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Lesson Planning

Jarrod Regan
It is recognised that effective teaching involves planning. When we plan a lesson as
teachers we decide what to teach and how to teach it.
To become an effective educator, lesson planning becomes the essential component in
creating an immersive learning environment for students. In deciding what and how to
include various materials in a lesson plan, a teacher should consider four fundamental factors
that influence their teaching material. The four fundamental factors influencing these
decisions are the syllabus of the subject, the diverse needs of students, previous assessment
data and the Australias Professional Standards for Teachers (Standards). The syllabus and the
Australian Professional Standards for Teachers develops from government institutions
focused on improving and developing teaching skills, practices and subject material in
classes. The Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW (BOSTES)
maintains the syllabus within New South Wales schools which encompasses the overall
material and outcomes covered in subject materials presented in the classroom in a single
year. The Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) outline the
foundations for effective practitioners of education. AITSL Standards cities criteria
surrounding classroom conduct, understanding of student behaviour and goals, knowledge of
material and approved teaching practises. The diverse needs of students and the use of
assessment data grow from teachers practical knowledge of their classrooms effectiveness.
Students with learning disabilities or cultural differences effect the methods teachers apply
due to a need for conceptual support and time management. Finally assessments provide data
that effects teachers lesson plans through displaying evidence of successes and failings of
instruction in lesson plans. These factors are displayed in an analysis of a Stage Five (Years
Nine to Ten) English lesson plan. This will demonstrate that effective lesson planning
harnesses these core factors in its development.
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The BOSTES syllabus acts as a focal point for teachers and students to understand the
content and objectives that a subject should achieve in a classroom during a single year. In a
study involving the English syllabus and curriculum of Australian English classes, over three
quarters of teachers interviewed utilised the syllabus as a means for long term planning of
class activities and objectives (Albright & Knezevic, 2013). The syllabus pages, accessible
from the BOSTES website, demonstrates the intended coursework of a class including the
skills that a student should acquire during a term of instruction in relation to the assessable
materials as results (Board of Studies Teaching & Educational Standards NSW, n.d). These
outcomes define the direction that a lesson plan must take in order to achieve a high standard
of learning. The high standards of learning draws from the syllabus that teachers use to both
create lesson plans but also represent the expectations of students. The syllabus functions as a
form of contract that documents the expectations that students face in classrooms (DowersCampbell, 2015). Teachers planning for classes must use the syllabus as one of the primary
factors in order to meet and conform to the outcomes, standards and expectations of students

Contemporary society contains a varied group of people in race, ethnicity and individuals
with cognitive impairments or learning difficulties. The classroom contains this broad range
of individuals that teachers support daily. Identifying students with diverse backgrounds
drives teachers to consider these needs as an integral part of planning (Rusznyak & Walton,
2011, p. 277) for a class. When planning classes for students with learning difficulties such as
autism, teachers should consider any additional time or techniques that could be employed to
support students in furthering their education (De La Paz, 2013). Furthermore, students of
diverse ethnic or racial backgrounds may need additional support in regards to language or

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one on one interaction. A Norwegian study demonstrated that students of foreign background
were undervalued in teachers predicted results (Wold, 2013). This undervaluing contributed
to teachers not planning or supporting these students, instead, simply applied a biased
perception and assumed knowledge that hindered students development. The diverse needs
of classrooms requires teachers to identify and plan accordingly. Lesson plans that include
support for students of cultural or mental differences, demonstrate a highly professional and
inclusive standard of teaching.

Assessments provide data for teachers regarding successful or unsuccessful strategies

employed within a classroom. The success or failure of particular strategies in assessment
data influence the future use or discarding of lesson plans. Assessments are useful in
providing evidence towards the accuracy and effectiveness of class materials, regardless if the
assessment is designed to provide learning, demonstrate results of learning or evidence of
learning. Assessments are data resources that highlight the improvements that a teacher and
their lesson plans require (Bambrick-Santoyo, 2013). Furthermore, assessment data indicates
areas of improvement for students. Assessment data acts as a method for teachers to identify
weak points of a class as a whole or individual students (Datnow & Hubbard, 2015, p. 7)
and adjust lesson plans to stress those points. Teachers in producing lesson plans will harness
the data supplied in previous assessments. These assessments provide data that values and
highlights the strengths and weaknesses of a teachers practise. Utilising such knowledge
allows teachers to not only create better lesson plans but to also improve their personal
standards of teaching.

The Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) produces the standards
of teaching quality of educators across Australia. These standards are outlined within the

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Australian Professional Standards for Teaches and produces a criteria that teachers are held
accountable in their professional lives. The Standards (2014) separates and emphasises the
levels of professional decorum, technique and theoretical perspectives a teacher utilises in
classroom, separating teachers into various levels of teaching quality covering; Graduate,
Proficient, Highly Accomplish and Lead. Not only does the Standards provide the measure of
professionalism within teachers practises, it also prescribes the standards that teachers are
held accountable for and what educators should perform in classrooms (Kennelly, Taylor, &
Serow, 2011). The responsibility of teachers that the Standards provides affects lesson
planning as teachers must compare lesson plans to the Standards in an effort to meet its
expectations. Teachers following such standards conduct lessons accordingly and their lesson
plans reflect such decisions. The Australian Professional Standards of Teaches highlights the
fundamental practises teachers utilise to provide meaningful education. Lesson plans provide
a means for teachers to demonstrate their professionalism and referral to the Standards is
essential in creating effective teaching methods.

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Stage Five English Lesson Plan Romeo and Juliet Analysis

The syllabus requires teachers to educate students under particular outcomes which are met
with the study of specific materials. The study of Shakespeare in Stage five English is a
requirement of the BOSTES syllabus (Board of Studies Teaching & Educational Standards
NSW, n.d) and this lesson plan covers this topic (TES Australia Secondary Team, 2014). This
lesson plan does not specifically express the outcomes listed within the BOSTES syllabus,
nevertheless, the outcomes mentioned in figure 1.3 directly connect to these outcomes. The
first outcome of defining the term Oxymoron, described in figure 1.3, links to the Stage 5
syllabus outcome EN5-3B selects and uses language forms, features and structures of texts
appropriate to a range of purposes, audiences and contexts, describing and explaining their
effects on meaning (Board of Studies Teaching & Educational Standards NSW, n.d).
Furthermore, the second outcome listed in figure 1.3 describes a textual analysis of Romeos
perspective of love through his use of language and Oxymoron. Outcome EN5-4B of the
BOSTES syllabus describes such parameters stating teachers effectively transfers
knowledge, skills and understanding of language concepts into new and different contexts
(Board of Studies Teaching & Educational Standards NSW, n.d) which highlights the
educational structure this lesson plan harnesses. The lesson plan does not specifically refer to
the standards listed in the BOSTES syllabus, however, the analysis of this plan uncovers that
the teacher has utilised such standards in order to frame the lesson plan.

Diverse student needs are also met within this lesson plan. This lesson plan frames the
intention of their lessons goal through demonstrating key themes, techniques and terms
within the opening slides (figure 1.1, 1.2, 1.3). For learning difficult students, this structure
produces a general schema (Griffin & Woods, 2013) which students employ into specific

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examples that teachers require in the classroom. This improves students learning through a
structure that emphasises key points and its application in a text (De La Paz, 2013). The
process of this lesson plan, from providing activities that demonstrate the key themes of the
text (figure 1.1-.1.2) to the definition and usage of Oxymoron (figure 1.4-1.6) demonstrates a
use of Piagets theory of schema production in class. For students unfamiliar with the English
language or culture, the process outlined through Omobolade Delano-Oriaran (2012) model
on teaching diverse classrooms utilises the development of definition and schema and
followed with collaborative work. This encourages discourse between students of varied
backgrounds creating a learning environment that utilises existing schemas to produce
knowledge of other languages or cultures. The lesson plan includes cultural support with
figures 1.4-1.8 conveying the techniques used in the English language and concluding with
paired activities in figure 1.8. The use of schema development and the further use of group
activities support diverse students in the classroom. This lesson plan demonstrates techniques
which support diverse student needs ranging from learning disabilities or difficulties.

Assessment data represents itself in various ways. Two ways in particular are assessments for
learning and assessments of learning (Clarke & Pittaway, 2014). The assessment for learning
is predominant to this lesson plan as the lesson plan does not include assessment data from
previous courses. With the inclusion of expected goals achieved in this class (figure 1.3) and
the reaffirming of meeting these goals in figure 1.7, this lesson plan seeks to assess students
in their grasp of the concepts discussed. Vygotskys theory Zone of Proximal Development is
linked to this form of assessment as the development of knowledge is judged within a
classrooms content through the use of assessment data (Wennergren, 2011). If the assessment
for learning reveals that a concept is difficult or previously covered then tasks such as the
lesson plans figures 1.4 and 1.8 will present such issues. Such use of assessment data will

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allow for the educator to further frame the discussion towards tasks that are easier to
accomplish or to more difficult concepts for students to develop, deepening this link between
assessing for educational practises and Vygotskys theory. This lesson plan effectively utilises
this concept in the effort to produces an effective educational environment.

This lesson plan does not directly refer to the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers.
In the analysis of this lesson plan it is clear that these standards have been considered in its
development. Through this analysis particular standards are emphasised as follows:
1.1.3 Select from a flexible and effective repertoire of teaching strategies to suit the physical,
social and intellectual development and characteristics of students.
1.2.3: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of research into how students learn and the
implications for teaching.
1.3.3: Support colleagues to develop effective teaching strategies that address the learning
strengths and needs of students from diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic
2.1.3: Support colleagues using current and comprehensive knowledge of content and
teaching strategies to develop and implement engaging learning and teaching programs.
(Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership, 2014)

The techniques this lesson plan employs develops a broad range of opportunities for learning.
Accomplishing standards 1.1.3, 1.2.3 and 2.1.3 through the uses of activates such as figure
1.8 and supplying definitions of key concepts, supports the various forms of learning within a
classroom. Such formatting grows schema in the use of English techniques in texts such as
Romeo and Juliet which develop skills for students of various cultural and learning
difficulties, covering standards1.3.3 and 2.1.3. This lesson plan demonstrates an

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accomplished use of the Standards to further educational practise within this Stage 5

Lesson planning is a fundamental tool for all teachers. This tool promotes effective learning
classrooms and demonstrates a capacity for teachers to innovate in educational practises and
the content teachers utilise. The four factors of the BOSTES syllabus, diverse learning needs,
assessment data and the Australian Professional Standards of Teachers determine how a
subject is taught and the way it is taught, effecting the construction of lesson plans. An
analysis of a Stage Five English lesson plan highlights the importance of these factors in
lesson planning. The inclusion of various techniques in a classroom, support the acquisition
of knowledge for diverse needs students which effects lesson planning. Furthermore the
BOSTES syllabus outlines the objectives and content of a given year shaping the material and
direction a class takes. The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers then encapsulates
all of these materials and determines its application within teachers professional practise,
furthering a lesson plans significance as a tool of representing a teachers personal ability.
Lesson plans demonstrate the influence these four factors have in its development. In
practise, a lesson plan is used as a guide for educators within a classroom. Through its
analysis, a lesson plan demonstrates the influences on a lesson plans development and the
level of complexity, theory and technique that teachers utilise everyday within the classroom.

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Albright, J., & Knezevic, L. (2013). Everyday practices of teachers of English: A survey at
the outset of national curriculum implementation. Australian Journal of Languae and
Literacy , 36(2), 111-120.
Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership. (2014). Standards. Retrieved March
14, 2016, from Australian Professional Standards for Teachers:
Bambrick-Santoyo, P. (2013). Coaching and teaching for results. Kappan, 94(5), 70-71.
Board of Studies Teaching & Educational Standards NSW. (n.d). Table of objectives and
outcomes-continumm of learning. Retrieved 3 14, 2016, from BOSTES:
Clarke, M., & Pittaway, S. (2014). Marsh's becoming a teacher. Frenchs Forest, NSW,
Australia: Pearson Australia.
Datnow, A., & Hubbard, L. (2015). Teacher's use of assessment data to inform instruction:
Lessons from the past and prospects for the future. Teachers College Record, 117, 126.
De La Paz, S. (2013). Teaching and learning in history: Effective and reform-based practices
for students with learning disabilitis. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal,
11(1), 89-105.
Delano-Oriaran, O. (2012). Preparing pre-service teachers for culturally diverse classrooms: a
conceptual model. Journal of Educatin for Teaching, 38(1), 103-106.

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Dowers-Campbell, J. (2015). Investigating the sylabus as a defining document. Journal of

College Reading and Leanring, 45(2), 106-122.
Griffin, P., & Woods, K. (2013). Judgement-based performance measures of literacy for
students with additional needs: seeing students through the eyes of experienced
special education teachers. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice,
20(3), 325-348. doi:10.1080/0969594x.2012.734777
Kennelly, J., Taylor, N., & Serow, P. (2011). Education for sustainability and the austalian
curriculum. Austalian Journal of Environmental Education , 27(2), 209-218.
Rusznyak, L., & Walton, E. (2011, December). Lesson planning guidelines for student
teachers: A scaffold for the development of pedagogical content knowledge.
Education As Change, 15(2), 271-285. doi:10.1080/16823206.2011.619141
TES Australia Secondary Team. (2014, October 21). Romeo & Juliet Powerpoints: Prologue
and Act 1. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from TES Australia:
Wennergren, A.-C. (2011). Between two stories: assessment of and for learning. European
Journal of Special Needs Education, 26(4), 541-550.
Wold, A. H. (2013). Accuracy of teachers predictions of language minority and majority
students language comprehension. Language and Education, 27(6), 498-525.

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