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Base
Cindy Cliche
Pam Neal
Mary Beth Young

## 6 Big Ideas of Place Value

Understanding
1. Sets of ten (and tens of tens) can be perceived as single

entities or units.
2. The positions of digits in numbers determine what they
representwhich size group they count. This is the major
organizing principle of placevalue numeration and is central
to developing number sense.
3. There are patterns to the way that numbers are formed.
4. The groupings of ones, tens, and hundreds can be taken
apart in different but equivalent ways. Decomposing and
composing multi-digit numbers in flexible ways is a
necessary foundation for computational estimation and exact
computation.
Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics: Developmentally Appropriate

## 6 Big Ideas of Place Value

Understanding
5. Children progress through three levels of understanding

## the concept of ten starting with understanding ten

not as a unit but only as ten ones. They then move to
seeing ten as a unit but rely on physical or mental
reconstructions of models to help them work with units
of ten. Finally, they are able to easily work with units of
ten without the need of physical or mental
reconstructions of baseten models.
6. Childrens ability to label the tens place and the ones
place or to count by tens does not guarantee that they
understand that one ten is the same as ten ones.
Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics: Developmentally Appropriate

K.NBT.A.1.
Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to

## 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g.,

by using objects or drawings, and record each
composition or decomposition by a drawing or
equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8); understand that
these numbers are composed of ten ones and
one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or
nine ones.

1. NBT
2. Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number
represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the
following as special cases: a. 10 can be thought of as a
bundle of ten ones called a ten. b. The numbers
from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two,
three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. c. The
numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one,
two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens
(and 0 ones).
3. Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings
of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of
comparisons with the symbols >, =, and

2.NBT
1. Understand that the three digits of a three-digit number

## represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706

equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the
following as special cases: a. 100 can be thought of as a
bundle of ten tens called a hundred. b. The numbers 100,
200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three,
four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0
ones).
2. Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100s.
3. Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals,
number names, and expanded form.
4. Compare two three-digit numbers based on meanings of the
hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to
record the results of comparisons.

## A difficulty in the English-speaking world is that the words

for teen numbers do not make their base-ten meanings
evident. For example, eleven and twelve do not sound
like ten and one and ten and two. The numbers
thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, . . . , nineteen reverse the order
of the ones and tens digits by saying the ones digit first.
Also, teen must be interpreted as meaning ten and the
prefixes thir and fif do not clearly say three and five.
In contrast, the corresponding East Asian number words are
ten one, ten two, ten three, and so on, fitting directly with
the base-ten structure and drawing attention to the role of
ten.
- Van de Walle, 2013

View
#1

View
#2

View
#3

Pre-Place Value
Understanding
Count by ones approach
16 is seen as 1 and 6 not as a 10 and an 6
10 is viewed as 10 ones and not as a unit
When adding and subtracting, strategies are based

## Children are often able to disguise their lack of

understanding of place value by following
directions, using the tens and ones pieces in
prescribed ways, and using the language of
place value.
- Van de Walle, 2013

Levels of Understanding
Level 1: Initial Concept of Ten
See only as ten ones
Count only by ones
Level 2: Intermediate Concept of Ten
See ten as a unit made from ten ones
Rely on physical or mental models
Level 3: Facile Concept of Ten
Easily work with units of ten
Do not rely on physical or mental models
Teaching Student-Centered Mathematics: Developmentally

## Pre-Place Value Levels

Watch each student and discuss which level of

## pre-place value you feel they are functioning

based on this assessment.
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3

Classroom Strategies
Layered Place Value Cards
Number Bond Diagrams
5 and 10 Frames
Counting Days in School
* 10 Frames
* Number Line
* Straws
* Base 10 blocks

Daily Routines
Why?

## Phonemic math-must say it before you

can see it
How?
Hands up on 10 kinesthetic, visual, oral
language
When?
Counting Circle daily
Count to 10, 100, 120, # school days

Counting Circles
Counting Circles come from Number Sense

## Routines by Jessica F. Shumway. Daily

practice helps students build relationships
within numbers and sequences. Students
begin to see patterns within numbers they
help them with computation and problem
solving. These concepts and sill
developments are key foundations to
students sense of number.

Counting Circles
Counting Circles in second
within 1000; skip-count by 5s,
10s, and 100s.
How did Will get the correct
Does Will have an deep
understanding of place value?
Explain.

Days in School

Five as a Model
Five Frames
Towers of 5
Build to 5
Finger Configurations

Ten As a Model
Model

Everyday objects
Counters on ten frame
Counters on double ten

frame
Ten tower/train with cubes
Ten frame to ten rod
Build to 100

Purpose

## Grouping in real world context

Visual context for ten
Visual context for tweens &

teens
Tactile concept of ten as a set
Connect ten model for larger
numbers
Construct tens from ones

## Ten Apples Up on Top

Stacks of ten on characters heads
Ten rod connection
Construct rod from ten frame
Multiple counting opportunities

connection
Use with equations, associative and
commutative properties

## Technology with Tens

Grouping and Grazing
http://

illuminations.nctm.org
/Activity.aspx?id=3526
Counting by ones,
fives, tens
Groups real objects
Framed by fence in
fives/tens
Counting and labeling
with digits after
grouping

## Too Many Tens

Estimate how many beads in the jar. Record

## the answer and place on number line. Talk to

Give each pairs or triads of students a portion
of the items to put in cups of 10 beads.
Collect leftover beads and put into groups of
10.
How can we use these groups of ten to tell
Can we make new groups from the groups of
ten?

## Earth Day Hooray!

This is a challenging problem

## with a four-digit sum.

Students could build bean sticks to use on
the place value mats through page 21.
Base 10 units, longs, flats, and cubes may
also be used to illustrate the story.
This is a great science/math connection.

## Create a House Number

This lesson focuses on forming 3-digit house

## numbers to meet specific requirements.

understanding of mathematical language are
important to finding appropriate solutions.
Using the problem-solving strategies of
looking for patterns and establishing an
organized list will aid students in finding all
the possible solution sets.
Illuminations (nctm.org)

## How Many Ways?

Using base-ten blocks students model

## numbers between 10 and 100, identify ones

and tens digits, and trade tens for ones to
show different representations of the two-digit
numbers. They record their findings and
explore the number of different arrangements
possible for a given number. They extend the
explanation to three-digit numbers.

## How Many Ways?

Represent the number 32 with the base-ten

blocks.
Is there another way to show 32?
Find all the possible ways to show 32 using the

base-ten blocks.

## How Many Ways?

Extend:
Predict the number of ways to show 43 with the
base-ten blocks.
Find all the possible ways to show 43 and

Do you notice a pattern?
Navigating through Number and Operations in Prekindergarten Grade 2

## How Many Ways?

Find the different arrangements for 113. Make a

prediction first!
Find a number that can be represented exactly

## seven ways using only tens rods and ones cubes.

Show 45 with exactly eighteen base-ten blocks.
How many different numbers can you represent

## How Many Ways?

These tasks are designed to help students build
system by grouping and regrouping tens and
ones. Not only are these concepts crucial to a
solid understanding of the meaning of numbers
and place value, but they also give a strong
foundation for later work with addition and
subtraction of two-and three-digit numbers.

## 101 and Out

The Teaching Channel
How does the repetition in a game allow for

## practice without redundancy.

Notice the different ways in which the game
requires students to compare quantities using
place value.
In what ways does the partner and whole
group work help to scaffold learning?
How would you use this game in your
classroom?

## Base Ten Riddles

I have 23 ones and 4 tens. Who am I?
I have 4 hundreds, 12 tens, and 6 ones. Who

am I?
I am 45. I have 25 ones. How many tens do I

have?

## Base Ten Riddles

Write your own base ten riddle.