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Ultrasonic Inspection

Part 3

Ultrasonic Inspection
Sensitivity
Scanning procedure
Defect sizing

Sensitivity
The ability of an ultrasonic system to
find the smallest specified defect at the
maximum testing range
Depends upon
Probe and flaw detector combination
Material properties
Probe frequency
Signal to noise ratio

Methods of Setting Sensitivity

Smallest defect at maximum test range


Back wall echo
Disc equivalent
Grass levels
Side Drilled Holes, DAC Curves

Scanning procedure

Parent material
Root inspection
Side wall inspection
Weld body
Transverse scan

Scanning Procedure
Parent Material
0 degree both sides

To maximum range for angle probes


Full skip distance for 60 or 70 probes

Scanning Procedure
Weld Root
Half skip from both sides

For PCN exams :


70 degree probe at half skip from both sides

Scanning Procedure
Weld Fusion Faces
Half to full skip from both sides

A probe which strikes fusion faces at 90 degrees


Probe angle = 90 - (1/2 Root angle)

Scanning Procedure
Weld Body
Half skip to full skip from both sides
Full Skip

1/2 Skip

Scanning Procedure
Transverse
70 degree

Nozzle Welds
Scanning procedure

Tee butt welds

Defect Identification
Echodynamics
Defect characterisation

Echodynamics
Crack
Lack of fusion,Gas pore

Porosity
Slag inclusion

Defect characterisation
Signal amplitude
Lateral

Orbital

Probe manipulation
Depth

Swivel

dB 20 Log..10

H0
H1

Sine I Vel in Material 1

Sine R Vel in Material 2

Z1 Z 2

100 % reflected
Z1 Z 2

K
KV
Sine
or
2
D
Df
2

D
Near Zone
4

D f

4V