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Soil Ecology

Takuya Marumoto Ph.D.

[Lecture No.2]
. Role of microbe on the nutrient circulation in soil
1Nitrogen circulation in atmosphere and soil

(F-7)

1) Degradation process of organic matter by microfauna and microbe in soil


(F-8)
2) Changes in micro flora during the degradation process of plant residue in soil
(F-9)
3) Relationship between C/N ratio of plant residue and mineralization rate of
organic nitrogen in plant
(F-10)

Soil Ecology - Lecture No.2 -

2Degradation process of organic matter (plant residence,


carcass etc.) in soil

3Nutrient in microbial biomass


1) Amount of nutrient in microbial biomass
(T-2)
2) Changes in microbial biomass and mineralized nitrogen after the drastic
change for soil environment
(F-11)

Denitrification

Soil Ecology - Lecture No.2 -

Rain fall

1 Nitrogen circulation in atmosphere and soil

Fig.7

Nitrogen circulation in atmosphere and soil

2Degradation process of organic matter (plant residence,


carcass etc.) in soil
Mineralization to
NH4, CO2, H2O etc.
(Release of nutrients
into soil)

Multiplication of microbe
(Temporal stock of nutrients)

Some Level of
microbial biomass
(Amount of biomass:
Stock of nutrients)

Change of generation,
Metabolism

Soil Ecology - Lecture No.2 -

Plant residue and


carcass of fauna, insect

Degradation by
microfauna and microbe

(Death of microbe and


new microbe generation)

Fig.8 Degradation process of organic matter by microfauna and microbe in soil

2Degradation process of organic matter (plant residence,


carcass etc.) in soil

Degradation

Sugar

Cellulose

Lignin

Soil Ecology - Lecture No.2 -

No. Microbe

S
Sugar degradation ( Bacteria, Fungi )
Cellulose degradation ( Bacteria, Fungi )
Lignin decomposition ( Mushroom )

Fig.9 Changes in microflora during the degradation process of plant residue in soil

Soil Ecology - Lecture No.2 -

Mineralization rate of org. N (%)

2Effects of plants, small animals and microbe on soil formation

C/N ratio

Fig.10 Relationship between C/N ratio of plant residue and mineralization


rate of organic nitrogen in plant (30, 70days under upland condition)

3Nutrient in microbial biomass


Tab.2 Amount of nutrient in microbial biomass of upland soil

Bacteria
Total

Nutrient
amount
per 140Kg
dry microbe*

(kg)

Soil Ecology - Lecture No.2 -

Fungi

*140Kg of dry microbe is average value in 10a of upland soil.


Each nutrient amount per 140Kg dry microbe is equal to the application amount of each
nutrient as fertilizer to common crop per year
6

3Nutrient in microbial biomass


Drying - Wetting
Freezing - Melting
Rising soil temperature
Aggregate crush

Mineralized nitrogen
Death

Amount of biomass

Soil Ecology - Lecture No.2 -

Amount of biomass and mineralized N

Environment change

2~4 weeks

Fig.11 Change in microbial biomass and mineralized nitrogen after the


drastic change for soil environment