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Electronic Communication

EG 245

Frequency Modulation
Generation and Detection

Dr. Amit Mehta


Slides References
Louis E. Frenzel Jr: Principles of Electronic Communication Systems
Beasley and Miller: Modern Electronic Communication

FM Generation
• Need Frequency Sources
– LC Oscillators
– Crystal Oscillators

• When controlling them using external voltage: VCOs

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LC Oscillator

f = ½.π.√LC

If we can amplify and feedback, we got an oscillator

With Amplifier and Feedback


• Hartley oscillator

With spark generate


first sinusoid

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Variable Frequency
f = ½.π.√LC

If we very C or L electronically, we change frequency, so get FM

HOW

Varactor Diode

Texture Notes
• A frequency modulator is a circuit that varies carrier
frequency in accordance with the modulating signal.
• The carrier is generated by LC or crystal oscillator circuits.
• In LC oscillators, the carrier frequency can be changed by
varying either the inductance or capacitance.
• The idea is to find a circuit or component that converts a
modulating voltage to a corresponding change in capacitance
or inductance.
• In crystal oscillators, the frequency is fixed by the crystal.
• A varactor is a variable capacitance diode used to change
oscillator frequencies.
– Varactor Operation
• A reverse-biased diode acts like a small capacitor
• More reverse bias, less is the capacitance

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Direct FM Generation

Direct-frequency-modulated carrier oscillator using a varactor diode.

This concept of changing frequency with voltage makes a VCO

Notes
– The capacitance of varactor diode D1 and L1 form the
parallel tuned circuit of the oscillator.
– The value of C1 is made very large so its reactance is very
low.
– C1 connects the tuned circuit to the oscillator and blocks the
dc bias on the base of Q1 from being shorted to ground
through L1.
– The values of L1 and D1 fix the center carrier frequency.
– The modulating signal varies the effective voltage applied to
D1 and its capacitance varies, hence in turn the output
frequency vary
– No mod Vol, output is carrier.
– More Vol, Less C, Higher Frequency, and vice versa

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Varactor with Crystal
– Most LC oscillators are not stable enough to
provide a carrier signal.
– The frequency of LC oscillators will vary with
temperature changes, variations in circuit voltage,
and other factors.
– As a result, crystal oscillators are normally used to
set carrier frequency

Crystal Oscillators

Voltage

Equivalent circuit

Very stable frequency output. Used as local oscillator

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FM With Crystal

No feedback
Transistor only as amp.

Series

Direct FM- Frequency modulation of a crystal oscillator with a VVC

Notes
– Crystal oscillators provide highly accurate carrier
frequencies and their stability is superior to LC
oscillators.
– The frequency of a crystal oscillator can be varied
by changing the value of capacitance in series or
parallel with the crystal.
– By making the series capacitance a varactor diode,
frequency modulation can be achieved.
– The modulating signal is applied to the varactor
diode which changes the oscillator frequency.
– Limitation: Limited frequency shift

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Use of Multipliers

4 MHz 96 MHz
+75MHz

Broadcast FM

Deviation of +3.125 KHz

Frequency multipliers increase carrier frequency and deviation

VCO-In Chip Form


– Oscillators whose frequencies are controlled by an external
input voltage are generally referred to as voltage-controlled
oscillators (VCOs, E.g. before).
– Voltage-controlled crystal oscillators are generally referred to
as VXOs.
– VCOs in chip form are primarily used in FM.
– VCOs are also used in voltage-to-frequency conversion
applications

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Phase Modulation
• Most modern FM transmitters use some form of
phase modulation (PM) to produce indirect FM
(Remember: FM can be extracted from PM).
• The output of the carrier oscillator is fed to a
phase modulator where the phase shift is made
to vary in accordance with the modulating
signal.
– A simple phase-shift circuit can be used as a phase
modulator if the resistance or capacitance can be
made to vary with the modulating signal.
– A varactor can be used to vary capacitance and
achieve phase shift modulation.

Phase Shift Circuitry

RC phase-shifter basics

Leading effect from RL Circuit

No electronic variable inductor

Varactor is capacitive,
Transistor can be variable R,
we use RC circuit

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Indirect FM
– Two main disadvantages.
1.The amount of phase shift they produce and the resulting
frequency deviation are relatively low.
2.All the phase-shift circuits produce amplitude variations
as well as phase changes

The first FM Broadcast by Edwin Armstrong in 1930 was


based on Indirect FM

FM Demodulators

AND

fc

Digital:
Analog: Differential Amp

A quadrature FM detector

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Phase Detector

As frequency increases phase differences reduces

Calibration

Shift = 90 deg; f2 = fc
No output

Shift > 90 deg; f1


Decreasing

Shift < 90 deg; f3


Increasing

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Quadrature Detector
– The quadrature detector is probably the single most widely
used FM demodulator.
– The quadrature detector is primarily used in TV
demodulation.
– Working
– Due to C1, A and B phase always stays at 90 deg quad
– C2 and L tuned always to fc;
– When no mod signal, A =fc;
• Shift is of 90 degrees, output calibrated to zero
– When input frequency decreases
• Phase shift between B and A increases, hence lower
output
– When input frequency decreases
• Phase shift reduces, thus higher output

PLL
• Used in Radios
• Available in chip form
– It is a frequency- or phase-sensitive feedback control circuit
used in frequency demodulation, frequency synthesizers,
and various filtering and signal-detection applications. PLLs
have three basic elements. They are:
• Phase detector
• Low-pass filter
• Voltage-controlled oscillator (instead of LC oscillator,
crystallized VCO, all in chip form)

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PLL- FM Demodulator

Capacitor store
Voltage value
and continue to
give to vco

Block diagram of a PLL

Working

RC
LPF

• No mod signal (Similar to Quadrature detector)


– Phase shift of 90, VCO at fc (running frequency), no output
• As input frequency increases, phase difference
decreases, error voltage increases and vice versa.
• The error voltage is the recovered signal.
• Capacitor hold the error signal so as to keep VCO at a
frequency where the error is zero.

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