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Urban Analysis & Planning Studio 2056ENV.

Griffith University,
Nathan, School Of Environment. Melita Brown S2897363;
Cavannah Deller S2861296; Nathan Griffey S2794757; Kori
Humphreys S2843730; Olivia Short - S2820287

In keeping with Griffith Universitys


commitment to reconciliation and
social justice we acknowledge the
Turrubul People as the Traditional
Owners of the area in which we
studied, and recognise that this land
has always been under their
custodianship.
We pay our respects to Elders past
and present as well as emerging
community leaders. Whilst
acknowledging the important role
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
people have and continue to play
within the Griffith community.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents ..........................................................................3
Table of Figures, Tables & Maps: ...................................................4
Executive Summary .......................................................................5
1.0

Introduction .......................................................................6

2.0

Methodology .....................................................................7

3.0

Site Overview.....................................................................8

3.1
Demographics ....................................................................... 8
3.2
History .................................................................................. 9
3.3
Planning Context ................................................................. 10
3.4
Historical Comparison ......................................................... 11
3.4.1
Green Space & Recreation ................................................11
3.4.2 Transport Infrastructure ......................................................... 12
3.4.3
Industrial............................................................................12
3.4.4
River Usage ........................................................................13
3.4.5
Residential .........................................................................13
3.4.6
Urban Renewal & Mixed Use ............................................14

Part One - Photographic Essay .......................................... 16


4.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 16
4.2 Green Space & Recreation ......................................................... 17
4.3 Transport .................................................................................. 18
4.4 Heritage ............................................................................ 19
4.5 Urban Renewal & Mixed Use ..................................................... 20
4.6 Conclusion................................................................................. 21

Part Two - Behaviour Analysis .......................................... 22

5.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 22


5.2 Teneriffe Ferry........................................................................... 23
5.2.1. Weekday Morning .............................................................................23
5.2.2 Weekday Day ......................................................................................23
5.2.3 Weekday Night ...................................................................................23
5.2.4 Weekend Morning ..............................................................................23
5.2.5 Weekend Day .....................................................................................23
5.2.6 Weekend Night ...................................................................................23
....................................................................................................... 25
5.3 Gasworks Plaza.......................................................................... 26
5.3.1 Weekday Morning ..............................................................................26
5.3.2 Weekday Day ......................................................................................26
5.3.3 Weekday Night ...................................................................................26
5.3.4 Weekend Morning ..............................................................................26
5.3.5 Weekend Day .....................................................................................26
5.3.6 Weekend Night ...................................................................................26
5.4 Stratton Street Precinct ............................................................. 29
5.4.1 Weekday Morning ..............................................................................29
5.4.2 Weekday Day ......................................................................................29
5.4.3 Weekday Night ...................................................................................29
5.4.4Weekend Morning ...............................................................................29
5.4.5Weekend Day ......................................................................................29
5.4.6 Weekend Night ...................................................................................29
5.5 Chester Street Precinct .............................................................. 32

5.5.1 Weekday Morning .............................................................................. 32


5.5.2 Weekday Day ..................................................................................... 32
5.5.3 Weekday Night ................................................................................... 32
5.5.4 Weekend Morning ............................................................................. 32
5.5.5. Weekend Day .................................................................................... 32
5.5.6 Weekend Night .................................................................................. 32
5.6 Florence Street Precinct ............................................................. 35
5.6.1 Weekday Morning .............................................................................. 35
5.6.2 Weekday Day ..................................................................................... 35
5.6.3 Weekday Night ................................................................................... 35
5.6.4 Weekend Morning ............................................................................. 35
5.6.5 Weekend Day ..................................................................................... 35
5.6.6 Weekend Night .................................................................................. 35

6.0 Part Three - Spatial Analysis .................................................. 38


6.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 38
6.2 Public Facilities & Relationship to Main Roads ............................ 38
39
6.2.1 Transport and Access ......................................................................... 39
6.2.2 Dining and Entertainment .................................................................. 40
6.2.3 Public Services .................................................................................... 40
6.2.4 Health Care Facilities .......................................................................... 40
6.2.5 Places of Worship ............................................................................... 40
6.2.6 Sport and Recreation ......................................................................... 40
6.2.7 Retail
40
6.3 Relationship Between Facilities, Main Roads and the Urban
Structure ......................................................................................... 41
6.4 Influences of Urban Structure..................................................... 41
6.4.1 Zoning
41
6.4.2 Influence of Social Media ................................................................... 42
6.5 Conclusion ................................................................................. 42

7.0 Part Four - Environmental Quality Audit ................................ 43


7.1 Introduction ...................................................................... 43
7.2 Appearance ............................................................................... 43
7.3 Amenity..................................................................................... 44
7.4 Access ....................................................................................... 45
7.5 Provision ................................................................................... 45
7.6 Flooding .................................................................................... 46
7.7 Conclusion ................................................................................. 48

8.0 Limitations ............................................................................ 49


8.1 Photographic Essay .................................................................... 49
8.2 Behavioural Analysis .................................................................. 49
8.3 Spatial Analysis .......................................................................... 49
8.4 Environmental Quality Audit ...................................................... 49

9.0 Concluding Comments .......................................................... 50


References ................................................................................. 51
Additional Reading ..................................................................... 52
Appendix A Site Visit Notes and Corresponding Maps............... 53
Appendix B Site Visit Schedule ................................................. 58
Appendix C Knoxs 1976 Index Schedule for the Assessment of
Environmental Quality ................................................................ 58

Appendix D Knoxs 1976 Index, tailored to Newstead ............... 60


Appendix E Environmental Quality Audit Scores - Newstead ..... 61

Table of Figures, Tables & Maps:


Figure 1: Newstead greeting sign, Humphreys (2015). ....... 5
Figure 2: Methodology Matrix .......................................... 7
Figure 3: Family Composition Of Newstead (ABS, 2011). .... 8
Figure 4: Greater Brisbane Family Composition (ABS,
2011). .............................................................................. 8
Figure 5: Housing Composition of Newstead (ABS, 2011) ... 8
Figure 6: Greater Brisbane Housing Composition (ABS,
2011) ............................................................................... 8
Figure 7: Cost of Living for Newstead and Greater Brisbane
(ABS, 2011) ...................................................................... 8
Figure 8: Newstead and Greater Brisbane Rental Status
(ABS, 2011) ...................................................................... 8
Figure 9: Newstead and Greater Brisbane Home Ownership
Status (ABS, 2011) ............................................................ 8
Figure 10: Waterloo Hotel After a Major Flood (Waterloo
Hotel, 2015) ..................................................................... 9
Figure 11: Boral Gasworks Facility (King, 2015) ................. 9
Figure 12: Newstead Wharves in 1923 (BCC, 2015) ............ 9
Figure 13: Historical Comparison; Newstead from
Coronation Drive: Photo 1, 1961 (nla catalogue; #4590773)
and Photo 2, 2015 (Humphreys, 2015) ............................ 11
Figure 14: Historical Comparison photo; Breakfast Creek
Bridge: Photo 1, 1958 (State Library of Queensland and
John Oxley Library, Catalogue #115106) and Photo 2, 2015
(Griffey, 2015) ............................................................... 12
Figure 15: Historical Comparison; Byres street: Photo 1,
1969 (BCC taken from Trove) and Photo 2, 2015 (Griffey,
2015) ............................................................................. 13
Figure 16: Historical Comparison; Newstead from Newstead
Park: Photo 1, 1969 (Queensland State Archives) and photo
2, 2015 (Short, 2015)...................................................... 13
Figure 17: Historical Comparison; Roseville House: Photo 1
(Homes with History, 2015) and Photo 2, 2015 (Humphreys,
2015) ............................................................................. 14
Figure 18: Woolstores at Southern end of Maquarie Street.
Photo 1 (QLDPics, 1928) Photo 2 (Humpreys, 2015) ......... 14
Figure 19: Historical Comparison, Gasworks. Photo 1 ( King,
2015), Photo 2 (Humphreys, 2015) .................................. 15
Figure 20: Photo Essay Matrix ......................................... 16
Figure 21: Newstead Park (Humphreys, 2015) ................. 17
Figure 22: Tenneriffe Park (Humphreys, 2015) ................. 17
Figure 23: Vernon Terrace (Short, 2015) .......................... 18
Figure 24: Commercial Road Bus Stop (Humphreys, 2015) 18
Figure 25: Teneriffe Ferry Terminal (Humphreys, 2015) ... 18
Figure 26: Transportation Modes Along Vernon Terrace
(Humohreys, 2015) ......................................................... 19
Figure 27: Newstead House (Humphreys, 2015) ............... 19
Figure 28: Macquarie Street Woolstores (Deller, 201 5) .... 20

Figure 29: Main Corridor, Gasworks Plaza (Deller, 2015) .. 20


Figure 30: Dining facilities, Macquarie Street Woolstroes
(Deller, 2015) ................................................................. 20
Figure 31: Gasworks Retail and entertainment precinct
(AVEO, 2015 ................................................................... 21
Figure 32: Construction on Cunningham Street, Newstead
(Griffey, 2015) ................................................................ 21
Figure 33: Teneriffe Ferry Terminal (Humphreys, 2015) ... 23
Figure 34: Teneriffe Ferry Activity Timeline ..................... 23
Figure 35: Gasworks Plaza Activity Timeline .................... 26
Figure 36: Photo 1; Garden Seating in Gasworks Plaza:
Photo 2; Public Space Seating: Photo 3; Night View of the
Main Path in Gasworks Plaza ........................................... 26
Figure 37: Photo 1; Enclosed Pathway in Stratton Street:
Photo 2; Street Lighting in Stratton Street ....................... 29
Figure 38: Stratton Street Activity Timeline ..................... 29
Figure 39: Chester Street Activity Timeline ...................... 32
Figure 40: Florence Street Activity Timeline .................... 35
Figure 41: Graph describing the Average Distance From the
Closest Main Road for Each Use Category ........................ 39
Map 1: Newstead Location Map, (Brown, 2015; Google,
2015; Brown, 2015). ......................................................... 6
Map 2: Newstead Zoning Map (BCC, 2014; Short, 2015) ... 10
Map 3: Photo Location Map: Historical Comparison (Google,
2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ...................................... 11
Map 4: Photo Location Map: Green space and Recreation
Historical Comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015, Brown,
2015) ............................................................................. 11
Map 5: Photo Location Map: Transport Historical
Comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ...... 12
Map 6: Photo Location Map: Industrial Historical
Comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015, Brown, 2015) ...... 12
Map 7: Photo Location Map: River Usage Historical
comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ...... 13
Map 8: Photo Location Map: Residential Historical
Comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ...... 14
Map 9: Photo Location Map: Urban Renewal and Mixed Use
Historical Comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown,
2015) ............................................................................. 14
Map 10: Photo Location Map: Photo Essay (Google, 2015;
ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ................................................ 16
Map 11: Photo Location Map: Green space and Recreation
(Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015) .............................................. 17
Map 12: Photo Location Map: Transport (Google, 2015;
ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ................................................ 18
Map 13: Photo Location Map: Heritage (Google, 2015; ESRI,
2015; Brown, 2015) ........................................................ 19
Map 14: Photo Location Map: Urban Renewal and Mixed
Use (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015, Brown, 2015) .................. 20

Map 15: Behaviour Analysis Location Map (Google, 2015;


ESRI, 2015; Brown 2015) ................................................. 22
Map 16: Teneriffe Ferry Terminal; Weekday Behaviour
Analysis (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ............ 24
Map 17: Teneriffe Ferry Terminal: Weekend Behaviour
Analysis (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown 2015) ............. 25
Map 18: Gasworks Plaza: Weekday Behaviour Analysis
(Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ......................... 27
Map 19: Gasworks Plaza: Weekend Behaviour Analysis
(Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ......................... 28
Map 20: Stratton Street: Weekday Behaviour Analysis
(Google, 2015;ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) .......................... 30
Map 21: Gasworks Plaza: Weekend Behaviour Analysis
(Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ......................... 31
Map 22: Chester Street: Weekday Behaviour Analysis
(Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ......................... 33
Map 23: Chester Street: Weekend Behaviour Analysis
(Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ......................... 34
Map 24: Florence Street: Weekday Behaviour Analysis
(Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ......................... 36
Map 25: Florence Street: Weekend Behaviour Analysis
(Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015) ......................... 37
Map 26: Spatial Analysis Base Map (Google, 2015; Short
2015) ............................................................................. 38
Map 27: Public Transport Exclusion Zones (google, 2015;
Brown, 2015) .................................................................. 40
Map 28: Relationship With Main Road (google, 2015; Short,
2015) ............................................................................. 41
Map 29: Town Centre Map (Google, 2015; Short, 2015) .... 42
Map 30: Appearance Audit Points and Cross S ections
(google, 2015; Brown, 2015) ........................................... 43
Map 3231: Amenity Audit Points and Cross Section (Google,
2015; Brown, 2015) ........................................................ 44
Map 32: Development Code Zones (BCC, 2014) ................ 44
Map 33: Access Audit Points and Cross Section (Google,
2015; Brown, 2015) ........................................................ 45
Map 34: Provision Audit Points and Cross Section (Google,
2015; Brown, 2015) ........................................................ 46
Map 35: Brisbane River Flooding Map (BCC, 2014; Brown,
2015) ............................................................................. 47
Map 36: Review of Theme Scores (BCC, 2014; Brown,
2015) ............................................................................. 48
Table 1: Spatial Distribution of Main Roads Against
Individual Features of Newstead ..................................... 39
Table 2: Zoning Distribution and Purpose ........................ 41
Table 3: Flooding Environmental Audit scores .................. 47
Table 4: Flooding Environmental Audit Index Section ....... 47

Executive Summary
Understanding the complex nature of the urban environment is vitally important to planners. By examining
the features of the urban form and the prominent socio-economic characteristics of an area, accurate
decisions can be made as the the future of the area. This investigation was undertaken to gain an in-depth
understanding of a suburb within Brisbane.
Newstead was selected as the study area for this investigation. This decision was made due to recent
growth, which has seen the suburb go from an industrial area to a prominent urban centre within Brisbane.
Over the past 20 years housing prices and population have rapidly increased, leading to a higher socioeconomic class, majority of which are couples without children. Field analysis techniques were employed to
grasp an understanding of the dynamics within Newstead and determine how planners might effectively
allocate resources to provide for the expected future growth of the area.
The first stage in the analysis of Newstead was a Photographic Essay. Multiple field visits were conducted to
determine the main characteristics and main themes of the area. Five significant themes were established
to be of importance to the area. These themes are; transport, residential, industrial, urban renewal and
mixed use, and green space. Historical photographs of Newstead were compared to current photographs of
the same areas in order to understand the changing land use of the suburb.
The initial field visits highlighted the most active areas, which were investigated for the second stage of the
fieldwork process a Behavioural Setting Analysis. Five locations throughout Newstead were observed to
provide insight as to how the areas are used by residents and visitors. The five locations investigated were;
Gasworks Plaza, the Teneriffe Ferry Terminal, the Chester Street precinct, Florence Street and Stratton
Street. These areas were investigated at three different times during the weekday and weekend, and the
flow of people through these locations was determined. The investigation found Gasworks Plaza is busy at

all hours of the day on weekdays and over the weekend, whilst other areas such as Teneriffe Ferry Terminal
and Chester Street are only busy at certain times during the day.
The Spatial Analysis was the third stage of the field investigation into Newstead. This analysis established
three town centres in the area Gasworks Plaza and Commercial Road and Florence Street. These areas are
surrounded by a large amount of facilities, which correlated with the Behavioural Analysis. The facilities
located in Newstead include public transport, dining and entertainment, health care facilities, public
services, places of worship, sport and recreation and retail.
The final layer of analysis was the Environmental Quality Audit. Twelve sample points were audited against
Knoxs 1976 Index Schedule for the Assessment of Environmental Quality in order to determine the overall
environmental quality of Newstead. Knoxs Index includes elements such as appearance, access, amenity
and provision, which was then tailored to include flooding and a provision for commercial areas. The points
were selected using the Brisbane City Plan 2014 Zoning Map, and evenly spread through the zones.
Through these investigative techniques, a complete understanding of Newstead was developed. The
investigation has highlighted the way in which people interact with places and the influence that planning
has over these behaviours and the environment of an area.

Figure 1: Newstead greeting sign, Humphreys (2015).

1.0 Introduction
Fieldwork is an integral part in urban and environmental planning, as it is
important to obtain an understanding of an area before undertaking any
development. This report details the findings and methodology of an urban
analysis undertaken in the Queensland suburb of Newstead. Newstead is an
inner-city suburb located approximately two kilometers from Brisbanes CBD
(Map 1). This report has been split into four sections and aims to develop an
understanding of the historic and current land uses of Newstead, the
behavioural patterns of visitors to the area, the relationship between main roads
and the facilities and the environmental quality of Newstead.
Part one is a Photographic Essay which will familiarize the reader with the area,
and introduce the five themes which will be focused on. These themes are;
transport, residential, industrial, urban renewal and green space. Part one will
also include historical photos comparing the suburb against now and then.
Part two comprises of a Behaviour Setting Analysis, a technique used to examine
the way in which urban environments affect peoples behaviour. Five Behaviour
Settings were chosen and studied Teneriffe Ferry Terminal, Florence Street,
Chester Street, Stratton Street, and Gasworks Plaza.
Part three is a Spatial Analysis, which is a set of analytical techniques used to
examine the relationship between objects in space. This report focuses on the
spatial pattern of facilities within Newstead.
The final layer of analysis is an Environmental Quality Audit of Newstead. Twelve
sample points within the suburb were selected and assessed against Knoxs 1976
Index Schedule for the Assessment of Environmental Quality, in order to
determine the overall quality of the environment in Newstead.
This report is intended to enhance the understanding of Newstead, and build a
true representation of the suburb. The report and studies were prepared and
conducted under the guidance of the course convener and tutors.
Map 1: Newstead Location Map, (Brown, 2015; Google, 2015; Brown, 2015).

2.0 Methodology
In order to gain a preliminary understanding of Newstead, desktop research was undertaken, which established the background of the area and provided
context for the analysis. Information was gathered from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Brisbane City Plan 2014, as well as historical sources.
These resources enabled the characteristics of the suburbs to be understood, and illustrated the key elements which influence the urban environment and
its relationship to the local residents.
The first phase of the fieldwork, Photographic Essay, highlights the groups initial understanding of Newstead. The photographs used represent the
authenticity of the urban environment and produced five main themes of Newstead green space and recreation, transport, heritage, and urban renewal
and mixed use. The photographs were analysed and used in conjunction with historical photographs to showcase the changing land use of the suburb
throughout history.
The Behaviour Setting is the second step in the analysis process. Behaviour Setting is a technique which examines and explains the link between the urban
environment and social behaviours. Five study sites were selected and studied at various times throughout the weekdays and weekends. An extra site was
selected on the basis of a spare however after considering the first few visits, it was determined that this site was no longer needed. The behaviours
identified were analysed, which highlighted how people interact with urban environment and the influence which planning has over these behaviours.
The third step in the analysis of Newstead was a Spatial Analysis. Spatial Analysis is a tool which examines the relationship between objects and space. The
first stage of the Spatial Analysis was undertaken using Google Earth, and measuring the distance of the facilities listed to the nearest main road. As Google
Earth is outdated, the analysis was then completed manually and extra facilities were added. This enabled the relationship of facilities to the main road to
be established, and therefore the urban structure of Newstead.
The final step in the analysis of Newstead is the Environmental Quality Audit. This was undertaken using Knoxs 1967 Index Schedule for the Assessment
of Environmental Quality, which was tailored to suit Newstead, as the original did not cover all aspects of the suburb and some aspects were found to be
irrelevant. Knoxs (1976) Index was used to assess twelve audit points within Newstead, in order to determine the overall environmental quality of
Newstead. The environmental quality was then linked to the quality of life of residents in Newstead.
Throughout the analysis of Newstead, desktop research was heavily relied on for theoretical frameworks and to understand the process at play.

Figure 2: Methodology Matrix

3.0 Site Overview


Newstead is a popular suburb located within ten minutes drive from the Central Business District (CBD) of
Brisbane. The site overview includes a range of demographics that represent the characteristics of the
suburb. A brief history of the suburb, comments on the planning context of the suburb and historical
comparisons of the area have been provided to illustrate this context. The historical comparison includes
transport infrastructure, industrial areas, green space and recreation, urban renewal and mixed use areas,
river usage and residential styles which have prevailed through the decades.

3.1 Demographics

The socio-economic differences between Greater Brisbane and Newstead (Figure 7) include the median
weekly income per household is higher in Newstead, as is the median weekly rent and median monthly
repayments (ABS, 2011a). An article published by the Commonwealth Bank suggests that Newstead is a high
end property hot spot, evident in the median weekly rent when compared to Greater Brisbane (Double,
2014). The high socio-economic status and low median age of Newstead may also contribute to the high
percentage of renters when compared to Greater Brisbane (Figures 8 and 9). The status of the area can also
be linked to the professions of Newsteads residents 100% of the residents are employed in administration,
professional or managerial roles, compared to Greater Brisbane, where 26% of the population do a trade
(ABS, 2011a).

The suburb of Newstead has a population of 5,537 as at the 2011 Census, with a median age of 34 (ABS,
2011a). The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) paints an interesting picture of Newstead when compared
to Greater Brisbane. The family composition in Newstead and Greater Brisbane (Figures 3 and 4), according
to the ABS, 70% of Newstead is comprised of couples without children, compared to 37% of Greater Brisbane
(ABS, 2011a). Similarly, 20% of Newstead is couples with children, compared to 45% in Greater Brisbane.
This may be explained by the lack of schools within Newstead, and the closest school is more than a
kilometer away from the central hub of Newstead.

Figure 7: Cost of Living for Newstead and Greater Brisbane (ABS, 2011)

Figure 3: Family Composition Of Newstead (ABS, 2011a).

Figure 4: Greater Brisbane Family Composition (ABS,


2011a).

The housing composition within Newstead is also dramatically different to that of Greater Brisbane, as
demonstrated (Figures 5 and 6). In Newstead, 88% of the population live in flats, units or apartments
compared to 12% of Greater Brisbane (ABS, 2011a). It is easy to make a connection to the apartment living
lifestyle in Newstead and the family composition.

Figure 8: Newstead and Greater Brisbane Rental Status (ABS, 2011)

Figure 5: Housing Composition of Newstead (ABS, 2011a) Figure 6: Greater Brisbane Housing Composition (ABS, 2011a)

Figure 9: Newstead and Greater Brisbane Home Ownership Status (ABS, 2011)

3.2 History
Booroodabin, the traditional name for the Newstead area, was once a large Ti Tree swamp and a favourite
hunting ground of the Turrubal people (Hacker, 2009). Newstead Point was one of the first areas of Brisbane
settled by Europeans (Hacker, 2009). On 16th September, 1824 Captain John Oxley first camped on
Newstead Point, and had breakfast by the creek now known as Breakfast Creek (Hacker 2009). The area was
first mapped out by James Warner in 1839 and it was not until the 1850s that the area was settled and the
Ti Tree swamps were drained in the 1880s (New Farm & Districts Historical Society, 2013). The earliest
known form of public transport in the area was a horse bus which was taken to the northern side of
Breakfast Creek, which was crossed by boat and continued into the city by horse tram (Hacker, 2009). Steam
ferries were also a popular form of public transport, and the earliest recorded was the Balmoral in 1909,
which operated between Bulimba and Commercial Road, Newstead (Hacker, 2009). The construction of the
Breakfast Creek Bridge in 1887, allowed for easier access (Hacker 2009) and in approximately 1913, an
electric tram line was installed in the area, and houses were being built at the rate of 350 per year (Hacker,
2009). The area was considered one of the best places to live, due to its proximity to the city its public
transport.

Teneriffe Brewery, located on the corner of Macquarie, Florence and Wilson Streets. The site was purchased
in 1907 by Dalgety and Co., who built the first of the Newstead Wharves and the first Woolstore in the area
(New Farm & Districts Historical Society, 2013). The Booroodabin Bowls Club was formed in 1888, and is the
oldest bowls club in Queensland still in existence, and is still in its original location (ABC News, 2009).

Figure 10: Boral Gasworks Facility (King, 2015)

The river has always been an important part of the suburb (ABC, 2009). Norman R. Wright and Jack Whereat
began their boat building businesses along the river on Newstead Terrace in the early 1900s (Hacker, 2009).
The river and Breakfast Creek were home to a plethora of different types of boats, all for different uses.
There were many rowing clubs, yacht clubs and sailing squadrons in the area, and the river front was used
for the coal and wool industries (Hacker 2009). In 1923, the Newstead Wharves (Figure 12) ran from the
Teneriffe Ferry, Commercial Road to Methyr Road in New Farm (Hacker, 2009). The wharves were serviced
by rail, which closed in 1970. In 1988, the Newstead Wharves were redeveloped into the Boardwalk that is
still in use (Hacker, 2009).

Figure 12: Newstead Wharves in 1923 (BCC, 2015b)

World War II had a profound impact on the area, as many American servicemen were posted. At the time it
was feared Newstead was a major target for bombs, and many people left the area (New Farm & Districts
Historical Society, 2013). A memorial was established in 1951 to remember the American servicemen who
fought alongside the Australians (Newstead House, 2015).
Figure 11: Waterloo Hotel After a Major Flood (Spirit Hotel Group, 2013)

In the past, Newstead was, and continues to be, a mix of commercial, industrial, residential and recreational
uses. One of the oldest buildings in the area is the Waterloo Hotel (Figure 10), which opened for business in
1866 and is still open today (Spirit Hotel Group, 2013). One main industry was gas, for lighting and or
telephones and so the Newstead Gas Works (Figure 11) was commissioned in 1883 and by 1887 was the
main gas site in Brisbane (King, 2015). The plant continued to operate until 1967, when gas production was
ceased due to the production of Butane for electricity. The Gasometer still stands in Newstead and was
added to the heritage register in 2005 (Hacker, 2009). In 1882, the Queensland Brewing Co. established the

3.3 Planning Context


Newstead falls under two neighbourhood plans within the 2014 Brisbane City Plan. One reason for this may be that the area
described was chosen based on ABS data which does not recognise the new suburb of Teneriffe. These two plans are the New
Farm and Teneriffe Hill Neighbourhood Plan and the Newstead and Teneriffe Waterfront Plan. These Neighbourhood Plans
are both advancements on the South East Queensland Regional Plan 2009 (BCC, 2014). Within these plans the area falls under
multiple different zones (Map 2), which are:
Low medium density residential;
CR2 character;
Mixed use;
Sport and Recreation;
Special purpose;
Low impact industry;
Medium density residential;
District centre;
Open space local; and
Open space district (BCC, 2014).
The New Farm and Teneriffe Hill Neighbourhood Plan objectives (relative only to Newstead) are:
A mix of housing choices;
Safe, comfortable and convenient access is provided for pedestrians, cyclists and people with disabilities;
A range of public spaces, which are improved by pedestrian links and defined by development that maximizes casual
surveillance;
Mixed use development close to transport nodes; and
Parks are enhanced as important public space facilities (BCC, 2014).
A majority of the Newstead suburb falls under the Newstead and Teneriffe Waterfront Plan. The objectives of this plan are:
That the area continues its transition from a former industrial area to a compatible mix of residential, commercial,
industrial and recreational activities;
Existing public spaces are retained and new major public open space facilities are established;
Historical features are conserved and re-used;
Views to the City Centre from Kingsford Smith Drive are retained;
A range of housing types and sizes are provided to meet the diverse needs of the future population; and
Development that takes advantage of the CityGlider bus service and CityCat ferry terminal (BCC, 2014).
The Plan breaks Newstead into six sub-precincts; Heritage, Riverside, Riverpark, Newstead Terrace, Newstead North and
Major Parks. These areas each have different objectives relating to residential density, building heights, commercial uses and
public space (BCC, 2014). The objectives of the Newstead and Teneriffe Waterfront Plan can be seen in action throughout the
suburb. For example, the Woolstores and Gasometer have been conserved and repurposed as apartments and a retail and
dining precinct respectively.

Map 2: Newstead Zoning Map (BCC, 2014; Short, 2015)

10

3.4 Historical Comparison


This section will identify a number of places in the urban environment that have undergone significant
changes as the Newstead area has developed (Map 3).

Map 4: Photo Location Map: Green space and Recreation Historical Comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015, Brown,
2015)

Map 3: Photo Location Map: Historical Comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

3.4.1 Green Space & Recreation


The Northern end of the grounds of Newstead House (Map 4) has been depicted, approximately fifty years
apart (Figures 13). The house is heritage listed and is now used as a museum dedicated to Newstead (Hacker,
2009). The grounds around the house are now used as a recreation area for residents.
The monument seen was established in 1951 to remember the American people who fought with Australian
soldiers in WWII (New Farm & Districts Historical Society, 2013). The monument itself is one of the only
American war memorials to be established in Australia. The monument has remained unchanged for sixtyfour years whilst around it the suburb of Newstead was expanding. The addition of a gazebo and a second
memorial monument within the grounds of Newstead House were some of the smaller changes that were
made to the area.
However, the most obvious difference can be seen in the background of the photo. In the last fifty years
Newstead has undergone massive expansion and urban growth. The suburb of Newstead now includes a
mixture of modern apartment blocks and urban renewal projects. What was once an industrial suburb has
transformed into one of Brisbanes most expensive areas based on the everyday cost of living (ABS, 2011a).

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Figure 13: Historical Comparison; Newstead House from Coronation Drive: Photo 1: 1961 (NLA Catalog #4590773).
Photo 2: 2015 (Humphreys, 2015)

3.4.2 Transport Infrastructure


Breakfast Creek Bridge located between the suburbs of Newstead and Breakfast Creek (Map 5) is a
prominent change in history. A comparison between the new and old Breakfast creek bridge (Figure 14)
shows the original bridge in 1958 prior to its demolition later that same year (Hacker, 2009) and the current
Breakfast Creek Bridge as it stands.

The old bridge was erected in the 1800s and stood for almost 70 years (Hacker, 2009). In comparing the
two images one thing that stands out is the use of trams. The old bridge was frequently used by trams, in
comparison to the modern day usage of cars. This along with the general aesthetics of the bridge signify
the change in history.

3.4.3 Industrial
In history Byres Street, Newstead was a dominant industrial area (Map 6). The historical comparison of this
area could be seen as two separate locations (Figure 15). This is due to almost all of the buildings in the
photos being different and the only building that remains is the white coloured building to the right.
The area is zoned as low impact industry (Map 2) and by examining the area, it was found that there was a
mix of small shops, offices and warehouses. It is interesting to note that in the first photo to the right there
seems to be a residential dwelling. This obviously is not the case in the current photo and reflects changes
to the area and its planning.
Another interesting difference is the level of landscaping in front of the buildings to the left. There is well
kept grass and shrubs as well as tall palm trees. This is a great contrast to the previous building which looks
to have very un-kept grass in front and little thought put into its looks. This could be due to the vast number
of changes the suburb has encountered in recent decades.

Map 5: Photo Location Map: Transport Historical Comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

Map 6: Photo Location Map: Industrial Historical Comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015,
Brown, 2015)

Figure 14: Historical Comparison photo; Breakfast Creek Bridge; Photo 1: 1958 (State Library of Queensland and John
Oxley Library, Catalogue #115106). Photo 2: 2015 (Griffey, 2015)

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Figure 16: Historical Comparison; Newstead from Newstead Park; Photo 1: 1926 (Queensland State Archives, 1926).
Photo 2: 2015 (Short, 2015)

Figure 15: Historical Comparison; Byres street; Photo 1: 1969 (BCC, 1969). Photo 2: 2015 (Griffey, 2015)

3.4.4 River Usage


In current day there is a boardwalk that continues to the old Newstead Wharves, which is now the site of a
residential building (Figure 16). This area can be seen from the Newstead House Park and across the river in
Bulimba (Map 7). The large power pole to the left of the photo connects Newstead to Bulimba, on the other
side of the river. Along the river banks is all new residential buildings up until the site of Riverside Industrial
Sands. Beyond that the wool stores are visible and the boardwalk connecting Newstead to New Farm. The
cranes visible are used for a Mirvac Development Waterfront. As the name suggests, the development
will be along the river which will reduce the green space in Newstead.

There are a number of differences in Newstead between the 1920s until now, when the area was mainly
used for industry such as gas manufacturing and shipping (Hacker, 2009). Obvious differences include the
addition of the pier to the left, the addition to of the boardwalk in the foreground and the apartments. In
the recent photo, the Newstead wharves are no longer used for industry, and are instead used for the
Teneriffe City Cat terminal. The orange circle on the historical photo indicate the wharves, and the orange
circle on the recent photo indicate the City Cat stop. The green circle in the photographs indicates the
Mactaggarts Woolstores, which were built in 1926 (Hacker, 2009). As can be seen in the recent photo, the
Woolstores are still standing and are used for residential purposes.

3.4.5 Residential
The Roseville Estate is one of the most prestigious mansions in South East Queensland (Figure 17), and is
historically recognised as the crowning jewel of Queenslands changing residential landscape (Homes with
a History, 2015). The house is located towards the South-Eastern boundary of Newstead and is a dominant
historical structure (Map 8). Roseville is of a very traditional style with high ceilings, immaculate landscaping,
as well as wooden accents and lattice highlights. Houses in Newstead had a predominant Victorian
architecture style, and most of the homes have a simple, respectable elegance to their aesthetics. It is
common to have facades similar to stucco with rendered cast iron lacework on verandas and balustrades.
Slate or corrugated galvanized iron, with timber eaves are the materials used on the roofs of most homes.
The original design of a Victorian home in the 19th century also included a highly dense landscape in the
back yard. Which also highlighted a sense of security as well as a symbol of status. Since the construction
of the suburb and its homes, a high percentage of the residential houses have undergone remodelling,
however, it can be said that a lot of the original character have been highlighted through the new designs.
However, the property now boasts fully enclosed lawns on the perimeter of the block, large trees, and
manicured hedges. The original design can still be seen through subtle finishes like the roofing style,
Victorian entry, and the lead light finishes. Although, the modern day expectations of automated doors and
gates, solar panels, and full glass windows and doors are now evident (Figure 17).

Map 7: Photo Location Map: River Usage Historical comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

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Map 8: Photo Location Map: Residential Historical Comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

Map 9: Photo Location Map: Urban Renewal and Mixed Use Historical Comparison (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015;
Brown, 2015)

There are significant differences that can be seen between 1928 and today, not only with the building itself
but also in the foreground (Figure 18). These photos show the progression of the street over the last eightyseven years. What was once a barren strip of dirt for some of the first motorised vehicles, is now a fluctuating
streetscape filled with life. As you can see, there was also a tram or train line which is now removed, as is
the service in this area.

Figure 17: Historical Comparison; Roseville House: Photo 1 (Homes with a History, 2015) and Photo 2, 2015
(Humphreys, 2015)

3.4.6 Urban Renewal & Mixed Use


Around the 1990s, the area surrounding the Newstead Woolstores became an eyesore for those across the
river in Bulimba (Map 9). The stores once used to assist Queenslands wool industry (specifically with storage
and transportation) were abandoned and unkempt.

Figure 18: Woolstores at Southern end of Macquarie Street; Photo 1: 1928 (Digital Atlas Pty Ltd., 2015). Photo 2:
2015 (Humphreys, 2015)

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After its construction, the Newstead Gasworks site was the main gas site in Brisbane (Figure 19). Back in the
1990s the Brisbane Gas Company ceased business due to the introduction of natural gas usage in
Queensland (Re: Gasworks Plaza, Newstead [Blog post], 2013). Since then there has been a significant
amount of development in the area. It can also be seen that the renovations in this area are not quite
complete (cranes for construction and lollipop lady for road works).

Figure 19: Historical Comparison, Gasworks; Photo 1: 1954 (King, 2015). Photo 2: 2015 (Humphreys, 2015)

The common theme of urban renewal in Newstead has carried on in the Woolstores and in the gasworks
area. Each of these historical places has undergone some form of progress to create a space that livens the
suburb. Each place is now an area of mixed use. The gasworks area is now known as Gasworks Plaza and
houses dining and retails spaces, an office building and an underground car park. The original Gasometer is
still intact, and is used as a community space (Figure 19).

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4 Part One - Photographic Essay


4.1 Introduction
The purpose of the photograph essay is to portray the reality and authenticity of Newstead, and to
familiarise the reader with the different aspects of the suburb. Photos can shape ideas of what the viewer
thinks of the world, and can guide perceptions of an area (van de Ven, 2008). The Photographic Essay was
conducted by undertaking desktop research to gain a preliminary understanding of Newstead and to
establish themes for the photographs. The themes developed are:
Green space and recreation;
Transport;
Urban renewal &Mixed use; &
Heritage (Figure 20)
From the development of the themes, multiple field visits were conducted to capture photographs related
to each theme (Map 10). Analysis was then undertaken to provide context for the photographs, and to build
an understanding of Newstead.

Figure 20: Photo Essay Matrix

Map 10: Photo Location Map: Photo Essay (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

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4.2 Green Space & Recreation


One heritage listed location within the suburb is Newstead House (Hacker, 2009) which holds a significant
park, the other area is the Teneriffe Park (Map 11). The grounds surrounding the Newstead House are open
to the public and are commonly used as a picnic area or playground by the residents of Newstead (Figure
21). The park itself is small, with no established playground for children.
However, there are several park benches and picnic tables, as seen in this image, as well as a large gazebo
and several monuments providing information on the history of the area. The man depicted in this photo
was an example of one of the many ways this small, but beautiful, park is utilised by Newstead residents
and visitors to the historical Newstead House museum.

Figure 21: Newstead Park (Humphreys, 2015)

Located in the southwest corner of the suburb, is Teneriffe Park. it is situated on top of a hill with a view of
the Brisbane CBD, and contains a playground for children and several park benches and picnic tables (Figure
22). This park is more commonly utilised than the smaller park near Newstead house, primarily due to its
increased size and provision for childrens use.
At 11:15am on a Wednesday, the park was quite quiet however, on a weekend it would be much busier as
it is situated in the middle of a heavy residential area and would be the perfect location for families wanting
to enjoy recreation activities outside of their homes.

Map 11: Photo Location Map: Green space and Recreation (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015)
Figure 22: Teneriffe Park (Humphreys, 2015)

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4.3 Transport
In Newstead there are a number of different transport options, most of these are found close to the river
due to the suburbs reliance on the ferry system (Map 12). The public transport system is quite well
connected, there are extensive bike paths and a boardwalk along the river that connects the Teneriffe City
Cat stop to New Farm Park. Vernon Terrace, a main thoroughfare which connects New Farm to Newstead
(Figure 23), is evidently private cars as the prominent form of transport in the area. Street parking is available
in most, if not all of Newstead.
The Teneriffe CityCat terminal (Figure 25) is also surrounded by a bus stop area with the CityGlider servicing
the area (Figure 24). The amount of seats in the bus shelter indicates the bus system is heavily used in
Newstead. At the time of taking the photograph there were 3 buses pulled up and there are seven bus
routes that travel through Newstead (393, 199, 60, 470, 300, 306 and 322). These routes connect Newstead
with the Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital, the CBD, South Bank, West End, the Northern suburbs and
the Western Suburbs (TRANSLink, 2015). The CityCat stop directs passengers into the CBD, Saint Lucia,
towards Hamilton, as well as the Bulimba Teneriffe Cross River Ferry. The image shows the newlyrenovated Teneriffe stop and a City Cat docked at the stop. The path in front of the stop, with the woman
pushing a pram, is connected to the boardwalk and is often used for cyclists and pedestrians.

Figure 23: Vernon Terrace (Short, 2015)

There is also a CityCycle station (Figure 26), which is situated in Newstead on Vernon Terrace and the lack
of bikes docked at the station suggests they are regularly used. The photograph also shows a bike path on
the road working in harmony with the car traffic. The last photograph is of a sign pointing cyclists and
pedestrians to the Riverwalk which connects the area to the surrounding suburb of New Farm (Figure 26).
The sign also points to the Brisbane River, suggesting that it is one of the main features of the suburb.

Figure 24: Commercial Road Bus Stop (Humphreys, 2015)

Map 12: Photo Location Map: Transport (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)
Figure 25: Teneriffe Ferry Terminal (Humphreys, 2015)

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4.4 Heritage
Newstead is known for a number of important historical sites, such as Newstead House (Map 13). Which
was an important element during the growth of the Brisbane region over the past few decades. The house
was originally used in 1853 as an unofficial Government House, as well as being used as a barrack for the
United States Army in 1942 (Newstead House, 2015). The Queensland Womens Historical Society have also
used the house as a facility however, since 1981 the house has undergone a number of restorations
(Newstead House, 2015).
Newstead House has also changed along with planning schemes, in 1921 the grounds were redesigned to
advocate the inclusion of parklands into urban design (Figure 27). Currently, the grounds are still used as a
recreational facility and provides a range of facilities to the public (Newstead House, 2015).

Map 13: Photo Location Map: Heritage (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

Figure 26: Transportation Modes Along Vernon Terrace (Humphreys, 2015)

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Figure 27: Newstead House (Humphreys, 2015)

4.5 Urban Renewal & Mixed Use

Figure 29: Main Corridor, Gasworks Plaza (Deller, 2015)

Map 14: Photo Location Map: Urban Renewal and Mixed Use (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015,
Brown, 2015)

Newstead is a
mixed use area which includes residential, commercial, industrial, cultural and commercial areas. The many
different industries include places such as the Eagers car yard dates back to 1913 (AP Eagers, 2015). Urban
renewal is also strongly evident and the two themes are often intertwined. This is specifically shown in the
Gasworks Plaza (Figure 29) which was once used by the Brisbane Gas Company, now the area is an avenue
for recreation, shopping, dining and work (Figure 31). The woolstores also signify these themes.

Figure 30: Dining facilities, Macquarie Street Woolstores (Deller, 2015)

Figure 28: Macquarie Street Woolstores (Deller, 2015)

The woolstores have undergone perhaps the most dramatic transformation since the 1970s than any other
location in the area. Each Woolstore has created a mixed use space for the suburb which is thriving with
activity. There are many retail shops and restaurants scattered throughout Newstead. These are often
incorporated into buildings along with office spaces, or in the example of the woolstores apartments
(Figure 28).

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The London Woolstore in particular was revamped into a mixed use space in 2005. This in particular building
was for the storage of wool bales awaiting transportation from the river (Spiel, 2014). The refurbishment
created a mix of apartments in the upper floors and a wide variety of restaurants and some other
commercial uses on the street level (Figure 30) to create a lively footpath. The Newstead area is also a
hotspot for developments currently (Figure 32) which will more than likely boost this mixed use feature in
the area upon completion.

Figure 32: Gasworks Retail and entertainment precinct (AVEO, 2015)

Figure 31: Construction on Cunningham Street, Newstead (Griffey, 2015)

4.6 Conclusion
These photos represent the key themes of the area with respect to the urban environment and its
authenticity. The key themes that were investigated and found to be important are; green space and
recreation, transport, urban renewal and mixed use, and heritage.
The images presented in the Photographic Essay depict Newstead as a thriving and diverse suburb. The
various themes indicate that the area is not used just by local residents, but many of the facilities are
intended for the wider public. The four themes identified in the area are green space and recreation,
transport, urban renewal & mixed use, and heritage. There are two large parks within Newstead which are

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open to the public, and one has a childrens playground. The public transport and road networks ensure
Newstead is well connected to the surrounding suburbs and there are a number of public transport stops
through the area. The mixed use theme is prevalent throughout Newstead, where houses are adjacent to
commercial properties and cafs are located in the bottom of apartment blocks. Heritage is also a very
important theme in Newstead, as the Woolstores and Newstead House are very recognisable symbols of
the area. The Woolstores also link to urban renewal, as they have been repurposed to create trendy,
upmarket apartments. The Woolstores and Gasworks Plaza are excellent examples of how planning is being
utilised within the area to create a sense of place.

Part Two - Behaviour Analysis


5.1 Introduction

Behaviour Setting is a technique which is used to understand the ways in which the urban
environment affects peoples behaviour. This analysis builds on the Photographic Essay,
by delving further into the behaviours captured. As discussed by Lynch (1960), the
physical or urban environment can produce or hinder the development of the social
aspects of society. In order to understanding the Behaviour Settings of Newstead, five
study areas were chosen:
Teneriffe Ferry Precinct;
Gasworks Plaza;
Stretton Street Precinct;
Chester Street Precinct; and
Florence Street Precinct (Map 15).
These areas were selected based on the knowledge built from the Photographic Essay
and are areas which were considered significant enough for observation.
Field visits were conducted at 3 times of the day for both weekends and weekdays, each
for at least one hour (Appendix B). The observation notes include traffic flow and
direction, congregation areas, bus stops and other useful facilities of the area (Appendix
A). The types of people and their actions were also recorded. According to Johnson et al.
(2006), active participation in Behavioural Analysis is more effective than simple
observation. Due to this, a majority of the observations were undertaken with moderate
participation, although there was occasionally active and complete participation. From
this initial field work, more detailed maps were created and outlining the behaviours
observed in each study area and the influence the urban environment has on these
behaviours. This analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the impacts that planning
and design can have on an area, and the active participation from the community.
It is important to note that the observations were held over a two-week period which
were the September school holidays. Due to the holidays the observations and
subsequent analysis may not be a true representation of Newstead year-round. There is
also a number of events held in Newstead at various times throughout the year, none of
which were held during the observation period. These events include the Teneriffe
Festival, the Scandinavian Festival and the Newstead Food Night Safari (SuezEnvironment, 2015; Brisbane Kids, 2015; foodi, 2014). The music, culture and sense of
community generated through the events attract people from all over Brisbane. Events
are also held in Newstead surrounding major public holidays such as Anzac Day, Easter
and Christmas (Quest Newspapers, 2014).
Map 15: Behaviour Analysis Location Map (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown 2015)

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5.2 Teneriffe Ferry


Based on an examination of this precinct, the behaviours observed have indicated certain features of the
physical environment which are lacking in the area or which have unintentionally created the space for
activities which were not intended of the area. The Teneriffe Ferry Precinct in particular has a significant
amount of cyclists utilising the area. There are a number of bike racks provided, (Figure 33) but on more
than one occasion bikes were chained to the railings as the amount of bicycle parking provided was not
sufficient. The only bike racks in the area are adjacent to the Ferry Terminal, indicating that bicycle parking
is not only insufficient but is also necessary in other places within the precinct.

depending on the time of day, the opening hours of the surrounding facilities and the arrival and departure
times of the ferries and buses. The area is predominantly used for transport facilities and exercising. Though,
unlike the early morning hours, it is seen that most active users were elderly and in pairs. Among these were
working professionals on lunch breaks or catching public transport. Based on the observations and the
TRANSLink website, the most common form of public transport in the area at this time of day is the buses,
particularly the CityGlider.

5.2.3 Weekday Night


Once again, this time of day bought out those into fitness and using the area for the purpose of travel. There
was significantly more people using the area for exercise activities than for travel. While it can be assumed
at this point that some of these people cycling are in fact commuting, the beginning and end of their journey
is not what was observed here, and their purpose for the area was exercise. Most people were out for a
casual stroll, compared to the morning where most people were formally dressed for their day ahead. There
was also a presence of pets and children in the late evening. As the area was most commonly used for fitness
purposes, most people were alone, though there were still a few groups and couples. It was interesting to
note that the ferry terminal got busier later in the evening and there was only one smoker observed in the
area.

Figure 33: Teneriffe Ferry Terminal (Humphreys, 2015)

This is not the only physical attribute of the area that is insufficient. The seating in the area is primarily
surrounding the bus stops, which given the traffic in this space is acceptable, however the other primary
area of activity is the Ferry terminal, which has no seating (Figure 33). Ferry patrons were seen using the bus
stop seating and others were standing and waiting for long periods of time, indicating that seating is
necessary closer to or within the ferry terminal. These public transport users were seen at all times of the
day on both weekends and weekdays and therefore this seating is necessary.
In order for an area to be considered safe, the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, or CEPTED,
Principles need to be applied. These principles are surveillance, legibility, territoriality, ownership,
management and vulnerability (Queensland Government, 2007). One aspect of the surveillance principle is
lighting to avoid shadows and glare which might put people at risk (Queensland Government, 2007, p. 9).
Given this, the lighting in this precinct is insufficient (Figure 34). The area was considerably busier during the
day than at night, indicating that the space is unusable due to the inadequate lighting. This was observed
during field visits, as there was a lack of women and younger people in the area, and the people utilizing the
space had different behaviours than during the day, for example walking quickly in the shadows to enter
the light and looking around/keeping aware at all times. There is sufficient lighting surrounding the public
transport area, mostly due to its intended usage at night. However, it is evident that the area is in need of
more sufficient lighting to reduce shadows in order for the Riverwalk to be utilized more frequently at night.

5.2.4 Weekend Morning


As noted on weekdays, the area was mostly used for fitness and public transport uses. Given the difference
in working days, the public transport aspect was experienced less traffic and the area was more used for
exercise. Almost all persons were seen to be casually dressed and in groups.

5.2.5 Weekend Day


The Riverwalk and transport hub in the Teneriffe Ferry Precinct are focused on active and public transport
on weekends and weekdays. The active transport in the area includes the use of running, walking and
cycling, though the area is also used for leisure. Cyclists were the most predominant users alongside ferry
passengers. Due to the time of day, there were quite a few ages present. This could be due to the event, a
wedding, that was about to take place. The activity levels in the area were quite high but lasted for only
around half an hour.

5.2.6 Weekend Night


As compared to the weekdays in this area, it was noted that activity in the area was significantly less. There
were some singles exercising and some casually dressed people but not near the amount of traffic observed
at any other time. The public transport usage in the area was also practically non-existent.

5.2.1. Weekday Morning


It was noted that the area is mainly used for commuting and exercising. Those using the area for fitness
purposes were varying from groups to single people and ranged anywhere from their twenties to sixties.
There was also the presence of children and pets in the area, most of which involved some form of exercise
activity. There are two forms of public transport in the area the CityCat (ferry) and multiple TRANSLink
buses. These were both heavily used throughout the morning by a variety of ages and people. The Riverwalk
also provides a good avenue for those that wish to cycle or walk (active transport styles) to their destination,
which was observed.

5.2.2 Weekday Day


The middle of the day at the Teneriffe Ferry (regardless of the transport hub) is unlike many other places
observed in Newstead around this time. The Riverwalk is always in use, though levels of activity fluctuate

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Figure 34: Teneriffe Ferry Activity Timeline (Brown, 2015)

Map 16: Teneriffe Ferry Terminal; Weekday Behaviour Analysis (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

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Map 17: Teneriffe Ferry Terminal: Weekend Behaviour Analysis (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown 2015)

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5.3 Gasworks Plaza


There were many physical attributes of this area which assist in the utilisation of the area in its intended
ways. The seating in the area was just one of these such aspects, due to its more than sufficient provision
and location. The surrounding hospitality uses provide plenty of seating, however many of these were
primarily for the patrons of these stores. There are many other facilities for seating in the area such as the
garden edging in the centre walkway (Figure 36, Photo 1) and the public space (Figure 36, Photo 2, shown
in red) Each of these was intended to be used as seating and the behaviours of those in the area suggest
that the envisioned purpose is being fulfilled.
Another aspect of the area which is being fulfilled upon its intended usage is the public space mentioned
above. This area is concrete (Figure 36, Photo 2, shown in blue) and situated between the retail area and
office space, which provides for the people using the area as a thoroughfare, a seating area and an active
recreational space. This area is also used for many other avenues such as events, fundraisers and group
activities. Many of these practices were observed in the precinct by the team on both the weekends and the
weekdays, the majority of these were seen during the day activity time period.
This area was not observed to have any physical design aspects that were insufficient or unaccounted for or
that did not allow for the intended uses of the space. This also includes the unintended uses of the space
which the precinct provides for inadvertently. Along with this, the area upholds many principles defined by
CPTED as being an acceptable design for the safety of all patrons, specifically that of surveillance in this area
due to the open plan and sufficient lighting (Figure 36).

focused on the restaurants in the area with some active transport users observed. The significant difference
between that of weekend mornings and weekday mornings was the arrival of workers for the dining and
retail facilities. A majority of these stores are already open on weekday mornings due to the high traffic.

5.3.5 Weekend Day


By this time in the observations, it was noted that the Gasometer is used for quite a range of activities and
by many different people. As usual, this precinct draws the widest range of ages and ethnicities seen in the
Newstead area. A lot of the behaviour in the area can be linked to the mixed uses in the plaza. For instance,
the restaurants were open and as can be expected of most people, the area was busiest at lunch time. It
was observed that most people in the area were in pairs or groups.

5.3.6 Weekend Night


As with the weekday nights, the area has an extremely high level of activity in the evenings. There was a
significant amount of couples, pairs and groups arriving and heading towards the public open space, where
a majority of the dining facilities are located. The activity level soars around dinner time and includes people
of all sorts. As previously mentioned the composition of groups are wide and the range of ethnicities and
ages of those in the area was wider than any other time observed. There was a pop-up bar in the Gasometer,
which was open for a few weeks, which contributed to the rise in activity.

5.3.1 Weekday Morning


The morning schedule at the Gasworks Plaza on a weekday revolves around the dining facilities which sell
coffee. Most people in the area are visiting for a morning dose of caffeine or their regular breakfast,
especially as the retail and chain stores are not open until later in the morning (Terry White Chemist and
Woolworths). There are a few people who have ventured to the public open space area or are just passingby, using the space for exercising purposes or to commute to their workplaces. Majority of users seem to
be young adults to middle aged office workers, most of whom were travelling alone, listening to music and
checking their phones. There is a transport hub nearby, which is used frequently and creates a significant
amount of activity between 6:30am and 7am.

5.3.2 Weekday Day


Using levels of activity to indicate the patterns for each section of the plaza (sections are identified in (Figure
31), it was noted that each section varied greatly in activity. This could be due to the placement of the
surrounding facilities (grocer, restaurants, cafes, commercial stores and offices). It was interesting that
compared to many of the other precincts observed this area had a rather significant drop in exercise
activities and a noteworthy presence of children. As any other working day with offices nearby, most of the
traffic was filled with formally dressed people, along with construction workers, presumably due to the
variety of food and beverage options and the nearby construction sites. The other interesting fact is that
despite the large public pavilion, there were no smokers in sight at the time of observation (12:30-1:30pm).

Figure 35: Gasworks Plaza Activity Timeline (Brown, 2015)

5.3.3 Weekday Night


The Gasworks Plaza sees a significant amount of passing-by traffic, vehicular and pedestrian, during the early
evening. Towards the later hours of the night, the activity levels in the area peak. Users actively involve
themselves in the retail facilities and the significant amount of restaurant spaces. Most users are in pairs or
couples.

5.3.4 Weekend Morning


Unfortunately, the observations in the morning at the Gasworks Plaza showed little signs of life. The
atmosphere was extremely quiet, most likely due to the lack of human activity. Most activity was once again

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Figure 36: Photo 1; Garden Seating in Gasworks Plaza (Deller, 2015): Photo 2; Public Space Seating (Humphreys,
2015): Photo 3; Night View of the Main Path in Gasworks Plaza (Humphreys, 2015)

Map 18: Gasworks Plaza: Weekday Behaviour Analysis (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

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Map 19: Gasworks Plaza: Weekend Behaviour Analysis (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

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5.4 Stratton Street Precinct


The physical environment of this precinct is dwindling due to the heavy construction taking place in the
precinct. One aspect observed is the pathway that has been blocked off by the construction fences (Figure
37). The pathway was obstructed and crowded at times and pedestrian access is encouraged, yet not
provided for. Many people travelled by themselves, yet many of these people crossed paths which was
difficult on such a small pathway, even harder when there was the occasional group or pair. The
infrastructure of the path was deteriorated which, given the amount of pedestrian access, is unacceptable.

5.4.3 Weekday Night


Throughout the weeknights at this precinct, the activity is minimal. The area is mainly used as a traffic area
for those using the dining and entertainment facilities. There were no children in the area, though most
people travelled in groups. Most people were observed congregating towards The Triffid end of the precinct,
while a significant amount entered the car parking lot near The Waterloo Hotel. At this time of the day, the
main thoroughfare (Commercial Road) was quiet, though still mostly vehicular traffic. Throughout the
precinct the main traffic was pedestrians, yet still minimal. Most people were simply walking through or
passing-by and most activity was passive. There was a slight usage of the garden bench as a seating area by
patrons, which once again, determines the need for more seating in the area.

5.4.4Weekend Morning

Figure 37: Photo 1; Enclosed Pathway in Stratton Street (Deller, 2015): Photo 2; Street Lighting in Stratton Street
(Humphreys, 2015): Photo 3, Smoking Ledge on Stratton Street (Deller, 2015)

The area produced a lot of pedestrian traffic at this time of day. Majority of people were travelling alone
and were either actively using the space or passing-by. These people consisted of young adults who were
dressed for exercise or were construction workers. In comparison to many other areas in Newstead, this
area did not have a high level of activity and the amount of pedestrian traffic generated was not even
equivalent to a slow day at the Gasworks Plaza precinct.

5.4.5Weekend Day
There are other aspects of the environment in this area which encourage certain behaviours. One of these
is the smoking ledges (Figure 37, Photo 3) which are located adjacent to the bottle shop. These ledges are
accommodated with ashtrays and are conveniently wide enough for individuals to place their belongings
while having a cigarette. These were used at multiple times of the day, specifically at night.
The night is a less active space in the precinct. This is most likely due to the insufficient lighting in the area
which was observed by the team (Figure 37, Photo 2). This is much like the lighting mentioned for the
Teneriffe Ferry Precinct. The area sees activity throughout the day and occasionally during the morning for
both weekdays and weekends. However, the night only sees activity flourish around the meeting places such
as The Triffid and The Waterloo Hotel, as these areas provide a lighting. This lighting however is still
insufficient based on the CPTED principles by creating shadows everywhere but directly in front of the
buildings.

5.4.1 Weekday Morning

The area of this time of day was once again very quiet. There was a significant amount of facilities provided
in the area to facilitate a rise in activity, yet the area remained dormant. Majority of the people in the area
were travelling in pairs but there were a few singles and no groups observed. These people were relaxed,
causally talking and looking around. There were some people exercising, though most were passing-by,
rather than actively using the space. Despite facilities provided, there were no smokers observed throughout
this hour long investigation.

5.4.6 Weekend Night


Throughout the night on a weekend, the Stratton Street Precinct was extremely similar to that of the
weekday nights. The main difference was the pedestrian traffic on the Ann Street side of the Waterloo Hotel
and corresponding car parking lot. There was, once again, mostly groups of people and there was a
significant amount more than that of a weekday. Yet, the main activity was the same - pedestrian traffic
passing-by or being used as a thoroughfare to The Triffid and The Waterloo Hotel. The the garden bench
was once again used frequently, indicating the need for seating in the area.

The area holds a rather bleak activity level in comparison to that of the other precincts observed. The area
is dominated by construction workers, some coming to work, some leaving, some passing-by and others
using the facilities to get their morning coffee or breakfast. There were a few people exercising, mostly
young adults alone. This appears to attract people that like to keep to themselves, due to the use of people
listening to music, looking down and avoiding active uses of the area.

5.4.2 Weekday Day


The area is predominantly used for fitness purposes at this time of the day. There are facilities in the area
that provide for this type of activity, along with the eateries that encourage a significant amount of
construction workers (mostly in mid-thirties). As previously mentioned, the area attracts those people that
are labelled as loners due to their need to look down while walking or listen to music and talk on or look
at their phone. These people mainly travel alone but a few pairs/groups were seen. It was observed that
most of these groups were seen talking and actively participating in the area, unlike those travelling alone.
There were also two children seen, with their mothers only which were leaving the shops or talking on their
phones. A significant amount of smokers (in comparison to other precincts) was observed at this location,
most likely due to the design of the area and the aforementioned smoking areas. It is interesting to note the
types of vehicles that travel in this area. Multiple trucks were observed due to the nearby construction as
well as the usual car traffic. The most car/motorbike activity was seen on Commercial Road, the main
thoroughfare in the precinct.

29

Figure 38: Stratton Street Activity Timeline (Brown, 2015)

Map 20: Stratton Street: Weekday Behaviour Analysis (Google, 2015;ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

30

Map 21: Gasworks Plaza: Weekend Behaviour Analysis (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

31

5.5 Chester Street Precinct


Much the same as the Teneriffe Ferry and Stratton Street Precincts, this area is insufficiently lit at night.
Despite this, the area experiences high levels of activity, but this is a passive participation level during the
night, potentially due to the insufficient lighting (Figure 39). According to CPTED principles, this area is the
worst for surveillance, based on the aspect of lighting.

people stopped within the precinct to watch. This caused the levels of activity to increase as people decided
to stop and sit or actively participate.

5.5.3 Weekday Night


At night the Chester Street Precinct is bustling with activity. There is an abundance of people ranging in age
and a mix of sexes, mostly in groups, heading to and from the bakery. Most of these people use the space
for parking and travelling to and from the various facilities in the area. It is interesting that there were no
people exercising in the area (including pets) which could be due to the insufficient lighting previously
mentioned. There were also no children observed, though this could have been due to the time of day.

5.5.4 Weekend Morning


The mornings on a weekend in this area are more quiet than the weekdays. There is a significant amount of
vehicle traffic along the main roads, and the pedestrian traffic is based around the Bakery and electrical
store. There were no children or pets observed, and it appears the trading hours of the facilities in the area
dictate the levels of activity.
Figure 39: Chester Street Precinct; Photo 1: Chester Street Bakery By Night (Humphreys, 2015); Photo 2: Road Width
(Deller, 2015); Photo 3: Community Herb Garden (Deller, 2015)

The lack of lighting may be attributed to the dependence of cars in the area. Due to the street parking on
both sides of the road and the width of the road (Figure 39, Photo 2), it can be assumed that pedestrian
access was not the intended use of the area. It is therefore possible that the lighting in the area is also an
avenue to encourage this type of transportation and was not seen necessary due to the intended car usage.
One less used facility in the area is the encouragement of community behaviour through the vegetable and
herb garden (Figure 39, Photo 3). Although this garden was rarely used, it is on public ground and is open to
everyone, which encourages community interaction.

5.5.1 Weekday Morning


The Chester Street Precinct is another area which lacks in activity until a certain point in the day. In the
mornings it caters for passers-by, particularly those exercising and dog walking, and construction workers.
Those that are using the spaces actively were setting up for their day at work. This included mostly bakery
workers and the pet groomers next door. This store also may contribute to the amount of dogs seen walking
in the area, which was more than any other precinct observed. The amount of dogs in the area could also
signify the demographic of the residential areas closest to this precinct. Those passing-by were mostly
casually dressed which can be linked to the workplaces nearby (bakery, massage school, mechanic, electrical
store, pet groomer etc.). There was a significant amount of people exercising but not for leisure or
commuting purposes, as observed in other precincts. People mostly travelled alone, construction workers
excluded, through active transportation modes and were usually looking towards the ground and there was
more vehicular traffic than pedestrians. The physical features of the area do not cater for those individuals
who wish to engage in smoking, as none were observed. The area became busier later in the morning, which
concurred with the trading hours of the electrical store, bakery and snack bar.

5.5.5. Weekend Day


Chester Street is quite busy on weekend days. Most visitors to the area were having lunch at the bakery and
snack bar. The neighbouring lighting shop was not busy in comparison to the bakery but did generate some
traffic. There was a wide range of ages visiting the area and most were wearing casual attire. There was not
a lot of pedestrian traffic, and most was people utilising the bakery. This is a similar story with the vehicular
traffic on Chester Street. There was not much else open in the area on weekends, indicating the Bakery is
the main hub of the area.

5.5.6 Weekend Night


Weekend nights at Chester Street are quite busy which can be attributed solely to the Chester Street Bakery.
Most visitors drove to the area, parked on the street and walked to the bakery. The only pedestrians in the
street were going to and from the bakery. The bakery patrons were mostly young and were ether in couples
or small groups. There was a small variety of different dress types which can be summed up with both casual
and smart. This is a contrast to other times in the week where there is more business attire.

5.5.2 Weekday Day


During this time of day, activity was generated by the bakery, though the electrical store also attracted some
activity. Individuals in the precinct were there for the purpose of passing-by and were a handful of
construction workers, kids, and casually dressed people. Most people actively participating in the spaces
were dressed in business formal. Most of the activity was made up of individuals listening to music and
groups talking to each other and looking around. There were not many dogs observed, mainly due to the
time of day. It was interesting to note that on this day a fighter jet was preparing for Riverfire and many
Figure 40: Chester Street Activity Timeline (Brown, 2015)

32

Map 22: Chester Street: Weekday Behaviour Analysis (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

33

Map 23: Chester Street: Weekend Behaviour Analysis (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

34

5.6 Florence Street Precinct


This area is flooded with places to eat and meet up with others. Unfortunately, these avenues do not provide
for activity in the area. The plan of this precinct is enclosed space which does not align with the six principles
of CPTED, specifically that of surveillance. Whilst the stores surrounding the precinct flourish with activity,
the visual amenity of the area does not account for a view of the street in order to create the sense of safety.
Due to this, the encouragement of pedestrians is not high, yet the street parking in the Florence Street area
of the precinct says otherwise. The behaviours observed also indicated that throughout the day, pedestrian
activity was high and the infrastructure provided in the area for this kind of activity is sufficient.
The artificial lighting in the area is insufficient for the CPTED principles. This contrasts the encouragement
of pedestrian usage from street parking as the night sees little activity from those utilising the area. This is
due to the many shadow pockets created by street lights and corresponding trees which provide shade and
visual amenity throughout the day, but overcrowd the area and give a feeling of unease at night.

5.6.1 Weekday Morning


The mornings in the Florence Street Precinct are used majorly for exercising and commuting to the bus stop.
The facilities in the area are closed at this time and the lack of activity in the area can be attributed to this.
When these facilities open the activity in the area picks up as people are seen travelling to and from the
cafes and surrounding shops. These people are middle aged and seen to be using the area individually.

5.6.2 Weekday Day


At this time of day in the Florence Street Precinct there is not much activity. The surrounding facilities in the
area are mostly closed. Once again, things do start to get busier when the stores are in trading and these
areas attract pedestrians travelling by themselves. The area is used as a thoroughfare mainly by those
travelling in cars and the occasional pedestrian. There is a lack of smokers, children, and persons using the
area for fitness purposes, yet the area does cater for at least two of these groups through the wide
pathways, shaded areas and water taps.

couples. These people were very casually dressed. Apart from people exercising and going to and from the
restaurant, there was very limited pedestrian activity.

5.6.5 Weekend Day


The weekends see a vibrant amount of activity for this area. These people were mainly just casual persons
heading towards the various hospitality avenues and passers-by. Many of these passers-by were observed
holding shopping bags, indicating the public transport in the area is sufficient. Those that were travelling in
groups were talking, some of which with children. This was also the precinct with the second highest amount
of children seen participating in the area, and there was a small presence of pets. Unlike the majority of
other precincts, there was only a small presence of people using this area for fitness, which can be attributed
to the facilities provided. It was interesting to note that this was the only area where a mobility restricted
person was observed utilising the area. This indicates that the pathways and other facilities and
infrastructure (e.g. ramps and shading) are suitable for those individuals.

5.6.6 Weekend Night


Throughout the night on the weekend at this precinct, the area is quite busy. There are plenty of dining
facilities in the area which attract various people. All ages, sexes, groups, individuals, families and etc. could
all be seen in the area. There were only a small number of children observed, though this could be accounted
for the time of. The lack of lighting can attribute for the lack of people in the area after trading hours of the
surrounding facilities and the lack of exercisers and children. There is street parking on both sides of the
streets in this precinct, which may account for the lack of pedestrians in the area at all times of the day as
vehicular usage is encouraged.

5.6.3 Weekday Night


Overall Florence Street was not busy of a weeknight. The only area of activity, apart from the cars along
Macquarie Street, was the restaurant located at the northern corner of Florence and Macquarie Street. This
was filled with couples and groups of various ages. There was also a mixed style of clothes from smart casual
to business which is most likely due to the workers coming to socialize after work. It is important to note is
that there were no children in the area, this is consistent with many of the other behavioural setting areas
at numerous times. There was very little pedestrian traffic in the area, though the activity observed was
mostly to and from traffic linked to the facilities.

5.6.4 Weekend Morning


Florence Street was generally quiet on weekend mornings. The busiest area was along Macquarie Street
where people were exercising and cycling. These people varied with age from younger joggers to elderly
people walking. Vehicular traffic along Macquarie Street was noticeably busy. There were a limited number
of people having breakfast at one of the restaurants along Florence Street, varying in age, but mostly

35

Figure 41: Florence Street Activity Timeline (Brown, 2015)

Map 24: Florence Street: Weekday Behaviour Analysis (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

36

Map 25: Florence Street: Weekend Behaviour Analysis (Google, 2015; ESRI, 2015; Brown, 2015)

37

6.0 Part Three - Spatial Analysis


6.1 Introduction
Spatial Analysis is a form of quantitative geography which aims to add to the
authors understanding of spatial processes (Brunsdon, Charlton &
Fotheringham, 2000). Spatial Analysis can involve the use of advanced GIS
software, sophisticated statistical techniques and complicated mathematical
models. This report, however, will be using much simpler analytical
techniques, focused on visual analysis, in the form of maps. Creating maps
can inform and educate the community, as well as the authors, and is a much
more visual way to display data (Lefer et al., 2008). The aim of this report is
to recognize and understand the pattern of mixed-use activities within
Newstead.
The Spatial Analysis was undertaken using Google Earth, as well as desktop
research. Google Earth is a free software application which is easy to use and
understand, and fosters spatial thinking (Lefer et al., 2008; Patterson, 2007).
Map BLAH shows the original Google Earth map of Newstead and the legend
that identifies many of the major locations within the suburb and their
function.
Once the original Google Earth image was obtained, manual analysis was
completed. This is because Google Earth is not up to date with the facilities
available.
In Newstead, there are a variety of public facilities available. The facilities
have been split into seven categories:
transport and access;
dining and entertainment;
public services;
health care facilities;
places of worship;
sports and recreation; and
retail.
In order to undertake the analysis, the seven categories were split into access
and transport, dining and entertainment, and other facilities, then combined.
For the purpose of this report, only the combined map has been displayed.
From this, the relationship between the facilities and the main roads, and the
urban structure was established.

38

Map 26: Spatial Analysis Base Map (Google, 2015; Short 2015)

6.2 Public Facilities & Relationship to Main Roads


The distance of a facility to a main road will change depending on the type of the facility, for example, Government
facilities such as Post Offices may be further from a main road than a dining and entertainment facility. A Post
Office is a facility which people will seek out, whereas a dining and entertainment facility may need to be in a
visible, accessible place to compete with the other facilities. Figure forty-one indicates the average distance for
each category from the closest main road and table one indicates the distance from the main road for individual
facilities.

Places of Worship
Retail
Open Space
Health Services
Sport and Recreation
Government Services
Dining
0

20

40

60

80

100

Figure 42: Graph describing the Average Distance From the Closest Main Road
for Each Use Category (Short, 2015)

6.2.1 Transport and Access


As previously discussed in 4.2 there is a variety of transport options available in Newstead. These include buses,
CityCat, private car, bicycle and CityCycle. Map twenty-eight indicates the main transport routes within the area.
The bus routes service mainly the residential area (for zoning map, see map 2), and the ferry terminal is located
just off one of the main roads, providing ease of access. There is some on street parking close to the terminal, but
most is two-hour parking which encourages public transport and cycling. The major pedestrian route is a
boardwalk, which connects Newstead to New Farm and into Brisbane City. According to Walkscore.com, Newstead
has a walk score of 79, the 18th highest in Brisbane, and Teneriffe has a walk score of 88, the 7th in Brisbane
(walkscore.com, 2015).
The area includes two transport hubs, one is the ferry terminal (Eastern hub), and the other a bus stop outside of
Gasworks (Western hub). The eastern hub is serviced by CityCat, heading into the city and beyond, as well as out
towards the mouth of the Brisbane River, and a number of buses. The buses which service the eastern hub are the
393, 199, 60 and 470. The western hub is serviced by the 393, 470, 300, 306 and 322. All of the buses which service
Newstead connect the area with Fortitude Valley, Bowen Hills, the Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital, West
End, South Brisbane, the Cultural Centre, Brisbane City, Toowong, Auchenflower, Milton, Toombul Shopping
Centre, Clayfield, Hendra, Ascot, Hamilton, Nudgee, Banyo, Virginia, Northgate, Nundah, Albion, Chermside
Shopping Centre and Wavell Heights. Toombul Shopping Centre, Chermside Shopping Centre, RBWH, the Cultural
Centre and Brisbane City are transport hubs, which further connect Newstead (TRANSLink, 2015). The main roads
identified in Newstead are Breakfast Creek Road, Vernon Terrace, Macquarie Street and Commercial Road. These
were identified through site visits and confirmed by the Brisbane City Council Road Hierarchy (Brisbane City Plan,
2014). It is important for public transport to be on, or within walking distance, to a main road in order to maximize
usage.

39

Table 1: Spatial Distribution of Main Roads Against Individual Features of Newstead ( Short, 2015)

The accessibility of the public transport in Newstead can be deduced from map twenty-seven. The map indicates an exclusion zone of 400
meters around each bus stop and ferry terminal in Newstead, undertaken using Google Earth. It is easy to see that there are no areas within
the suburb that are not accessible via public transport, which contributes to the high walkability of the suburb. This also ties in with the
Environmental Quality Audit section of this report.
6.2.2 Dining and Entertainment
In recent years, Newstead has undergone an urban resurgence. This has resulted in a number of dining and entertainment venues in the
area (Table 1; Double, 2014). This dining culture in Newstead is evident in the Behavioural Analysis most of the activity was centered around
restaurants. From the field visits conducted, it is clear that the cafs and restaurants are not just for locals and attract people from all over
Brisbane. The Gasworks Plaza is a major dining precinct in Newstead is a destination which encourages people to visit the area. Gasworks
houses numerous dining venues ranging from casual dining to high end dining, as well as the original Gasometer, which as previously
mentioned, is lit up at night as a form of entertainment.
Map twenty-eight shows the obvious relationship between the main roads and the dining and entertainment facilities. The average distance
from a main road to a dining and entertainment facility was only approximately 30 meters, as demonstrated by table one. The average
distance to a main road for these facilities is quite short. This may be due to the convenience of the locations unless facilities are actively
sought out if they are not located near, or on, a main road they may fail. Dining and entertainment facilities rely on high traffic volumes,
which is achieved through being located on or near a main road.

6.2.3 Public Services


In Newstead, public services include two post offices, a museum (Newstead House) and the Local Government Association of Queensland.
These services are located further away from the main roads, with an average distance of 85 meters between them and the nearest main
road (Map 28). This is potentially because they are services or facilities which people actively seek out, and will not stumble upon as with
dining and entertainment facilities. Newstead House is visualized with quite a large dot as it is a facility which attracts people from many
other suburbs and possibly other States and Countries due to its historical museum.

6.2.4 Health Care Facilities


There is not a large number of health care facilities within Newstead, potentially due to the proximity of large hospitals. From the farthest
point in Newstead, the Royal Brisbane and Womens hospital is a mere 2 kilometers away, while the Princess Alexandra Hospital is
approximately 5 kilometers away (measured using Google Earth). With such large hospitals in close proximity, there is not a necessity for a
large health care facility to be in Newstead. Map twenty-eight visualizes the small number of health care facilities in Newstead. There are
only two doctors surgeries located in Newstead, indicated by the large dots. These are located on main roads, for convenience and ease of
access.

6.2.5 Places of Worship


There is only one place of worship in Newstead, the International City Church, as indicated in Map twenty-eight. This church is located on a
main arterial road, potentially due to its work with poor and disadvantaged people and the ease of access (International City Church, 2015).
According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, at the 2011 Census 32.8% of the Newstead population had no religious affiliation, which may
explain the lack of places to worship.

6.2.6 Sport and Recreation


In Newstead, there is a number of sport and recreation facilities, as indicated by Map twenty-eight. These include gym and fitness facilities,
The Boo bowls club and the Newstead Boardwalk. On average, these facilities are located approximately 95 meters from the closest main
road.

6.2.7 Retail
Retail services is not a huge part of daily life in Newstead. The largest retail precinct is Gasworks Plaza, which houses a Woolworths, Standard
Market Company, a bottle shop, two hairdressing salons, an optometrist, a newsagent and a Lorna Jane. Another noticeable retail facility in
the area is the multiple car dealerships located along Breakfast Creek Road. These dealerships attract a number of customers from outside

40

Map 27: Public Transport Exclusion Zones (google, 2015; Brown, 2015)

Newstead, bringing more traffic through the area. Other retail facilities in the area include a storage facility, a cycling shop and smaller
grocers. Map twenty-eight indicates that majority of the retail facilities are located near to a main road, which is further reinforced
by Map twenty-nine.

6.3 Relationship Between Facilities, Main Roads and the Urban Structure
After undertaking the above analysis, it is evident Newstead has a linear town centre, as well as a separate town centre. The linear
centre follows Commercial Road and Florence Street, while the separate centre is Gasworks Plaza. There is some overflow, which is
represented by the yellow dotted lines in Map twenty-nine. These areas have been identified as having a large number of facilities
and hence are considered the centres of Newstead.
Although it is not common for there to be two centres which are not linked, Newstead is a suburb undergoing constant change and
urban renewal. Gasworks Plaza is a relatively new public space within Newstead and in the past, Commercial Road and Florence Street
may have been considered the only centres in the area. In the future the urban structure may change and the two could be linked, or
there could be a new centre entirely.
The Behavioural Analysis section of this report identified Gasworks as one of the busies areas in Newstead, more than likely due to
the dining and entertainment, health care, retail and sport and recreation facilities housed within Gasworks.

6.4 Influences of Urban Structure


6.4.1 Zoning
By investigating the Brisbane City Plan (2014) with the gained knowledge of the field work study, it is evident that Newstead is heavily
effected by zoning which has a flow on effect to the placement of public facilities (Map 29). Majority of the facilities within Newstead
are located in the mixed use zone. The medium density residential zone houses facilities such as retail and dining and entertainment.
As previously stated, dining and entertainment and retail facilities require a high volume of traffic. Locating these facilities within a
medium or high density residential zone ensures there is foot traffic through the area, potentially more so than mixed use and low
impact industry zones. There is a noticeable lack of facilities within the character infill housing zone and low medium density
residential zone, as indicated by table two. The Brisbane City Plan 2014 outlines the purpose of each zone located in Newstead. These
outlines indicate the influence which zoning has on the placement of facilities, and are summarized in table two.
Table 2: Zoning Distribution and Purpose

Zone Code

Purpose of Zone

Medium Density
Residential

Provide for a range and mix of dwelling types


Dwellings supported by community uses and small-scale non-residential services and
facilities

Open Space
District Centre

Provides for informal recreation


Provide for a mix of uses and activities, with a concentration of land uses

Mixed Use

Provide for a mixture of development, including business, retail, residential, tourist,


accommodation, service industry and low impact industrial uses

Low Impact Industry

Provide for warehouse, service industry and low impact industry uses
Non-industrial and business uses that support activities which do not compromise the longterm use of the land

Sport and
Recreation
Character Infill
Housing

Provide a range of organised activities where the uses require a level of built infrastructure

Provide for a particular character of a predominantly residential area

Map 28: Relationship With Main Road (google, 2015; Short, 2015)

41

Low Medium
Density Residential

Provide for a range and mix of dwelling types


Dwellings supported by community uses and small-scale non-residential services and
facilities that cater for local residents

Special Purpose

Provide for uses that support public infrastructure

6.4.2 Influence of Social Media


Newstead is an area which is undergoing a lot of change and construction. This will, and is already,
contributing to the changing urban structure. One of the influences that may affect the urban structure in the
future, is social media (Brkovic and Sretovic Brkovic, 2013). At present, the dining and entertainment facilities
are generally located close to main roads as they depend on a high volume of traffic. This is slowly changing
with the rise of social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and through food bloggers such as the
Urban List and Gourmet and Gourmand. Over a 3-month period alone, there were 500 million check ins on
FourSquare (Brkovic and Sretovic Brkovic, 2013). As it becomes easier to spread the word via these platforms,
more dining and entertainment facilities will be located in quieter back streets. One example of this is Tipplers
Tap, located on Masters Street. Rent for facilities which are located off the main roads may be cheaper, and
through the use of social media platforms it is still possible to get the high volume of traffic required for a
dining and entertainment facility to survive and thrive.
As discussed by Brkovic and Sretovic Brkovic (2013), social media can have a large impact on planning in
todays society. Through the use of social media platforms, people can have their say city plans and
implementation, and it can be used as a community consultation tool (Brkovic and Sretovic Brkovic, 2013).

6.5 Conclusion
Newstead is a well connected area with a wide range of facilities available to the public. These facilities
include:
Transport and access;
Dining and entertainment;
Places of worship;
Health care;
Government facilities;
Petrol stations;
Sports and recreation facilities; and
Retail.
These facilities are generally close to main roads, and form two town centres a linear centre located along
Commercial Road and Florence Street, and a hub located at Gasworks Plaza. The placement of these facilities
are influenced by the zoning of the area, the need for certain facilities to be near a main road and in the
future, the placement may be influenced by the rise of social media.

Map 29: Town Centre Map (Google, 2015; Short, 2015)

42

7.0 Part Four - Environmental Quality Audit


7.1 Introduction
The environmental quality of an area has strong links to the quality of life of residents. According to Eusuf et al.
(2014), the quality of life is influenced by the features of the environment in urban spaces and in current development
trends. This includes elements such as road transport, places severe pressure on the quality of life in cities (Azapagic,
2013; Eusuf et al., 2014), each of which are found in Knoxs 1976 Index Schedule for the Assessment of
Environmental Quality (Appendix C). The Environmental Quality Audits undertaken for this study were determined
using Knoxs Index. The index contains four sections known as appearance, access, amenity and provision, though
the team has selected to enhance the audit through the addition or subtraction of some areas, one of which is flood
risk (Appendix D). This tailored the audit to b more appropriate for Newstead. The audit undertaken included twelve
locations within Newstead and included both the built environment and its surroundings. Each point was located
within a different zone of the Newstead area aiming to embrace the full environment of the suburb.

7.2 Appearance
The appearance matrix was modified from the original outlined by Knox (1976) with one notable difference. This was
the identification of different land uses that could be in an area, which Knox (1976) had not accounted for. Newstead
has a large variety of land uses and it was unreasonable to expect the same level of visual qualities from the industrial
and residential area. Due to this the appearance of factors such as gardens was not suitable for the Newstead audit
and was removed.
It is clearly evident that the appearance of Newstead various throughout with some areas holding a much higher
penalty (Map 30). In comparison to the zoning of the area, it can be seen that the residential areas hold a lower
penalty while the areas that are mostly industrial or mixed use show higher penalties. This shows a very consistent
pattern between the land use of the area and the appearance of the area according to the adjusted matrix. The
highest contributing factor is for non-conforming land uses particularly in points 7-10. These areas were mixed
between both residential and mixed use zones, the lowest penalties were in the townscape category. Points were 2,
8, 9 and 12 were of the highest penalty areas in the suburb, each of these can be found within two particular areas
(Map 30). The matrix shows that these areas are classed as B, which is understood as areas with some discordance
or drabness within the hard elements. This indicates that the presence of hard elements in these areas is
necessary.
The cross section map and graphs for this area show the disparity between the points on the same line. In comparing
the cross sections, it shows almost an opposite relationship between cross section AB and cross section CD. When
comparing the locations of the cross sections to the zoning, clear links to the appearance of Newstead are seen. In
cross section AB, audit points 1, 4 and 11 run through an area that is predominantly residential with slight infiltration
from industrial uses. This residential use surrounded by industrial zoning indicates that provision for appearance
characteristics of the area would be of higher importance to support the quality of life of these residents.
Furthermore, in cross section AB, audit point 8 is located in an area made of predominantly industrial or low-density
residential areas. This section is not used as often by pedestrians or residents of the area, therefore provision for
appearance characteristics of the area are not highly regarded, hence the spike in the AB cross section graph in (Map
30). Conversely, cross section CD passes through high industrial use zones in the northern section of the suburb,
resulting in lower provision for appearance features of the built environment. As can be seen, audit points 3 and 12
are located within these industrial zones and it is for this reason that the penalty points added to these sections are
higher than any other area. Furthermore, towards the southern end of the CD cross section, around audit points 11
and 7, the predominant land-use changes from industrial to mixed-use and residential zones. This change in zoning
indicates that appearance characteristics would have become more important in these zones, and have been
effectively allowed for through planning provision, resulting in lower penalty scores.

43

Map 30: Appearance Audit Points and Cross Sections (google, 2015; Brown, 2015)

There is a significant relationship between the zoning of Newstead and the appearance. Industrial zones do not place
priority on the appearance of the area, therefore the penalty points are higher for these areas due to a lack of provision
for gardens, landscaping and etc. Furthermore, areas commonly used by residents are more important in terms of visual
quality as they improve the visual amenity for the population.

7.3 Amenity
The amenity matrix also underwent changes to be more appropriate for Newstead. These amendments were in the noise
section and the addition of the flood risk (Appendix D). The noise section did not account for the types of uses within
Newstead and therefore, it was amended to include these factors such as, the normal noise from an industrial area as
compared to a residential area. Hence these two zones should not be compared relative to each other and are now on a
separate scale.
The Newstead area shows clear areas with high and low amenity (FIGURE ??). The areas with the highest penalties are
close to main roads as the three areas of the matrix are traffic, noise and air pollution. Furthermore, comparing this to
the zoning (map 31), the two points with the least penalties are located near green spaces and the moderate areas are
location mostly within the mixed use or residential areas.
The categories which provided Newstead with the highest penalty points were traffic, noise and flood risk, although not
all points have high penalties. For traffic and noise in particular, the poor scoring areas were all located on or around
major roads. The perimeter of Newstead is heavily impacted by noise and its related pollution (Map, 32). These issues
can impact the health and quality of life in Newstead as noise can impede on business and trading as well as lifestyle.

Map 32: Development Code Zones (BCC, 2014)

Flood risk was also highly penalised, which is not surprising as many inner Brisbane suburbs are prone to flooding, due to
their proximity to the Brisbane River, which was evident in the 2011 floods. The lowest penalised category was
microclimate, where the only high penalty for this was point 10 (Gasworks Plaza). This was due to the large undercover

44

Map 3231: Amenity Audit Points and Cross Section (Google, 2015; Brown, 2015)

area, which has created a wind tunnel, which was experienced firsthand during the Behavioural Analysis investigation.
It was revealed that point 3 was the lowest penalised area as it is a low impact industry zone.
The cross section has shown how the penalty points have been distributed throughout the suburb. It shows that there
is a gradual increase and decrease in the penalty distribution in the AB cross section whilst cross section CD contains
drastic increases and decreases in penalty points. The main causes for these varied amenity scores are related, in part,
to the locations of the audit points within the suburb and the various uses surrounding these points. Areas along cross
section AB that saw significant traffic, such as audit points 1 and 8, resulted in higher penalty points. These audit points
were located in close proximity to the Newstead boundary causing this increase.
Similarly, noise, air pollution and microclimate factors are increased in these areas due to the larger instance of traffic,
resulting in higher penalties for these features. This can also be seen in cross section CD which highlights the impact
the main road has on the suburb of Newstead. Audit points 12 and 7 are located on two of the busiest streets in
Newstead and therefore experience the same penalty point losses as audit points 1 and 8 in the AB cross section.
Furthermore, penalty points are awarded for the threat of flooding to the area.
Newstead faces significant threat from flooding due to its proximity to the Brisbane River and Breakfast Creek. Audit
points such as 1, 4, 11 and 7 can be easily flooded in high tide or king tide events, therefore the threat to those areas
needs to be considered in the environmental quality of the area.

7.4 Access
The access matrix used was the original created by Knox as it addressed all necessary factors of the Newstead area.
Overall access had the most percentage of penalties out of the four areas within the index. The only point which did
not have an excessive penalty was point 5 as its proximity to a primary school and park with a playground. The high
penalties are attributed to primary schools and childrens playgrounds and their lack of access, as there are no primary
schools in Newstead and very limited playgrounds. Due to this, in hindsight the areas could have been left out of the
matrix used but are also indicators of the demographics of the area, where Newstead has few families living in the
area that could contribute. The two categories not overly penalised in the access area were public transportation and
facilities. These factors represent the suburb well due to its inner city nature where adequate transportation and
facilities is necessary and it was observed that these were spread throughout the suburb.
The cross sectional map (Map 32) indicates that the penalty points awarded to most areas of Newstead were
approximately equal. Whilst the access to public transport within Newstead was remarkable, the cross section AB
shows that none of the audit points were located in close proximity to a playground or school. Furthermore, cross
section CD highlighted a similar relationship. The improved access to transport and open space was unable to offset
the lack of access to other factors.

7.5 Provision
According to Knox (1976), provision within a city is an important feature of the landscape and it is these features which
often redeem an Environmental Audit score for inner city suburbs. Newstead is a densely populated urban
environment in which provision is rarely made for environmentally sustainable practices. Provision relates to the
establishment of neighbourhood amenities that improve the quality of life for residents within the area. Within Knoxs
index, provision includes the implementation of adequate parking facilities, gardens and communal space, and
neighbourhood amenities such as street lighting and bus shelters.
After conducting the Environmental Audit within Newstead, it was found that parking provision was relatively mixed
throughout the suburb. In some areas parking was not adequate, resulting in a majority of on-street parking. This lack
of garaging facilities and surplus of on-street parking can cause traffic congestion as the road accommodates for
parked cars instead of flow. This lack of provision was not significant in other areas such as the area containing the
Gasworks Plaza. Here there was limited on-street parking available and maximised provision of garaging facilities. The
reasons for this could include the encouragement of using the area and the location of the plaza on a main road which
Map 33: Access Audit Points and Cross Section (Google, 2015; Brown, 2015)

45

makes the flow of traffic necessary. Based on the audit it is clear that the planning intent was to ensure congestion in
the area would not become an issue and resulted in the audit score for parking being relatively mixed.
Gardens and communal space was also a consideration within the audit. The master planners considering the
redevelopment of Newstead as a suburb were planning for the area at a time when neighbourhood design was becoming
less about fitting everything into the space and more about making the space functional as well as beautiful. Due to this,
Newstead has more than adequate communal green space and the upmarket price of housing indicates that residents
can afford to create well-kept garden spaces.
Finally, the provision of neighbourhood amenities such as bus shelters and street lighting. These factors were examined
within the Behavioural Analysis and it is evident that these amenities are within good provision. In order to complete
this section of the audit, the index created by Knox (1976) was amended as it mentioned the provision of post boxes and
telephone kiosks which are no longer prominent amenities for the time period. Therefore, they are not often found
within the urban environment and the inclusion of these features was not necessary for the environmental quality of
the area.
The provision factors within Newstead were sufficient, with a total score of 6.25 out of a possible 13. This score was a
major contributor to the overall environmental quality of Newstead. The strategies that were utilised within the suburb
served to increase its provision for neighbourhood amenities which is evident as some audit locations scored better than
others (Map 34). These areas are located around the center of the suburb, near the cultural hub of Newstead.
After examining the cross sections (Map 34) it is obvious that provision within Newstead is relatively well catered for in
the southern areas of the suburb, whilst the northern region contains very little consideration. The AB cross section runs
from the north border of Newstead, to the southern end and based on the zoning of the area (Map 2) this cross section
passes through many different uses of the suburb. The land surrounding audit points 1, 2 and 4 is mainly industrial with
very few residential apartments. For this reason, consideration for provision aspects of the built environment, including
garaging facilities, neighbourhood amenities and well-kept garden space, is not highly valued. However, as the cross
section moves further south through the suburb, crossing into mixed-use and residential areas, there is a greater
emphasis on providing these facilities for the use of the population. It was the planners understanding that provision
facilities would not be widely required within the industrial use areas of the suburb, and therefore were not provided
for. This resulted in the higher penalty scores seen in the graphs in map thirty-four.
A similar situation can be seen in the CD cross section that runs from the north-west to south-east regions of Newstead.
This cross section again confirms what the AB graph indicates the areas that are unused by the public are not well
provided for. Similarly, those areas that are used extensively such as point 11 hold greater considerations for provision
due to its increased use. This is reflected in the penalty scores, with point 11 obtaining the lowest number of penalty
points.
From these graphs it can be seen that provision scores for the suburb as a whole are adequate. In areas where
neighbourhood amenities are more important, such as residential and mixed use zones, provision is well catered for and
requires little improvement. Industrial and low-density residential areas do not require as much consideration for
provision of neighbourhood amenities and therefore the lack of facilities in these areas is acceptable. Provision should
be considered throughout all areas of the suburb to ensure residents, visitors to the area and all vehicles are provided
with adequate facilities to support their quality of life. According to Knox (1976), provision within a city is an important
feature of the landscape as it is these features which often redeem an Environmental Audit score for large inner city
suburbs. Newstead is a densely populated

7.6 Flooding
Newstead is located along the banks of the Brisbane River, with Breakfast Creek running along the North boundary of
the suburb. Considering the history of Brisbane and its propensity for floods, being surrounded by water in this way Map 34: Provision Audit Points and Cross Section (Google, 2015; Brown, 2015)
makes Newstead extremely susceptible to flooding in many areas of the suburb. Knoxs index (1976) does not specifically

46

list flooding as an issue for Environmental Auditing, however the investigation concluded that it was necessary to include
this feature due to the history of the area and the fact that it has flooded several times in the last 100 years.
Table 3: Flooding Environmental Audit scores
Flood Risk Max penalty points
8

Points
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sum Average
4 6 0 6 0 5 7 3 5 3 3 2
39
3.67

The areas identified as serious flood risks (map 35) are correlated with their location in proximity to the river and their
elevation levels. Based on past events it is obvious from this map that flooding is a serious concern within Newstead,
specifically the Northern half of the Suburb where Breakfast Creek meets the main part of the river (BCC, 2014).
Furthermore, past events such as the 1974 floods and the more recent 2011 floods saw record high tides that inundated
most of Newstead.
The issues that flooding can cause such as soil contamination and sewerage leaks can drastically detract from the
environmental quality of an area. These issues may serve to reduce the overall environmental quality of the area and,
by extension, the quality of life of residents. It was for these reasons that the investigation led to an addition being made
to Knoxs index (1976). Table four describes the additional levels of environmental assessment that were added and the
maximum penalty points that may have been allowed within each audit location.
Table 4: Flooding Environmental Audit Index Section

Amenity
Flood
Risk

A
B
C
D

No flood risk to observed area


Partial risk of flood waters cutting access to
observed area
Potential flooding based on past flood events
Area known for being easily flooded

Penalty
Points
0
13
46
68

This assessment of flood risk was added to the amenity section of the index as it fit well with the accompanying
assessment items in that section including air pollution and microclimate, all environmental pollution factors that serve
to reduce the quality of life to residents.
During the site investigation, the 12 points that were examined for their potential flood risk found that the area as a
whole holds a relatively high threat from flooding. Using the maps identified earlier (map 30 to 34), each point was
examined in relation to its location within each map to determine the threat it faces from flooding. Areas that would be
significantly inundated with water from floods were given 8 penalty points, those that might find themselves cut off from
the remainder of the suburb due to flooding received scores around 5 or 6 and those that suffered no risk from flooding
were given a score around 1 or 2. As can be seen from the excerpt from the Environmental Audit in table three, there
was a wide range of scores throughout the audit points based on the fact that they were arranged widely over the whole
suburb. Some were located within the area of high flood risk and others were located within the southern area of
Newstead where flooding and high tides do not affect any of the residents.
The average score after all of the site investigations was 3.67 indicating that Newstead, whilst not a highly threatened
area, has the potential to be negatively impacted by flooding whether from being cut off from surrounding areas or
through direct threat from inundation.

Map 35: Brisbane River Flooding Map (BCC, 2014; Brown, 2015)

47

7.7 Conclusion
The Environmental Quality Audit was conducted to determine whether the urban environment in Newstead influenced the
environmental quality and therefore the quality of life for residents. The audit was undertaken using a tailored version of
Knoxs 1976 Index which determined that Newstead is has adequate appearance, access and provision qualities but access
could be significantly improved. This was due to the limited green space and schools and the public facilities being just
below average. Newstead could improve its scores in all elements of the audit in order to improve the quality of life for its
residents, but is currently sufficient based on the standards produced by Knox in 1976.

Map 36: Review of Theme Scores (BCC, 2014; Brown, 2015)

48

8.0 Limitations
8.1 Photographic Essay
Krieger (2001) makes strong connections between planning and the value of photographs. However, this
type of analysis has many limitations. Any sort of photograph is open to these limitations (Dennis Jr. et al,
2009; Krieger, 2004) and a photograph used for analysis can cause boundaries in the study.
The main limitation is the difficulty in obtaining useful photos. Johnson et al. (2006) discusses the role of
weather and the way in which it can obscure results, while Fink (2011) discusses the way in which a
photograph can portray areas in a certain light. This light, which was found from the current study, is not
always the truth of the situation in an area (Wagner, 2004), or the photographer can force the photo to
represent something in a certain way (the same way social media can) (Krieger, 2001). Along with this, it
was found that pictures are rather good at depicting the landscape of an area but not necessarily its quality
and uses.
In addition to these factors is also the issue of legible photos. Unfortunately, the team did not possess any
professional photography equipment or training. Due to this, photos often turned out unclear or incorrect
due to factors such as lighting (natural and artificial) or positioning. It was found that occasionally photos
did not see the same scope as a human eye, and the photographer was only able to capture certain aspects
of an area, rather than the whole idea.
Due to many of these issues, the team was forced into a lengthy photography process. There were multiple
visits to the sight to obtain photographs needed or retake those that were unclear or incorrect. This required
a long period of examination of each and every photograph. This could have been slightly less likely if the
team had longer to study the area and the best areas to portray in imagery.

8.2 Behavioural Analysis


The Behavioural Analysis was one section of the study which had numerous unknown limitations; this
creates a range of issues in completing the study and of course, the accuracy of conclusions that were drawn.
One of these factors was the time period over which this analysis took place. It was a two-week period which
included a public holiday, a long weekend and school holidays. There were also no major events or holidays
such as Anzac Day (which is commemorated in the area) and Christmas. Each of these changed the observed
behaviours of those seen in the area against the expected behaviours and resulted in inaccuracy of results.
A significant limitation within this investigation was the lack of in-depth knowledge that this group held on
the area of Newstead. Prior knowledge into the specific features of the Newstead area could have resulted
in more successful precinct and time slot selection. The team was forced to use their existing and researched
knowledge to determine the best locations for Behavioural Analysis which may not have been an accurate
representation of the area.

8.3 Spatial Analysis


Lefer et al. (2008) discusses how spatial analyses is important to planning and can assist in producing
strategies that benefit the public such as health services. However, there are many limitations to the Spatial

49

Analysis section of this investigation. One key limitation is based on the fact that the suburbs of Newstead
and Teneriffe have been analysed in conjunction with one another. In 1975, Teneriffe and Newstead were
amalgamated, creating the large suburb locality that is known today (Centre for the Government of
Queensland, 2015). However, in 2010 Teneriffe split from its neighbouring suburb. This split should have
resulted in Teneriffe and Newstead being considered as separate suburbs within this investigation.
However, after research and analysis into available census data, it was found that Teneriffe is still considered
in the locality of Newstead in the most recent census statistics. Furthermore, mapping software such as
Google maps and Google earth that were used in this investigation do not recognise Teneriffe as a bounded
suburb and is instead contained within the borders of Newstead. It is for these reasons that the investigation
chose to include Teneriffe within the analysis of Newstead, in order to provide accurate data and mapping
information for the suburb as a whole. This analysis was a very lengthy process due to the number of
characteristics, facilities and amenities in the area. The analysis period could have been significantly
shortened with the exclusion of some unnecessary characteristics. Furthermore, Patterson (2007) explains
the necessity of fast internet access throughout the process, one thing which is lacking in schools and
universities. Unfortunately, this meant that the team was not always able to work effectively on the analysis.
Another limitation of the Spatial Analysis for this study was the utilisation of Google Earth as the software
to complete this section; this held many limitations in comparison to a GIS based software such as ArcGIS.
Unfortunately, different mapping softwares provide the user with different data. For example, the team
utilised Google Earth and attempted to consort software such as Google Maps for more information (mainly
due to the unavailability of data without an account on Google Earth) but Google Maps data often
contradicted information already provided by Google Earth. Not only this but the team was unable to access
all information possible as the system requires an account (which the team did not have access to) in order
to be provided with these services.
Furthermore, it is possible that the information used throughout this section may not be an accurate
representation of the area. This is of significant relevance to the suburb of Newstead due to the continuous
and current heavy construction in the area. Patterson (2007) also explains that while it is an effective tool
for spatially analysing areas of the world, it is slightly outdated. This could contribute to the data
contradictions between different softwares and also reiterates that fact that GIS based softwares are
preferred. The software programs are constantly updated by GIS analysts around the world and provide
users with correct information where possible.

8.4 Environmental Quality Audit


The accuracy of these Environmental Audits may not be correct due to two factors. The first factor was the
modification of Knoxs (1976) matrix to include factors such as flood risk and the exclusion of some factors
which did not seem necessary. The team are not professionals in this type of process and as such the tailored
audit matrix may not have been an accurate portrayal of this type of examination. The second factor was
the use of different team members in different areas to complete the audit. This created a barrier between
how each member perceived a certain factor. As each spot was done by different team members, the
accuracy of each audit may not be true to the area based on differing perceptions.

9.0 Concluding Comments


In comparing Newstead to Shorts (1996) urban myths, it has become evident that it doesnt fit into just one
particular image of a city. Thus, there are a range of elements from most of the city images evident in the
case study area. There is a prevalence of The anonymous city in the business side of the suburb in that it
doesnt bring to mind deep, long lasting, and varied relationships but rather a site of anonymous
interactions (Short, 1996). Although there are also areas within the suburb where this is not accurate of the
built and social environments. In these areas of the case study there is a sense of community with a regard
for deeper relationships among the populace. To a certain degree, The civilized city represents the suburb
of Newstead, due to the fact that it evokes feelings similar to the likes of a civilised area with its various
neighbourhood amenities that are all kept in good condition (Short, 1996). It does contain some goods and
services not available in small towns although the area does not entirely fit the outline provided by Short.
As it does not contain art galleries, an opera house or a library. However, despite this difficulty with
classifying the suburb of Newstead into one city image, it has been made obvious throughout this report
that this inner city area is a thriving urban environment and an example of some excellent planning practices.
Newstead is an example of a good representation of the planning concept, inner city gentrification. This
process has taken place within the suburb and is predominantly evident in the areas that have undergone a
large amount of development. These developments within the area cater to a more affluent demographic.
This process is further endorsed and represented by the local population and is evident in the characteristics
of the area and is reflected in the demographic figures of the suburb. These figures illustrate that the median
weekly household income has risen by 30% between 2006 and 2011 and the median rent has followed in a
parallel increase, and has risen by more than 45% (ABS, 2011). The two major areas of development in
relation to gentrification within Newstead, is firstly the woolstores. These heritage listed buildings were
originally industrial store houses used for wool which have been recently converted into upper-class
apartments. Secondly, there are a number of various areas that have and continue to be redeveloped into
modern apartment buildings. It is clear from visiting the area that these two types of redevelopment have
been catered towards a higher socio-economic demographic as a result of the continuing process of
gentrification evident in the area. This has become a reoccurring cycle in the Newstead area as younger
people continue to frequent the area and reside within the suburb.
The architecture of Newstead can also be situated into these two categories. On one side of the spectrum
there are a number of very classic industrial styles which have been represented by the wool stores and
even the central precinct of Newstead, the Gasworks Plaza, throughout the suburb. However, on the other
end of the spectrum there is a modern design element shown in the various new developments within the
area. The gentrification of the area directly affects the architectural designs of the area, as it determines
what should be built and designed for the demographics that are consistently interested in the area.
Together these form an image of the area as an upper-class suburb that has a variety of architectural styles
that have strongly influenced the past, present and future gentrification of the area.

50

New development in Newstead is starting to see its share of interest from award winning architects and
artists. This can be seen in one of the newest developments in the area, Newstead Series. Which has gained
the attention of 3 award-winning artists, who have been commissioned by the developer to create both
pieces of art as well as build art installations within the structure of the building (Maher, 2015).
Newstead is one of many flood prone suburbs in Brisbane. Because of the affluence evident in Newstead,
the question could Newstead afford to flood arose. Or rather would Newstead have more flood resilience
due to the collective wealth of the suburbs local population. As there is a lack of research and scientific
sources related to the justification of this question; the best answer can be found by comparing the median
weekly household income of the suburb to another Brisbane suburb prone to flooding. The suburb chosen
was West End with a median weekly household income of $1,485 (ABS, 2011). Comparing this to Newsteads
median weekly household income of $2,472 shows a great disparity between the two suburbs. Although
given this difference it gives the conclusion that although no suburb could truly afford to flood, Newstead
would be more equipped to deal with flooding based on generated income.
Throughout this fieldwork investigation, all of the characteristics that a predominant features of Newstead,
were able to be analysed not just through data analysis, but also by getting feet on the ground to ensure
researched facts fit with real-life observations. It was found that for the most part, Newstead is every bit
the high-class, urban renewal suburb that has been described through census data and Newspaper articles.
However, the field investigations allowed for greater understanding of those characteristics, which are not
highly publicized by the media. We found that not only was Newstead a neighbourhood designed to cater
to a more affluent population, but also caters extensively to visitors to the neighbourhood through the
numerous entertainment and eating facilities spread throughout the suburb. Newstead can be a welcoming
area not just for prospective buyers, but also to individuals just wishing to enjoy the area itself. Newstead
offers many attractions that can be enjoyed by members of the general public including the historical
Newstead house, the many parks and community spaces or the varied access to the Brisbane River.
This investigation has provided greater insight into the benefits and difficulties related to field research and
how it can be applied and compared to planning practices within Brisbane Suburbs. The choice of Newstead
as the subject of this investigation was due, in part, to a small amount of prior knowledge of the area and
how it operates. Furthermore, its rising popularity in recent years and the numerous construction works
that were observed throughout the suburb as a whole serves to prove that this area will only grow in
importance in future years. The photograph analysis, behavioural analysis, spatial analysis and
environmental audit were all tools used to assess the area and examine its importance within Brisbane as a
whole. From these, a complete image of Newstead could be constructed to determine future planning
possibilities for the area.

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ome%2Fwebmap%2Fviewer.html%3FuseExisting%3D1
Eusuf, M., Mohit, M., Eusuf, M., & Ibrahim, M. (2014). Impact of Outdoor Environment to The Quality of Life.
Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, 153(1), 639 654. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro/2014.10.096
Fanatic, F. (2009). Breakfast Creek Bridge. Retrieved 25th September, 2015 from
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Fanatic, F. (2011). Australian American War Memorial, Newstead Park. Retrieved 25th September, 2015 from
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Fanatic, F. (2013). Gasworks Plaza, Newstead. Retrieved 20th September, 2015 from
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Fanatic, F. (2014). Brisbane's History in Photographs. Retrieved 25th September, 2015 from
http://www.yourbrisbanepastandpresent.com/search/label/newstead
Fanatic, F. (2015). Elder Smith Wool Store, Teneriffe. Retrieved 25th September, 2015 from
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Feeney, K. (2013, August 28). Gasworks Retail, Dining and Entertainment Precinct Opens. The Brisbane Times.
Retrieved 20th September, 2015 from http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/gasworks-retail-diningand-entertainment-precinct-opens-20130828-2sqjj.html
Fink, J. (2012). Walking the Neighbourhood, Seeing the Small Details of Community Life: Reflections from a
Photography Walking Tour. Critical Social Policy, 32(1), 31-50. doi: 10.1177/0261018311425198
foodi. (2014). Newstead Food Night Safari - Brisbane. Retrieved 6th October, 2015 from
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Google. (2015). Google Maps. Retrieved 18th October, 2015 from https://www.google.com.au/maps/@27.5488826,153.0534239,15z
Hacker, D. (2009). Booroodabin; A Sesquicentenary History of Breakfast Creek, Bowen Hills, Newstead and Tenerife
1823 2009. Brisbane, Australia: The Queensland Women's Historical Association Inc.

51

Homes with History. (2015). Roseville Publishing the Past. Retrieved 20th September, 2015 from
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Patterson, T. (2007). Google Earth as a (Not Just) Geography Education Tool. Journal of Geography, 106(4), 145-152.
doi: 10.1080/00221340701678032

International City Church. (2015). Our History. Retrieved 16th October, 2015 from
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Queensland Government. (2007). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Guidelines for Queensland - Part
A: Essential Features of Safer Places. Retrieved 27th October, 2015 from
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Johnson, J. (2006). The Active Participant-Observer: Applying Social Role Analysis to Participant Observation. Field
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Knox, P. (1976). Fieldwork in Urban Geography: Assessing Environmental Quality. Scottish Geographical Magazine,
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Queensland State Archives. (1926). Brisbane River Looking from Newstead Park, Breakfast Creek Road, Newstead
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Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT Press.
th

Maher, S. (2015, July 30). Newstead series merges the worlds of architecture and art. Retrieved 30 October, 2015
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th

National Library of Australia. (2015). Pictures, Photos, Objects - Newstead. Retrieved 29 September, 2015 from
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th

National Library of Australia. (2015). The Brisbane Courier (Qld.: 1864-1933). Retrieved 8 October, 2015 from
http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/21688569

Suez-Environment. (2015). Teneriffe Festival 2015. Retrieved 18th October, 2015 from
http://www.teneriffefestival.org/the-festival/
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New Farm & Districts Historical Society. (2013). Teneriffe History. Retrieved 13th October, 2015 from
http://newfarmhistorical.squarespace.com/articles/teneriffe-history.html
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http://newsteadhouse.com.au/history/

Wagner, J. (2004). Constructing Credible Images: Documentary Studies, Social Research, and Visual Studies.
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https://www.walkscore.com/AU-QLD/Brisbane/Newstead

Additional Reading
Balram, S., & Dragievi, S. (2005). Attitudes Toward Urban Green Spaces: Integrating Questionnaire Survey and
Collaborative GIS Techniques to Improve Attitude Measurements. Landscape and Urban Planning, 71(2-4),
147-162. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2004.02.007
Dennis, S., Gaulocher, S., Carpiano, R., & Brown, D. (2009). Participatory Photo Mapping (PPM): Exploring an
Integrated Method for Health and Place Research with Young People. Health & Place, 15(2), 466-473. doi:
10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.08.004

52

Friedmann, J. (2002). The Good City: In Defense of Utopian Thinking. In J. Friedmann (Ed.), The Prospect of Cities.
London, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Lang, J. (1991). Design Theory from an Environment and Behaviour Perspective. London, New York: Plenum.

Appendix
Appendix A Site Visit Notes and Corresponding Maps

53

54

55

Chester Street
Weekday
A Thursday at 6:00am

Kids = 1

Smokers = 3

Mostly all people are looking around while they walk

Lots of speeding cars along the Doggett Street

Mainly filled with bakery workers or construction workers

There are more cars than people

Business dressed persons = 7

Casually dressed persons = 16

Fitness persons = 23

Dogs = 10 (could be due to the pet groomers just next to


the electrical place)

Cars mainly travelled down Chester to Ann Street

The snack bar does not open until 6:30am

Construction workers were mainly seen in groups

Cyclists = 5

Lots of people visiting the electrical place which opened


at around 6:30am

Two ladies with dogs that work in the pet grooming


place

Some fitness people were doing loops

A Friday at 12:00pm

Most people heading towards the bakery from the


Doggett Street
Still a few people for the electrical store
Business dressed = 4
Most people are casually dressed people
Kids = 5
A fighter jet practicing for the Riverfire event
Dogs = 2
A hotel cleaner (different, 1 seen in Newstead)
No smokers
Singles were mainly just people passing by, main traffic
was groups, usually more than 2
Some construction workers
Most people were listening to music, looking around or
talking within their groups
Only a few patrons at the snack bar, these were two
groups of business persons, 1 casual dressed person and
1 construction worker
st

A Thursday at 8:30pm

Lots of people in groups or pairs


All ages and sexes
Not any fitness or smokers or passers by
Most people drove to the area
Direction of travel was from Doggett Street to Chester
Street Bakery
Very nicely dressed group looked like birthday party
Most people were smart casual or business attire
No dogs or kids
Most people were aged between their 20s and 40s
Street parking on both sides of street, not much lighting
barely any pedestrians

Weekend
A Sunday at 6:00am

56

No kids seen
Seems to get busy when trading hours of surrounding
stores are open
Direction is mainly towards bakery
A lot of car traffic some pedestrians but barely any
Mostly individuals but pairs heading to bakery

A Sunday at 12:00pm

Bakery busy for lunches


Mostly casual attire
Neighbouring store relatively quiet
Most foot traffic going to bakery
Road not too busy
Mixed ages few children

A Saturday at 7:00pm

Bakery busy
No through pedestrians
Casual/smart dressed
Most road traffic was to park for bakery
Mostly young people
Some older
Lots of couples or groups

Florence Street
Weekday
A Friday at 6:00am and 7:00am (two hours due to lack of activity to
observe)

Lots of people exercising

Mostly aged 20s 50s

Cafs not open until second hour (then lots of traffic


attracted)

Bus stop not used until second hour

NOT VERY BUSY

Most people in business attire most likely on their way


to work

A Tuesday at 11:30am

Very quiet
No one seen exercising
A few of the restaurants open but minimal traffic
attracted
Lots of car traffic busy street but not much pedestrians
Most traffic is on Macquarie
Starting to get busy at around 12:20pm
Mostly pairs
Middle aged persons mostly no kids or smokers

A Tuesday at 7:00pm

Not busy
Very little pedestrians
One restaurant was busier than the other main
congregation point
Mostly couples
No children
Lots of cars along Macquarie

Weekend
A Sunday at 7:00am

Lots of exercise along Macquarie street


Some people getting breakfast
Mix of ages
Mostly couples

Macquirie street busy


Casually dressed
Some cyclists along road

A Sunday at 12:00pm

Mostly persons in casual attire most seen in any area


(92)
6 person utilising area for fitness
Lots of children with all sorts of compositions (single
parent, family, small child, babies, 1 set of twins)
Dogs = 2
One mobility disabled person
Mostly pairs but some groups
Groups seen were very large
Some users were travelling alone
Lots of people walking with their shopping
Travel direction of cars was towards Macquarie from
Florence and along Macquarie
Some pairs were obviously partners due to hand holding
Some people on the phone talking, texting, playing
with
People with other people were mostly talking but a few
were looking around/site seeing
Only one smoker seen
Main traffic was pedestrian and towards the eating
places
Mostly passers-by than active users

A Sunday at 6:00pm

Restaurants very busy


Florence Street used as pedestrian thoroughfare mainly
yet parking on both sides of the street (both streets)
Less pedestrians than during the day lack of lighting?

Gasworks Plaza
Weekday
A Thursday at 6:00am

Lots of people exercising

Stores opening attracting some traffic

All pedestrians due to exclusion of streets in designated


precinct and by planning design

Mainly corporate

Mainly aged 20s 60s

People using area as a thoroughfare from one end of


precinct to the other

Pedestrian traffic to/from bus stop

A Wednesday at 11:30am

Levels of activity in the area differ according to each


area within gasworks (the actual gasworks, near the
woollies, near the restaurants and near the office
buildings)
Kids = 14
Fitness persons = 6
Most people were business dressed, workers
(constructions are multiple in the surrounding area) or
smart casual
Amount of kids is most likely due to the school holiday
period which started on Monday
No smokers seen

A Wednesday at 7:00pm

Lots of pairs seen some groups, barely any singles


Mostly teenagers in the public space in groups some
using the area for active recreation
Highest % of people in area are heading to restaurants
Lots of traffic to and from the car parking space
High level of participation in the area
Lots of traffic observed along Skyring Terrace
although not in the precinct

Weekend
A Sunday at 6:00am

Very quiet
Mostly people exercising
Some store workers using as a commuting area

A Saturday at 12:00pm

Busiest time
People using all stores and services
Families, groups, couples, singles no dominant
People travelling individually were in their middle ages
Gas well was used as a thoroughfare and to sit, skate
board, ride bikes etc.
Wide range of ethnicities

A Saturday at 7:00pm

Very busy time


Wide range of ages and ethnicities
Groups, couples and families
Barely any individual travelers seen
Pop up bar venue in gas well, which was very busy Veuvecliquot
Mainly people dining

Stratton Street
Weekday
A Tuesday at 6:00am

Traffic towards the gym/Triffid


Construction workers
Quiet
Use of the bus stop though still not much

A Tuesday at 12:00pm

57

Mostly singles but still a few groups and pairs


Most people were looking down and walking or looking
around
Fitness persons = 12
Mostly guys that look to be in their 20-30s
Even traffic direction up and down the street
Smokers = 3
A lot of people were either construction workers or office
workers
Quite a lot of trucks due to the current construction
behind the waterloo
Some people were looking at their phones or listening to
music
Groups were very talkative
Some people were seen to be holding shopping bags
with groceries
There were lots of cars passing through, coming mainly
from the opposite end of the street and heading onto
commercial road

Total of 2 children, each with their mothers only and


those mothers were doing business or on their phones

A Thursday at 7:00pm

No children seen
Lots of smokers
Minimal activity near Triffid but lots of people
congregating
Area is passive and quiet
Minimal car traffic on Commercial Road but lots of
pedestrian
Barely any traffic at all seen on Ann Street
Main area was near Waterloo

Weekend
A Saturday at 6:00am

VERY QUIET
Some people going to the gym, but only a handful

A Saturday at 12:00pm

Mostly singles but still some groups, usually no more


than two
Casually dressed = 14
No business dressed, kids or smokers
Dogs = 2
Fitness persons = 3
Smart causal = 1
Car direction was mostly heading towards commercial
road
Most traffic was in and out of the BP or subway
Not a lot of people passing by

A Saturday at 7:00pm

Area is similar to night on weekday


Main congregation points are near waterloo and Triffid
Lots of smokers
Barely any individual travelers
No pedestrians
Lots of car traffic
Most vehicular traffic is along Commercial, near parking
lot for waterloo and up Stratton to Triffid and back
No children
Rowdy behavior possibly due to alcoholic premises in
the area

Teneriffe Ferry Terminal


Weekday
A Tuesday at 5:30am

Mainly people exercising - walking, jogging, cycling,


walking their dogs
Not much CityCat/bus stop action until around 7:00am
(looks to be people commuting
People mid-late 20s 60s
People exercising in groups, couples, friends, alone
Mainly people travelling alone yet some families and
pairs

A Wednesday at 12:00pm

Lots of people exercising mainly the elderly


Some business dressed persons
Business looking people seem to be using area for
commuting
Mostly middle aged persons

Lots of traffic around bus stop

A Thursday at 7:00pm

Fitness persons = 21
Cyclists = 22
Casually dressed person = 20
Business dressed persons = 8
Kids = 2
Dogs = 2
Smokers = 1
Mostly singles, very few groups and if so usually no
more than two
One family (one male and one female parent) with 2
kids
Six people hopped onto the ferry at 7:10pm, none
hopped off
Few people, if any, in Eves on the River - restaurant
Place is comprised on mostly apartments and
boardwalk/Riverwalk and ferry terminal
Most apartments had lights on
Three people hopped onto the 7:15 ferry, one hopped
off
Too many people to count hopped onto the 8:10 ferry ad
three hopped off
A fairly even direction along the Riverwalk but most,
some coming from eves laneway bit (Vernon terrace), lots
coming from Skyring Terrace/Commercial Road

Weekend
A Saturday at 6:00am

Lots of people exercising jogging, cycling and dog


walking
Ferries were parked at the terminal and first left at
6:10am
Rubbish trucks
Significant that 2 city cycle bikes were being used
Not much use of public transport a few buses, mainly
the CityGlider was in use
Young families, singles, couples
River was in use most at this time by rowers (school
team by the looks) and a few boats and ferries

A Sunday at 12:00pm

Exercising people less than of a morning


Mostly looks to be people walking out of leisure
Lots of cyclists
Ferries are quite busy mostly people standing and
waiting
Lots of people getting off ferry and walking around
A few buses but not very busy
Setting up for a wedding nearby
Mixed ages and ethnicities
Slowed down at around 12:45pm
Most people using transport are travelling alone
Exercisers are alone
Barely any groups elderly seem to be in pairs

A Sunday at 6:30pm

Quiet
Not much use of public transport
Some people exercising

Appendix B Site Visit Schedule


MONDAY
AM DAY

TUESDAY

PM AM DAY

PM

WEDNESDAY
AM

GASWORKS

TENERIFFE FERRY

THURSDAY

DAY

PM

AM

Cav, Kori

Nathan, Olivia, Kori Olivia

DAY

PM

FRIDAY
AM

DAY

SATURDAY
PM

AM

DAY

PM

Olivia Olivia

Olivia Nathan, Mel

Olivia, Cav

FLORENCE STREET

SUNDAY
AM

Cav

Olivia

Olivia

Cav
MONDAY
AM DAY

TUESDAY

PM AM DAY

Olivia Nathan

Kori, Nathan Olivia

CHESTER STREET PRECINCT

PM

WEDNESDAY
AM

DAY

PM

AM

Cav
Cav

THURSDAY
DAY

PM

DAY

Nathan

Olivia

Kori

FRIDAY
AM

PM

Olivia

Olivia

STRATTON STREET

DAY

SATURDAY
PM

AM

DAY

PM

SUNDAY
AM

DAY

PM

GASWORKS
TENERIFFE FERRY

Mel

FLORENCE STREET

Mel

Nathan

Mel

STRATTON STREET

Olivia

CHESTER STREET PRECINCT

Appendix C Knoxs 1976 Index Schedule for the Assessment of Environmental Quality
Knoxs Index

Element

Appearance
A
Exclusively residential uses fully separated from other use zones
B
Limited Infiltration, or local preference of, non-conforming uses
C
Some substantial infiltration of, or local dominance by, non-conforming uses
D
Excessive infiltration of, or local dominance by, non-conforming uses
Landscaping/Visual Quality
A
Mature, good quality trees; constructively located and well-kept grassed spaces
B
Insufficient poor quality trees/defectively located, and/or unkempt grassed spaces
C
Total, or almost total, lack of trees/grassed spaces
Note: The incidence and visual quality of gardens is considered separately
Townscape/Visual quality
A
Harmonious, attractive arrangement of hard elements (within and seen from the study zone)
B
Some discordance or drabness within the hard elements
C
Excessive discordance or drabness within the hard elements
Appearance of gardens/yards
A
Predominance of tidy/well screened gardens and/or yards within the study zone where appropriate
Non-Conforming uses (within or nearby)
e.g. Industry

58

Penalty Points
0
12
37
89
01
25
67
0
13
45
0

B
C
Access to Primary School

Access to other facilities

Access to childrens playground

Access to park/public open space

Access to public transportation

Traffic

Noise

Air Pollution

Microclimate

Garaging/Parking provision

Garden provision

59

A
B
C
D
E
F
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
A
B
C
D
E
A
B
C
D
E
A
B
C
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
D
E
A
B

Some intrusion of unkempt/poorly screened gardens and/or yards


Predominance of unkempt/poorly screened gardens and/or yards
Access
Primary School within 5 minutes walking distance and involving no main road crossing(s)
Primary school within 5 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
Primary school 5 10 minutes walking distance but involving no main road crossing(s)
Primary school 5 10 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
Primary school more than 10 minutes walking distance but involving no main road crossing(s)
Primary school more than 10 minutes walking distance and involving main road crossing(s)
Shops, public house and doctor all within 5 minutes walking distance
Shops and doctor within 5 minutes walking distance
Shops and public house within 5 minutes walking distance
Shops only within 5 minutes walking distance
Public house and doctor within 5 minutes walking distance
Doctor only within 5 minutes walking distance
Public house only within 5 minutes walking distance
No facilities within 5 minutes walking distance
Playground within 2 minutes walking distance and involving no main road crossing(s)
Playground within 2 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
Playground 2 4 minutes walking distance but involving no main road crossing(s)
Playground 2 4 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
No Playground within 4 minutes walking distance
Park/P.O.S. within 5 minutes walking distance and involving no main road crossing(s)
Park/P.O.S within 5 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
Park/P.O.S 5 10 minutes walking distance but involving no main road crossing(s)
Park/P.O.S 5 10 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
No Park/P.O.S within 10 minutes walking distance
Public transport route within 3 minutes walking distance
Public transport route 3 5 minutes walking distance
No public transport route within 5 minutes walking distance
Amenity
Full separation of pedestrian and normal residential traffic
Very limited intrusion of through traffic/no intrusion of traffic of unsuitable character
Some substantial intrusion of through traffic of unsuitable character
Excessive intrusion of through traffic of unsuitable character
Acceptable residential standard, i.e. normal speech possible
Slightly above acceptable residential standard, i.e. limited speech interference
Above acceptable residential standard, i.e. normal speech difficult at some times
Excessively above acceptable residential standard, i.e. normal speech always difficult and/or sometimes prohibited
Negligible (or non-existent)
Light
Heavy
Nor discomfort from microclimate factors
Some discomfort from microclimate factors, i.e. which minor improvements, e.g. tree planting, could alleviate
Excessive discomfort from microclimate factors
Provision
Full provision of garaging/parking facilities
75% - 95% provision of garaging/parking facilities, i.e. limited on-street parking
50% - 74% provision of garaging/parking facilities, i.e. some on-street parking
25% - 49% provision of garaging/parking facilities, i.e. substantial on-street parking
0% - 24% provision of garaging/parking facilities, i.e. excessive on-street parking
Full provision of adequate gardens or communal/incidental open space: All requirements satisfied
Insufficient provision of adequate or inadequate gardens, or inadequate position of communal/incidental open space

1
2
0
1
2
4
5
7
0
1
1
2
4
5
5
6
0
2
3
5
6
0
1
2
4
4
0
2
5
0
12
38
9 11
0
12
37
89
01
25
68
0
12
34
0
1
2
4
6
0
12

C
Excessive lack of gardens or communal/incidental open space
Provision of neighbourhood amenities
A
Full provision of all neighbourhood amenities
B
Insufficient provision of neighbourhood amenities, i.e. some amenities absent
C
Total or almost total lack of all neighbourhood amenities
Note: Amenities include street lighting, telephone kiosks, post-boxes and bus shelters

34
0
12
3

Appendix D Knoxs 1976 Index, tailored to Newstead


Tailored index

Element
Appearance
Non-Conforming uses (within or nearby) A Exclusively residential uses fully separated from other use zones
e.g. Industry
B Limited Infiltration, or local preference of, non-conforming uses
C Some substantial infiltration of, or local dominance by, non-conforming uses
D Excessive infiltration of, or local dominance by, non-conforming uses
Landscaping/Visual Quality
A Mature, good quality trees; constructively located and well-kept grassed spaces
B Insufficient poor quality trees/defectively located, and/or unkempt grassed spaces
C Total, or almost total, lack of trees/grassed spaces
Note: The incidence and visual quality of gardens is considered separately
Townscape/Visual quality
A Harmonious, attractive arrangement of hard elements (within and seen from the study zone)
B Some discordance or drabness within the hard elements
C Excessive discordance or drabness within the hard elements
Access
Access to Primary School
A Primary School within 5 minutes walking distance and involving no main road crossing(s)
B Primary school within 5 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
C Primary school 5 10 minutes walking distance but involving no main road crossing(s)
D Primary school 5 10 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
E Primary school more than 10 minutes walking distance but involving no main road crossing(s)
F Primary school more than 10 minutes walking distance and involving main road crossing(s)
Access to other facilities
A Shops, public house and doctor all within 5 minutes walking distance
B Shops and doctor within 5 minutes walking distance
C Shops and public house within 5 minutes walking distance
D Shops only within 5 minutes walking distance
E Public house and doctor within 5 minutes walking distance
F Doctor only within 5 minutes walking distance
G Public house only within 5 minutes walking distance
H No facilities within 5 minutes walking distance
Access to childrens playground
A Playground within 2 minutes walking distance and involving no main road crossing(s)
B Playground within 2 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
C Playground 2 4 minutes walking distance but involving no main road crossing(s)
D Playground 2 4 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
E No Playground within 4 minutes walking distance
Access to park/public open space
A Park/P.O.S. within 5 minutes walking distance and involving no main road crossing(s)
B Park/P.O.S within 5 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
C Park/P.O.S 5 10 minutes walking distance but involving no main road crossing(s)
D Park/P.O.S 5 10 minutes walking distance but involving main road crossing(s)
E No Park/P.O.S within 10 minutes walking distance
Access to public transportation
A Public transport route within 3 minutes walking distance
B Public transport route 3 5 minutes walking distance
C No public transport route within 5 minutes walking distance
Amenity
Traffic
A Full separation of pedestrian and normal residential traffic
B Very limited intrusion of through traffic/no intrusion of traffic of unsuitable character
C Some substantial intrusion of through traffic of unsuitable character

60

Penalty Points
0
12
37
89
01
25
67
0
13
45
0
1
2
4
5
7
0
1
1
2
4
5
5
6
0
2
3
5
6
0
1
2
4
4
0
2
5
0
12
38

D
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
D

Excessive intrusion of through traffic of unsuitable character


Noise
Acceptable standard for the predominant use of the area i.e. normal speech possible in residential zones, well within noise restrictions in industrial or mixed-use zones
Slightly above acceptable standard for the use of the area
Above acceptable standard for the use of the area
Excessively above acceptable standard for the use of the area
Air Pollution
Negligible (or non-existent)
Light
Heavy
Microclimate
Nor discomfort from microclimate factors
Some discomfort from microclimate factors, i.e. which minor improvements, e.g. tree planting, could alleviate
Excessive discomfort from microclimate factors
Flood Risk
No flood risk to observed area
Partial risk of flood waters cutting access to observed area
Potential flooding based on past flood events
Area known for being easily flooded
Provision
Garaging/Parking provision
A Full provision of garaging/parking facilities
B 75% - 95% provision of garaging/parking facilities, i.e. limited on-street parking
C 50% - 74% provision of garaging/parking facilities, i.e. some on-street parking
D 25% - 49% provision of garaging/parking facilities, i.e. substantial on-street parking
E 0% - 24% provision of garaging/parking facilities, i.e. excessive on-street parking
Garden provision
A Full provision of adequate gardens or communal/incidental open space: All requirements satisfied
B Insufficient provision of adequate or inadequate gardens, or inadequate position of communal/incidental open space
C Excessive lack of gardens or communal/incidental open space
Provision of neighbourhood amenities
A Full provision of all neighbourhood amenities
B Insufficient provision of neighbourhood amenities, i.e. some amenities absent
C Total or almost total lack of all neighbourhood amenities
Note: Amenities include street lighting and bus shelters but NOT telephone kiosks or post boxes since these are not widely utilised amenities

9 11
0
12
37
89
01
25
68
0
12
34
0
13
46
68
0
1
2
4
6
0
12
34
0
12
3

Appendix E Environmental Quality Audit Scores - Newstead


Appearance
Non-conforming uses
Landscaping
Townscape
Appearance Total
Amenity
Traffic
Noise
Air pollution
Microclimate
Flood Risk
Amenity Total
Access
School access
Shops and services
Playground access
Park access
Public transportation
Access Total

61

Max Penalties

Point 1

Point 2

Point 3

Point 4

Point 5

Point 6

Point 7

Point 8

Point 9

Point 10

Point 11

Point 12

Sum

Average

9
7
5

2
0
2
4

1
6
3
10

5
2
2
9

4
0
1
5

0
4
0
4

0
1
1
2

8
1
0
9

8
6
4
18

8
6
4
18

9
0
0
9

2
1
2
5

3
4
3
10

45
26
17
88

4.5
2.6
1.7
8.8

11
9
8
4
8

6
6
1
0
4
17

0
7
3
2
6
18

1
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
6
6

0
4
0
0
0
4

6
2
2
0
5
15

6
3
3
1
13

8
6
4
0
3
21

9
6
4
2
5
26

0
4
4
3
3
14

0
0
4
0
3
7

10
6
5
2
2
25

36
38
21
8
32
135

3.6
3.8
2.1
0.8
3.6
13.5

7
2
6
0
1
16

7
4
6
0
0
17

7
6
0
0
1
14

7
2
6
1
3
19

0
2
0
0
0
2

7
6
6
4
0
23

7
0
6
1
0
14

7
0
6
5
0
18

7
1
6
5
0
19

7
0
6
1
0
14

7
0
6
0
0
13

7
5
6
5
0
23

63
23
48
17
5
156

6.3
2.3
4.8
1.7
0.5
15.6

7
6
6
5
5

Provision
Parking
Gardens
Neighbourhood amenities
Provision Total
Grand Total

62

6
4
3

6
0
1
7

6
4
2
12

6
1
0
7

5
4
2
11

2
0
1
3

4
2
2
8

4
2
0
6

1
3
0
4

1
3
0
4

1
0
0
1

1
1
1
3

4
3
2
9

44

57

31

41

13

48

42

61

67

38

28

67

36
19
8
63

3.6
1.9
0.8
6.3
44.2