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Magazine of Concrete Research

Volume 67 Issue 13
Modifying CFRPconcrete bond
characteristics from pull-out testing
Haddad, Al-Rousan, Ghanma and Nimri

Magazine of Concrete Research, 2015, 67(13), 707717


http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/macr.14.00271
Paper 1400271
Received 18/08/2014; revised 16/10/2014; accepted 27/11/2014
Published online ahead of print 22/01/2015
ICE Publishing: All rights reserved

Modifying CFRPconcrete
bond characteristics from
pull-out testing
Rami Haythem Haddad

Lina Ghanma

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Jordan University of Science


and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, American University of


Madaba, Madaba, Jordan

Rajai Al-Rousan

Zaid Nimri

Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Jordan University of


Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

Engineer, Consolidated Contractors Company Ltd, Amman, Jordan

Most available models for the prediction of bond characteristics between carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP)
composites and concrete are based on data from tests on pull-out specimens, but the use of such characteristics in the
analysis and design of reinforced concrete and CFRP strengthened or repaired beams could yield inaccurate
estimations. The present work aimed to develop empirical models to generate modification factors for bond
characteristics as obtained on small-size pull-out specimens. For this, an experimental programme was designed and
conducted to relate bond characteristics from pull-out tests to those from concrete beam bond specimens. CFRP plates
or sheets were bonded to both types of specimens at length and width ratios of 1/3, 2/3 and 1. The beams were tested
under four-point loading with load measurements acquired against CFRP elongation and its free-end slippage, whereas
pull-out specimens were tested for bond stress against free-end slippage. Using statistical modelling, the bond
characteristics from both types of specimens were correlated to obtain modification factors in terms of the geometric
properties of CFRP composites. The findings indicate that bond length and width ratios have respectively significant
and insignificant impact on bond characteristics, regardless of the bond type specimen employed. The modification
factors reveal that pull-out specimens tend to overestimate bond strength yet underestimate bond slippage at failure.

Notation
BL
BW
bf /bc
f c9
ft
Lf /Lc
MFS
MF
S
Smax
1, 2
W
L

S


max

bond length
bond width
CFRP composite to concrete width ratio
compressive strength of concrete at 28 d
tensile strength of concrete
CFRP composite to concrete length ratio
modification factor for bond slippage
modification factor for bond strength
bond slippage
slippage at maximum bond stress
statistical linear regression factors
geometric factor of repair to concrete width ratio
geometric factor of repair to concrete length ratio
assumption factor
stress concentration factor for Smax
stress concentration factor for max
bond stress
maximum bond stress

Introduction
Structural retrofitting has received increasing interest in recent
years, especially because of progressive deterioration of concrete

structures due to faults in design and construction practices and


the need to add more storeys to existing concrete buildings as a
consequence of dramatic increases in land prices in many main
cities and crucial locations worldwide. The repair or strengthening of structures requires inexpensive yet efficient strengthening
materials that can be easily attached to concrete members. In the
past, steel plates were extensively used to repair or strengthen
structural members to improve or regain their original structural
capacity. Recently, however, the use of steel plates in such
applications has reduced due to their high weight, expensive
initial and maintenance costs, and their vulnerability to corrosion
attack (Ali et al., 2000; Jones et al., 1988; Oehlers and Ali,
1998). The repair of existing concrete elements with concrete
layers reinforced with traditional steel bars, steel or synthetic
fibres, or a combination of both, has been attempted, but their
application remains minimal owing to disadvantages of relatively
high weight, limited strength enhancements and undesirable
modifications to architectural appearance (Haddad and Ashteyate,
2001; Haddad and Smadi, 2004).
Enormous efforts have been made towards finding alternatives to
overcome these disadvantages. Recent works have proven that
fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites meet the engineering
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Magazine of Concrete Research


Volume 67 Issue 13

Modifying CFRPconcrete bond


characteristics from pull-out testing
Haddad, Al-Rousan, Ghanma and Nimri

requirements of efficient and practical repair materials (Atta and


El-Shafiey, 2014; Lim and Ozbakkaloglu, 2014). Being noncorrosive, FRP composites have been used on a large scale for
the repair of concrete structures located in marine structures.
They also possess good fire resistance and are available in
different shapes and lengths and hence can be easily installed and
maintained at relatively low cost. The bond between FRP composites and the parent concrete is the key factor in achieving the
target structural performance for flexural systems strengthened or
repaired with FRP laminates. It has been found that the FRP
concrete bond is dependent on many factors, such as the bond
length and width, stiffness and thickness of the bonded laminates
and the strength of external concrete layer (Adhikary and
Mutsuyoshi, 2001; Chajes et al., 1996; Nakaba et al., 2001)
The majority of published models on FRPconcrete bond rely on
data from small-scale pull-out specimens. Consequently, their
use in predicting the mechanical performance of actual beams
may lead to misleading results because the stress distribution,
cracking pattern, location and extent over the interface region in
such beams is different from those in traditional pull-out specimens. Until now, the combined effects of geometric configuration and size effect on bond stressslippage behaviour and their
characteristics have been overlooked (Aram et al., 2008; Siddiqui, 2006; Sobuz et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2007; Zhang et al.,
2006; Zhao and Farhad, 2004).
This study aimed at correlating the bond characteristics obtained
from traditional double pull-out specimens and those from beam
bond specimens considering a repair geometry of two forms of
carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites (plates and
sheets).

Experimental programme
Test specimens and variables
Reinforced concrete (RC) beams of dimensions 150 3 200 3
1400 mm were cast using limestone concrete, the detailing of
which is shown in Figure 1. Plates or sheets of CFRP were
bonded to these beams on their tension sides in lengths of 400,
800 and 1200 mm and widths of 50, 100 and 150 mm. The beams
were designated in terms of letters and numerals according to the
geometric dimensions and type of CFRP composite used (plate
(P) or sheet (S)). For example, S-L80-W5 designates a beam
bonded with CFRP sheet at a bond length of 800 mm and bond
width of 50 mm.
Plain concrete blocks (150 3 150 3 100 mm) were cast from the
same concrete mixtures and cured under similar conditions as the
beam specimens. The blocks were bonded to plates or sheets of
CFRP to prepare far-end or near-end pull-out specimens, respectively, as depicted in Figure 2. To achieve bond length and width
ratios similar to those of the beams, the concrete blocks were
bonded to CFRP composites at bond lengths of 40, 80 and
120 mm and bond widths of 50, 100 and 150 mm. Similarly to
the beam specimens, the pull-out specimens were designated by
letters and numerals. For example, P-L8-W5 designates a specimen bonded to CFRP plate at a bond length of 80 mm and bond
width of 50 mm. The beam and pull-out specimens are listed in
Table 1.
Concrete mixture design and preparation
Type I pozzolanic Portland cement, coarse aggregate (maximum
aggregate size 12 .5 mm) and a mixture of fine limestone aggregate (80%) and silica sand (20%) were used to prepare the

20 mm

210

212

150 mm
1200 mm

Section AA
(a)

Lf
bf
Lc
(b)

Figure 1. Detailing of the RC beams used in the study:


(a) longitudinal view; (b) bottom view detailing CFRP bonding
configuration

708

6@50 mm

bc

Magazine of Concrete Research


Volume 67 Issue 13

Modifying CFRPconcrete bond


characteristics from pull-out testing
Haddad, Al-Rousan, Ghanma and Nimri

concrete mixture used to fabricate the various specimens. The


masses per cubic metre of the different ingredients were determined using the ACI mix design method: the corresponding
values for cement, water, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and
silica sand were 371, 231, 819, 650 and 123 kg/m3, respectively.
The concrete mixture, with 30 mm slump, achieved the target
compressive strength of 30 MPa.

Pull-out
force

Concrete block
CFRP sheet

CFRP plate

Plaster
tape

Lf

Lc

Properties and bonding procedure for CFRP composites


CFRP sheets and plates, manufactured by SIKA and BASF,
respectively, were adhered to the concrete specimens using the
correct BASF resins. The tensile strength, tensile modulus of
elasticity and strain at breaking were, respectively, 3900 N/mm2,
230 000 N/mm2 and 1 .5% for CFRP sheets and 2800 N/mm2,
165 000 N/mm2 and 0 .8% for CFRP plates. The adhesive used to
bond the CFRP plates had a bond strength of 2 .5 MPa, whereas
that used to bond the CFRP sheets had a compressive strength of
60 MPa after 7 d of curing. The epoxies used to bond the sheets
and plates to the concrete had mixed density values of 1 .06 and
1 .7 g/cm3, respectively. Their mechanical properties, as provided
by the manufacturer (BASF), indicated bond and compressive
strengths in excess of 2 .5 MPa and 60 MPa, respectively.

bc
bf
Pull-out
force
(a)
Pull-out
force

Cylinder

Plaster
tape

CFRP sheet

Lf

Lc

Mixing of the concrete ingredients was performed in a tilting


type mixer according to ASTM C 685 (ASTM, 2005). Specially
made wooded moulds were used for casting of the beams and
concrete blocks, with inner dimensions of 150 3 200 3 1400 mm
and 150 3 150 3 100 mm, respectively. Concrete was placed in
the moulds in two layers and consolidated using a vibrating table,
before the final surface was smoothed by use of a trowel. The
cast specimens were covered with wet burlap for 24 h before
being placed in a water tank to cure for another 27 d.

bc
bf
Frame gripped from here
by testing machine
(b)

Figure 2. Schematic illustration showing the configurations of the


two types of pull-out bond test specimens: (a) far-end and
(b) near-end

CFRP sheets and plates were bonded to 20 RC beams and plain


concrete blocks at various geometric configurations using the
correct resins; the results from two specimens were averaged and
used as the test value. The concrete areas to be bonded with
CFRP composites were roughened and treated to remove cement
laitance, loose and friable material; dust was removed using a
vacuum cleaner and the areas were treated with an organic solvent
to further clean the surface and reduce moisture content. Scissors
and a cutting machine were used to cut the desired dimensions of
CFRP sheets and plates, respectively. The epoxy resin was
prepared in a mechanical mixer using the correct proportions of
bonding materials and accompanying stiffener. The concrete
surface where the CFRP sheets were to be bonded was coated
with the resin epoxy before the sheets were placed and rolled over
to become saturated with the epoxy; they were then covered with
a layer of epoxy, using half the amount used for the first layer.
The CFRP plates were lightly hammered after being placed on
top of the epoxy layer painted onto the concrete surface.
Application of the CFRP composites to the concrete blocks (i.e.
the pull-out specimens) followed a similar procedure, with bond
lengths reduced to a tenth of those used for the beams. The two
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Magazine of Concrete Research


Volume 67 Issue 13

Modifying CFRPconcrete bond


characteristics from pull-out testing
Haddad, Al-Rousan, Ghanma and Nimri

Pull-out specimens

P-L4-W5
P-L8-W5
P-L12-W5
P-L8-W10
P-L8-W15
S-L4-W5
S-L8-W5
S-L12-W5
S-L8-W10
S-L8-W15
a

BL: mm

BW: mm

40
80
120
80
80
40
80
120
80
80

50
50
50
100
150
50
50
50
100
150

Beam specimens

max:a kPa
2800
2680
2300
2880
2510
3900
2270
1670
2400
2100

Slip: mm
0 .022
0 .017
0 .012
0 .021
0 .036
0 .130
0 .070
0 .021
0 .190
0 .620

BL: mm

BW: mm

max: kPa

Slip: mm

400
800
1200
800
800
400
800
1200
800
800

50
50
50
100
150
50
50
50
100
150

430 a
520
530
640
410
310
370
430
420
220

2 .00
1 .34
0 .90
1 .58
2 .57
3 .40
1 .80
1 .75
1 .25
5 .90

P-L40-W5
P-L80-W5
P-L120-W5
P-L80-W10
P-L80-W15
S-L40-W5
S-L80-W5
S-L120-W5
S-L80-W10
S-L80-W15

Average from two test specimens

Table 1. Bond characteristics as obtained from pull-out and beam


specimens

parallel faces of the concrete blocks of the far-end specimens


were marked such that the CFRP plates were centred across their
widths (Figure 2(a)). The CFRP plates were then adhered using
the specified epoxy to both faces of the blocks in two stages
during which a constant separation distance between both blocks
was maintained using special steel fixtures. Furthermore, the
CFRP plates were anchored with CFRP sheets at one end of the
far-end pull-out specimens to force bond failure at other end. For
the near-end pull-out specimens (Figure 2(b)), the CFRP sheets
were bonded to a single concrete block such that the centre lines

of the sheets on both faces of the block were kept aligned and
parallel.
Load testing
The set-up for the beam bond test is shown in Figure 3. While
the beam was subjected to four-point test loading using a
hydraulic jack of 400 kN capacity at a loading rate of about
0 .5 kN/s, mid-span deflection, slippage of the CFRP composites
and elongation of the middle portions of the CFRP strips or
sheets was measured using linear variable differential transfor-

Applied load p

Hydraulic jack
Load cell
Spread beam

Hinge

Roller

LVDT
(Slippage)

400

Figure 3. Schematic illustration of RC beam bond test set-up


(dimensions in mm)

710

FRP
LVDT
(FRP strain)
LVDT
(Mid-span deflection)
400
1200
1400

400

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Modifying CFRPconcrete bond


characteristics from pull-out testing
Haddad, Al-Rousan, Ghanma and Nimri

mers (LVDTs), mounted as shown. The different measurements


were acquired using a data acquisition system before being
analysed to obtain bond strength against slip relationships.
The pull-out test set-ups used to determine the bond behaviour
between concrete and CFRP plates or sheets are shown in
Figure 4. The CFRP plates and sheets were pulled out using a
tensile force acting at 0 .2 kN/s, with slippage measurements
between CFRP and concrete acquired using two LVDTs
(mounted at the two opposite sides of the block). To ensure
similar stress transfer sharing of the two parallel plates or sheets
under pull-out loading, the top and bottom steel fixtures used in
the test set-up were aligned precisely along the centre lines of
the pull-out specimens, as illustrated in Figure 4. Consequently,
the failure modes of both types of pull-out specimens showed
no signs of twisting of CFRP plates or sheets. A data acquisition system was used to acquire load, elongation and slippage
measurements.

Results and discussion


Effect of geometric dimensions of CFRP on bondslip
behaviour
Pull-out specimens
The bondslip curves for pull-out specimens bonded to CFRP
plates and sheets followed a general non-linear trend behaviour
similar to that reported in the literature and depicted in the
typical curves of Figure 5. The ultimate bond strength max and
slippage at failure were obtained for the different specimens and
are listed Table 1.
As can be seen from Table 1, the bond strength is inversely
proportional to the CFRP bond length: the ratio of bond strength at
bonded lengths of 120 mm and 80 mm to that at a bond length of
40 mm were 96% and 82% for CFRP plates and 58% and 43% for
CFRP sheets, respectively. This indicates that the effect of bond
length on residual bond strength is also affected by the type of
CFRP laminate. For a constant width ratio, the bond strength
showed an increase, while the slippage showed a decrease with
bond length ratio. These behaviours are explained by the shear
stress distribution along the length of the CFRP composites.
According to Tounsi and Benyoucef (2007), vertical deviation
between the maximum and minimum shearing stresses along the
CFRP length is proportional to bond length. Rationally, the average
shearing stress would be the highest for CFRP composites bonded
at a length of 40 mm followed, in sequence, by bond lengths of
80 mm and 120 mm. Chajes et al. (1996) reported that, when
increased beyond a certain value, the bond length would not be fully
utilised in transferring stresses. The effect of CFRP plate bond
width on the bond behaviour can be observed in Table 1. By
increasing the bond width of the CFRP plate, the bond strength is
increased as long as the bond width is smaller than that of concrete.
When the width of the CFRP plate or sheet matches that of the
concrete, stress concentration is developed at the edges and thus
bond strength is reduced, as reported by Subramaniam et al. (2007).

(a)

(b)

Figure 4. (a) Far-end pull-out test set-up for blocks bonded to


CFRP plates. (b) Near-end pull-out test set-up for blocks bonded
to CFRP sheets

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Haddad, Al-Rousan, Ghanma and Nimri

30

Bond stress : MPa

25

S-L8-W5

failure modes; a typical cracking pattern is shown in Figure 6.


The beams showed end interfacial debonding of the CFRP
composites, except for the case of CFRP plates bonded to
concrete along the full span of the beam when debonding
occurred at the plates middle third, corresponding to the high
moment zone. The CFRP composites separated from the concrete
through surface peeling of concrete, as shown in Figure 7.

S-L8-W10
S-L8-W15

20
15
10

Modelling bond behaviour


The results obtained from testing the 20 RC beams and pull-out
specimens showed that

05
0

01

02

03
04
Slip: mm
(a)

05

06

the bondslip curves show an increasing trend behaviour up


to ultimate bond stress
j this portion of the bondslip curves is completely non-linear,
as shown in Figure 5.
j

16
P-L80-W10

Bond stress : MPa

14
12

Based on these findings, a model similar to that of Lu et al.


(2005) is proposed to describe the bondslip behaviour between
CFRP composites and the concrete surface of either beam or

10
08
06
04

P-L80-W5

P-L80-W15

02
0

3
Slip: mm
(b)

Figure 6. Cracking pattern of beam P-L80-W5

Figure 5. Bondslip curve from (a) pull-out and (b) beam


specimens, bonded to CFRP sheets at various widths

Beam test specimens


The bondslip curves of the beam specimens followed a similar
trend to those of the pull-out specimens, as shown in the typical
curves presented in Figure 5. The bond characteristics for different beam specimens tested are also summarised in Table 1, which
shows that the bond strength is proportional to bond length but
inversely proportional to slippage. The bond strength behaviour
with bond length in beams contradicts that obtained from the
pull-out specimens owing to the presence of cracking in the
beams under loading. For the loading case considered, the highest
cracking intensity was observed in the high moment zone, with
lower flexural cracking intensity towards the end supports. CFRP
plates or sheets with smaller bond lengths would thus be more
detrimentally affected by the presence of cracking. The bond
width in the beams had a similar impact on bond trend behaviour
as that observed in the pull-out specimens.
It should be noted that, in order to study CFRPconcrete bond
behaviour, the different beams bonded to the CFRP composites
must attain close flexural loading capacities. This condition was
satisfied as the difference in load capacities of the various beams
was less than 5%. In addition, all the beams showed similar
712

(a)

(b)

Figure 7. Concrete skin peeling as appeared on surfaces of


(a) CFRP sheets and (b) CFRP plates

Magazine of Concrete Research


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Modifying CFRPconcrete bond


characteristics from pull-out testing
Haddad, Al-Rousan, Ghanma and Nimri

pull-out specimens, with parameters determined using the data


presented in Table 1. The model states

depicted in Figure 8; the results are summarised in Table 2.


Except for one set of data, the fitting potential of the linear model
for the present data can be rated as excellent, with R2 values
exceeding 90%.

1:

 max

1=2

S max

if S < S max

where  is the bond stress and S is the corresponding bond


slippage, max is the maximum bond stress and Smax is the
corresponding slip. The bond characteristics are expressed as
2:

max 1  W L f t

3:

S max 2 S W L f t

in which ft is the tensile strength of concrete, related to the


compressive strength of concrete ( f c9 ) through f t 0.33( f c9 )1=2
(Reinhardt et al., 1986), and  and S are the stress concentration factors for max and Smax, respectively. The factors are
assumed equal to 1 except for specimens having a CFRP width to
concrete ratio of 1 in which here was assumed to be 0 .9 and 2
for the computation of max and Smax, respectively. W and L are
geometric factors of the repair to concrete width ratio and repair
to concrete length ratio, respectively.
The expressions listed in Table 2 were reached by trial and error.
The formulae were first assumed based on existing literature
before being modified to enhance the predictability of maximum
bond strength and slippage by way of Equations 2 and 3. Three
geometric factors were calculated based on the present results
considering repair to concrete width or repair to concrete length
ratios of 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3. Those, along with assumed and
calculated parameters of Equations 2 and 3, were used to obtain
the parameters 1 and 2 by statistical linear regression, as
Specimen

Pull-out
Beam
Beam

L

 .

0 9  (Lf =Lc ) 1=2
8.8
0.9 (Lf =Lc )


1 (Lf =Lc ) 1=2
2
Bond stress, plate: ln
2  (Lf =Lc )

1=2
1 (Lf =Lc )
.
Slippage, sheet: e2 205
2  (Lf =Lc )

Predictability of developed models


The results from previously reported pull-out tests were used to
compare the predictability of the proposed model. The predictions of bond strength using the present model with respect to
actual values provided by different researchers (Al-Rousan et
al., 2013; Haddad et al., 2013; Ren, 2003; Takeo et al., 1997;
Tan, 2002; Wu et al., 2001; Zhao et al., 2000) are summarised
in Table 3. The ratio of predicted to actual bond strength varied
from 0 .94 to 1 .96 and 0 .89 to 3 .11 for data on CFRP plates
and sheets, respectively. This means that the precision of the
predictions was affected by the data source. Yet, considering the
heterogeneity of the data, it can be said that the proposed model
possesses moderate to high prediction potential of bond
strength.
To examine the proposed models predictability further, three
different models from the literature (Lu et al., 2005; Monti et al.,
2003; Neubauer and Rostasy, 1999) were used along with the
present model to predict bond strength based on the present data.
The ratio of predicted to actual bond strength ranged from 1 .00
to 1 .72 with relatively high divergence from unity for the models
of Monti et al. (2003) and Neubauer and Rostasy (1999),
especially when data from the tests on CFRP sheets were used.
The results also indicate that the model proposed by Lu et al.
(2005) shows high to moderate predictability depending on
whether the data used were obtained from tests on CFRP plates
or sheets. The present model, as may be expected, showed the
best predictability potential. It must be noted, however, that the
ratios of predicted to actual bond strength are averages from data
clusters corresponding to different references. It is thus probable
that, for particular data points, the ratio of predicted to actual
bond strength would deviate significantly from the averages
reported here. The coefficients of variation obtained can be

W

ln



2 (bf =bc ) 1=2
4 (bf =bc )

CFRP plates

CFRP sheets

1 3 103

2 3 103

1 3 103

1 3 103

241

1 .54

205

6 .34

170

10 180

NA

NA

NA

NA

170

10 180

Table 2. Bond stressslippage model parameters of Equations 2


and 3. Lf /Lc and bf /bc are CFRP composite to concrete length and
width ratios

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06
max 017 L wft

05

R 2 099

Slip: mm

max: MPa

04
03

Smax 102S L wft


R 2 099

02
1
01

CFRP plate

CFRP plate

2
L wft
(a)

005

010

025

030

06
max 017 L wft

05

R 2 099

3
Smax 102S L wft
R 2 100

Slip: mm

04

max: MPa

015
020
S L wft
(b)

03

02
1
01

CFRP sheet

CFRP sheet

2
L wft
(c)

005

010

015
020
S L wft
(d)

025

030

Figure 8. Linear fit of experimental data to obtain factors for


CFRP plates and sheets bonded to concrete beams

Data source

Takeo et al. (1997)


Tan (2002)
Zhao et al. (2000)
Ren (2003)
Al-Rousan et al. (2013)
Haddad et al. (2013)
Wu et al. (2001)

Predicted/actual bond strength

Correlation coefficient

Plates

Sheets

Plates

Sheets

Plates

Sheets

0 .94
1 .29
1 .96
1 .1
1 .1
1 .3
NA

0 .89
1 .1
1 .67
0 .94
1 .1
1 .3
3 .11

0 .237
0 .174
0 .22
0 .24
0 .14
0 .152
NA

0 .21
0 .166
0 .22
0 .237
0 .14
0 .152
0 .44

0 .252
0. 77
0 .766
0 .862
0 .011
0 .032
NA

0 .252
0. 773
0 .766
0 .862
0 .011
0 .032
0 .0122

NA, not available

Table 3. Average ratio of predicted bond to test bond strength


using the present model based on data from literature (based on
pull-out tests)

714

Coefficient of variation

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Haddad, Al-Rousan, Ghanma and Nimri

classified as low to moderate depending on the heterogeneity of


the data used.

prior to beam failure. Modification factors thus need to be applied


to bond characteristics when measuring using pull-out specimens
or estimated from corresponding empirical bondslip models.

A lack of literature regarding bond strength or slippage behaviour


between CFRP composites and RC beam elements made it
difficult to examine the predictability of the present models of
Table 2. However, the relatively high fit potential of the present
models to the present data can be considered as a strong indicator
of satisfactory predictability. In addition, the previous discussions
of bond results from beam specimens were rationalised against
the key parameters considered, namely CFRP form (plates or
sheets) and bond length and bond width ratios.

The modification factors for bond strength and slippage applied


to pull-out measurements or relevant bondslip models are
defined as

MF

4:

Beam
Pull-out specimen

for bond strength and


Modification factor for size effect
The ultimate bond strength and slippage as obtained from testing
small pull-out specimens bonded to either CFRP plates of sheets
showed, respectively, higher and lower values compared with those
obtained from testing real bond test specimens of similar repair
configuration and geometric ratios. This can be explained by the
fact that the concrete of the pull-out specimens did not suffer any
significant cracking on loading, contrary to the beams where
cracks were generated at the tension side of the high moment zone
at relatively low loads before cracks extended to the shear zone

015
010
Bonded length effect
Bonded width effect

005
0

Modification factor (MF)

030

1/3

2/3
Ratio

CFRP sheets
Bond strength

CFRP plates
Slip

80

MF 8122

60
40
Bonded length effect
Bonded width effect

20
0

30

020
015
010
Bonded length effect
Bonded width effect

005

2/3
Ratio

1/3

3/3

CFRP sheets
Slip

MF 015 0017e19x

MF 0211

MF 158e1004x

100

3/3

025

Modification factor (MF)

MF 0179

S max, Pull-out specimen

The modification factors are depicted against bond length and


bond width in Figure 9. It can be concluded that the modification
factors for both bond strength and slippage are dependent on the
120

MF 013 0012e21x

S max, Beam

for bond slip.

CFRP plates
Bond strength

025
020

5:

Modification factor (MF)

Modification factor (MF)

030

MFS

20

MF 397e11x
MF 19724

10
Bonded length effect
Bonded width effect
0

1/3

2/3
Ratio

3/3

1/3

2/3
Ratio

3/3

Figure 9. Modification factors applied to bond strength and


slippage between CFRP plates or sheets and concrete as
estimated by pull-out-test models

715

Magazine of Concrete Research


Volume 67 Issue 13

Modifying CFRPconcrete bond


characteristics from pull-out testing
Haddad, Al-Rousan, Ghanma and Nimri

bond length ratio rather than the bond width ratio. The corresponding reduction and magnification in bond strength and
slippage from pull-out specimens were relatively high, reaching
85% and 120 times, respectively. It is evident that the modification factors were not significantly affected by either the type or
materials characteristics of the CFRP composites used. It is
important to note that the modification factors reported here may
not be applicable for deteriorating concrete as the degradation
level in bond characteristics would be affected, among many
other factors, by the type of bond test specimen. Further research
is thus needed to generate new modification factors for the bond
characteristics between damaged concrete and CFRP composites.

Al-Rousan R, Haddad RH and Al-SaDi K (2013) Effect of

Summary and conclusions


An experimental programme was designed and conducted to
relate bond characteristics from tests on pull-out specimens to
those from concrete beam specimens. CFRP plates or sheets were
bonded to both types of specimens at bond length and width
ratios of 1/2, 2/3 and 3/3 of their dimensions. The beams were
tested under four-point loading with load measurements acquired
against CFRP elongation and free-end slippage. The pull-out
specimens were tested for bond stress against free-end slippage.
The bond width of CFRP plates and sheets affected the bond
behaviour of beams and pull-out specimens in the same manner:
the bond strength increased with increasing bond width as long
as the bond width was smaller than the width of the concrete.
The models proposed for predicting bond strength and corresponding slippage of pull-out and beam specimens provided a
very good fit to data from the present work and the literature.
The developed formulae for the modification factors were
sensitive to CFRP bond length rather bond width and provide an
acceptable and conservative estimate for bond characteristics of
beams bonded to CFRP composites. The present findings also
revealed that the form and material characteristics of the CFRP
composites used had negligible impact on the modification
factors to be applied to bond characteristics obtained from
measurements on pull-out specimens or from model predictions.

Acknowledgement
The authors acknowledge the technical and financial support
provided by Jordan University of Science and Technology.
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