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Discussion Vs

Exposition
Teks exposition bertujuan untuk
menyodorkan pendapat/ide/pandangan/argumen penulis akan
suatu perkara/topik/permasalahan/fenomena.
Terdapat dua varian dari teks exposition: 1) analytical exposition, dan 2)
hortatory exposition.
Dalam analytical exposition penulis menyodorkan
pandangan/ide/opini/pendapat bahwa suatu
topik atau fenomena atau masalah perlu mendapat perhatian, ulasan, atau
penjelasan, atau uraian,

From Cushion to Future Bear


Where did the bears come from? Bear as we know him has
not existed on
this earth for a very long period of time, but his predecessors
may go back many
hundreds of years. Most authorities now believe that the
handsome, two-legged
bear of today evolved from a single-celled organism—a
speck of dusk perhaps.
Then gradually, throough natural selection and survival of
the fittest speck, cotton
wool balls developed. We do not know exactly when the first
soft furnishings
appeared on earth, but they must have been very simple
beings.
In the beginning was the cushion. Not very impressive object
—simply a lump
of padding material held together with some sort of covering
—but this inauspicious
start developed two reptilian forms that were the ddirect
ancestors of modern bear.
One of the first evolutionary steps occurred when a mutant,
misshapen
Cushion was created. He must have appeared very strange
to his fellow Cushions,
but he was the first Bean Bag Frog. Filled with beans, rice or
other non-toxic
substance, he has two eyes and four legs. Bean Bag Frogs,
however, were pretty
useless on land, being incredibly floppy, and in water they
tended to sink.
At about the same time as the Bean Bag Frog was emerging,
the Cushion
was developing a long different lines into the Drought
Excluder. At first merely a
long thin Cushion, it gradually evelolved eyes, a forked
tongue and a patterned
body. Its tendency to lie along the bottom of draughty doors
perhaps points to the
lack of an efficient body cooling mechanism.
From this rather basic creatures the first Toy Dog developed.
Long and thin
like a Draught Excluder, and with four legs like a Bean Bag
Frog, he still had
difficulty in moving about owing to his very short
sppendages.
Movement became easier with the invention of the wheel.
Dog-on-Wheels
was a very successful species for many years but is now
threatened with extinction.
A few remain in captivity but they appear to have difficulty
reproducing themselves
under these circumstances.
When the first soft toy stood up and walked on two legs
instead of four,
modern (Teddy) bear was born.
atau data penguat—tanpa dimunculkannya usaha untuk
mempengaruhi/membujuk pembaca untuk
memiliki sikap pro-kontra terhadap sesuatu. Sebaliknya, dalam hortatory
exposition, penulis
menyodorkan pandangan/ide/opini/pendapat untuk
mempengaruhi/membujuk pembaca untuk
memiliki sikap pro-kontra terhadap sesuatu, dan atau mengajak pembaca
untuk melakukan
sesuatu. Analytical exposition juga dikenal dengan istilah argumentative,
sementara hortatory
exposition dapat disebut juga dengan istilah persuasive.

Teks analytical exposition umumnya


memiliki struktur:
- thesis, pernyataan pendapat penulis akan
suatu kasus/fenomena.
- argument, terdiri dari point atau inti
masalah/perbincangan atau hal yang
menjadi concern, dan elaboration,
penjelasan atau pemaparan dari point.
- Reiteration, penguatan pernyataan.

Teks analytical exposition sering


menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu,
antara lain:
- general noun misalnya pollution, car, dsb.
- abstract noun misalnya policy,
government, dsb.
- jargon, misalnya species, mammal, dll.
- modals misalnya must, should, dll.
- bahasa evaluatif, misalnya necessary,
important, significant, valuable.
- kalimat pasif
Teks hortatory exposition umumnya memiliki
struktur:
- thesis, pernyataan pendapat penulis akan
suatu kasus/fenomena; atau issue, hal yang
dipersoalkan.
- argument, alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan,
dan mengarah pada saran atau rekomendasi.
- recommendation, pernyataan tentang
bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya
seautu ada atau dilakukan
Teks hortatory exposition sering menggunakan
unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain:
- abstract noun misalnya policy,
government, dsb.
- jargon, misalnya species, mammal, dll.
- modals misalnya must, should, dll.
- bahasa evaluatif, misalnya necessary,
important, significant, valuable.
- kalimat pasif
- thinking verb, misalnya I believe, I think
Contoh:
English is the most important language
in the world. It is the language spoken
at the United Nations; it is also the
official language of diplomacy. In
addition, English is useful in many
occupations. For example, air traffic
controllers all over the world must be
able to speak English. Since English is so
important, it is a compulsory subject in
any level of school in Indonesia.
I think Indonesian president
should be a male, over forty years old,
a retired military, and handsome. He
should be wise and has a good image
among ordinary people.
I believe you’ll agree that the
only person who meets those
qualifications is SBY. So, there is no
reason not to elect SBY as our
president; only the fool will choose
other candidates.
Teks di sebelah kiri dianggap analytical exposition karena yang nampak
hanya pandangan penulis
bahwa bahasa Inggris itu merupakan bahasa paling penting di dunia dan
alasan yang melatar
belakanginya serta dampak dari fakta tersebut.
Teks di sebelah kanan dianggap hortatory exposition karena selain
pandangan penulis akan figur
presiden, juga nampak ajakan/bujukan penulis pada pembaca untuk memilih
figur presiden
seperti yang dikemukakannya.
Berikut contoh-contoh teks analytical exposition:
In Australia there are three levels of government, the federal
government, state
government and local government. All of these levels of government
are necessary.
This is so for a number of reasons.
First, the federal government is necessary for the big things. They
keep the
economy in order and look after things like defense. Similarly, the
state governments
look after the middle-sized things. For example they look after law
and order,
preventing things like vandalism in schools. Finally, local
governments look after the
small things. They look after things like collecting rubbish, otherwise
everyone would
have diseases.
Thus, for the reasons above we can conclude that the three levels of
government
are necessary.
Tomatoes are full of nutrients and are an especially good source of
antioxidant vitamins. In fact, one serving of tomato will give you 40%
of
your recommendation daily allowance of vitamin C. Diets rich in fruit
and
vegetables are associated with lower risks of many diseases and a
diet
which includes high intake of tomatoes has been shown to protect
against
prostate cancer. Tomatoes are by far the richest source of lycopene,
a
powerful antioxidant, which gives tomato its red colour. No other food
contains this high level of antioxidant. Lycopene is highest in
processed
tomato foods, such as tomato puree, because they are concentrated.
While fats have lately acquired a bad image, one should not forget
how essential
they are. Fats provide the body’s best means of storing energy, a far
more
efficient energy source than either carbohydrates or proteins. They
act as
insulation against cold, or cushioning for the internal organs, and as
lubricants.
Without fats, energy would have no way to utilize fat-soluble vitamins.
Furthermore, some fats contain fatty acids that contain necessary
growth factors
and help with the digestion of other foods.

Berikut contoh-contoh teks hortatory exposition:


Heart disease is Western society's number-one killer. It accounts
for
one-third of all deaths in America and for well over half the
deaths among
middle-aged men. Heart disease was relatively rare in America at
the turn of
the century, but it has risen dramatically since then, with a slight
downturn in
1960.
Heart disease is often viewed as a disease of modern living,
spurred on by
the habits and the stress of industrialized society. Evidence for
this idea
comes from the fact that non-Western societies have relatively
low rates of
heart disease. And there is a higher rate of heart disease among
immigrants to
America, such as Japanese Americans and Chinese—Americans,
than among
those who remain in their native country, suggesting that
something about the
Western environment promotes the development of the disease.
Heart disease usually involves the formation of a fatty substance
called
plague in the walls of the coronary arteries that supply blood to
the heart. If
the arteries become narrowed enough or blocked, the person may
suffer a
heart attack, that is death of a region of heart muscle tissue.
Among the many factors that have been found to be related to
the risk of
developing heart disease are high blood pressure, a history of
heart disease
among one's close relatives, cigarette smoking, being relatively
overweight, and
a high level of a fatty substance called cholesterol in the blood.
In addition to
all of these well-established risk factors, it is now clear that
stress can have a
major impact on the development of heart disease. People who
continually
undergo a great deal of stress—and who lack the ability to
control it—are at a
significantly greater risk for disease than people who undergo
less stress or
who can manage stress successfully. Jobs that impose high
psychological
demands but they provide the worker with the little control—
such as a cook,
waiter, and hospital orderly—seem to be heart disease

If students are to succeed in tomorrow's world, their


education must encourage them to have
the desire to keep learning throughout their lives. For at
least a decade now, experts have
been telling us that to prosper in the future, countries need
to make much better use of their
human resources. This means not allowing people to stop
learning at age 10 or 20 or 30. It
means pushing skill-growth rates up rather than allowing
children and adults to lose interest
in learning. Although following this advice is not easy, we
should keep the following in mind; If
we do not go this route, vast numbers of people in the world
may do poorly in a global
market, while a few people do exceptionally well. As a result,
the gap between the rich and
the poor will grow and grow ⎯ until something explodes.

Country Concern
In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol
(and the
atmosphere) there doesn’t seem to have been any mention
of the difference
between driving in the city and the country.
While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air
wherever I drive, I
feel that when you travel through the county, where you only
see another car
very five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as
when traffic is
concentrated on city roads.
Those who want to penalize older, leaded petrol vehicles and
their owners
don’t seem to appreciate that, in the country, there is no
public transport to fall
back upon and one’s own vehicle is the only way to get
about.
I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge
distances to the nearest
town and who already spend a great deal of money on
petrol, should be treated
differently to the people who live in the city.
To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school, a number of dust
bins
should be increased.
When we look at classrooms, school corridors and school yard, there
are
papers, mineral water cups, straws, and napkins here and there. The
condition of
uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching
environment.
Litters thrown carelessly cause disease, especially empty plastic cups
or glasses.
They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. This can be
placed for
dengue mosquitoes to spread out. Besides, these rubbish can
deteriorate the
scene. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything
if litters are
scattered everywhere.
Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have
responsibilities for their school environment. They put their litters on
the proper
places. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. The
numbers of
dust bins in our schools are not enough. More dust bins should be put
beside
each of steps, outside of the classrooms, and some more along the
corridors.
Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. So when
students want to
throw away their litters, they can find the dust bins easily.
When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins, we do not have
problems of filth and discomfort any more. Our school will be very
clean and
become a nice place to study.

Teks discussion bertujuan untuk


menyodorkan dua atau lebih pendapat/ide/pandangan/argumen
akan suatu perkara/topik/permasalahan/fenomena. Lazimnya teks discussion
menyuguhkan dua
atau lebih perspektif yang berbeda akan suatu persoalan. Diantara ciri teks
discussion adalah
dipergunakannya conjunctions: on the other hand, however, but, yet, while,
meanwhile, dan
nevertheless.
Teks discussion umumnya memiliki struktur:
- issue, topik yang menjadi perhatian.
- argument, terdiri pro and kontra.
* pendapat pertama diikuti elaborasi (uraian)
* pendapat yang berseberangan dengan yang pertama diikuti elaborasi.
- conclusion atau recommendation, simpulan atau saran.
Teks discussion sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain:
- general noun misalnya pollution, car, dsb.
- abstract noun misalnya policy, government, dsb.
- modals misalnya must, should, should have been, perhaps,dll.
- bahasa evaluatif, misalnya necessary, important, significant, valuable.
- contrastive conjnction, misalnya on the other hand, however, but, yet,
while, meanwhile,
nevertheless, dan similarly.
- Adverbials of manner, misalnya hopefully, deliberately, dl.
- thinking verb, misalnya I believe, I think

Discussion
Contoh:

Continued progress in advanced technology is not


necessary. Already the
technical progress in our world has caused severe pollution
in the air and in the
water. Although the technical progress in previous years has
been helpful, recent
technology has significantly increased pollution. Another
reason to stop technical
progress is that many inventions which were developed for
good causes are now
also used for powerful weapons or have been found to have
serious side effects.
For example, pesticide put inside particle boards to prevent
termites has now been
found to be toxic to human life. Technology does not always
bring good effects;
for example, computers do much work faster than man, but
then man loses his
job to a machine. Because no man can guarantee that
technology will have only
good effects and will be used only for the benefit of man, we
should delay the
continued development of technology.
Otong Setiawan Djuharie Genre
Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya 28
The study of genetic is today so far advances that we shall
soon be
able to produce a kind of genetically perfect ‘superman’,
using technique
known as ‘genetic engineering’. At first this may seem an
attractive
possibility, but when we consider it in detail, we find there
are many
problems involved.
A distinction is usually made between ‘negative’ and
‘positive’
genetic engineering. In negative engineering we try to
eliminate harmful
genes to produce genetically normal people. The aim is of
course a
desirable one; however, it does pose the problem of what a
harmful gene
is. Genes are not really either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. The gene
which causes
certain forms of anemia, for example, can also protect
against malaria. If
we eliminate this gene, we may get rid of anemia, but we
increase the risk
of malaria.
In positive genetic engineering we try to create better
people by
developing the so-called ‘good’ genes. But although this
form of genetic
engineering will give us a greater control over mankind’s
future, there are
several reason for caution. First, there is no possibility of
mistakes. While
accepting that geneticists are responsible people, we must
also admit that
things can go wrong, the result being the kind of monster we
read about in
horror stories. Secondly, there is the problem of deciding
what make a
‘better’ person. We may feel, for example, that if genetic
engineering can
create more intelligent people then this is a good thing On
the other
Technology brings problems as well as benefits to
humankind. Since Henry
Ford began mass-producing them in 1908, automobiles have
provided us with a
cheap and convenient means of transportation. However,
they also brought us
traffic jams and air pollution. A technological development
that is changing our lives
as much as the automobiles is the personal computer. Since
the 1980s, personal
computers have become common in homes, schools, and
businesses, and just as
automobiles have brought unexpected problems, so have
personal computers.
Gene Splicing
Genetic research has produced both exciting and frightening
possibilities.
Scientists are now able to create new forms of life in the
laboratory due to the
development of gene splicing.
On the one hand, the ability to create life in the laboratory
could greatly benefit
mankind.
For example, because it is very expensive to obtain insulin
from natural
sources, scientists have developed a method to manufacture
it inexpensively in the
To begin with, communication by computer has caused some
problems.
Although we can easily send a message to hundreds of
people in an instant, we
can also receive hundreds of message, both wanted and
unwanted, in just a few
minutes. It took several hours to read all of them. The lack of
censorship in
cyberspace is another problem that no one has solved yet.
Our expanded ability to
communicate means that anyone with a computer can
communicate anything to
anyone on any subject at any time. Therefore, a computer-
literate child can receive
pornographic photos and listen to chat-room conversations
about sex.
In addition to problems in communication, computers have
also caused
problems in business. They have created excellent
opportunities for computerized
crime. Computer criminals use their skills to obtain secret
business information and
to steal money. Moreover, the use of computers has
depersonalised business.
People are no longer customers: they are account numbers.
Face-to-face business
transactions are no longer necessary, you can buy almost
anything you need by
computer, phone, or fax. Also, as telecommunicating
becomes more common,
workers in the same company interact with each other less
and less. Someday it
may be possible to have a company of people who have
never met face-to-face.
It is clear that personal computers have made our lives
easier, but they have done
so at a cost. As with every new invention, there have
unforeseen consequences. It
is up to us to find the solutions to the problems as well as to
enjoy the
conveniences of the new tool.

Discussion Vs
Exposition
Dalam beberapa sudut, teks discussion memiliki banyak kemiripan dengan
exposition; keduanya
menyodorkan opini, pendapat, pandangan, dan argumentasi akan suatu hal.
Akantetapi, teks
exposition hanya menyodorkan satu sudut pandang; di lain pihak, teks
discussion
mengkontraskan dan mempersandingkan dua sudut pandang akan suatu
persoalan.
Another beneficial application of gene splicing is in
agriculture.
Scientists foresee the day when new plants will be
developed using nitrogen
from the air instead of from fertilizer. Therefore food
production could be increased.
In addition, entirely new plants could be developed to feed
the world’s hungry people.
Not everyone is excited about gene splicing, however. Some
people feel that it
could have terrible consequences.
A laboratory accident, for example, might cause an epidemic
of an unknown
disease that could wipe out humanity.
As a result of this controversy, the government has made
rules to control genetic
experiments. While some members of the scientific
community feel that these rules
Conflict within an organization is
not always viewed as undesir-able. In
fact, various managers have divergent
ideas on the value that conflict can
have.
According to the traditional view
of conflict, conflict is harmful to an
organization. Managers with this
traditional view of conflict see it as
their role in an organi-zation to rid
the organization of any possible
source of conflict.
The interactionist view of conflict,
on the other hand, holds that conflict
can serve an important function in an
organization by reducing complacency
among workers and causing
positive changes to occur. Managers
who hold an interactionist view of
conflict may actually take steps to
stimulate confllict within the
organization.
Cars should be banned in the city.
As we know cars create pollution and
cause a lot of deaths and other
accidents.
Firstly, cars, as we all know,
contribute a lot of the pollution in the
world.
Cars emit a deadly gas that causes
illness as bronchitis, lung cancer, and
triggers asthma. Some of these
illnesses are so dangerous that people
can die from them.
Secondly, the city is very busy.
People wander everywhere and cars
commingle with pedestrians in the city,
which cause the accidents. Cars today
are our roads biggest killer agents.
Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you
live in city you may find it hard to sleep
at night and concentrate on your
homework, and talk to someone.
In conclusion, cars should be
banned in the city for the reasons
listed.

Penjelasan:
- Teks di sebelah kiri dianggap exposition karena hanya menunjukkan satu
sudut
pandang, yakni ketidaksetujuan akan bertambahnya jumlah mobil.
- Teks di sebalah kanan dianggap discussion karena memperlihatkan dua
sudut pandang
akan konflik, yakni sudut pandang kelompok tradisional dan kelompok
interaksionis—
yang keduanya berkontradiksi.
Procedure

Teks procedure bertujuan untuk memberi petunjuk tentang langkah-


langkah/metode/cara-cara
melakukan sesuatu. Teks procedure umumnya berisi tips atau serangkaian
tindakan atau langkah
dalam membuatu suatu barang atau melakukan suatu aktifitas. Teks
procedure dikenal juga
dengan istilah directory.
Teks procedure umumnya memiliki struktur:
- goal, tujuan kegiatan.
- materials, bahan-bahan yang dibutuhkan untuk membuat suatu
barang/melakukan suatu
aktifitas, sifatnya opsional.
- steps, serangkaian langkah.
Teks procedure sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain:
- imperative, kalimat-kalimat perintah, misalnya go, sit, don’t put, don’t mix,
dsb.
- action verb, kata kerja yang berhubungan dengn aktifitas fisik atau
intelektual, misalnya mix,
turn, don’t, put, dsb.
- connective of sequence, misalnya then, while, next,dll.
- numbering, nagka-angka yang menynjukkan urutan kegiatan, misalnya
first, second, third,
dst.

Contoh:
How to Make a Cheese Omelet
Ingredients: 1 egg, 50 g cheese, cup milk, 3 tablespoons cooking oil,
a
pinch of salt and pepper.
Utensils: Frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl, plate.
Method:
1. Crack an egg into a bowl
2. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth
3. Add milk and whisk well.
4. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir
5. Heat the oil in a frying pan
6. Pour the mixture in a frying pan
7. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns.
8. Cook both sides.
9. Place on a plate; season with salt and pepper.
10. Eat while warm.