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TRANSISTOR COMMON-BASE CONFIGURATION

PHYSIC
S

INVESTIGATORY PROJECT
Name: Joydeep Naskar
Class: XII- Science
Roll:
School: Kendriya Vidyalaya,
IIM Joka
Session: 2015-16

INDEX
S.
No.

Title

Acknowledgement

Certificate

Introduction
Experiment

5.

-Aim
-Materials required
-Observation
-Result

Bibliography

Acknowledgement
I would like to thank the CBSE, for
providing me the opportunity to
carry out this investigatory
project. I also take this
opportunity to express my sincere
gratitude to my Physics teacher,
Mr. Arindam Ojha, PGT Physics
(Contractual), for guiding me
and imparting a sound base of
knowledge pertaining to this topic
which ensured the successful
completion of this project. I would
also like to thank him for
unending assistance to enable
completion of the exercise.

CERTIFICATE
This is to hereby certify that the
original and genuine
investigatory project has been
completed sincerely and
satisfactorily by Joydeep
Naskar of class XII Sc.
KendriyaVidyalaya IIMJoka,
Kolkata, regarding his project
titled To study the effect of
various solutes on the
elevation of boiling point of

water as per the CBSE


practical work requirement for
the session 2015-2016.

Teachers Signature

Examiners Signature

A transistor is a three terminal active device. The terminals are


emitter, base, collector. In CB configuration, the base is common to
both input (emitter) and output (collector). For normal operation, the
E-B junction is forward biased and C-B junction is reverse biased.
In CB configuration, IE is +ve, IC is ve and IB is ve.

With an increasing the reverse collector voltage, the space-charge


width at the output junction increases and the effective base width
W decreases. This phenomenon is known as Early effect. Then,
there will be less chance for recombination within the base region.
With increase of charge gradient within the base region, the current of
minority carriers injected across the emitter junction increases. The
current amplification factor of CB configuration is given by,
= IC/ IE

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

AIM:

1. To observe and draw the input and output


characteristics of a transistor connected in
common base configuration.
2. To find current gain () of the given
transistor.

MATERIALS REQUIRED:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

A pnp Transistor
Regulated power supply (0-30V, 1A) and a 3-V battery
Voltmeter (0-30V)
Ammeters (0-50mA)
2 high resistance rheostats
Connecting wires

PROCEDURE:
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. For plotting the input characteristics, the output voltage VCE is kept
constant at 0V and for different values of VEB note down the values of
IE.

3. Repeat the above step keeping VCB at 2V, 4V, and 6V. All the
readings are tabulated.
4. A graph is drawn between VEB and IE for constant VCB.

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. For plotting the output characteristics, the input IE is kept constant at
10mA and for different values of VCB, note down the values of IC.
3. Repeat the above step for the values of IE at 20mA, 40mA, and
60mA, all the readings are tabulated.
4. A graph is drawn between VCB and Ic for constant IE

OBSERVATIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Least count of voltmeter Vi = 0.1V


Range of voltmeter Vi= 0-5 volts
Zero error of voltmeter Vi= No error
Least count of voltmeter V0 = 0.1V
Range of voltmeter V0=0 to 5V
Zero error of voltmeter V0= No error
Range of milli-ammeter= 0-50mA

8. Zero error of milli-ammeter= No error

Table for input characteristics


Sl.

Base-emitter
voltage VEB(V)

Emitter current IE (mA) for


VCB= 0V

VCB= -2V

VCB= -4V

2.5

3.0

4.2

4.6

4.8

20

21

26

4.9

38

48

Out of range

No
.

Table for output characteristics


Sl.

Base-collector Collector current IC (mA) for


voltage VCB(V)
No
IE=5mA
IE=10mA
.

IE=20mA

4.5

9.0

19.0

5.0

9.0

19.5

5.0

9.0

19.5

5.5

9.5

19.5

5.5

9.5

19.5

5.5

9.5

19.5

5.5

9.5

19.5

5.5

9.5

19.5

Table for transfer characteristics


Sl.

Emitter current IE Collector current IC (mA) for


(mA)
No
VCB= 0V
VCB= -2V
VCB= -4V
.
1

10

10

10

10

CALCULATIONS

RESULT
1. The input, output and transfer characteristics are shown
in the adjoining graphs.
2. The current gain, =
3. The voltage gain, Av =

PRECAUTIONS

1. The supply voltages should not exceed the rating of the


transistor.
2. Meters should be connected properly according to their
polarities.

SOURCES OF ERROR
The transistor may be faulty.

BIBILOGRPAHY
Various books and websites were
referred while making this project:

1) Physics Textbook for class XII, Part-I,


NCERT
2) Physics Laboratory Manual for class
XII, NCERT
3) Wikipedia.org
4) ConnectUEdu
5) Youtube.com