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# 8L Earth and Space

## recommended teaching time 7.5-10 hours

Looks at stars and galaxies, and the distances involved when studying space.
Areas covered:

## Prior knowledge from

KS2

This unit covers the following statements from the UK National Curriculum for Science (2013)
Non-contact forces: gravity forces acting at a distance on Earth and in space, forces between magnets and forces due to static
electricity.
Magnetic poles, attraction and repulsion
Magnetic fields by plotting with compass, representation by field lines
Gravity force, weight = mass x gravitational field strength (g), on Earth g = 10 N/Kg, different on other planets and stars;
gravity forces between Earth and Moon and between Earth and Sun (qualitative only)
Our Sun as a star, other starts in our galaxy, other galaxies
The seasons and the Earths tilt, day length at different times of year, in different hemispheres
The light year as a unit of astronomical distance
From KS2 most students will be able to:

Describe the movement of the Earth and other planets relative to the Sun (Year 5)
Describe the movement of the Moon relative to the Earth (Year 5)
Describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies (Year 5)
Use the idea of the Earths rotation to explain day and night (Year 5)

## From previous units, most students will be able to:

Describe the difference between weight and mass (7K)
Recall the direction in which gravity acts (7K)
In this Unit taken from
Exploring science teacher
notes

Topic 8La briefly revises KS2 work on the Earth, Sun and Moon. It looks at how observations are made and the Solar System models
that have been used over time to explain observations. The Literacy & Communication pages look at presenting arguments.
Topic 8Lb looks at the season and their causes
Topic 8Lc describes the magnetic fields of bar magnets and of the Earth.
Topic 8Ld describes how to calculate weight from mass and gravitational field strength, and looks at the role of gravity in space. The
Working Scientifically pages look at making comparisons using ratios and percentages.
Topic 8Le looks at stars and galaxies, and the distance involved when studying space.

## Levelness for this topic

L3

Describe differences in the seasons in terms of day length and the height of the Sun.

## Describe how we see the moon

Describe the positions of the Earth and planets in the Solar System
Describe the positions of the Earth and planets in the Solar system

## Describe some ways of investigating the planets

Compare the geocentric and heliocentric models of the Solar System.
Use a model to explain why we see phases of the Moon

Explain how technological developments have increased our knowledge of the Solar System
Explain why the heliocentric model is our current model of the Solar System

L4

Explain the changes in day length and height of the Sun in terms of the tilt of the Earths axis.
State what is meant by a magnetic field and recall the shape of the field of a bar magnet
Describe the effect of the Earths magnetic field on compass needles
Explain how to arrange two magnets so that they attract or repel each other
Recall the direction of a magnets magnetic field
Recall the direction in which gravity acts
State the meaning of: Sun, star, galaxy, Universe, constellation
Describe the Milky Way

L5

## Use a model to explain the changes in the seasons.

Use a model to explain why the height of the Sun at noon and hours of daylight vary with latitude.
Explain how a compass can be used together with maps for navigation
Explain how a plotting compass can be used to show the shape and direction of a magnetic field
Describe the Earths magnetic field and explain why a magnetic compass needle points north
Describe the shape of the magnetic field between two bar magnets in different arrangements
Recall the factors that affect the strength of gravity
Stat the meaning of gravitational field strength
Explain why the weight of an object changes if taken to the Moon, but not its mass
Use gravitational field strength to calculate weights
Explain that stars in a constellation only appear to be close to each other
Compare the relative sizes and distances of objects in space
Describe the different shapes of galaxies and relate the view of the sky to a planets position in a galaxy

L6

Use a model to explain the pattern of light and dark at the poles.

Obtain information from secondary sources to investigate the relationships in astronomical data

## Compare different theories for the origin of the Moon

Use a model to explain why we have partial and total solar eclipses

Recall that planets and natural satellites are kept in orbit by gravity
Describe how mass and distance affect the strength of gravity
Describe how gravity affects bodies in space
State the meaning of light years

L7

Explain the effect of the tilt of the Earths axis on the energy received from the Sun.
Analyse the rotations and axes of other planets to predict annual changes

Use ideas about the Earths magnetic field to explain variation, dip and deviation
Describe some ways in which astronomers can detect planets orbiting stars other than the Sun

Explain why the speed of a planet changes as it moves around its orbit

L8

Working Scientifically
focus

## Literacy and numeracy

focus

Assessment opportunities

In addition to covering a variety of Working Scientifically statements, this unit has a focus on:

Present observations and data using appropriate methods, including tables and graphs

Interpret observations and data, including identifying patterns and using observations, measurements and data to draw
conclusions.

Presenting arguments
Using ratios to compare quantities
Writing one number as a fraction of another and converting fractions to decimals
Substituting values into simple formula and solving resulting equations
Drawing line graphs and scatter graphs, and using these to draw conclusions

## SAT style questions

Exploring Science EOUT
Badger Activity self and peer assessment available here.
Literacy and numeracy activities.
Alfie test on line
GCSE exam style QWC - question, were students will be marked on the good use of English, organisation of information, spelling,
punctuation and grammar

Week No

## The Big Idea

Lesson number
1) Gathering
the evidence

Learning Objectives

## Describe how we see

the moon
Describe the positions
of the Earth and planets
in the Solar System
Describe the positions
of the Earth and planets
in the Solar system
Describe some ways of
investigating the planets
Compare the geocentric
and heliocentric models
of the Solar System.
Use a model to explain
why we see phases of
the Moon
Explain how
technological
developments have
increased our knowledge
of the Solar System
Explain why the
heliocentric model is our
current model of the
Solar System
Compare different
theories for the origin
of the Moon
Use a model to explain
why we have partial and
total solar eclipses.

Activities
L4 1 Changing ideas, introduces the theme of
exploring space
L4-6 2 Gathering the evidence, outlines ways in
which scientists explore the Solar System
L4-6 3 Scientific arguments, looks at how to
construct a scientific argument using the context
of Galileo vs the Catholic Church
L5-7 - 4 Ways of exploring, Students discuss
meanings of topic keywords and dis/advantages of
different ways of space exploration
L5 5 Phases of the moon, demonstrate phases of
the moon using a light source, students asked to
draw the shapes of the moon when it is illuminated
from different angles.
L5 6 Eclipses, Demonstrate an eclipse, students
discuss lunar/solar eclipses and why eclipses dont
happen every month.

Keywords/ H&S

Telescope, space
telescope, space probe,
flyby, orbiter, lander,
rover, crewed
spacecraft.

2) Seasons

3) Magnetic
Earth

Describe differences in
the seasons in terms of
day length and the height
of the Sun.
Explain the changes in
day length and height of
the Sun in terms of the
tilt of the Earths axis.
Use a model to explain
the changes in the
seasons.
Use a model to explain
why the height of the Sun
at noon and hours of
daylight vary with
latitude.
Use a model to explain
the pattern of light and
dark at the poles.
Obtain information from
secondary sources to
investigate the
relationships in
astronomical data.
Explain the effect of the
tilt of the Earths axis on
the Sun.
Analyse the rotations and
axes of other planets to
predict annual changes.
State what is meant by
a magnetic field and
recall the shape of the
field of a bar magnet
Describe the effect of
the Earths magnetic

## L4 1 Hours of Daylight 1, Students are asked to

work out the daylight hours each month and draw a
bar chart; and to work out which hemisphere the
data is for.

## Light, time, sun, solar

system, seasons, axis

## investigate if everywhere in the world has more hours

of daylight in their summer months than in their
winter months and how the latitude affects daylight
hours.
L4-5 3 Explaining the seasons, Give students only
the white cards (the grey ones can be blanked off
when copying the worksheet). Ask them to sort the
cards and then summarise the information on them.
They should then explain the information using ideas
about the tilt of the Earths axis and the way the Suns
rays are concentrated in summer.
L5-6 4 Lines of latitude, Worksheet 8Lb-6 explains
the connection between the tilt of the Earths axis and
significant lines of latitude, such as the Arctic and
Antarctic Circles.
L7 5 Concentrated rays, Demonstrate the validity of
the concentrated rays explanation for the difference
in temperatures between summer and winter, by
using three trays of sand inclined at different angles to
the same source of light/heat. Temperature
differences between the trays can be recorded using
normal thermometers, or data logging equipment
with heat sensors.
L4 1 Field pattern using iron filings, Students
find the shape of a magnetic field by placing a sheet of
paper over a bar magnet and sprinkling iron fi lings
onto the paper. This is easier if the paper is kept
horizontal by resting it on two books, with a gap in the
middle for the magnet. Students may need help to

Bar magnet,
magnaprobe,
magnetism, magnetic
poles

## field on compass needles

Explain how to arrange
two magnets so that
they attract or repel
each other
Recall the direction of a
magnets magnetic field
Explain how a compass
can be used together
Explain how a plotting
compass can be used to
show the shape and
direction of a magnetic
field
Describe the Earths
magnetic field and
explain why a magnetic
compass needle points
north
Describe the shape of
the magnetic field
between two bar
magnets in different
arrangements
Earths magnetic field
to explain variation, dip
and deviation.

## relate the iron fi lings pattern to that obtained with

plotting compasses
L4-5 2 Field pattern using plotting compasses,
Worksheet 8Lc-2 explains how to use plotting
compasses to find the shape of a magnetic field.
Encourage students to move the compass around
above and below the magnet either holding it
vertically or observing the dip of the needle to
emphasise that the magnetic field is all around the
magnet, not just in the plane of the paper
L4 3 Homemade compass, Show students how to

## make their own magnets by the stroking method. This

involves repeatedly stroking one end of a bar magnet
along a needle or other iron or steel object. Students
then make their own magnet and test it by using it to
attract paperclips or other iron/steel objects. Steel
dressmaking pins can be used, but you may wish to
file down sharp points before using them
L5 4 Which is the magnet, Have a selection of large
nails, some of which are magnetised and some that
are not. Twice as many magnetised nails are needed
as un-magnetised ones. Label half the magnetised
nails A, and half C. Label the un-magnetised nails B.
Give each group of students a set of nails and ask
them to decide which one is not magnetised. Once
they have done this, groups can compare results and
explain their reasoning to each other
L5 5 Maps and Navigation, Show students an
Ordnance Survey map and an orienteering map. Ask
them to look at the key on the OS map and find the
information for North Points. Ask them to suggest
why there is a difference between magnetic north and
true north

4) Gravity in
Space

## Recall the direction in

which gravity acts
Recall the factors that
affect the strength of
gravity
Stat the meaning of
gravitational field
strength
Explain why the weight
of an object changes if
taken to the Moon, but
not its mass
Use gravitational field
strength to calculate
weights
Recall that planets and
natural satellites are
kept in orbit by gravity
Describe how mass and
distance affect the
strength of gravity
Describe how gravity
affects bodies in space
Explain why the speed
of a planet changes as it
moves around its orbit

## pick up a set of cereal packets or other containers that

are all the same size. Each should be labelled with the
name of a planet, and students should be told that
these are models to help them to feel what holding up
1 kg of mass would be like on each planet.
L4-8 2 ROKIT investigation, Demonstrate the safe
use of a model rocket kit. A suitable kit is the ROKIT.
Groups of students could use the kit to investigate
how the volume of the bottle or the volume of water
used affects the maximum height reached by the
ROKIT, how the angle of launch or the wind speed
affect the range, or how the ROKIT can be
streamlined. The ROKIT is accompanied by a booklet
showing how to make a clinometer to measure the
maximum height, how to make various weather
measuring instruments and how teams of students
can be organised into a Rocket Range Crew.
L4-6 3 Investigating orbits, The AT spreadsheet
Investigating orbits provides data about the Solar
System which students use to plot graphs to help
them to describe relationships in the data.
L4-6 4 Selecting the data, The AT spreadsheet
Selecting the data provides data about the planets,
dwarf planets and some moons in the Solar System.
Students are asked to use the data to help them to
work out which statements are true.
L5 5 Ratios and percentages, Worksheet 8Ld-4
provides practice in calculating ratios and
percentages.
L4-6 6 The Vomit Comet, Worksheet 8Ld-6

## provides information and questions on how

astronauts train for weightless conditions.

gravity, weight

5) Beyond the
Solar System

## State the meaning of:

Sun, star, galaxy,
Universe, constellation
Describe the Milky Way
Explain that stars in a
constellation only appear
to be close to each
other
Compare the relative
sizes and distances of
objects in space
Describe the different
shapes of galaxies and
relate the view of the
sky to a planets position
in a galaxy
State the meaning of
light years
Describe some ways in
which astronomers can
detect planets orbiting
stars other than the
Sun.

## provides a set of questions about the Solar System,

and other stars and planets. It asks students to sort
them into scientific and non-scientific questions, and
then to sort the scientific questions into those that
can be answered now, those that it may be possible to
answer at some time in the future and those that may
L6-7 - 2 Research spending debate, Ask students to

## imagine that they are serving on a scientific

committee that has to decide how to spend some
research money. The committee has to decide which
of the following things the money should be spent on:
a new large telescope on the ground a new space
telescope space probes to visit the moons of Jupiter
or Saturn a crewed mission to Mars
L5 3 Spending for or against? Worksheet 8Le-4
provides some opinions about spending on space
research. Students are asked to say which opinions
are for and which are against spending on space, and
are then asked to explain which of the opinions they
agree with. S
L5 4 Debate, There is an opportunity for a debate on
Student Book page 8Le Studying space. Refer to Skills
Sheet RC 5 from the Year 7 Activity Pack for ideas on
how to run a debate
L5 Light speed walk, There is a Solar System model
in Anchorage (from which the photo of the Sun comes
in fi gure A). The Anchorage Light speed Planet Walk is
set up so that a person walking at a normal speed will
take the same time to travel between the models of
the Sun and the planets as light would take in the real
Solar System. The AT spreadsheet Investigating orbits
includes information on the distance of each planet

5) Revision
6) Assessment