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Synchronisation in SDH Network

NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Synchronisation in SDH

Synchronisation
Synchronisationin
inSDH
SDHnetworks
networks
Why?
Why?How?
How?IfIfnot
notwhat
whathappens?
happens?
Additional
Additionalequipment
equipmentneeded
needed

Specifications
Specifications
Examples:
Examples:

General
GeneralSDH
SDHnetwork
network
Cellular
Cellulartransport
transportnetwork
network

Conclusions
Conclusions

NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Why synchronisation is needed in SDH

To provide reliable functionality between SDH and PD

NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Why synchronisation is needed in SDH


What happens if the SDH-equipment are not synchronised
well enough?

The buffer in desynchronisers may


overflow (or even collapse) due to
the multiple pointer adjustments

The elastic buffers in the PDH


equipment may overflow due to
the wander generated in SDHequipment

In other words there may happen


bit errors if the SDH equipment
are not synchronised well enough

NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

POTS
clicks
noise bursts
low speed data
resends
FAX
black lines
video
rolling picture

GSM
channel overlap

Synchronous Network Concept


Synchronous network: A network, in
which all the communication links are
synchronized to a common clock source
A Clock distribution network is needed:
All the synchronization signals are traceable
to Primary Reference Clock PRC
The reference signal of the primary source
is transported throughout the network and
used to synchronize the local clocks
Hierarchical timing distribution structure

NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

What are jitter and wander


Phase Deviation is the deviation of an edge from its ideal position in time.
Low frequency (<10 Hz) phase deviation = WANDER
High frequency (>10 Hz) phase deviation = JITTER
Wander is also "signal delay variation"

NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Causes of jitter and wander


* Clock noise
* Diurnal wander (temperature effects etc.)
* Multiplexing
* Clock offset (e.g. in SDH)
* Pointer adjustments
* PDH - SDH mapping
etc...

NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

In SDH network synchronisation


master slave principle is used with SSM
G.811
PRC

Transit

Local

G.812
SSU

G.812
SSU

G.812
SSU

Primary Reference Clock

G.812
SSU

G.812
SSU

G.812
SSU

G.812
SSU

G.812
SSU

SSM = Synchronisation Status Message


(SSU = Synchronisation Supply Unit)
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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

G.812
SSU

Synchronisation specifications
ITU-T
ITU-Tnetwork
networkspecs.
specs.

ETSI
ETSInetwork
networkspecs.
specs.

ITU-T
ITU-Tequipment
equipmentspecs.
specs.

ETSI
ETSIequipment
equipmentspecs.
specs.

G.803
G.803SDH
SDHnetwork
network
architecture
architecture
G.810
G.810Introduction
Introduction

G.811
G.811PRC
PRC
G.812
G.812SSU
SSU
G.813
G.813SEC
SEC(SDH/SONET)
(SDH/SONET)

prETS
prETS300
300462-2
462-2Introduction
Introduction
prETS
prETS300
300462-2
462-2Architecture
Architecture
prETS
prETS300
300462-3
462-3Network
Networklimits
limits
prETS
prETS300
300462-4
462-4SSU
SSU
prETS
prETS300
300462-5
462-5SEC
SEC
prETS
prETS300
300462-6
462-6PRC
PRC

For traffic carrying signals G.823, G.825 and ETS DE/TM-3067 apply

NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Synchronisation reference chain


G.803 & ETS 300 462-2:
PRC

PRC = Primary Reference Clock G.811


N x SECs

1st

SSU

SSU = Synchronisation Supply Unit G.812


N x SECs

K-1th

SEC = Synchronous Equipment Clock G.813

SSU

N x SECs

Kth

SSU
N x SECs

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

KK<=
<=10
10
NN<=
20
<= 20
total
SECs
total SECs<=
<=60
60

SSM tells quality of sync. origin


Quality
level

originator

PRC

PRC, defined in prETS 300 462-6 and G.811

(highest)

SSU T

transit SSU, defined in G.812

SSU L

local SSU, defined in G.812

SEC

SDH node, defined in ETS 300 462-5

DNU

(lowest)

This signal should not be used for synchronisation

SDH node always synchronises to signal that has highest quality


If two signals have same quality, priority list determines

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Chain is the basic building block

SSM (Synchronisation Status Messaging)

can be used only in a chain network

All networks (ring, mesh) can be divided into chains


G.811

G.811

SEC

G.811

SEC
DNU

G.811

SEC
DNU

Direction of synchronisation
SEC = SDH equipment clock
DNU = Do Not Use
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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

G.812
DNU

SSM enables changing direction

When a connection is broken, the rest of the network


receives synchronisation from the other direction
A failure between two nodes

DNU

G.811

SEC

SEC

SEC
G.812

Direction of synchronisation

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

DNU
G.812

G.812

Subnetworks

Dividing a network into subnetworks makes


the network manageable

It also makes synchronisation planning easy


Protecting paths can be arranged
PRC

PRC

Subnetwork 1

Subnetwork 2

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Synchronisation planning

Master-slave synchronisation
Priority tables
Use of SSM enables all network
topologies to be protected

Timing loops are avoided by


synchronisation planning

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Synchronisation planning

Use only one backup for each


element

Check the design using


"walking" rule:

PRC

Stand on one node. Start walking along


the arrows, both priorities. If you ever
walk through any node twice, you have
a timing loop!
(do not make U-turns)

1st priority
2nd priority

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Additional equipment
PRC (Primary Reference Clock)

G.811

=
=

accuracy 1*10-11
61 ns
rearrangement

Caesium-beam
+ accurate
expensive (~1 MFIM)
"Borrow" from another network
+ cheap
dependency on other
operator (no good)

GPS + SSU (Germany, China)


+ cheap (~100-200 kFIM)
+ SSU provides frequency
during outage

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Additional equipment
SSU (Synchronisation Supply Unit)

Used to refresh timing


and provide hold-over

G.812 (slave clock)

=
=

holdover accuracy
5*10-10 + 1*10-9 /day
(transit)
1 us rearrangement

Rubidium

NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

limited lifetime

Advanced quartz

+
+

Oscilloquartz, Telecom Solutions, HP,...

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accurate

accurate enough
longer lifetime

Synchronisation delivery for upper network


layers, e.g. for digital exchanges
Exchange

Exchange
2MHz / 2Mbit/s
SSU

SSU

2Mbit/s
8M

2Mbit/s

PDH
34M

140M

34M

8M

Derive timing from


synchronisation trail
which is not supported by
SDH
or

sync

sync
STM-N

STM-N

SDH

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Recover timing from


STM-N signal

Avoid pointer processing in timing


distribution between service layer elements
and PDH network islands

2 Mbit/s signal via SDH

should not be used for timing,

2M

SDH

unless pointer hit tolerance is


verified:

2M

PRC

single network elements, no


further distribution

critical e.g. in mobile


applications

the alternative is to use retiming


-

SDH
PDH

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

PDH

retiming delivers SDH network


timing to end equipment

PRC

What is re-timing?

SDH

2M DXC
Master

Without retiming:
2M DXC
Slave

With retiming

(only synchronisation shown)

PRC

Timing here possibly


degraded by pointers

Pointers here
absorbed by slip buffer

SDH

Retiming buffer
2M DXC
Slave

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Retiming buffer

2M DXC
Slave

Cellular transport network (regional)


1.
2.

Incoming 2M from MSC


Internal SETS

MSC

PSTN

PRC
SDH transport
network

Optical Dir 1
Optical Dir 2
Internal SETS

MSC

1
2

2
1

BSC

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

2
Optical Dir 1
Optical Dir 2
Internal SETS

BSC
BSC

Access network
1.
2.

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Optical Dir 1
Internal SETS

Access network

Cellular transport network (access)


1.
2.

BSC
STM-1 (or STM-4)
access network

Incoming 2M signal from BSC


Ext 2M Hz from other SDH node

1.
2.
3.

Optical Dir 1
Optical Dir 2
Internal SETS

BTS
BTS

BTS

BTS
Copper
HDSL

Microwave radio
(n * 2Mbit/s)

BTS
BTS
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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

BTS

BTS

BTS

Synchronisation

NODE

21

REGEN

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

Start
Secondary
Primary
Complete
SSU
A

SSU

21

PRC
A
A

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Key issues in synchronisation

Synchronisation sources are protected

frequency accuracy is not a problem

Wander accumulation is controlled

locked mode stability


reference switching and hold-over
wander reference model in G.823
Network limits for wander are specified in ETS 300 462-3

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

Conclusions

Select
Selectthe
theprimary
primarysource
source(PRC)
(PRC)for
fortiming
timingcarefully
carefully
Move
Moveover
overto
toSDH
SDHbased
basedsynchronisation
synchronisationdistribution
distribution
as soon as possible (when SDH coverage available);

as soon as possible (when SDH coverage available);


equipment
equipmentmust
mustsupport
supportSSM
SSM(for
(forcontrolled
controlledsynchr.
synchr.protection)
protection)
Do
Donot
notuse
useaasynchronous
synchronous22Mbit/s
Mbit/snetwork
networkfor
for
synchronisation
synchronisationof
oflarge
largeSDH
SDHnetworks
networks(reference
(referencequality
qualitycontrol)
control)

Wander
Wanderperformance
performanceimportant
important
Synchronisation
Synchronisationplanning
planninguses
useswell-known
well-knownmethods
methods

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NOKIA 1999 FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN