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6134/01

Examiners use only

Edexcel GCE

Team Leaders use only

Biology (Salters-Nuffield)
Advanced
Unit Test 4

Question Leave
Number Blank

Thursday 22 January 2009 Afternoon


Time: 1 hour 15 minutes

1
2
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Materials required for examination


Ruler
Calculator

Items included with question papers


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Instructions to Candidates
In the boxes above, write your centre number, candidate number, your surname, initial(s) and
signature.
Check that you have the correct question paper.
Answer ALL questions. Write your answers in the spaces provided in this question paper.
If you need to use additional answer sheets, attach them loosely but securely inside this booklet.
Show all the steps in any calculations and state the units. Calculators may be used.
Include diagrams in your answers where these are helpful.

Information for Candidates


The marks for individual questions and parts of questions are shown in round brackets: e.g. (2).
There are 6 questions in this question paper. The total mark for this paper is 60.
There are 16 pages in this question paper. Any blank pages are indicated.

Advice to Candidates
You will be assessed on your ability to organise and present information, ideas, descriptions and
arguments clearly and logically, taking into account your use of grammar, punctuation and spelling.

Total
This publication may be reproduced only in accordance with
Edexcel Limited copyright policy.
2009 Edexcel Limited.
Printers Log. No.

N34308A
W850/R6134/57570 6/4/2/5300

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Answer ALL questions in the spaces provided.


1.

Three scientists who contributed to the development of theories of evolution are listed
below.
A

Darwin

Lamarck

Malthus

The list below gives three statements related to theories of evolution.


1

Populations increase rapidly until limited by some factor.

Species change by natural selection.

Organisms can pass on characteristics developed during their lifetime to their


offspring.

(a) Complete the table below by giving the letter of the scientist most associated with
each statement.
Statement

Scientist

1
2
3
(3)
(b) Darwin and Lamarck both proposed theories about how evolution may have
happened.
Compare these two theories.
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(c) Give three reasons why the theory of evolution is controversial for some people.
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(3)

Q1

(Total 9 marks)

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2.

The diagram below shows what happens to electrons during part of the light-dependent
reactions of photosynthesis. Any excited electrons that are not taken up by electron
carriers follow pathway A and release energy as light in a process called fluorescence. The
excited electrons that are taken up by electron carriers follow pathway B.
Key
energy
alternative electron pathways
electron pathways
Electron carriers
B

Fluorescence

Y
A
Reduced Y

Light

(a) Name the molecules X and Y shown on the diagram.


X ...................................................................................................................................
Y ...................................................................................................................................
(2)
(b) Explain the importance of reduced Y in the process of photosynthesis.
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(c) A light was shone on a leaf and left switched on.


The graph below shows changes in the amount of light given off as fluorescence by
the leaf.
Fluorescence
/arbitrary units

Time since light switched on / seconds


(i) Suggest an explanation for the increase in fluorescence.
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(2)
(ii) Suggest a reason for the fall in fluorescence.
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(1)

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(d) Explain why an inhibitor of carbon dioxide fixation would lead to an increase in
fluorescence.
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(4)
(Total 12 marks)

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Q2

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3.

(a) The following list gives some examples of how immunity can develop in a
mammal.
P

Antibodies are transferred into the blood of a baby, from its mother, in the days
before birth.

Killer T cells are produced by the body when it is infected by a virus.

Polio virus, which has been made incapable of replicating, is given to babies to
stimulate the production of memory cells.

Anti-venom contains antibodies produced in an animal. This anti-venom can be


injected to give protection against snake bite venom.

Complete the table below by writing a letter from the list above to match the type of
immunity described in each case.
Immunity

Active

Passive

Natural
Artificial
(4)

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(b) An investigation was carried out into the production of antibodies by lymphocytes.
Combinations of T cells and B cells were grown in four different cultures, W, X, Y
and Z, as shown in the table below. The culture medium was checked for the presence
of antibodies after several days.
Culture

T cells present

B cells present

Antigen present

Antibody production

no

no

no

yes

(i) Give two conclusions about antibody production that can be drawn from these
results.
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(2)
(ii) Explain why no antibodies were produced in cultures X and Y.
Culture X ................................................................................................................
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Culture Y.................................................................................................................
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(c) In a rare genetic disorder called Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome (BLS), Major
Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) proteins produced by cells are abnormal. As a
result, T helper cells are unable to function normally and cannot respond to antigen.
Suggest what effect BLS is likely to have on the immune system of people with this
disorder.
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(1)
(d) More than one gene is responsible for the production of MHC proteins. A mutation of
any one of the genes will cause BLS in a person homozygous recessive for the faulty
allele.
Following genetic testing, two people were each found to be heterozygous for the
same two MHC genes. Their genotypes for these two genes can be shown as AaBb.
Draw a genetic diagram to show the probability that a child of this couple will have
BLS.

Probability .................................................
(3)

Q3

(Total 12 marks)

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4.

The graph below shows changes in the elephant population in parts of Zimbabwe in Africa
over twenty years.
100
Number of
elephants
2103

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

1980

1985

1990
Year

1995

2000

In 1989, elephants were given the highest level of protection by international agreements,
making it illegal to kill them or sell their tusks for ivory anywhere in the world.
(a) Use the graph to describe the effect of protection on the elephant population.
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(b) The parts of Zimbabwe surveyed to obtain the data have a total area of 66 000 km2.
It has been estimated that a population of less than 0.5 elephants per km2 leads to an
increase in biodiversity in this area, but more elephants will reduce biodiversity.

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(i) Explain what is meant by biodiversity.


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(2)
(ii) Use these data and the graph to suggest and explain how elephants are likely to
have affected biodiversity in Zimbabwe after 1990.
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(c) The government of Zimbabwe spends large amounts of money protecting elephants,
and they have lost income from the legal sale of ivory.
It wants to manage the elephant population by killing large numbers of animals
(culling). People involved in conservation in other parts of the world say that the
elephant population will regulate itself given enough time and that nothing should be
done.
Suggest reasons why the government of Zimbabwe would prefer to cull elephants,
despite international laws protecting them.
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(4)
(Total 11 marks)

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Q4

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5.

The five kingdom classification system is one of the systems used for classifying living
organisms.
(a) Name the kingdom to which bacteria belong.
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(1)
(b) Give two structural features found in a bacterium but not found in a virus.
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(2)
(c) Some classification systems consider viruses to be living organisms.
Give two features of a virus that it shares with living organisms.
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(2)
(d) There are alternatives to the five kingdom classification system.
Suggest why there is disagreement about how living organisms should be classified.
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(2)

Q5

(Total 7 marks)

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6.

MRSA is a strain of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA can survive treatment
with several antibiotics. An infection with MRSA is difficult to treat.
(a) Explain how some strains of bacteria have become able to survive treatment with
antibiotics.
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(b) It is important to use an antibiotic that is effective against specific bacteria.


Describe in outline how you could test the effectiveness of an antibiotic on a specific
bacterium in the laboratory. Include aspects of the method that ensure safe working.
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(5)

Q6

(Total 9 marks)
TOTAL FOR PAPER: 60 MARKS
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