, trade, taxes). They also didn't like the social and
political makeup of Spain. They wanted the caste system to go and
they wanted the government to be less oppressive and give more
freedom and a voice to the people.
The Spanish colonies felt that the only way to gain independence was
to revolt because if they didn't revolt, then Spain would continue
oppressing the people. They felt that the only way to gain freedom was
to fight for it and cut all ties with Spain. This way no one was
controlling them.

2.

3.

4.

The Spanish Revolution was organized by juntas, committees formed


by groups of Crilles (people born in America who claimed they were
pure Spanish blood). The Crilles werent treated well because they
weren't pure enough (they weren't born in Spain). They organized
the revolt.
The Revolution was planned for some time. The Spanish colonies
wanted a government similar to the American and French government.
They hoped that by revolting, they would be able to have
independence like America and France. As the Crilles got harsher
treatments, they planned more about the revolt. The revolt wasn't
spontaneous. Over time, the revolt was planned.
People found out about the Revolution through the juntas and leaders
of the Revolution. The juntas claimed out loud how they felt about their
conditions. They kept informing people of the revolt and they told
people they wanted independence. The leaders of the Revolution
decided to stand up and fight against Spain. They gathered people and
went to war with France. The leaders published propaganda and went
through town shouting (literally) about the unfair government.

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The leaders were Simon Bolivar, Jos de San Martin, Father Miguel
Hidalgo, Father Jose Morelos.

The juntas and leaders overthrew the government by engaging in wars.


The juntas protested with propaganda and they planned the revolt. The
leaders fought against Spain for the independence of many colonies
(now countries) such as Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador,
Venezuela, Chile). Some leaders also lead peasant uprisings and
demanded independence and equality for all. The military was a huge
part of the Latin American Revolution, and it wasn't very peaceful
during this time. Bolivar did have help of the Haitians when fighting
Spain. Especially at the Battle of Ayacucho in 1824, Bolivar and the
help of Haitians and Spanish colonists alike decimated Spain. Spain
finally was defeated, and many countries became independent and no
longer under the rule of Spain.

The government responded to the revolt by fighting back. Once they


noticed the peasant uprisings, they decided to fight against the
Spanish colonists.
The leaders did not give in to the people, but instead they fought back
with a full force.
Spain used the military to try and defeat the Spanish colonists but they
couldn't, fortunately for the colonists.

5.

6.

7.

After the Latin American Revolution, the government became


undecided at first, but later became many independent republics.
The government became a republic because this offered equal rights to
the Crilles and the Peninsulars (Spain born colonists). No one had to
be controlled or limited by the unjust rules of Spains economy. The
government became very different, but in a good way. They achieved
independence and equal rights for almost everyone (except Native
Americans and non-whites).

Bibliography
"Latin American Wars For Independence." Latin American Wars For
Independence. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
"Latin America." Latin America. N.p., 10 May 2000. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
"Rebellion against Spain in Latin America." Rebellion against Spain in
Latin America. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.

Haitian Revolution

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1.

The Haitian Revolution was inspired by many Enlightenment ideas. The


slaves wanted freedom and liberty. They wanted a society in which
everyone was equal. John Lockes ideas influenced the Haitian
Revolution a lot. John Locke said that all people are equal and have the
right to life, liberty, and property. In simpler terms, everyone deserves
freedom.
The Enlightenment ideas behind the Haitian Revolution were liberty
and freedom.

2.

The slaves of Haiti revolted.


They were all being treated unfairly and had the same caste (lowest).

The slaves revolted because they were sick and tired of working hard
for nothing. They wanted their freedom and to be treated equally (not
judged or/and discriminated based on their skin color). The tensions
between the grand blancs and petit blancs increased. Also, the grand
blancs made the slaves work harder to grow more sugar crops so that
they could supply the French and trade more with them. Many slaves
became malnourished and overworked. The conditions were just
inhumane.
The slaves were unhappy with their government because it was
oppressive. The slaves were forced around and they had no say
whatsoever. 90% of Haiti at one point was slaves because so many
slaves were needed to work the plantations and make coffee and grow
sugar.
The slaves believed that the Revolution was the only way to abolish
slavery because slavery had been around for a long time. Slavery was
a huge part of the economy and without a major fight to get rid of it,
no one would take the slaves seriously or care for the slaves. They felt
that unless they fought for their freedom, they wouldn't get it.

3.

4.

5.

The slaves organized the Haitian Revolution by calling all slaves


together. In August, 1791, all slaves came together and called for their
liberty. From then on, they revolted.
The decision was not quick, as slaves had been going through torture
for many years. On,y when the conditions got incredibly bad, the
slaves decided to revolt for freedom.
The slaves informed others of the Revolution through their attacks.
They went and burnt down plantations and infrastructures, which
brought some attention towards the skates and the revolt. Soon, this
information spread across Haiti and France.
One major leader of the Haitian Revolution was Touissaint LOuverture.

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The slaves overthrew the government by burning down plantations and


infrastructures in rage. They had many uprisings and they used
guerrilla warfare tactics (attack and run). When slavery was abolished
but then Napolean captured Touissaint, the slaves did not back down.
Instead, in November of 1803, the slaves finally defeated France using
their military tactics and just fighting for their freedom (fighting really
hard). The slaves didn't have any alliances as no one else wanted to
abolish slavery. Yet, they still got their freedom.

France did not respond well at all to the Haitian Revolution. France
decided to abolish slavery for some time so that the slaves could fight
Britain and other forces that were attacking France. After those wars,
Napolean Bonaparte tried to reestablish slavery. To do this, he capture
Touissaint and died in jail. But, because of this, the slaves fought
harder for their freedom.
Finally, on January 1, 1804, Haiti declared themselves an independent
country. Their slogan was Live free or die.

6.

7.

The government changed a lot after the Haitian Revolution. Slaves


were treated much better and were allowed to do the same things as
white people. Although here was still discrimination, some say this
Revolution was the most successful slave revolt in history.
After the Revolution, the government became a democracy. It also
became the first black republic of the Western Hemisphere. This was
the form of government so that all people of any race had equal rights.
Although most people were now black, the constitution of Haiti states
that anybody can own land, all Haitians are black, slavery is
permanently abolished, and most importantly, all Haitians are free and
equal.

Bibliography
Bozik, Edward. "Edward Bozik's Revolutions Honors Blog." : Enlightenment
Ideas and the Haitian Revolution. N.p., 12 Dec. 2010. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Arsenault, Natalie. "15 Minute History." 15 Minute History. N.p., n.d. Web. 17
Nov. 2015.

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