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The Men Who Built America

Vanderbilt

Cut throat businessman


Buys a single ferry, and later, more
Becomes a famous shipman; called the Comadeur
Builds the largest shipping business in the nation
Sells his boats and invests in trains
At the end of the Civil War, hes the richest man
His son dies during the war; Vanderbilts emotional
People begin to lose respect for him
Vanderbilt and his remaining son work to take over the railroads
Other companies deny his offers
Vanderbilt closes the bridge to NY
Rail companies begin to lose money; stocks drop to extremely low prices
Vanderbilt buys all the available stock and soon owns most American railroads
Builds central station; still stands today
tries to buy Eerie Line
Eerie line owners dilute the pool by printing new stocks
Vanderbilt catches on; realizes hes spent over 10 million dollars
Looks for a new leg-up; invests in oil
Tries to make an alliance with Rockefeller
Vanderbilt dies during the height of the 1873 depression

Rockefeller

On his way to meet Vanderbilt, misses his train. It crashes killing all on board.
Rockefeller is moved by the experience and gains more confidence.
Strikes a deal with Vanderbilt; over-promises his oil.
Uses the bad rumors about Kerosene as fuel for his campaign and gains investors
Tom Scott offers Rockefeller a deal paying 40% more than Vanderbilts. Rockefeller
takes the deal.
With his newfound fortune, Rockefeller monopolizes his competitors.
Vanderbilt and Scott feel threatened; team up against him.
Rockefeller loses the railroads support; builds pipelines.
Pipes cause a huge stock crash, leading to the depression of 1873

Carnegie

Tom Scott, Carnegies mentor, dies during the 1873 depression


Carnegie started working at 12 to provide for his poor family
After making him manager, Scott puts Carnegie in charge of the Mississippi Bridge
project
Doubted by peers at first; decides to use steel
Halfway through the project, Carnegie goes bankrupt and has to pause building
Reaches out to investors and completes bridge
To prove the bridge is stable, parades an elephant across

Builds the first steel plant


Begins using steel to build skyscrapers
Seeks help from henry Frick, a ruthless millionaire
Together with Frick, doubles income and buys competition
Builds rich people club and man-made lake
The dam holding the lake bursts, killing 2000 villagers below
Carnegie is guilt-stricken; travels across the country and builds public libraries
Rebuilds the steel mill, then leaves for Scotland. Puts Frick in charge.
Carnegie faces hate for the steel bloodshed

Frick

makes an alliance with Carnegie


increases profits by cutting costs
builds rich people club and fake lake
has the dam widened so his cart can get across, weakening the dam
the dam bursts, killing 200
put in charge when Carnegie goes to Scotland
increases output and lowers pay: angers the mill workers
workers unite after the death of a co worker
a strike breaks out after frick says work conditions won't change
workers barricade the mill so replacement workers cant enter
frick hired the pinkerton guards to take back the factory
in a revolt, nine steel workers are dead
a new group called anarchists rises
someone attempts to assassinate him, fails
starts losing friendship with Carnegie
is fired by Carnegie

Jp Morgan

rich banker who buys failing business


had a strange relationship with his father
Morgan becomes interested in electricity and light bulbs
gets his house electrically lighted then hosts a dinner party
other rich people want their houses lighted
Edisons apprentice betrays him and goes to work for a different company
despite Morgan and Edisons attempts to dissuade America, everyone wants teslas new
electricity
to show the danger of teslas electricity, Edison builds an electric chair using teslas
electricity
the chair fails, giving both Edison and Morgan a bad name
Morgan invests in hydro-electricity; teslas company falters
teslas company lights a carnival, finally defeats Morgans electricity
Morgan moves to new territory, purchases Carnegie steel and changes it to American
Steel
A new politician, William Jennings Brian, threatens the titans. they buy their candidate
into office

Henry Ford

An upcoming businessman with lots of determination


Wants to build a car the middle class man can afford
does not get permission to the cars patent
races the patent owner; ford wins
ford uses the victory to build wealth and start building cars
gets sued for using car design
refuses to stop factories from running
pays workers very well (5$)
wins trial; becomes local hero
invents the assembly line and increases production
standard oil, American steel and ford thrive

After the titans


The election of 1900 and the succession of Theodore Roosevelt
McKinley runs as president with Roosevelt as his vice president
McKinley routinely gives speeches at his home
during one speech an anarchist shoots McKinley and runs
McKinley dies from infection of the wound
Roosevelt is made the new president
o Roosevelt is the youngest president to serve
Poc Movements
Booker T Washington
o founder of the Tuskegee institute
o trained thousands of blacks to be better farmers and mechanics
o blacks should train for jobs they can do with their hands
o self-respect, education, and help would save blacks
W.E.B Dubois
o black leader in the early 1900s
o fought for civil rights
o founder of the Niagara movement
o demand for blacks to have all rights at once

o created the NAACP in 1909


Muckrakers
o journalists and novelists who investigated and exposed corruption and illegal
activity
meat inspection act = Upton Sinclair
o Sinclair exposed poor meat procedures arose
o Roosevelt wrote to the author to confirm if it was true
o meat inspection act was passed
o food production was given a new set of laws
Lincoln Steffers
o exposed government corruption in cities
Ida Tarbell
o attacked standard oil

o
o

father's oil business had been defeated by standard oil


her father committed suicide and she blamed Rockefeller

Roosevelt's Reform
Amendments

New advancements during Roosevelts presidency.


o 16th Amendment: Federal Income Tax
o 17th Amendment: Allowed for the direct election of senators by voters (Senators
had been elected by state legislatures)

Womens Suffrage

Progressives were fighting for a womans right to vote (womens suffrage) & Wyoming =
first state to allow women to vote

Political Reform

Roosevelt favored reforms: income and inheritance taxes, federal rules for the stock
market, and more control of business government to become more involved

Municipal Reform

City manager hired people to be politicians

State Reform

Robert Battling Bob Lafollette; elected governor of Wisconsin in 1900 & Enacted
progressive measures. Roosevelt called Wisconsin a laboratory for democracy.
Direct primary
Railroad commission
Civil service
Restrictions on lobbying

Roosevelts Domestic Program

The program was called the square deal


Made sure people were taken care of: house, water, food, clothes
Changed the mindset greatly from the time of the Titans

Anthacite Coal Strike, 1902

Workers did not receive a pay raise for more than 20 years
Roosevelt stepped in to make life better for the workers and managers
Coal miners - 9 hour day, 10% raise

Trust Busting

Northern Securities Case


A holding company that dominated the railroads of the North West
Roosevelt sues under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
The supreme court orders the company to dissolve
This begins the trust busting era

o
o
o

Roosevelts philosophy was to go after harmful trusts and keep the good ones
Moved against many unpopular trusts: beef, oil and tobacco
Roosevelt only broke up trusts when he felt they hurt the public

Conservation

Roosevelt increased national forests by almost 150 million acres


Created U.S. Forest Service, headed by Gifford Pinchot
Pinchot planned reforesting, the planting of trees along with cutting of trees

Taft Administration at Home


Election of 1908

William Howard Taft, the Secretary of War, was Roosevelts handpicked successor
Taft easily defeated William J. Bryan with Roosevelts support
Most thought Taft would follow Roosevelt in the fight for reform
Many progressives felt he failed to do so
Taft did not make the distinction between good and bad trusts
The Republicans were split; those who supported Taft and those who didn't
The issue of conservation caused the split between Taft and Roosevelt

Election of 1912
Democratic Nominee: Woodrow Wilson
Republican Nominee: William Taft

Progressives were upset that Taft won

Progressive Nominee: Theodore Roosevelt

The party was formed solely so Teddy could join the election
Later known as the Bull-Moose party
Because the Republican Party was split, Woodrow Wilson won

Wilsons Domestic Problem: New Freedom


Picture

The Underwood-Simmons tariff reduced taxes about 11% from the Payne-Aldrich tariff
The people supported the cut in tariffs

Federal Reserve Act

12 districts
Created a more flexible currency, the Federal Note (dollar)
Also helped prevent a run on the bank

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

Gave unions the right to exist


Manufacturers could not charge different customers different prices for items

Federal Trade Commission

Created a monitor business

Could issue a cease and desist order against companies for unfair trade practices
Similar to the Clayton Anti-Trust Act; made to protect the consumer from unfairness

Imperialism and the Spanish-American War


Imperialism - When powerful nations created empires by dominating other lands
- Reasons
+ Economic
+ Military Strength
+ Religious/Morals
+ Public Support
Manifest Destiny - The idea (prevalent especially in the 1800s) that is was Americas
obvious and inevitable fate to ossuary the entire continent
Monroe Doctrine - Declaration by President Monroe in 1823 that the United States would
oppose efforts by an outside power to control a nation in the Western Hemisphere
- They police areas of the Caribbean and Central America
Reasons for the Spanish-American War:
Spanish Mirsule in Cuba
- 1895 - Cuban Revolt - Fueled by Spanish rule and failing sugar business
- Spain sent General Valeriano Weyer - ruthless governor
Yellow Journalism
- A style of newspaper writing in the late 1890s that featured sensational headlines and
stories
Remember the Maine
- U. S. S. Maine - 1898 - sent to Havanas harbor to protect US citizens and property
- February 15, 1898 - Explosion in U.S.S. Maine - 266 soldiers dead
Spanish Concessions
- President McKinley - supported Cuban independence
- President McKinley - presented Spain with demands, including the withdraw of Spain
from Cuba
- deLome Letter - Spanish Ambassador to the US whose letter described McKinley as
weak
- Spain refused - McKinley asked congress for a declaration of war
The War Begins
- Teddy orders Commodore Dewey to the Philippines
- Commodore George Dewey - commander of the US fleet in Hong Kong
- Deweys fleet sunk or captured entire Spanish fleet in Manilla Bay
Land Warfare in Cuba
- Poor preparation - Army not equipped to launch an invasion on Cuba
- Rough Riders - a mixed crew of soldiers that the press loved
- The Rough Riders charged and took San Juan Hill
- The black soldiers of the 9th and 10th regiments aided the Rough Riders; they were
known as the Buffalo Soldiers
- Territories gained: Puerto Rico, Guam, Philipines
Treaty of Paris - December 10, 1898
- Committed US to be a world power
- Ended the war
Philipines Insurrection
- Lasted 2 years
- Brutal fighting that the Philippine soldiers were not prepared for
Platt Amendment

- Stipulated that the Cuban Government would not enter any foreign agreements, must
allow the US to establish naval bases as needed on the island, and must give the US
the right to intervene whenever necessary
Open Door Policy
- US opened China (to trading) to all nations on an equal basis
- Secretary of State John Hay sent open door notes to nations involved with China
Boxer Rebellion
- 1900 - secret Chinese Society, known as the Boxers, rose up to expel the Foreign
Devils
- The uprising lasted 2 months
- US believed in maintaining an independent China - sent another open door note
Panama Canal The Big Ditch
- Roosevelt wanted to move the military quickly between the Atlantic and Pacific
- 1902 - US bought the canal rights for $40 million from a French company
- Columbia turns down a lease deal on the canal
- 1903 - Panama Revolution - The Republic of Panama was created, and they leased
canal zone to the US
- 1904 - work began, but was halted the next year dur to yellow fever
- Dr. William Gorgas - Helped destroy mosquitos and yellow fever
- This allowed work to resume - ships were passing through in 1914
World War 1
Background for War
- Compelling Alliances
1. Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy)
2. Triple Entente (France, Great Britain, Russia)
- The system of alliances played an important role in turning the assassination into a war
- Nationalism in Europe was strong
- Imperialist rivalries threatened peace in Europe
Assassination
- June 28, 1914 - Archduke Franz Ferdinand - heir to the throne of the Austria-Hungary
was assassinated in Sarajevo
- Killer: Gaurilo Princip, a Serbian Nationalist
Mobilization and Invasion of Belgium
- Central Powers: Hungary and Germany
- Anticipated a swift victory
- Marched through Belgium to France; August 3rd invasion
- 200,000 Belgium troops could not stop Germany, but did slow them as other allies
mobilized
- Eastern and Western battlefronts - opposing armies dug trenches from which to fire on
enemy lines
- Most extensive trench warfare took place in France
American Neutrality
- Proclamation of neutrality
- Wilson said America should remain neutral
Propaganda
- Both sides used propaganda
- Most major American papers backed the allies
- Immigrants powers - supported Central Powers
- Allied Propaganda - had greatest impact
- Germans were portrayed as aggressors

- New German weapons - sub and poison gas


Economic Ties
- Economic ties to the allies made strict neutrality possible
- Military orders from Allies were greeted with an economic boom
- Trade with Allies grew: $500 million in 1914, $3.5 billion in 1917
- British set up a naval blockade to keep military contraband from reaching Germany
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
- 1914-1915 - Germans began attacking allied ships
- International Law required ships to warn an enemy vessel before sinking it
- 1915 - Germans - Ships risked attack in war zone around Britain
Pressures for Preparedness
- Sussex Pledge - Germany promised, with certain conditions, to sink no more merchant
ships without warning
- Roosevelt criticized Wilson for not preparing for war
- 1916 - The war could not be ignored any more, the army doubled in size
- 1917 - Germany unleashed its submarines to sink ALL the ships in the war zone
- Wilson broke off relations with Germany
- Germany tried to lure Mexico to its side with the Zimmerman Telegram
American Participation
- June 5, 1917 - Almost 10,000,000 men had registered
American Mobilism
- Short on supplies
- Needed to make preparations
Wartime Agencies
1. War Industries Board
- Spurred productions and coordinated war industries
- Similar effects brought order to the shipping and railroad industries
- Led by Bernard Baruch
2. Food Administration
- Increasing American food production became a top priority
- Country came together
3. Committee on Public Information (CPI)
- 150,000 lectures
- Helped spur liberty bonds
American Preparation
- 2,000,000 soldiers were sent to France
- Slow mobilization - fewer that 300,00 troops within a year
- US used a convoy to get to Europe
The American Expeditionary Force
- American troops involved in WWI - led by General John J. Pershing
Wilsons Fourteen Points
- Wilsons proposal for peace after WWI
- First Five: Open treaties, open seas, free trade, arms reduction, adjustment of colonial
claims
- Six-Thirteen: National self determination, realignment of borders
- Fourteen: New Organization to prevent wars
Peace Making
- The Big Four - America, France, UK, Italy
- Dominated peace negotiation, at Versailles
- European leaders were vengeful and selfish

- Wilson wanted to be just


- Victors: received secret land treaties
Rise of isolationism in the US
I.
II.
III.

Most gov officials and citizens in the 1920 were isolationists


Felt us should avoid alliances and agreements
Nye committee- investigated US entry into WW1
a. Found
i. International bankers drew us into war
ii. Muniti9ons industries pressed for America to enter the war

Neutrality legislation
I.
II.
III.

Neutrality act 1935- authorized pres. To bor. Arms sales to warring nations
1936- extened neutrality legislation
a. Put limit on sales of arms to beligerants
Cash and carry- mush pay cash before goods left US soil
a. Country had to carry goods on its own ship

Destroyer Base deal


I.

FDR traded 50 old destroyers for the use of 8 british naval bases

Lend lease
II.
III.

US would lend or lease whatever supplies we could make


Supllies sent to any nation pres considered vital to defense of the US

Atlantic Carrier
I.
II.

FDR and churchhill met- wanted a better world future


US and GB- seeking no territorial gain
a. Real reason for meeting- churchhill needed American troops

Effects of war on 1940


I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

Rep nom- Wendell L White


a. Opposed new deal
Dem Nom- FDR
Both wanted to aid GB
FDR won
First and only person elected to three terms

Battlefield is everywhere
I.

New warfare
a. Blitzkrieg
i. Depended heaviuly on air power

Germany
II.
III.
1940

Used the fasted new3est vehuicles + airplanes


Struck quickly at the heart of the enemy

I.

In England Winston churchhill became prime minister

US preprers for war


II.
III.
IV.

FDR wanted the US to rearm


Wanted billions of dollars to create a two ocean navy
Size of air force greatly increased

Battle of the atlntic


I.
II.
III.

German sub warfare


a. Wolf packs sunk tons of allied supplies
Main years
a. 1942-1943
Subs had to be beaten
a. Radar and sonar are invented

Jap- American Relations


I.

1931-1940
I.
Jap military aggression was
II.
Militarily unopposed by the US
III.
Japan became a partener of Germany and Italy
IV.
Japan attacked and expanded through china
i. Wanted to cut off us aid to china
V.
US demanded Jap withdraw
VI.
Jap had to choose peace or war
i. Choose war

America at war
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

Sun dec 7 1941- pearl harbor is attacked by Jap


Surprise attack 180 am. Warplanes destroyed
a. 18 naval vessels were sunk
More than 10 civilans and 2043 sevice men were killed
1177 crewman of the Arizona died in the attack
Next day FDR Japans day of infamy plunged US into war

War on the home front


I.

Selective service
a. Draft starts in 1940
b. By pearl harbor 1.6 mil in army
i. Millions more volunteer after attack

Internment camps
II.
III.

March 1942- close to 120000 Jap americans were rounded up and confined to camps
Were placed in camps because of fear of espionage

Wartime agencies
I.
II.
III.

1940- industry just emerging


1942- American production = germ, ita, jap production combined
During WW2 the gov regulated the economy to achive max production

IV.

Full employment imflation occurred

Women and Minorities


I.
II.
III.

1945- 258000 women were serving in the armed foeces


Took a wide variety of jobs
18 million men were part of the American work force

Minorities
I.
II.
III.
IV.

About 1 mil. African Americans served in WW2


Served in segregated units in early stages
Many migrated to industrial areas
Over 500000 latin americans served and were not segregated

Conservation and rationing


I.
II.
III.

Was used to assure availability of scare items to all citizens


Received coupons for a share of rationed items
US and allies shared everything the US could make

American strategy
Get hitler first
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

If germny won in Europe Us would face aggressive nations alone


Second front
Wanted by Russians
Wantd allies to invade lands held by the axis powers
Instead by July 192 allies invaded north africa

Invasuion of north Africa


I.
II.
III.

Germany led by desert fox Gen Erwin Rommel


Brit- led by Gen Perrard
Montgomerys broke through Rommels Africa Korps

Demobilization
1. Size of the armed forces was decreased
2. 1946 - 12 million to 3 million
3. Same still served in West Germany and Japan to ensure a smooth governmental
transition
Democratic Nominee - Harry S. Truman; Incumbent President
Democratic Party Split - Opposed Trumans stand on civil rights
Republican Nominee - Thomas E. Dewey - Gov. of New York
Truman - Campaigned by train-whistle stop
TV was a small factor
Truman wins a close election
Truman - Wanted to give the American people a Fair Deal
Fair Deal - an extension of New Deal reforms

Atomic Energy Act - preserved government control of fissionable materials


Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) encouraged private and government research and
development of atomic energy

National Security Act


1.
2.
3.
4.

Armed forces - Placed under a new cabinet and department


Headed by a civilian: Sec. of Defense
Created the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Succession passed from Vice President to the Speaker of the House and then to the
President pro temper of the senate
5. Truman - Believed the President should be someone elected to office
Twenty Second Amendment

Limited any president after Harry Truman to two terms


A reaction of FDRs time in office

Post War America: Affluent Society and Culture

White Collar Jobs: Jobs that are mainly in sales and management
Blue Collar Jobs: Jobs that are physical in nature

Labor

Laborers - wanted wage increases; many had not received them during the war, and
inflation concerns were growing
Both the railroad and the coal mines went on strike

Taft-Hartly Act
1. Goal: To achieve a better balance between labor and management
2. President - If strike endangered public safety, he could require a cool off period
3. During this period: Unions could not call a strike, and management could not call a
lockout
G.I. Bill of Rights
1. Provided veterans of WWII with a variety of services
2. Hospitals, payments to vets without jobs, free tuition, books and expenses for job
training, college or advanced education
3. Helped veterans with their transition to civilian life
Multi-National Corporation

A corporation that has branches in other countries

Franchises
1. One person owns or operates several stores of a particular chain

2. Typically have a specific uniform and style


3. Continuity
Baby Boom

Soldiers coming home from WWII


Number of babies increases exponentially
Baby Boom - Typically born between 1946-1964

Consumerism
1. People desire the objects their neighbors have - Keeping up with the Jones
2. More disposable income = more spending
3. Luxury items
Advertising
1. People are buying more
2. Companies market goods to try and sell
3. Advertising explosion
Lewittown
1.
2.
3.
4.

Lewittown, NY one of the first suburbs


Bill Levitt - mass produced similar looking houses
Houses were inexpensive
Other Lewittowns sprung up

Reasons for moving to the suburbs:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Escape from crime and congestion


Better life
Picturesque environnent
Affordability
Effect: Leads to urban sprawl

Technological Breakthroughs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Polio Vaccination: Jonas Salk (1954)


Polio was a huge issue in the 1950s
We didn't know what caused it
Jonas Salk first tests on himself and family
Albert Sabin invents an oral vaccination
Polio cases plummet across the US

1950s Popular Culture and The Other Side of American Life

TV more affordable
1946 - 7,000 sets
1957 - 40,000,000 sets

Advertising finds a new outlet


Sports events become very popular

Popular TV Programs of the 1950s

Comedy Shows (Bob Hope and Jack Benny)


Action Shows (Lone Ranger, Gunsmoke, Dragnet)
Variety Shows (Ed Sullivan Show, quiz shows)

Movies in the 1950s

TV grows; moveis decline


3D, Widescreen, Drive in Movies

Youth Culture
1.
2.
3.
4.

Rock N Roll grew from R&B


Music was ideal for dancing
Buddy Holly, Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry, Bill Harley and the Comets
Draws teens in

Music and Youth

Rock and Roll became the popular music of the times


Parents do not like it
Youth rebels
People complain that Rock and Roll incites youth
Generation gap

African American Entertainers

TV tended to shut out African American entertainers


Few break through
Chuck Berry, Ray Charles, Little Richard
Female groups become popular

Other Side of American Life


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1950, 1 in 3 were impoverished


End of the 50s, 1 in 5
Most were bling to the nations poor
Thought all were well
Not all Americans were a part of affluent society
Minorities and rural poor
The American Dream remained out of reach for these people

Decline of the Inner City


1. White families begin to move to the suburbs

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Tax money goes with these people


Urban centers begin to decline
Urban renewal
Tear down slums
Nice high risse towers
Overcrowded, leads to violence

Hotness Level

Level 1: Friends - Team you support (Phillies/Eagles)


Level 2: Acquaintance - Team you mildly support/indifferent about
Level 3: Disliked Person - Team you dislike
Level 4: Strong Dislike - Team you would never root for
Level 5: Mortal enemy - Team you actively hate and root against

Marshall Plan
1. American plan to give aid to European countries in need
2. Level 2: Its not bad or very beneficial for America, but it was something they supported
because it was helping and ally nation of theirs (And other humans well being)
Long Telegram
1. Sent by Moscow Embassy George Kennan, a message explaining his views of Soviet
goals
2. Level 3: We disliked the views revealed by the telegram, but no action would be made
against it
Berlin Airlift
1. In reaction to the Soviets invading West Germany, Truman orders the Berlin Airlift to
carry supplies in to countries in need under Soviet rule
2. Level 4: America is now showing its defiance to the Soviets in a show of support for its
enemies
Fall of China to Communism
1. China was overtaken by the Soviets after funds sent to prevent communism were
squandered by poor military management
2. Level 4: Soviets defeat us after we have invested money into a cause; its infuriating
Korean War
1. Fighting between America and the Soviet union begins in Korea, dividing the country into
two halves with two different governing systems
2. Level 5: War has broken out; and we are killing each others soldiers
Early Cold War Foreign Affairs
1. A new organization to replace the League of Nations

2. Organized to promote international security and cooperation


3. General Assembly included delegates from every member nation
Truman Doctrine
Attempted to contain communist growth
Marshall Plan
Sec. of State Marshall - Provide gifts to Europe
Wanted to prevent economic, social and political deterioration
Also, US was concerned that countries were in disrepair would turn to communism
Russia and satellite countries did not accept aid
US, England, and France supplied West Berlin by air
May 1949 - Russians lifted blockade
Fall of China
1. US former ally, Chian Kai-shek, was driven out of mainland China
2. October 1949 - Chinese Communists, led by Mao Zedong, controlled Chinese mainland
3. The fall of the mainland seemed like one more defeat for the US
N.A.T.O
1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization
2. Allied US and Canada with ten W. European nations from Norway to Portugal,
Eventually 15 members
3. Signed April 4, 1949; An attack on one is treated as an attack on all
4. US joined the first peacetime alliance in its history
5. Gen. Eisenhower - Commander of NATO forces
Korean War
1. Invasion by North Korea:
- 1949/1950 - Skirmishes took place between Koreas along the 38th parallel
2. Suddenly, on Jun 25, 1950: 135,000 N. Koreans armed and organized by the Soviets
attack South Korea
3. Trumans Action
4. Had the attack brought before the UN Security Council
5. UN - called for an end to the fighting
6. Gen MacArthur - Told to furnish arms and naval and air support to South Koreans
7. 2 Days after invasion, UN Security Council calls on member nations to aid S. Korea
8. Gen. MacArthur - Put in command of UN Forces
Inchon Landing
Early days of the war: N. Korea pushed S. Korea and UN Forces south into a small area
around Punsan
Sept. 15 1950 - Mac Arthur lands forces from sea at Inchon
A daring and successful flank maneuver
Chinese Communists in Korea

UN - Wanted to defeat N. Korea and create a unified, independent, democratic


government
China warned - If UN crossed the 38th parallel, the Chinese would defend N. Korea
Chinese troops joined N. Korea after UN troops crossed over

Truman Vs. Mac Arthur


Mac Arthur - An entirely new war - wanted to bomb mainland China
Truman and Joint Chiefs of Staff refused him
Truman removed Mac Arthur from his position
Today: The border (close to the 38th Parallel) is a Demilitarized Zone (2.5 miles wide)
It is the most heavy militarized border in the world
Eisenhowers Domestic Program
1. Republican Nominee: Dwight D. Eisenhower
2. GOP - Grand Old Party
3. Democratic Nominee: Adlai E. Stevenson
4. Eisenhower won easily
5. Eisenhowers Farm Problem
6. Farm Problem: Surplus Farm Production
7. Eisenhower admin - Discouraged Overproduction
8. Soil Back - Paid farmers for not planting their crops
Combatting Communism at home
1. Many believed that there was a strong communist conspiracy to take over the US
2. Truman - Issued an Executive Order to go after suspected communists
3. FBI and Civil Service Commission checked the loyalty of all Federal employees; many
were dismissed
McCarthyism
Senator Jospeh McCarthy - Felt Communists had taken over many positions
Accused many individuals of Communist attempts
Civil Rights Movement (1950s)
1. Jim Crow Laws: Laws or statutes created to enforce segregation
2. Jackie Robinson: Breaks the color barriers in MLB in 1947
Brown Vs. Topeka Board of Education (1954)
1. Earl Warren - US Supreme Court (Chief Justice)
2. Supreme Court Decision - Public schools could no longer be separated by race
3. Reversed the separate but equal clause of Plessy Vs. Furguson
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1. Martin Luther King Jr. - Preached to blacks in Mont. to stop using the buses
2. Supreme Court Ruling: Segregation on buses was illegal
Little Rock Arkansas
1. South resisted integration (in schools)
2. Little Rock - National Guard prevented schools from opening/integrating
3. Federal Judge - Forced Nat. Guard to be removed

4. Ike - Sent 1000 paratroopers and opened the schools. The first black students - The
Little Rock Nine
Civil Rights Act, 1957
1. First Civil Rights Act since Reconstruction
2. The Justice Department file suits on behalf of blacks who were denied the right to vote
3. Significance - It passed and was bipartisan
1960s

Race riots broke out throughout the US in the 1960s


Watts, Los Angeles - 1965
1967 saw the worst rioting - Detroit - 43 died, 5000 homeless
Many African-Americans were frustrated with the lack of progress towards equality

Black Leaders
1. Dr. Martin Luther Kind Jr. - Fought for African American rights
2. Used non-violent protests
3. Thurgood Marshall - First African American appointed to supreme court
4. Malcom X - black power movement
5. Influenced African Americans to take pride in their culture and believe in their ability
March on Washingtoon DC (1963)
1. Organized to pressure Congress into passing a civil rights bill
2. More than 200,000 Freedom Marchers gather before the Lincoln Memorial
3. King delivered his I Have a Dream Speech
Civil Rights Strategies
1. Sit ins - Used in an effort to help integrate restaurants
2. Freedom Riders - Used to help draw attention from the Souths refusal to integrate
buses and bus terminals
3. Southern Manifesto - 1956 - 19 Senators and 77 members of the House of
Representatives - Signed a resolution condemning the 1954 Supreme Court decision
condemning the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education
Selma to Montgomery
1. King was attempting to register black voters in the south
2. Will help with the Voting Rights Act (1965)
3. The freedom march began March 21, 1965
4. Marchers were protected by federal marshals, FBI, and Alabama National Guard
Martin Luther Kings Assassination
1. April 4, 1968 - King assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee
2. Rioting broke out across the country
3. James Earl Ray - Arrested and convicted for the crime
Election of 1960
GOP Nominee - Richard M. Nixon
VP under Ike
Democratic nominee - John F. Kennedy
The two appeared on TV for the great debates

Kennedy benefitted from the debates


JFK won one of the closest elections history

Kennedys Foreign Policy:


The US supplied money and arms to anti-Castro Cubans
1500 Anti-Castro troops land at the Bay of Pigs
Terrible defeat - 1200 troops captured
Berlin Wall
August 1961 - Russia sealed off East Berlin/East Germany from West Germany by erecting a
wall
1500 troops sent to W. Berlin - Western powers would not give in - Khrushchev backed down
The Cuban Missile Crisis
Summer 1962 - USSR began to move ballistic missiles and nuclear warheads into Cuba
JFK - Ordered a naval blockade on all offensive military equipment on the way to Cuba
Missiles were dismantled and removed from Cuba
US pledged not to invade the island
Outlawed nuclear tests in the atmosphere, outer space, or under water
The first step towards mutual arms reduction
Does not last
Peace Corps
Volunteers that helped work in underdeveloped countries
Deepening involvement in Vietnam
1. Diem - Leader of South Vietnam
2. Kennedy - Supported Diem - Sent advisors to train S. Vietnamese Army
3. 1963 - Diem is overthrown and murdered - 16,000 Americans in S. Vietnam
Assassination of JFK
1. Feelings toward JFK in Dallas were bitter
2. Nov. 22, 1963 - Pres. motorcade passed through the city
3. He was shot
4. Oswald - Gunned down by Jack Ruby
The Warren Commission
Chief Justice Earl Warren - Headed a commission in investigating the shooting
Conclusion - Lee Harvey Oswald and Jack Ruby acted alone
Johnsons Domestic Program
LBJs Honeymoon
Tax cut - Originally asked for by Kennedy
Lowered taxes by 11.5 billion
Economic Opportunity Act
War on poverty - Set up job and work training programs
Election of 1964

Republican Nominee - Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona


Democratic Nominee - LBJ
LBJ wins easily

The Great Society


1. Was a program of social reform
2. Civil Rights Act of 1964
3. Forbade racial discrimination/segregation in the use of federal funds and in most places
of public accommodation
4. Equal access to: restaurants, parks, libraries, and theaters
5. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission - Sought to protect African American rights
to jobs
Medicare
Citizens over 65 - Received low cost hospital insurance
Financed by the federal government
Vs.
Medicaid
Federal Govt. financed health care (to states) to help needy people (people living below
the poverty line) below the age of 65
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Pledges to spend 1.3 billion for aid to education
Could not receive aid unless schools obeyed laws against segregation
Voting Rights Act
1. Increased the number of black voters by 50%
2. Outlawed measures used to suppress minority votes
Johnsons Foreign Policy
1. Deeper involvement in Vietnam: The Tonkin Gulf Resolution
2. August 2 and 4 1964 - Two US destroyers attacked by N. Vietnamese gunboats
3. Tonkin Gulf Resolution allowed the Pres. to expand war powers in Vietnam
4. Could repel any armed attack
Why we were in Vietnam
1. Jan 1965 - LBJ - Sent 20,000 more troops to help the 27,000 already there
2. Domino Theory - If S. Vietnam fell to communism so would the rest of South East Asia
3. To stop aggression and protect our reputation
4. Dec. 1965 - 185,000 Am. troops in S. Vietnam
Effects of Vietnam on the election of 1968
1. LBJ - Decided not to run for a second term
2. Robert F. Kennedy - Assassinated after winning the California primary
3. Sirhan Sirhan - Fired the fatal shots
Election Results
1. Democratic Nominee - Hubert H. Humphrey
2. Bitter fighting between Democrats at the convention in Chicago
3. Republican nominee - Nixon

4. Am. Idependent Party - Gov. George C. Wallace - Alabama


5. Nixon wins a close election
Nixons Domestic Affairs
1. Space Program pushed for many years
2. Goal: Putting a man on the moon by the end of the decade
3. Apollo 11 - Command ship for Aldrin, Armstrong and Collins
4. Eagle - Luner Module
Domestic Policy
1. Cut costs of govt. and balance the budget
2. Made four Supreme Court appointments
3. Democrats in control of Congress; Nixon had trouble reaching his goals
4. Foreign Affairs during Nixons first term
5. Vietnamization - Slowly bringing American troops home, and turn war over to the South
Vietnamese
6. Anti-War protests - Opposition mainly occurred at colleges and universities
7. Kent St. University - Four students are killed by Nat. Guard
My Lai Massacre
1. US troops - Killed 300 civilians in village of My Lai
2. Most of the killed were women and children
3. The military attempted to cover up the crime
SALT I Agreement: 1972
1. Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)
2. Limited nuclear arms development
3. Detente - French term - Nixon used the word to describe the reduction of tensions
between US and USSR
Election of 1972
1. Republican Nominee - President Nixon
2. Democratic Nominee - George McGovern
3. Foreign Policy during Nixons Second Term
4. Secret Cambodian Bombings
5. Bombed suspected Viet Cong bases in Cambodia (Operation Menu)
6. Congress & public were not told
7. Vietnam Bombing intensifies
8. March 1972 - Thousands of N. Vietnamese invade S. Vietnam
9. US response - Bombing raids all across indochina
US aid to Israel
1. Oct. 1973 - Egypt and Syria attacked Israel on Yom Kippur
2. Nixon aided the Israelis with various suppliers
3. Arab response to Israel - Embargoed oil to shipments
4. US - Faced with gasoline shortages and higher prices
Domestic Affairs during Nixons Second Term - Watergate
1. A special investigation unit, plumbers broke into the Democratic Nat. Comm.
Headquarters in the Watergate office building
2. Caught! Nixon attempted a cover-up

3.
4.
5.
6.

Reporter Bob Woodward, Wash. Post, broke the story


Resignation of Agnew
VP Agnew - Accused of serious crimes
Resigned and pleaded no contest to tax evasion

Resignation of Richard Nixon


1. Supreme Court asks for tapes - 18 minute gap in them
2. August 9, 1974 - Nixon resigned the Office of the President
Domestic Problems of Gerald Ford
Nixon Pardon - Pres. Ford granted a full pardon to Nixon
So that they didn't have to go to court and stuff
Foreign Affairs during Ford Administration
S. Vietnam never took control of Vietnam War; US evacuates South Vietnam in Oct.
1975
Arab Oil Embargo
Lasting Effects - OPEC, fuel efficiency, speed limit
Election of 1976
Republican Nominee - Pres. Ford
Democratic Nominee - Jimmy Carter - Gov. or Georgia
Carter wins close election
Carters Presidency
Foreign Policy
Main Goal - Promote Human Rights
SALT II - Attempted, but never made
Domestic Policy - Energy Crisis
Carter dealt with the problem by creating the Dept. of Energy
Three Mile Island Accident (1979) - Feared radiation leak
International Problems
1. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
2. US response - Embargo of grain to the Soviets, a boycott of the 1980 Olympics in
Moscow
3. Iran hostage crisis - Nov. 4, 1979
4. Angry mob invaded US Embassy in Teheran, taking 52 Am. hostages
5. Lasted 444 days
6. Middle East problems continued
7. Egypt and Israel met at Camp David to disc peace
8. Result - Camp David Accords - Est. official diplomatic relations between Egypt and Israel
Neo-Conservatism (Election of 1980)
1. Republican Nominee - Ronald Reagan - Gov. of Calif.
2. Democratic Nominee - Pres. Carter
3. Reagan wins easily
Reagans Domestic Policy

1. Took over during a time of Stagflation - a combination of high unemployment and high
inflation
2. The solution - Cut many domestic programs; Increased spending on military defense
3. Dismantle the welfare state and shrink the size of the federal government
4. New Federalism - Shifting responsibility for many social programs to the states
The Results
1. The biggest economic expansion in history up to that time
2. median income grew by 15%
3. 5 million new businesses were formed
4. 20 million new jobs were created
5. By 1989, the unemployment rate dropped to 5.5%
Reagan Doctrine
1. A policy of supporting guerrilla groups that were fighting to overthrow Communism or
pro-Soviet governments
2. Reagan Doctrine - Supported Afghanistan guerillas, anti-Sandinista guerllas in
Nicaragua, sent American troops to Grenada
3. Reagan wins an overwhelming landslide over Walter Mondale
4. Sandra Day O Connor - Appointed to the Supreme Court by Reagan
5. Troubles Abroad
6. Wanted to stop communism and saw the Soviet Union as the focus of the evil in the
modern world
7. Peace through strength
8. 1983 - Marine headquarters blown up in Lebanon
9. 241 American Marines were killed in the terrorist attack
10. October 1983 - Grenada - After a military coup, a govt. sympathetic to Communist Cuba
was established
11. US invades Grenada - Did not want another Communist country in the Western
Hemisphere
Iran Contra
Iran Contra Scandal - US sold arms to Iran; Reagan - Wanted to free hostages being held in the
Middle East
The money went to help support contra rebels in Nicaragua
Election of 1988
Republican nominee - George H. W. Bush - Vice President under Reagan
Democratic nominee - Michael Dukakis - Govt. of Massachusetts
Bush wins easily
1989 - Berlin wall comes down
1991 - Soviet Unions Communist government collapses
The Cold War comes to an end
Persian Gulf War
Iraq seizes Kuwait August 2, 1990
US - Sent forces to protect Saudi Arabia
The allies attack
Operation Dessert Storm - US and allies attack Jan. 17, 1991

Iraq - Agreed to withdraw after 42 days of fighting

Clinton Presidency
Domestic Policy: Struggled with both health care and gays in the military
He and the Republican Congress passed legislation requiring a balanced budget
Attempted to reduce deficit
December, 1998 - Impeached for perjury and obstruction of justice
Foreign Policy
NNAFTA - North American Free Trade Agreement
Eliminated tariffs and other barriers too trade with Canada and Mexico
Election of 2000
Rep. Nominee - George Bush - Gov. of Texas
Dem. Nominee - Al Gore - VP under Clinton
Bush wins one of the closest elections in history
Came down to Florida - Bush won by 537 votes
9/11
1.
2.
3.
4.

Al-Quada group - responsible for the attack


Coordinated attack - 4 US commercial planes hijacked
2 flown into World Trade Centers (NYC), 1 into the Pentagon, 1 crashes in PA
2996 died