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Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells

due to External Loadings- WRC Bulletin No. 107

Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells Due to

External Loadings on Nozzles-Supplement to
WRC Bulletin No. 107

Boundary condition for using WRC 107


Dm/T=(D-T)/T>50 (Here, T=Vessel Thickness,

Dm=mean diameter of vessel, d= O.D of nozzle)

Boundary condition for using WRC 297


d/t>=20 and d/t<=100 (Here t=nozzle


D/T>=20 and D/T<=2500


Nozzle must be isolated (it may not be close to a

discontinuity) not within 2(DT) on vessel and
not within 2(dt) on nozzle

Difference between WRC 107 and 297

1. WRC 107 calculates only the vessel stresses while

WRC 297 calculates Vessel stresses along with nozzle

2. WRC 297 is applicable only for normally

(perpendicular) intersecting two cylindrical shells
whereas WRC 107 is applicable for cylindrical as well
as spherical shells of any intersection.

3. The attachments for WRC 297 checking must be

hollow but WRC 107 analyzes cylindrical or rectangular
attachments which can be rigid or hollow.

4. WRC 297 is not applicable for nozzles protruding

inside the vessel (Fig 1), Tangential Nozzle (Fig2),
Nozzle at angle (Fig 3).

Difference between WRC 107 and 297

5. Typically, WRC-107 is used for local stress

calculations and WRC-297 is used for flexibility

Limitations of WRC

1.Neither bulletin considers shell reinforcement

nor do they address stress due to pressure.

2. CAESAR II ,PVElite & CodeCalc will not

extrapolate data from the charts when geometric
limitations mentioned above are exceeded.
Extrapolated data may not be appropriate.

Torispherical Heads

Torispherical heads are made of a dish, with a constant

radius. Joining the dish directly to the cylindrical
section of the vessel would lead to a rapid change in
geometry, resulting in excessive local stresses. To
avoid this, a transition section (the knuckle) is used
between the dish and the cylinder.

The weakest section of the vessel is usually the

knuckle. The vessel pressure rating can be increased
by thickening the knuckle, making it more expensive.
Normally, torispherical heads with pressure ratings
much above 10 bar are uneconomic.

Torispherical Heads

To define the head geometry, the following

dimensions are required:

Radius of the dish head, R typically this is the

same as the diameter of the vessel, D.

Radius of the knuckle, r typically this is in the

region of 6% of the vessel diameter, D.

Ellipsoidal Heads

For pressures over 10 bar, ellipsoidal heads are often

used. In cross-section, the head resembles an ellipse,
its radius varying continuously. This results in a
smooth transition between the dome and the
cylindrical part of the vessel. Ellipsodial heads are
deeper than comparable torispherical heads.

The shape of the ellipsoidal head is defined by the ratio

of the major and minor axis. A standard arrangement
on vessels is the 2:1 elliptical head (see Figure 2). This
will have a depth of head which is a quarter of the
vessels internal diameter, D.

Ellipsoidal Heads